C|oba| warm|ng Exp|a|ned

here are the answers to the key quest|ons about g|oba| warm|ng:

0o sc|ent|sts agree about g|oba| warm|ng?
8c|ent|sts who study the c||mate are st||| argu|ng about how fast the earth |s warm|ng and how much |t w||| warm, but they do agree
that the earth |s warm|ng and that |t w||| keep warm|ng |f we don't do anyth|ng about |t. The most accurate way to measure
temperatures on our p|anet, by the way, |s w|th the he|p of orb|t|ng weather sate|||tes.
what |s caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng?
8c|ent|sts agree that the burn|ng of foss|| fue|s ||ke o|| and coa| cause greenhouse gases, such as carbon d|ox|de (602}, to escape
|nto the a|r and that these gases are caus|ng most of the warm|ng. Another cause |s deforestat|on (cutt|ng down trees}. Trees soak
up the greenhouse gas carbon d|ox|de from the a|r. A|| humans contr|bute to g|oba| warm|ng, by, for examp|e, dr|v|ng a car or f|y|ng
|n an a|rp|ane; sc|ent|sts often refer to the term "carbon footpr|nt" when they refer to the |mpact an |nd|v|dua| or bus|ness has on the
env|ronment |n terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced.
6arbon d|ox|de |sn't the on|y greenhouse gas caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng; another |mportant greenhouse gas |s methane, wh|ch |s much
more damag|ng to the atmosphere than carbon d|ox|de, but, fortunate|y, has a much shorter ||fe span |n the atmosphere. At the
moment, the atmosphere st||| conta|ns |ess than 1|10th of 17 of carbon d|ox|de, un||ke the p|anet Venus for examp|e, where |t |s
9ô.57, w|th temperatures hot enough to me|t |ead!
what |s the d|fference between "g|oba| warm|ng" and "c||mate change"?
"C|oba| warm|ng" refers to the |ncrease of the Earth's average surface temperature, due to a bu||d-up of greenhouse gases |n the
atmosphere (a|so ca||ed the "greenhouse effect"}. The "atmosphere" surrounds our p|anet and protects ||fe on Earth by absorb|ng
u|trav|o|et so|ar rad|at|on and reduc|ng temperature extremes between day and n|ght.
"6||mate change" |s a broader term that refers to |ong-term changes |n c||mate, |nc|ud|ng average temperature and prec|p|tat|on.
what w||| happen |f g|oba| warm|ng cont|nues?
There are a|ready some changes happen|ng because of g|oba| warm|ng. 8ea |eve| |s r|s|ng and some an|ma|s are a|ready mov|ng to
new homes. |t's a|ready too |ate to stop g|oba| warm|ng comp|ete|y.
|f the warm|ng gets worse, as sc|ent|sts expect, there may be some k|nds of p|ants and an|ma|s that become ext|nct (d|sappear
comp|ete|y} because they can't move to new homes. There may be more storms and f|oods due to me|t|ng |ce caps. 8ea |eve| may
r|se so much that peop|e have to move away from the coasts. 8ome areas may become too dry for farm|ng.
what |s be|ng done about g|oba| warm|ng?
C|oba| warm|ng |s a very d|ff|cu|t prob|em to f|x. Peop|e are hav|ng a hard t|me agree|ng on what to do about |t. For examp|e,
everyone agrees that wast|ng energy |s a bad th|ng to do. ßut some peop|e th|nk that the federa| government shou|d make |aws
about |t, wh||e other peop|e th|nk |t shou|d be up to each person or bus|ness to dec|de what to do. |n 1997 the famous "Kyoto
Protoco|" was adopted |n the c|ty of "Kyoto", and |t entered |nto force on 1ô February 2005. As part of th|s protoco|, 3ô countr|es are
requ|red to reduce greenhouse gas em|ss|ons.
Hany states and bus|nesses |n the Un|ted 8tates are not wa|t|ng unt|| the federa| government dec|des what to do. They have a|ready
started work|ng on the prob|em. A number of compan|es such as Createst P|anet work on projects that reduce or avo|d the
greenhouse gases go|ng |nto our atmosphere: such projects |nc|ude, for examp|e, treep|ant|ng, w|ndfarms (a w|ndfarm |s a group of
2 or more w|nd turb|nes wh|ch produce e|ectr|c|ty}, and so|ar energy (wh|ch turns sun||ght |nto e|ectr|c|ty}. The energy prov|ded by
w|ndfarms, so|ar power, t|da| and hydro power |s often referred to as "renewab|e energy"
what can | do about g|oba| warm|ng?
You don't have to wa|t unt|| you are grown to do someth|ng about g|oba| warm|ng. 8c|ent|sts agree that the burn|ng of foss|| fue|s |s
caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng. 8|nce these fue|s are burned for energy, and everyone uses energy, everyone can he|p stop g|oba| warm|ng
just by us|ng |ess energy.
Th|nk about the th|ngs you do each day that use energy. The ||ghts |n your house use e|ectr|c|ty. The TV and computer use
e|ectr|c|ty. The wash|ng mach|ne, d|shwasher and dryer a|| use gas or e|ectr|c|ty. Every t|me you r|de |n your car, |t uses gaso||ne.
There are some s|mp|e th|ngs that you can do to he|p stop g|oba| warm|ng:
· Turn off the ||ghts when you |eave a room. Use f|uorescent bu|bs |n your room.
· Turn off your computer or the TV when you're not us|ng |t. Unp|ug chargers when not |n use.
· wa|t unt|| you have a |ot of c|othes to wash before us|ng the wash|ng mach|ne. 0on't use the mach|ne for one |tem just because |t's
your favor|te sh|rt.
· Take shorter showers. heat|ng water uses energy.
· 6|ose the b||nds on a hot day |f the sun |s sh|n|ng |n. 0ress ||ght|y |nstead of turn|ng up the a|r cond|t|on|ng. 0r use a fan.
· 0ress warm|y |ns|de your house when |t's co|d, |nstead of turn|ng up the heat.
· 0ffer to he|p your parents keep the a|r f||ters on your A6 and furnace c|ean.
· wa|k short d|stances |nstead of ask|ng for a r|de |n a car.
· whenever you can, recyc|e paper, p|ast|c, newspaper, g|ass and a|um|num cans. .
· P|ant a tree.
· Learn more about g|oba| warm|ng so you can ta|k to peop|e about |t.

Ac|d ra|n |s a broad term used to descr|be a prec|p|tat|on, as ra|n, snow, or s|eet, conta|n|ng re|at|ve|y h|gh concentrat|ons of
ac|d-form|ng chem|ca|s, as the po||utants from coa| smoke, chem|ca| manufactur|ng, and sme|t|ng, that have been re|eased
|nto the atmosphere and comb|ned w|th water vapor: harmfu| to the env|ronment.

Ac|d ra|n |s a gener|c term that |nc|udes a|| prec|p|tat|on w|th h|gh ac|d content. Th|s prec|p|tat|on, when |ntroduced |nto
groundwater sources, |akes, r|vers, streams, ponds, etc., eventua||y produces an |nhosp|tab|e env|ronment for aquat|c p|ant
and an|ma| ||fe. Ac|d ra|n can a|so damage crops and bu||d|ngs

Ac|d ra|n |s produced when chem|ca| po||utants |nteract w|th sun||ght to produce su|fur|c and n|tr|c ac|ds. These ac|ds
comb|ne w|th mo|sture |n the a|r (groundwater sources that have evaporated and condensed} to produce ac|d ra|n, snow, etc.
8|nce there |s usua||y more sun||ght |n the summer months, ac|d ra|n tends to be more ac|d|c |n the summer.

Ac|d ra|n |s the resu|t of |ndustr|a| po||ut|on, wh|ch causes ra|nwater to carry sma|| quant|t|es of ac|d|c compounds such as
su|phur|c and n|tr|c ac|d. 6ontam|nated ra|nwater can upset the chem|ca| ba|ance r|vers and |akes, k||||ng f|sh and other
organ|sms and a|so damage p|ants, trees and bu||d|ngs.

Effects of ac|d ra|n :

Ac|ds can affect rece|v|ng systems |n a var|ety of ways, some good, others bad. Add|t|on of n|trate to ecosystems def|c|ent |n
n|trogen can |ead to enhanced b|o|og|c product|v|ty. The benef|ts, however, may be offset by tox|c effects assoc|ated w|th the
re|ease of a|um|num and magnes|um from c|ay m|nera|s |f the ph of so||s fa||s be|ow about 5.5. Leach|ng of meta|s from so||s
and sed|ments a|so can have adverse effects on aquat|c systems. F|sh may be k|||ed by a|um|num even under cond|t|ons
where the ph |s cons|dered otherw|se ben|gn. C|ven the current rates of ac|d depos|t|on, the ph of a number of |akes |n the
northeastern Un|ted 8tates and |n southeastern 6anada |s expected to average 4.2 to 4.8, w|th occas|ona| depress|ons to near
3.8 dur|ng per|ods of snowme|t or heavy ra|n. Host f|sh spec|es and a|most a|| mo||usks per|sh |f the ph fa||s be|ow 4.8;
p|ankton|c commun|t|es are s|mp||f|ed |n th|s case, dom|nated by a few ac|d-to|erant taxa. Adverse effects of ac|d prec|p|tat|on
are most obv|ous for |akes, and |t |s not surpr|s|ng that th|s aspect of the |ssue has rece|ved the most attent|on |n the press.
The effects on the terrestr|a| b|osphere are more amb|guous. |t appears that e|evated |eve|s of ozone |n the troposphere may
pose a more ser|ous hazard for p|ant ||fe even at |ocat|ons removed from major |ndustr|a| s|tes. Effects |n th|s case, for a
var|ety of agronom|c and forest spec|es, |nc|ude fo||ar |njury and s|gn|f|cant reduct|on |n growth and y|e|d.

|n summary, there are def|c|enc|es |n current sc|ent|f|c understand|ng of ac|d ra|n, both |n |ts atmospher|c and b|ospher|c
d|mens|ons. Uncerta|nt|es can be removed or reduced by a su|tab|y d|rected research program. |t |s c|ear that the chem|stry of
the troposphere, both po||uted and c|ean, shou|d rece|ve attent|on |n th|s effort.

how Ac|d Ra|n Affects The Env|ronment :

Ac|d ra|n |s an extreme|y destruct|ve form of po||ut|on, and the env|ronment suffers
from |ts effects. Forests, trees, |akes, an|ma|s, and p|ants suffer from ac|d ra|n.

Trees are an extreme|y |mportant natura| resource. They prov|de t|mber, regu|ate
|oca| c||mate, and forests are homes to w||d||fe. Ac|d ra|n can make trees |ose the|r
|eaves or need|es- they turn brown and fa|| off. Trees can a|so suffer from stunted
growth; and have damaged bark and |eaves, wh|ch makes them vu|nerab|e to
weather, d|sease, and |nsects. A|| of th|s happens part|y because of d|rect contact
between trees and ac|d ra|n, but |t a|so happens when trees absorb so|| that has
come |nto contact w|th ac|d ra|n. The so|| po|sons the tree w|th tox|c substances
that the ra|n has depos|ted |nto |t.

Lakes are a|so damaged by ac|d ra|n. A |ake po||uted by ac|d ra|n w||| support on|y
the hard|est spec|es. F|sh d|e off, and that removes the ma|n source of food for b|rds; a|so contam|nat|ng the |ake water. A|so,
b|rds can d|e from eat|ng "tox|c" f|sh and |nsects. Ac|d ra|n can even k||| f|sh before they are born. Ac|d ra|n h|ts the |akes
most|y |n the spr|ngt|me, when f|sh |ay the|r eggs. The eggs come |nto contact w|th the ac|d, and the ent|re generat|on can be
k|||ed. F|sh usua||y d|e on|y when the ac|d |eve| of a |ake |s h|gh; when |t |s |ower, they can become s|ck, suffer stunted growth,
or |ose the|r ab|||ty to reproduce.

how Ac|d Ra|n Affects Peop|e :

humans can become ser|ous|y |||, and can even d|e from the effects of ac|d ra|n. 0ne of the major prob|ems that ac|d ra|n can
cause |n a human be|ng |s resp|ratory prob|ems. Hany can f|nd |t d|ff|cu|t to breathe, espec|a||y asthma pat|ents. Asthma, a|ong
w|th dry coughs, headaches, and throat |rr|tat|ons can be caused by the su|fur d|ox|des and n|trogen ox|des from ac|d ra|n.

Ac|d ra|n can be absorbed by both p|ants (through so|| and|or d|rect contact} and an|ma|s (from th|ngs they eat and|or d|rect
contact}. when humans eat these p|ants or an|ma|s, the tox|ns |ns|de of the|r mea|s can affect them. ßra|n damage, k|dney
prob|ems, and A|zhe|mer's d|sease has been ||nked to peop|e eat|ng "tox|c" an|ma|s|p|ants.
Now that you know the horror and harmfu| effects of ac|d ra|n, you may sure|y want to know how we stop |t. |n our own sma||
way we a|| can start to stop th|s prob|em.
here are some so|ut|on to the ac|d ra|n prob|em.

|f the amount of su|fur d|ox|des and n|trogen ox|des |n the a|r |s reduced, then ac|d ra|n w||| be reduced. There are many he|pfu|
th|ngs that "norma|" peop|e can do. F|rst of a||, conserve energy and po||ute |ess! Use |ess e|ectr|c|ty; and carpoo|, use pub||c
transportat|on, or wa|k when you can. Th|s w||| he|p more than one m|ght th|nk. when |ess energy |s used, |ess coa| |s burnt,
and as a resu|t, there |s |ess ac|d ra|n.

A|so, |f coa| was c|eaned before |t was burnt, the dangerous po||utants that cause ac|d ra|n wou|d be c|eaned away. |f coa| |s
crushed and washed |n water, the su|fur washes out. however, th|s |s a very cost|y method! |t |s a|so cost|y to burn |ow-su|fur
coa| (|ow-su|fur coa| g|ves off |ess su|fur |n the a|r as opposed to h|gh-su|fur coa|}.
0n beaches as we|| as on the cr|cket ground, |t |s a|ways poss|b|e to spot peop|e w|th some k|nd of cream on the|r bod|es or
faces. Remember the 8outh Afr|can pace bow|er A|an 0ona|d or 'wh|te L|ghtn|ng' as he |s ca||ed, w|th "war-pa|nt" on h|s face?
No, |t |s not an attempt at camouf|age, s|mp|y an effort to ga|n protect|on from the u|trav|o|et rays of the sun.

And there|n ||es a paradox - |t |s the ||ght and heat of the sun that susta|ns ||fe on earth, but among |ts many fr|end|y rays are
some harmfu| ones as we||. These u|trav|o|et (UV, as they are ca||ed |n a|| popu|ar sunscreen |ot|ons} rays can k||| ||fe forms,
|nc|ud|ng humans, |f they are exposed to |t beyond a ||m|t.

U|trav|o|et: |s |t a shade of v|o|et?
The wh|te sun||ght that we see, |s formed of seven d|fferent co|ours, or the V|ßCY0R - short for v|o|et, |nd|go, b|ue, green,
ye||ow, orange, red. V|o|et |s at one end, wh||e red |s at the other extreme of th|s v|s|b|e band of ||ght.

0n|y that ||ght wh|ch fa||s between these co|ours, |s v|s|b|e to humans. L|ght rays wh|ch fa|| be|ow the v|o|et co|our, are ca||ed
u|trav|o|et rays. Those that fa|| beyond the co|our red are ca||ed |nfrared. 8un||ght conta|ns both u|trav|o|et and |nfrared rays.

how are we protected from these rays?
These rays have a|ways been a part of sun||ght, but they have become b|g threats to humans today. why? The earth's
atmosphere |s composed of severa| |ayers. we ||ve |n the Troposphere where most of the weather patterns such as ra|n, snow
and c|ouds, occur. Above the troposphere |s the 8tratosphere.

8uperson|c jet a|r||ners such as the 6oncorde f|y |n th|s |ayer, whereas subson|c commerc|a| a|r||ners usua||y f|y |n the
troposphere. |t |s |n the stratosphere that the u|trav|o|et rays str|ke the oxygen, convert|ng |t |nto a gas ca||ed ozone.

Fr|end|y ozone |ayer
The ozone |n the stratosphere absorbs most of the harmfu| u|trav|o|et rays from the sun. These rays can otherw|se cause sk|n
cancer and damage vegetat|on, among other th|ngs. Exposure to these u|trav|o|et rays k|||s bacter|as and severa|
m|croorgan|sms that are very |mportant for the earth's eco|ogy. Unfortunate|y, th|s |ayer |s gett|ng dep|eted.

The ozone |ayer has a ho|e |n |t
|n 199ô stud|es conducted by U8 Nat|ona| Aeronaut|cs and 8pace Adm|n|strat|on (NA8A} revea|ed a b|g ho|e of rough|y 10
m||||on square m||es (greater than the tota| surface area of North Amer|ca} over the cont|nent of Antarct|ca. Th|s |s known as
the ozone ho|e. As a resu|t of th|s |arge amount of u|trav|o|et rays enter the |ower atmosphere. |f not checked |n t|me the ozone
dep|et|on can cause dangerous consequences.

human hand |n ozone dep|et|on
0u|te |nterest|ng|y the destruct|on of ozone |s a human phenomenon. L|ke a|r po||ut|on, reduc|ng the |eve|s of po||utants that
we em|t |n the atmosphere, can contro| |t. Host a|r-cond|t|oners, refr|gerators and spray cans conta|n a substance ca||ed 6F6
(ch|orof|uorocarbons} that destroys the ozone gas, convert|ng |t |nto other gases. Th|s |s what has caused the ozone ho|e over
a per|od of t|me.

|t |s prec|se|y for th|s reason that wor|dw|de standards for a|r-cond|t|on|ng equ|pments are be|ng mod|f|ed. A new substance
ca||ed hF6 (hydrof|uorocarbons} |s be|ng used |nstead of 6F6.

8o, the next t|me you use that room freshener or your perfume spray, th|nk of the ozone ho|e that cou|d be expand|ng w|th
every pass|ng second.
0zone dep|et|on
|n the ear|y 1970s concern began to mount that human act|v|ty m|ght dep|ete the ozone |ayer. At f|rst the ch|ef concern was from the
then proposed f|eets of superson|c a|rcraft, such as 6oncorde. These superson|c p|anes wou|d f|y |n the stratosphere, and
combust|on products such as water vapour and n|trogen ox|des wou|d then be depos|ted there. As ment|oned above, the stab|||ty of
the stratosphere wou|d a||ow the n|trogen ox|de to accumu|ate and then enhance the cata|yt|c destruct|on of the ozone |ayer. The
|arge number of superson|c p|anes env|saged were never bu||t, but |n 1974 came a new worry: that ch|orof|uorocarbons (or 6F6s}, a
synthet|c product, m|ght a|so be capab|e of dep|et|ng the ozone |ayer. 6F6s had been used commerc|a||y as refr|gerants s|nce the
1930s, but because they were |nert and non-po|sonous they were soon used for many other app||cat|ons, most notab|y as
prope||ants |n aeroso| spray cans. ßy the 1970s they were a measurab|e quant|ty |n the troposphere wor|dw|de, and because they
were so |nert |n the troposphere they had a |ong enough ||fet|me to penetrate |nto the stratosphere. |t was suggested by two
sc|ent|sts, H. J. Ho||na and F. 8. Row|and, that |n the stratosphere 6F6s cou|d be broken down by u|trav|o|et ||ght. The ch|or|ne
re|eased from the 6F6 wou|d then be capab|e of destroy|ng ozone.

A|though there were many cr|t|c|sms of the theory, |t was qu|ck|y accepted. The |eve| of ozone destruct|on pred|cted from mode|s at
the t|me was a 13 per cent decrease |n the ozone co|umn |n 50 to 100 years. however, even though th|s |n|t|a| f|gure rose to 19 per
cent |n 1979, success|ve mode| pred|ct|ons down-rated the |eve| of ozone destruct|on unt|| by 1982 |t was |ess than 5 per cent. 6F6
use, wh|ch had dec||ned after the |n|t|a| reports, subsequent|y began to |ncrease aga|n. Then |n 1985 |t was reported that surface
observat|ons taken by the ßr|t|sh Antarct|ca 8urvey |nd|cated a substant|a| th|nn|ng of the ozone |ayer over Antarct|ca |n ear|y
spr|ng. 8ate|||te observat|ons from NA8A conf|rmed the report. |t |s now w|de|y accepted that the ozone ho|e, as |t became popu|ar|y
known, |s caused predom|nant|y by the ch|or|ne from 6F6s and other anthropogen|c sources. The dep|et|on of the ozone |ayer f|rst
man|fested |tse|f over Antarct|ca because of the w|ntert|me po|ar vortex. The po|ar stratospher|c c|ouds that form |n the extreme co|d
prov|de a surface on wh|ch the ch|or|ne from 6F6s converts from a stab|e to a react|ve component. 0nce the sun||ght arr|ves |n
spr|ng, the ch|or|ne |s re|eased and |s free to attack the ozone |ayer. As spr|ng progresses, the vortex breaks up and ozone-r|ch a|r
can penetrate the reg|on. The extent of the th|nn|ng was |n|t|a||y ||nked to the 0ß0, be|ng greatest when the vortex was strongest.
Th|s, however, appears to be no |onger the case, and |t has been postu|ated that the change |s due to |ncreas|ng |eve|s of ch|or|ne.
Heasurements now |nd|cate s|gn|f|cant th|nn|ng |n the northern hem|sphere po|ar reg|ons and at m|d-|at|tudes.
Frances 0rake

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