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# Suggested Solutions

PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Enheten för Pedagogiska Mätningar Umeå Universitet

PBMC9905 1999 - 05

This material is confidential until the end of year 2004.

**Final Exam in Mathematics Course C From National Testbank
**

Anvisningar Test time Resources 180 minutes Calculator and formula sheet. The formula sheet is attached to the test.

Test material The test material should be handed in with your solutions Write your name, gymnasium programme/adult education and date of birth on the papers you hand in.. The test The test is made up of 13 problems Most of the problems are of the long-answer type, where a short answer is not sufficient, but it is required • that you write down what you do • that you explain your train of thought • that you draw figures when necessary • that you show how you have used your resources when you have solved problems numerically/graphically. Till de uppgifter (där det står Endast svar fordras) behöver bara svaret anges. Some of the problems (where it is stated Only an answer is required) need only an answer. Note that you have to try to solve the problems yourself before checking your solutions against mine. My solutions are just suggested ones. Usually there are more than one methods of solving a given problem. Warning: Just reading the solutions can never replace your own struggle in solving a given problem. By just reading the solutions you may not be able to understand the physics of the problem deep enough and therefore, it will not help you to solve the problem by yourself. Have Fun! Behzad

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 1: a) 1p, b) 1p, c) 1p Differentiate: a) Only the answer is required Suggested solution: Answer: y ′ = 3x 2 − 2 y = x3 − 2 x ⇒ y′ = 3 x 2 − 2 b)

y = x3 − 2x

[1]

y=−

3x 2 7

Only the answer is required [1]

**6 Suggested solution: Answer: y ′ = − x 7 2 6 3x 3 3 y=− = − x 2 ⇒ y′ = − × 2 ⋅ x ⇒ y′ = − x 7 7 7 7
**

y = 3e 5 x

c)

Only the answer is required [1]

Suggested solution: Answer: y ′ = 15e 5 x

y = 3e5 x ⇒ y′ = 3 × 5e5 x ⇒

y′ = 15e5 x

Problem 2: 1p Let f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x Calculate f ′(5) Only the answer is required [1]

Suggested solution: Answer: f ′(5) = 14

f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x ⇔ f ′( x ) = 2 x + 4 ⇔ f ′(5) = 2(5) + 4 = 10 + 4 ⇔

f ′(5) = 14

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 3: a) 2p b) 2p [not a part of MaC Curriculum 2000 but a part of MaB Syllabus 2000 ] Before making the choice between building a climbing wall or a new riding school the local government carried out a random sampling. Of 1500 selected sample only 1140 people replied. 63.8% of those who replied favored establishing and building of a riding school. Before the municipality decision-making day, a demand from the climbing club came to the local government which expressed a concern regarding the drop-off analysis of the studies. The climbing club was of the opinion that inquiry still may be interpreted in their favor. a) Do the climbing club have any right in their assertion?

Suggested solution: Answer: Yes they might. Yes they may have a right for the interpretation of the studies in the favor of building a climbing wall. This is due to the fact that, the drop-offs, i.e. those people how did not replied to the inquiry, might were in the favor of building a riding school. However as shown in the part b, still even 80% of the drop-offs were the favor of climbing wall, the result is in favor of the riding school. [2] b) Which one gets the majority if 80 % of those who did not replied originally vote for building of the climbing wall?

Suggested solution: Answer: The riding school is still favored by 53% drop - offs : 1500 − 1140 = 360 drop - offs in favor of riding school 360 × 0.20 = 72 [1] drop - offs in favor of riding school 1140 × 0.638 ≈ 727 ⇒ 727 + 72 = 799 799 [1] × 100 = 53% ⇒ 53% for riding school 1500

Problem 4: a) 1p, b) 2p Solve the equations: a)

x 3.5 = 1589

**Only the answer is required [1]
**

1 3 .5

Suggested solution: Answer: x = 8.22

x = 8.22 First alternative: x 3.5 = 1589 ⇒ x = (1589 ) = 8.22 ⇒ Second alternative (not a very attractive one!): log1589 x 3.5 = 1589 ⇒ 3.5 log x = log1589 ⇒ log x = = 0.915 ⇒ x = 100.915 = 8.22 3.5

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

b)

5 ⋅ 2 x = 34

Suggested solution: Answer: x = 2.77 34 5 ⋅ 2 x = 34 ⇒ 2 x = ⇒ 2 x = 6.8 5 log 6.8 log 2 x = log(6.8) ⇒ x log 2 = log 6.8 ⇒ x = = 2.77 log 2

[1] [1]

( )

**Problem 5: a) 2p, b) 2p, c) 1p The graph of the function f ( x) = 9 − x 2 is shown in the figure below.
**

y

x

a)

Provide the scale of y-axis w.r.t. the x-axis in the figure.

Only the answer is required Suggested solution: 15 y = 4 x + 13 y = 9 − x2 x-intercept of the curve: 10 f ( x) = 9 − x 2 2 y = 9 − x = (3 − x )(3 + x ) = 0 5 Therefore, the curve cuts the x-axis at: ⎧ x1 = −3 0 ⎨ -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 ⎩ x2 = +3 -5 On the other hand, the yintercept of the function -10 may be calculated by substituting x = 0 into the equation of the curve: y = 9 − x 2 ⇔ y (0) = 9 . y = 9 − x 2 ⇔ y′ = −2 x b) Determine with two different methods the gradient of the plotted tangent . solution: First Method: The line drawn is tangent to the curve at (-2,5) therefore it shares this point with the curve. The line also have the same gradient as the curve at this point.

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

y = mx + b y = 9 − x 2 ⇒ y ′ = −2 x = −2(− 2) = 4 ⇒ m=4 Second Method From the scaled curve one may calculate the tangent of the triangle made by the line, x and y-axis

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 x

9-x² & 4x+13

Serie1 Serie2 Serie3 1 2 3 4 5

9−3 6 = =4⇒ m = 4 y = 4 x + 13 − 1 − (− 2.5) 1.5 Third Method Considering the equation of the line to be y = mx + b and reading from the scaled graph the y-intercept is 13 and x-intercept is –3.25. Therefore: ⎧13 = 0 + b 13 ⇒ b = 13 ⇒ −3.25m + 13 = 0 ⇒ m = ⇒ m=4 ⎨ 3.25 ⎩0 = m × (− 3.25) + b m = tan α =

c) Find the value of x when f ′( x) = 0. solution: f ( x) = 9 − x 2 ⇒ f ′( x ) = −2 x & f ′( x ) = 0 ⇒

Problem 6: 2p

Only the answer is required

x=0

Calculate the value of the following geometric progression:

**1 + 1 ⋅ 1.5 + 1 ⋅ 1.5 2 + ... + 1 ⋅ 1.551 solution: S = 1 + 1 ⋅ 1.5 + 1 ⋅ 1.5 2 + ... + 1 ⋅ 1.551
**

S is a geometric series with a = 1 , r = 1.5 and n = 51 . Using S =

S=

1(1 − 1.5 51+1 ) 1 − 1.5 52 = = 2869296748.96 ≈ 2869296749 1 − 1.5 − 0.5

a (1 − r n +1 ) we get: 1− r S = 2 869 296 749

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 7: 4p

With the help of derivatives find the coordinates of the local maximum point of the graph to the function y = 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 12 x + 3 solution: y = 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 12 x + 3 ⇒ y ′ = 2 × 3 x 3−1 − 3 × 2 x 2−1 − 12 ⇒ y ′ = 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12

y ′ = 6 x 2 − x − 2 = 6( x − 2)(x + 1)

(

)

max imum y ⇔ y ′ = 0 & y ′′ < 0 ⇒

x = −1 ⇒ y = 2(− 1) − 3(− 1) − 12(− 1) + 3 = −2 − 3 + 12 + 3 = 10

3 2

⎧x = 2 y ′ = 0 ⇒ ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 ⇒ ⎨ ⎩ x = −1 min imum ⎧ x = 2 ⇒ y ′′ = 12 × 2 − 6 = 24 − 6 = 18 > 0 y ′′ = 12 x − 6 ⇒ ⎨ ⎩ x = −1 ⇒ y ′′ = 12 × (− 1) − 6 = −12 − 6 = −18 < 0 ⇒ max imum at

max imum

(− 1,10)

-3

-2

15 10 5 0 -1 -5 0 -10 -15 -20 x

f(x)

1

2

3

4

Serie1

x H-2,5 H-2 H-1,5 H-1 H-0,5 H0 H0,5 H1 H1,5 H2 H2,5 H3 H3,5 H4 H4,5 H5

H

y = 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 12 x + 3

-17 -1 7,5 10 8 3 -3,5 -10 -15 -17 -14,5 -6 10 35 70,5 118

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Oxfile välputsad 35 kr/kg

Problem 8: 3p Calculate with the help of the following two index series which year the above advertisement.

Assume that the price of the fillet of beef, oxfilé, followed the same price trend as the rest of commodities and services which is measured by the CPI. The price of the fillet of beef, oxfilé, was 254 Crowns/kg 1997. Consumer price index (Base year 1949): Year CPI 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 100 101 117 126 128 129 133 139 145 152 153 159 163

1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 170 175 181 190 202 211 215 221 236 254 269 287 316 347 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 382 426 469 502 571 Consumer price index (Base year 1980): Year CPI 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 100 112 122 133 143 154 160 167 177 188 208 227 232

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 243 249 255 256 257 solution: Year 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 HCP 100 101 117 126 128 I Hoxf 17 17 20 22 22 il H HYe 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 ar HCP 190 202 211 215 221 I Hoxf 33 35 37 37 38 il HConsumer price index (Base year1980): HYe 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 ar HCP 100 112 122 133 143 I 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 129 133 139 145 152 153 159 163 170 175 181 22 23 24 25 26 26 28 28 29 30 31

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 236 254 269 287 316 347 382 426 469 502 571 41 44 47 50 55 60 66 74 81 87 99

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 154 160 167 177 188 208 227 232 243 249 255

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

HOx 99 111 121 131 141 152 158 165 175 186 206 224 229 240 246 252 fi H HYe 1996 1997 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 ar HCP 256 257 243 249 255 256 257 I HOx 253 254 240 246 252 253 254 fi H 100 CPI ( year ) 202 Oxfile′(1980) = × 254 File′(1949 − 80) = × 99 ⇒ Oxfile(1966) = × 99 = 35 kr 257 571 571 Problem 9: a) 2p, b) 1p, c) 1p d) 2p The fishing club BlåKnuten deposits fishes in a lake. Due to the fact that the lake does not have sufficient nutrient supply the number of fishes changes according to the relationship f (t ) = 35400 × 0.996 t . Where t is the time in days after the deposition. a) Calculate f (140) and explain in words what you have calculated. solution:

f (t ) = 35400 × 0.996 t ⇒ f (140) = 35400 × 0.996140 = 20198 f (140) =20198 is the number of fishes in the lake 140 days after the depositing 35400 fishes in it.

With how many percent does the number of fishes decrease per day? Only the answer is required solution: First Method: f (t ) − f (t − 1) 0.996 t − 0.996 t −1 1 ⎞ ⎛ × 100 = × 100 = ⎜1 − Δf (t )% = ⎟ × 100 = −0.4% t f (t ) 0.996 ⎝ 0.996 ⎠ Second Method: Δf (t )% ≈ (0.996 − 1) × 100 = −0.4%

c) Rewrite the function with base e. solution: f (t ) = 35400 × 0.996 t = 35400e kt ⇒ e k = 0.996 ⇒ k = ln 0.996 ⇒

f (t ) = 35400e ln 0.996 t

b)

d) Calculate f ′(140) explain in words what you have calculated. solution: f (t ) = 35400e ln 0.996t ⇒ f ′(t ) = 35400 × (ln 0.996)e ln 0.996t = − - 141.89e ln 0.996t f ′(140) = -141.89e ln 0.996×140 = -80.95 = -81 fish / day This means that the rate of decrease of the number of fish in the lake 140 days after their deposit in it is 81 fish/day, i.e. 81 fish/day die 140 days after the fish deposit in the lake.

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 10: 4p

Experiments have indicated that approximately an acre* farming land per person is needed in order to feed the world population. 1950 the population of the world was about 2.5 billions. 1980 it was increased to about 4.6 billions. If it is assumed that the population is increased exponentially the need of the farm land is also increases exponentially. The earth has about 9 billions acre agriculture land. When may we not be able to find sufficient agriculture land on the face of the earth to support world population?

* A acre corresponds to 4936 m2 or about a half hectare.

Suggested solution: We may assume exponential growth for the population of the Earth, i.e.: N = N0 ⋅ at Where, N (t ) is the total population of the Earth t yeras after 1950, and N 0 = 2.5 × 10 9 is the population of the Earth year 1950. 1980, i.e. t = 1980 − 1950 = 30 yeras , the population was increased to

N = 4.6 ×109 . Therefore, we may calculate a the growth factor of the earth’s population, according to the model: [0/1] N = N 0 ⋅ a t ⇔ 4.6 × 10 9 = 2.5 × 10 9 ⋅ a 30 1 4.6 4.6 × 10 9 = 2.5 × 10 9 ⋅ a 30 ⇔ a 30 = ⇔ a 30 = 1.84 ⇔ a = (1.84 )30 ≈ 0.061 2.5

N = 2.5 ×10 9 ⋅ (1.84 )30

t

[0/1]

9

If the total farming land of the earth is L = 9×10 acre , and if it is assumed one acre per person is needed, then the existing farm lands of the earth may feed nine billion people N = 9×109 . Hence we may find number of years t yeras after 1950, where the population of the earth is increased from N 0 = 2.5 × 10 9 to N = 9×109 : [0/1] N = 2.5 × 10 9 ⋅ (1.84 )30 ⇔ 9 × 10 9 = 2.5 × 10 9 ⋅ (1.84 )30 t t t 9 9 × 10 9 = 2.5 × 10 9 ⋅ (1.84 )30 ⇔ (1.84 )30 = ⇔ (1.84 )30 = 3.6 2.5 t t (1.84)30 = 3.6 ⇔ log(1.84)30 = log(3.6) ⇔ t ⋅ log(1.84) = log(3.6) ⇔ t = 30 ⋅ log(3.6) years 30 log(1.84 ) log(3.6 ) years ⇔ t = 63.02 years ⇔ 1950 + 63 = 2013 ⇔ year 2013 t = 30 ⋅ log(1.84 ) Answer: According to the model after year 2013 the nine billion farm lands of the Earth are no longer sufficient to feed the population of the Earth! [0/1]

t t

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 11: 2p

The figure below shows the graphs of two functions f and g. Let the function h( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) Use the figure and determine h´(x).

y 2 1,5 1 0,5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -0,5 -1 -1,5 1 2 3 4 5 x

f

g

Suggested solution: According the figure, f ( x ) = g ( x ) + 2 ⇔ h( x ) = f ( x ) − g ( x ) = 2 [0/1] h( x ) = f ( x ) − g (x ) = 2 ⇔ h′( x ) = 0 [0/1] Answer: h′( x ) = 0 . This is due to the fact that f ( x ) is just the function g ( x ) which is displaced by a constant value upward: h( x ) = f ( x ) − g ( x ) = 2 . The derivative of a constant is zero (A constant does not change.) Problem 12: 3p

**Solve simultaneously the following equations: ⎧lg( xy ) = 3 ⎪ ⎨ x ⎪lg( y ) = 1 ⎩
**

Suggested solution: ⎧lg( xy ) = 3 ⎧lg x + log y = 3 add ⎪ ⇔⎨ ⎯⎯→ 2 log x = 4 ⇔ log x = 2 ⇔ x = 10 2 = 100 ⎯ ⎨ x lg( ) = 1 lg x − log y = 1 ⎩ ⎪ y ⎩

[0/1]

⎧lg x + log y = 3 ⇔ lg100 + log y = 3 ⇔ 2 + log y = 3 ⇔ log y = 1 ⇔ y = 10 ⎨ ⎩ x = 100 Answer: x = 100 , y = 10

[0/1] [0/1]

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

Problem 13: 4p [0/4/¤]

The function g is defined in the interval a < x < b. The graph of the derivative of the function g is shown in the figure below. How many solutions may the equation g(x) = 0 have? Illustrate g(x) graphically for those different conceivable possibilities

y

y = g'(x)

a b x

Suggested solution: g ( x ) is at least a third grade equation which has a local minimum at x = 0 . g ( x ) = 0 may have three, two, or one real solutions. For example if g ′( x ) = 3 x ⋅ ( x + 2 ) then g ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 + C where C is a constant whose value determines the number of solutions of g ( x ) = 0 . [0/1] 3 2 i g ( x ) = x + 3x + 5 , g ( x ) = 0 has only one real solution.

g ′( x ) = 3x ⋅ ( x + 2)

15

10

5

0 -4 -3 -2 -1 -5 0 1 2

g (x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 + 5

-10

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

ii

**g ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 , g ( x ) = 0 has only two real solutions.
**

6

[0/1]

g ′( x ) = 3x ⋅ ( x + 2)

4 2 0

-4

-3

-2

-1 -2 -4 -6

0

1

2

g (x ) = x + 3x − 4

3 2

iii g ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 = x 2 ( x + 3) = 0 has two real solutions, with a minimum and a double solution at x = 0 .

g ′( x ) = 3x ⋅ ( x + 2 )

5 4 3 2 1 0

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1 -2 -3

0

1

g ( x ) = x 3 + 3 x 2 = x 2 (x + 3)

-4 -5

iv g ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 2 . g ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 2 = 0 has three realsolutions:

[0/1]

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PBMaC9905

NV-College, Sjödalsgymnasiet

g ′( x ) = 3x ⋅ ( x + 2)

4 3 2 1 0 0,00 -1 -2

-4,00

-3,00

-2,00

-1,00

1,00

2,00

g (x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 2

-3 -4

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