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Dioda mempunyai dua kaki yaitu anoda dan katoda, apabila tegangan positiI

diberikan kepada katoda maka pada anodanya akan dapat meng outputkan arus.
Hal ini berlaku pada dioda biasa maupun pada dioda dzener.
Ketika polaritas tegangan inputnya dibalik (positiI diberikan kepada anoda)
maka Pada dioda biasa, tegangan ini akan terblock (tidak dapat mengoutputkan
arus). Pada dioda biasa mempunyai tegangan breakdown yang relatiI tinggi,
misalnya 400 volt, itu artinya pada saat polaritas terbalik tadi, apabila tegangan
400 volt telah tercapai maka dioda tersebut sudah tidak dapat memblok lagi,
dalam arti lain pada saat itu dioda tersebut dapat dialiri arus dengan arah yang
seharusnya dapat diblok, dengan kata lain dioda tersebut berada pada titik

Sedangkan pada dioda dzener selalu ada tertera nilai tegangannya, misalnya 5,1
volt. Itu artinya apabila ada sumber tegangan 6 volt, kemudian positiInya di
inputkan ke anoda sedangkan katoda ke negatiI tegangan input, maka pada titik
anoda ke katoda akan selalu dijaga tegangannya 5,1 volt, sedangkan selebihnya
(6 volt -5,1 volt 0,9 volt) akan diserap oleh dioda. Pada sistem ini dioda
dzener berIungsi sebagai penstabil tegangan.

-dioda biasa mempunyai kemampuan utk menyearahkan arus AC bila dipasang
-dioda zener mempunyai kemampuan utk membatasi beban voltase arus DC yg
mengalir searah sesuai dgn voltase tertentu bila dipasang paralel.

A diode usually describes a device used as a rectiIier, sort oI like a one-way
wire, to turn AC signals into signals with a DC component.

A Zener diode is usually used in reverse breakdown, as a voltage regulator.
A regular diode will let current go in only one direction (Iorward bias) which is
the direction oI the arrow that you would see on electronic schematics (the only
line that you would see PHYSICALLY on a diode Arrow on electrical
schematic). II current is applied in the opposite direction (reverse bias) then you
would not have current on the other
end unless the voltage that you apply to it surpasses its
Breakdown Voltage then you would have a reading since the
REGULAR diode would be burn out.
Zener diodes would act the same way as a regular diode
except that in reverse bias it would allowed current to pass
when the voltage surpasses its Breakdown Voltage (Zener
zener doide is heavily dopped than the ordinary doide.

Diode is act only as a rectiIier action not regultes the

But, Zener diode acting as a RectiIier as wellas stabilizes
the Voltage .

the applications oI diode is Ior its Iorward bias mode
while that oI zener diode is Ior its reverse bias mode


Zener dlode shown wlLh Lyplcal packages currenL -

ls shown
Zener diodes are widely used as voltage reIerences and as shunt regulators to regulate the
voltage across small circuits. When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so
that it is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's reverse
breakdown voltage. From that point on, the relatively low impedance oI the diode keeps the
voltage across the diode at that value.

In this circuit, a typical voltage reIerence or regulator, an input voltage, U
, is regulated
down to a stable output voltage U
. The intrinsic voltage drop oI diode D is stable over a
wide current range and holds U
relatively constant even though the input voltage may
Iluctuate over a Iairly wide range. Because oI the low impedance oI the diode when operated
like this, Resistor R is used to limit current through the circuit.
In the case oI this simple reIerence, the current Ilowing in the diode is determined using
Ohms law and the known voltage drop across the resistor R. I
- U
) / R

The value oI # must satisIy two conditions:
musL be small enough LhaL Lhe currenL Lhrough u keeps u ln reverse breakdown 1he value
of Lhls currenL ls glven ln Lhe daLa sheeL for u lor example Lhe common 8Zx79C3v6

devlce a 36 v 03 W Zener dlode has a recommended reverse currenL of 3 mA lf
lnsufflclenL currenL exlsLs Lhrough u Lhen u
wlll be unregulaLed and less Lhan Lhe
nomlnal breakdown volLage (Lhls dlffers Lo volLage regulaLor Lubes where Lhe ouLpuL volLage
wlll be hlgher Lhan nomlnal and could rlse as hlgh as u
) When calculaLlng allowance
musL be made for any currenL Lhrough Lhe exLernal load noL shown ln Lhls dlagram
connecLed across u

2 musL be large enough LhaL Lhe currenL Lhrough u does noL desLroy Lhe devlce lf Lhe
currenL Lhrough u ls
lLs breakdown volLage I
and lLs maxlmum power dlsslpaLlon 9



A load may be placed across the diode in this reIerence circuit, and as long as the zener stays
in reverse breakdown, the diode will provide a stable voltage source to the load.
Shunt regulators are simple, but the requirements that the ballast resistor be small enough to
avoid excessive voltage drop during worst-case operation (low input voltage concurrent with
high load current) tends to leave a lot oI current Ilowing in the diode much oI the time,
making Ior a Iairly wasteIul regulator with high quiescent power dissipation, only suitable Ior
smaller loads.
Zener diodes in this conIiguration are oIten used as stable reIerences Ior more advanced
voltage regulator circuits.
These devices are also encountered, typically in series with a base-emitter junction, in
transistor stages where selective choice oI a device centered around the avalanche/Zener
point can be used to introduce compensating temperature co-eIIicient balancing oI the
transistor PN junction. An example oI this kind oI use would be a DC error ampliIier used in
a regulated power supply circuit Ieedback loop system.
Zener diodes are also used in surge protectors to limit transient voltage spikes.
Another notable application oI the zener diode is the use oI noise caused by its avalanche
breakdown in a random number generator that never repeats.