C|oba| warm|ng Exp|a|ned

here are the answers to the key quest|ons about g|oba| warm|ng:

0o sc|ent|sts agree about g|oba| warm|ng?
8c|ent|sts who study the c||mate are st||| argu|ng about how fast the earth |s warm|ng and how much |t w||| warm, but they do agree
that the earth |s warm|ng and that |t w||| keep warm|ng |f we don't do anyth|ng about |t. The most accurate way to measure
temperatures on our p|anet, by the way, |s w|th the he|p of orb|t|ng weather sate|||tes.
what |s caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng?
8c|ent|sts agree that the burn|ng of foss|| fue|s ||ke o|| and coa| cause greenhouse gases, such as carbon d|ox|de (602}, to escape
|nto the a|r and that these gases are caus|ng most of the warm|ng. Another cause |s deforestat|on (cutt|ng down trees}. Trees soak
up the greenhouse gas carbon d|ox|de from the a|r. A|| humans contr|bute to g|oba| warm|ng, by, for examp|e, dr|v|ng a car or f|y|ng
|n an a|rp|ane; sc|ent|sts often refer to the term "carbon footpr|nt" when they refer to the |mpact an |nd|v|dua| or bus|ness has on the
env|ronment |n terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced.
6arbon d|ox|de |sn't the on|y greenhouse gas caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng; another |mportant greenhouse gas |s methane, wh|ch |s much
more damag|ng to the atmosphere than carbon d|ox|de, but, fortunate|y, has a much shorter ||fe span |n the atmosphere. At the
moment, the atmosphere st||| conta|ns |ess than 1|10th of 17 of carbon d|ox|de, un||ke the p|anet Venus for examp|e, where |t |s
9ô.57, w|th temperatures hot enough to me|t |ead!
what |s the d|fference between "g|oba| warm|ng" and "c||mate change"?
"C|oba| warm|ng" refers to the |ncrease of the Earth's average surface temperature, due to a bu||d-up of greenhouse gases |n the
atmosphere (a|so ca||ed the "greenhouse effect"}. The "atmosphere" surrounds our p|anet and protects ||fe on Earth by absorb|ng
u|trav|o|et so|ar rad|at|on and reduc|ng temperature extremes between day and n|ght.
"6||mate change" |s a broader term that refers to |ong-term changes |n c||mate, |nc|ud|ng average temperature and prec|p|tat|on.
what w||| happen |f g|oba| warm|ng cont|nues?
There are a|ready some changes happen|ng because of g|oba| warm|ng. 8ea |eve| |s r|s|ng and some an|ma|s are a|ready mov|ng to
new homes. |t's a|ready too |ate to stop g|oba| warm|ng comp|ete|y.
|f the warm|ng gets worse, as sc|ent|sts expect, there may be some k|nds of p|ants and an|ma|s that become ext|nct (d|sappear
comp|ete|y} because they can't move to new homes. There may be more storms and f|oods due to me|t|ng |ce caps. 8ea |eve| may
r|se so much that peop|e have to move away from the coasts. 8ome areas may become too dry for farm|ng.
what |s be|ng done about g|oba| warm|ng?
C|oba| warm|ng |s a very d|ff|cu|t prob|em to f|x. Peop|e are hav|ng a hard t|me agree|ng on what to do about |t. For examp|e,
everyone agrees that wast|ng energy |s a bad th|ng to do. ßut some peop|e th|nk that the federa| government shou|d make |aws
about |t, wh||e other peop|e th|nk |t shou|d be up to each person or bus|ness to dec|de what to do. |n 1997 the famous "Kyoto
Protoco|" was adopted |n the c|ty of "Kyoto", and |t entered |nto force on 1ô February 2005. As part of th|s protoco|, 3ô countr|es are
requ|red to reduce greenhouse gas em|ss|ons.
Hany states and bus|nesses |n the Un|ted 8tates are not wa|t|ng unt|| the federa| government dec|des what to do. They have a|ready
started work|ng on the prob|em. A number of compan|es such as Createst P|anet work on projects that reduce or avo|d the
greenhouse gases go|ng |nto our atmosphere: such projects |nc|ude, for examp|e, treep|ant|ng, w|ndfarms (a w|ndfarm |s a group of
2 or more w|nd turb|nes wh|ch produce e|ectr|c|ty}, and so|ar energy (wh|ch turns sun||ght |nto e|ectr|c|ty}. The energy prov|ded by
w|ndfarms, so|ar power, t|da| and hydro power |s often referred to as "renewab|e energy"
what can | do about g|oba| warm|ng?
You don't have to wa|t unt|| you are grown to do someth|ng about g|oba| warm|ng. 8c|ent|sts agree that the burn|ng of foss|| fue|s |s
caus|ng g|oba| warm|ng. 8|nce these fue|s are burned for energy, and everyone uses energy, everyone can he|p stop g|oba| warm|ng
just by us|ng |ess energy.
Th|nk about the th|ngs you do each day that use energy. The ||ghts |n your house use e|ectr|c|ty. The TV and computer use
e|ectr|c|ty. The wash|ng mach|ne, d|shwasher and dryer a|| use gas or e|ectr|c|ty. Every t|me you r|de |n your car, |t uses gaso||ne.
There are some s|mp|e th|ngs that you can do to he|p stop g|oba| warm|ng:
· Turn off the ||ghts when you |eave a room. Use f|uorescent bu|bs |n your room.
· Turn off your computer or the TV when you're not us|ng |t. Unp|ug chargers when not |n use.
· wa|t unt|| you have a |ot of c|othes to wash before us|ng the wash|ng mach|ne. 0on't use the mach|ne for one |tem just because |t's
your favor|te sh|rt.
· Take shorter showers. heat|ng water uses energy.
· 6|ose the b||nds on a hot day |f the sun |s sh|n|ng |n. 0ress ||ght|y |nstead of turn|ng up the a|r cond|t|on|ng. 0r use a fan.
· 0ress warm|y |ns|de your house when |t's co|d, |nstead of turn|ng up the heat.
· 0ffer to he|p your parents keep the a|r f||ters on your A6 and furnace c|ean.
· wa|k short d|stances |nstead of ask|ng for a r|de |n a car.
· whenever you can, recyc|e paper, p|ast|c, newspaper, g|ass and a|um|num cans. .
· P|ant a tree.
· Learn more about g|oba| warm|ng so you can ta|k to peop|e about |t.

Ac|d ra|n |s a broad term used to descr|be a prec|p|tat|on, as ra|n, snow, or s|eet, conta|n|ng re|at|ve|y h|gh concentrat|ons of
ac|d-form|ng chem|ca|s, as the po||utants from coa| smoke, chem|ca| manufactur|ng, and sme|t|ng, that have been re|eased
|nto the atmosphere and comb|ned w|th water vapor: harmfu| to the env|ronment.

Ac|d ra|n |s a gener|c term that |nc|udes a|| prec|p|tat|on w|th h|gh ac|d content. Th|s prec|p|tat|on, when |ntroduced |nto
groundwater sources, |akes, r|vers, streams, ponds, etc., eventua||y produces an |nhosp|tab|e env|ronment for aquat|c p|ant
and an|ma| ||fe. Ac|d ra|n can a|so damage crops and bu||d|ngs

Ac|d ra|n |s produced when chem|ca| po||utants |nteract w|th sun||ght to produce su|fur|c and n|tr|c ac|ds. These ac|ds
comb|ne w|th mo|sture |n the a|r (groundwater sources that have evaporated and condensed} to produce ac|d ra|n, snow, etc.
8|nce there |s usua||y more sun||ght |n the summer months, ac|d ra|n tends to be more ac|d|c |n the summer.

Ac|d ra|n |s the resu|t of |ndustr|a| po||ut|on, wh|ch causes ra|nwater to carry sma|| quant|t|es of ac|d|c compounds such as
su|phur|c and n|tr|c ac|d. 6ontam|nated ra|nwater can upset the chem|ca| ba|ance r|vers and |akes, k||||ng f|sh and other
organ|sms and a|so damage p|ants, trees and bu||d|ngs.

Effects of ac|d ra|n :

Ac|ds can affect rece|v|ng systems |n a var|ety of ways, some good, others bad. Add|t|on of n|trate to ecosystems def|c|ent |n
n|trogen can |ead to enhanced b|o|og|c product|v|ty. The benef|ts, however, may be offset by tox|c effects assoc|ated w|th the
re|ease of a|um|num and magnes|um from c|ay m|nera|s |f the ph of so||s fa||s be|ow about 5.5. Leach|ng of meta|s from so||s
and sed|ments a|so can have adverse effects on aquat|c systems. F|sh may be k|||ed by a|um|num even under cond|t|ons
where the ph |s cons|dered otherw|se ben|gn. C|ven the current rates of ac|d depos|t|on, the ph of a number of |akes |n the
northeastern Un|ted 8tates and |n southeastern 6anada |s expected to average 4.2 to 4.8, w|th occas|ona| depress|ons to near
3.8 dur|ng per|ods of snowme|t or heavy ra|n. Host f|sh spec|es and a|most a|| mo||usks per|sh |f the ph fa||s be|ow 4.8;
p|ankton|c commun|t|es are s|mp||f|ed |n th|s case, dom|nated by a few ac|d-to|erant taxa. Adverse effects of ac|d prec|p|tat|on
are most obv|ous for |akes, and |t |s not surpr|s|ng that th|s aspect of the |ssue has rece|ved the most attent|on |n the press.
The effects on the terrestr|a| b|osphere are more amb|guous. |t appears that e|evated |eve|s of ozone |n the troposphere may
pose a more ser|ous hazard for p|ant ||fe even at |ocat|ons removed from major |ndustr|a| s|tes. Effects |n th|s case, for a
var|ety of agronom|c and forest spec|es, |nc|ude fo||ar |njury and s|gn|f|cant reduct|on |n growth and y|e|d.

|n summary, there are def|c|enc|es |n current sc|ent|f|c understand|ng of ac|d ra|n, both |n |ts atmospher|c and b|ospher|c
d|mens|ons. Uncerta|nt|es can be removed or reduced by a su|tab|y d|rected research program. |t |s c|ear that the chem|stry of
the troposphere, both po||uted and c|ean, shou|d rece|ve attent|on |n th|s effort.

how Ac|d Ra|n Affects The Env|ronment :

Ac|d ra|n |s an extreme|y destruct|ve form of po||ut|on, and the env|ronment suffers
from |ts effects. Forests, trees, |akes, an|ma|s, and p|ants suffer from ac|d ra|n.

Trees are an extreme|y |mportant natura| resource. They prov|de t|mber, regu|ate
|oca| c||mate, and forests are homes to w||d||fe. Ac|d ra|n can make trees |ose the|r
|eaves or need|es- they turn brown and fa|| off. Trees can a|so suffer from stunted
growth; and have damaged bark and |eaves, wh|ch makes them vu|nerab|e to
weather, d|sease, and |nsects. A|| of th|s happens part|y because of d|rect contact
between trees and ac|d ra|n, but |t a|so happens when trees absorb so|| that has
come |nto contact w|th ac|d ra|n. The so|| po|sons the tree w|th tox|c substances
that the ra|n has depos|ted |nto |t.

Lakes are a|so damaged by ac|d ra|n. A |ake po||uted by ac|d ra|n w||| support on|y
the hard|est spec|es. F|sh d|e off, and that removes the ma|n source of food for b|rds; a|so contam|nat|ng the |ake water. A|so,
b|rds can d|e from eat|ng "tox|c" f|sh and |nsects. Ac|d ra|n can even k||| f|sh before they are born. Ac|d ra|n h|ts the |akes
most|y |n the spr|ngt|me, when f|sh |ay the|r eggs. The eggs come |nto contact w|th the ac|d, and the ent|re generat|on can be
k|||ed. F|sh usua||y d|e on|y when the ac|d |eve| of a |ake |s h|gh; when |t |s |ower, they can become s|ck, suffer stunted growth,
or |ose the|r ab|||ty to reproduce.

how Ac|d Ra|n Affects Peop|e :

humans can become ser|ous|y |||, and can even d|e from the effects of ac|d ra|n. 0ne of the major prob|ems that ac|d ra|n can
cause |n a human be|ng |s resp|ratory prob|ems. Hany can f|nd |t d|ff|cu|t to breathe, espec|a||y asthma pat|ents. Asthma, a|ong
w|th dry coughs, headaches, and throat |rr|tat|ons can be caused by the su|fur d|ox|des and n|trogen ox|des from ac|d ra|n.

Ac|d ra|n can be absorbed by both p|ants (through so|| and|or d|rect contact} and an|ma|s (from th|ngs they eat and|or d|rect
contact}. when humans eat these p|ants or an|ma|s, the tox|ns |ns|de of the|r mea|s can affect them. ßra|n damage, k|dney
prob|ems, and A|zhe|mer's d|sease has been ||nked to peop|e eat|ng "tox|c" an|ma|s|p|ants.
Now that you know the horror and harmfu| effects of ac|d ra|n, you may sure|y want to know how we stop |t. |n our own sma||
way we a|| can start to stop th|s prob|em.
here are some so|ut|on to the ac|d ra|n prob|em.

|f the amount of su|fur d|ox|des and n|trogen ox|des |n the a|r |s reduced, then ac|d ra|n w||| be reduced. There are many he|pfu|
th|ngs that "norma|" peop|e can do. F|rst of a||, conserve energy and po||ute |ess! Use |ess e|ectr|c|ty; and carpoo|, use pub||c
transportat|on, or wa|k when you can. Th|s w||| he|p more than one m|ght th|nk. when |ess energy |s used, |ess coa| |s burnt,
and as a resu|t, there |s |ess ac|d ra|n.

A|so, |f coa| was c|eaned before |t was burnt, the dangerous po||utants that cause ac|d ra|n wou|d be c|eaned away. |f coa| |s
crushed and washed |n water, the su|fur washes out. however, th|s |s a very cost|y method! |t |s a|so cost|y to burn |ow-su|fur
coa| (|ow-su|fur coa| g|ves off |ess su|fur |n the a|r as opposed to h|gh-su|fur coa|}.
0n beaches as we|| as on the cr|cket ground, |t |s a|ways poss|b|e to spot peop|e w|th some k|nd of cream on the|r bod|es or
faces. Remember the 8outh Afr|can pace bow|er A|an 0ona|d or 'wh|te L|ghtn|ng' as he |s ca||ed, w|th "war-pa|nt" on h|s face?
No, |t |s not an attempt at camouf|age, s|mp|y an effort to ga|n protect|on from the u|trav|o|et rays of the sun.

And there|n ||es a paradox - |t |s the ||ght and heat of the sun that susta|ns ||fe on earth, but among |ts many fr|end|y rays are
some harmfu| ones as we||. These u|trav|o|et (UV, as they are ca||ed |n a|| popu|ar sunscreen |ot|ons} rays can k||| ||fe forms,
|nc|ud|ng humans, |f they are exposed to |t beyond a ||m|t.

U|trav|o|et: |s |t a shade of v|o|et?
The wh|te sun||ght that we see, |s formed of seven d|fferent co|ours, or the V|ßCY0R - short for v|o|et, |nd|go, b|ue, green,
ye||ow, orange, red. V|o|et |s at one end, wh||e red |s at the other extreme of th|s v|s|b|e band of ||ght.

0n|y that ||ght wh|ch fa||s between these co|ours, |s v|s|b|e to humans. L|ght rays wh|ch fa|| be|ow the v|o|et co|our, are ca||ed
u|trav|o|et rays. Those that fa|| beyond the co|our red are ca||ed |nfrared. 8un||ght conta|ns both u|trav|o|et and |nfrared rays.

how are we protected from these rays?
These rays have a|ways been a part of sun||ght, but they have become b|g threats to humans today. why? The earth's
atmosphere |s composed of severa| |ayers. we ||ve |n the Troposphere where most of the weather patterns such as ra|n, snow
and c|ouds, occur. Above the troposphere |s the 8tratosphere.

8uperson|c jet a|r||ners such as the 6oncorde f|y |n th|s |ayer, whereas subson|c commerc|a| a|r||ners usua||y f|y |n the
troposphere. |t |s |n the stratosphere that the u|trav|o|et rays str|ke the oxygen, convert|ng |t |nto a gas ca||ed ozone.

Fr|end|y ozone |ayer
The ozone |n the stratosphere absorbs most of the harmfu| u|trav|o|et rays from the sun. These rays can otherw|se cause sk|n
cancer and damage vegetat|on, among other th|ngs. Exposure to these u|trav|o|et rays k|||s bacter|as and severa|
m|croorgan|sms that are very |mportant for the earth's eco|ogy. Unfortunate|y, th|s |ayer |s gett|ng dep|eted.

The ozone |ayer has a ho|e |n |t
|n 199ô stud|es conducted by U8 Nat|ona| Aeronaut|cs and 8pace Adm|n|strat|on (NA8A} revea|ed a b|g ho|e of rough|y 10
m||||on square m||es (greater than the tota| surface area of North Amer|ca} over the cont|nent of Antarct|ca. Th|s |s known as
the ozone ho|e. As a resu|t of th|s |arge amount of u|trav|o|et rays enter the |ower atmosphere. |f not checked |n t|me the ozone
dep|et|on can cause dangerous consequences.

human hand |n ozone dep|et|on
0u|te |nterest|ng|y the destruct|on of ozone |s a human phenomenon. L|ke a|r po||ut|on, reduc|ng the |eve|s of po||utants that
we em|t |n the atmosphere, can contro| |t. Host a|r-cond|t|oners, refr|gerators and spray cans conta|n a substance ca||ed 6F6
(ch|orof|uorocarbons} that destroys the ozone gas, convert|ng |t |nto other gases. Th|s |s what has caused the ozone ho|e over
a per|od of t|me.

|t |s prec|se|y for th|s reason that wor|dw|de standards for a|r-cond|t|on|ng equ|pments are be|ng mod|f|ed. A new substance
ca||ed hF6 (hydrof|uorocarbons} |s be|ng used |nstead of 6F6.

8o, the next t|me you use that room freshener or your perfume spray, th|nk of the ozone ho|e that cou|d be expand|ng w|th
every pass|ng second.
0zone dep|et|on
|n the ear|y 1970s concern began to mount that human act|v|ty m|ght dep|ete the ozone |ayer. At f|rst the ch|ef concern was from the
then proposed f|eets of superson|c a|rcraft, such as 6oncorde. These superson|c p|anes wou|d f|y |n the stratosphere, and
combust|on products such as water vapour and n|trogen ox|des wou|d then be depos|ted there. As ment|oned above, the stab|||ty of
the stratosphere wou|d a||ow the n|trogen ox|de to accumu|ate and then enhance the cata|yt|c destruct|on of the ozone |ayer. The
|arge number of superson|c p|anes env|saged were never bu||t, but |n 1974 came a new worry: that ch|orof|uorocarbons (or 6F6s}, a
synthet|c product, m|ght a|so be capab|e of dep|et|ng the ozone |ayer. 6F6s had been used commerc|a||y as refr|gerants s|nce the
1930s, but because they were |nert and non-po|sonous they were soon used for many other app||cat|ons, most notab|y as
prope||ants |n aeroso| spray cans. ßy the 1970s they were a measurab|e quant|ty |n the troposphere wor|dw|de, and because they
were so |nert |n the troposphere they had a |ong enough ||fet|me to penetrate |nto the stratosphere. |t was suggested by two
sc|ent|sts, H. J. Ho||na and F. 8. Row|and, that |n the stratosphere 6F6s cou|d be broken down by u|trav|o|et ||ght. The ch|or|ne
re|eased from the 6F6 wou|d then be capab|e of destroy|ng ozone.

A|though there were many cr|t|c|sms of the theory, |t was qu|ck|y accepted. The |eve| of ozone destruct|on pred|cted from mode|s at
the t|me was a 13 per cent decrease |n the ozone co|umn |n 50 to 100 years. however, even though th|s |n|t|a| f|gure rose to 19 per
cent |n 1979, success|ve mode| pred|ct|ons down-rated the |eve| of ozone destruct|on unt|| by 1982 |t was |ess than 5 per cent. 6F6
use, wh|ch had dec||ned after the |n|t|a| reports, subsequent|y began to |ncrease aga|n. Then |n 1985 |t was reported that surface
observat|ons taken by the ßr|t|sh Antarct|ca 8urvey |nd|cated a substant|a| th|nn|ng of the ozone |ayer over Antarct|ca |n ear|y
spr|ng. 8ate|||te observat|ons from NA8A conf|rmed the report. |t |s now w|de|y accepted that the ozone ho|e, as |t became popu|ar|y
known, |s caused predom|nant|y by the ch|or|ne from 6F6s and other anthropogen|c sources. The dep|et|on of the ozone |ayer f|rst
man|fested |tse|f over Antarct|ca because of the w|ntert|me po|ar vortex. The po|ar stratospher|c c|ouds that form |n the extreme co|d
prov|de a surface on wh|ch the ch|or|ne from 6F6s converts from a stab|e to a react|ve component. 0nce the sun||ght arr|ves |n
spr|ng, the ch|or|ne |s re|eased and |s free to attack the ozone |ayer. As spr|ng progresses, the vortex breaks up and ozone-r|ch a|r
can penetrate the reg|on. The extent of the th|nn|ng was |n|t|a||y ||nked to the 0ß0, be|ng greatest when the vortex was strongest.
Th|s, however, appears to be no |onger the case, and |t has been postu|ated that the change |s due to |ncreas|ng |eve|s of ch|or|ne.
Heasurements now |nd|cate s|gn|f|cant th|nn|ng |n the northern hem|sphere po|ar reg|ons and at m|d-|at|tudes.
Frances 0rake

-4:9 9  47 0.9 94 /4   3  90 1.728 .9089 !.72370107894903.9:70 /:094.07.90.8.7008 9..3/70/:.723 8 ..3 .308./08.723 098 4780  .-4:94-.308.70349.9 70/:.723.09424.9 /8..98-03/430.70 706:70/9470/:.425090  1 90 ..3/8420.3/57490..909489454-...9.07.723 $0.70.550314-./944.250  07098   9902507.:/3.0.574/:.924850708:.0.40984.309..2..0/9070034:800110.9  9070 2.92485070 .8 8.59.723.-847-3 :97.30 4-.4.7 .941494 .0./ .389.70.3 924./24.24:8 494 !7494.393 3/1..:8090.97.-74.-:/ :54170034:80.0430-7:.728 84.893 0307 8 .70.8 9./4590/390..808390 .70.9 %0.039898 050.8 70.908.70..97010789443 9072.4 .4:39708.950450.5740. 507843 47 -:83088 94 /0..70.7  85.0902507. -.77.3//7454078419037010770/94.7-43 /4/0 :30 905. ./0790729.82.08:71..094304208 %0702.728.3/84.9 .804190..425.420 093.3/1.70 .0902507.0.70.943..9:7388:3939400.4393:08 %070.3/144/8/:0942093.. . 4.308 8:.32..4/ 90 70034:80.790/ 473 43 90 574-02   3:2-07 41 .723 4-.994/4 %0.-02470894728.79 8.08783.87030.309'03:8 147 0.07430 .3/ .250 97005.309 47 43 5740.70307 . 780842:.84.70./0 .981043..55033-0.:/0 1470.9:70.97. 9 41  41 ./ 93 94 /4  :9 8420 50450 93 9.3/39  2.9 -0.943  .3/-:8308808390&390/$9..070034:80.74:541 4724703/9:7-308.:80414-.-0.3083.58 $0.93:399010/07.7003 43 .80288438  .398 .79-./8420.4.723.9 %00307574.0732039/0.7/ 920 .0732039 84:/ 2.898 $420. ..0.-4:9 9  0 4907 50450 93 9 84:/-0 :5 94 0.0.9 90 10/07.9 .07 /11.32. .4.250  0.723  ./ 89.000.550.0-090034-.394 304208 9 8.0 47 ./..75407 9/..174290.9 94 /4 .808433944:7.90.:9 574-02 94 1  !0450 .-00307 .8.8 .98 9..2..9:700970208-09003/.420944/71471.983..9..3902507. -0 8420 3/8 41 5.908.924850708:774:3/84:75.3/570.3/.425090 -0.90 3..9890/110703.02.79419857494./0/- 3/1.9:70849034:942090.3/9039070/394147.

42-30/9.507 5...7432039   .3/-:/38   110.38   W!.832.0110..7039800590.723 $.05./.3/4.547.3/4940589454-.9 %0-030198 40.3903/894-02470.3.92485070.30 43 9:80902.43/0380/ 94574/:../7.4941..84/.8430  %070.70-:730/1470307 .9 :80 0307  %0 98 3 4:7 4:80 :80 00..0/-44.1908:388333 708893890.08 .9..08.81742848 .7/03.8-04.2.3981742.3983907.3908:2207   .43.943 033974/:.078..38890283.807.80/ 39490.00./419:733:590.3  W7088.083890..3/4907 47..93.02.:834-.334859..990-:7334114881:088 .8-01470:8390.9 %0.3.439039 %8570.079204:7/034:7.8 .3.02.38574/:./...7074394/4842093.490894.3/.719078434:7.39 .90940..4/ 3890.90784:7..398 97008..574/:..93.59.90/990 700.3 70.7432039147.07800110.723 4:/43 9...39.9:73 . 9.439..084790784078 0.-4:9 90 938 4: /4 0.:8087..08 318./7.074:..83147.30...0-003700.:809 8 4:71.97.-00/-.97.4790879  W%.721:949003.0.089.9  %0 %' ./8 .2.84/.38.94:.3828.3990841.9.7 9:808...3 834 478009 .03:3/07.723 $3./7..9.4254:3/88:.3  .907.:80.547.-4:94-.4.84.3..3/.8041.07430:8080307 0.02.-4:94-.7238/04:74:80039 8.094..30589454-.6:.3/ .832.-4:99   .9700  W0.90/..84700..1.07.9841.9./ //94341397.9.43/9433  7:80.574/:.3...-4:9  0.039898.8479/89.884..2307.425:9074790%'034: 70349:839 &35:..2.039-:-834:77442  W%:734114:7..3..7458..3890708:9413/:897.0/394 74:3/.3/397.425:907 :80 00.3//707./8 %080.97.-74.9 .9843.3  W..3/1:73.9439.7.0..05.90784:7.7  W030.078 8970.7009.98.907.723 W%:734119098034:0.3/82093 9..0397.9:394:.6:./ 439.8240 .24708:393908:220724398 ./9403..39.9450450./9072:80/94/08...89054:9.-003.0...7078033493:80  W.:23:2..28 543/8 09./7.90729.3/./41./7.07430.70842082509389.3/-:/38  .507 .3/.-0411809-94.3/0./7.9  W 110794054:75.70941.08 7.090708:8:.3 834 09..-.723 :89-:830880307  %3 ..732470.90/7.89...570.889028 82.9.88.23. /.3/.0.07 2.54:943 .5./7.9:394:./7...43/9438 .87.10 ..  $3.:23:2.38.3/2.3:580990.0./ 14723.30147430902:89-0.-4:94-./...6:..8 842044/ 49078-...3.. 0.3.3370.110.090801:08.039:.3/80/20398.8 8:5:7.341209.7-0.970.998:3994574/:..02.30 /8.0307.59.0393 397403.3:1.54:9.81905418481..9.08:1:7.3/..7442 &801:4708.0.59.7 74:3/./8.3...0.32..943 .:/08.907:8080307  W48090-3/843. 3085.0.0/03.:23:20..570.308:21742.0.42-3092489:70390.49/.723844:.3/397..943841 ../419:733:5900./.90794..7782.4889028/01.

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

9.9 .8 1742938900.439.32.3/..9.3/.47/70.

9 03:2.8-00330/94504500.8..9902 7.80.32.3/0207 8/80.3/..110.380.990805.8.439.32.9394.47/70.39847..3.8 90943838/04190720.9 .2.0 /30 574-028 .

85488-094854950450984203/41.3/.7:80/.8-:739  ./7.808.0-407.389..3574-02   190.3   84 1. .0974:3/ 98.3074:854:9.3989..3.84390.907 908:1:7.  3-0.4.07.7994894598574-02  070..084110888:1:7390.7544 :805:-.8.35.4892094/98.708:9 90708088.394381..301147994.8-:739 90/..84....5.4.943 47.0.9...3/.3994344089459 34:74382..8.841908:3  .9.80/3.48994-:734 8:1:7 .0..721:0110.3/.243907-4/0847 1.3/3974034/08390.7.34302993 0308803078:80/ 088.34:/-0.357490.034:.3/.3/54:90088&8008800.0/ 903.4097.94:349047747.24:1.943174290:97.3-070/:..9841.70.24:39418:1:7/4/08.70842084:9439490. 1./7.7 5./7.50450.0.. 97.0/ 9.7.08.30/.3 4:2.97.990259.3 %80524709.30/-014709./7..7870/:.9..8 .4.43807.385479.00307.0 825.702.8455480/94 8:1:7..3051: 9389..0 4 98349.80.. . 4 8:1:7...8084:9 40.398  49../7.:80.8:70.343.0/ %070./47 90933 ..3/4 78941.4.4.07 988.08 #0202-0790$4:917..93472.4.

0.78:38..0..0725479.3/343 548434:8900708443:80/1472.8.70/ $:39.943.9..-.3/3974034/084:/903-0/054890/9070 82039430/.20.243982.07 8.3.941908:39. 9341904430409.8:-89.8174290 9035745480/10098418:507843./..9.808 %88.425480/4180.55.8.7..3.-404174:  24386:.79418:39 -:990.07484857.90800 814720/4180.574/:.5...-041/0897434430   .42207.8.42-:8943574/:.03/1107039..89043.38289.7-438 478 .9 0029390.090.8 57450.3/$5.0.08   :2...09..92485070 .79 80.20.409 %0908:399.3/.88:0890/-94 8.3/34430/050943 ":903907089390/0897:.4:/-005.039898   43.4903974034/094..31014728  3...8.3983.9.439.-041/05093904430.42207.39147900.70.99./41   $4 903099204::809.4097.8-090039080.-847-824894190..2434907938 548:70949080:97.38 90 890070.907.409.1..0 9089.:2..9434144308..70..3084:/1390897.73078:8:.07 070.1390 9745485070 98390897..0.0/4430   703/4430.3/ .3/419   39.8.43/943078 701707.0/ /741:474.:/3:2..0 .9079.079393944907.8-0-./0897:.94850704:/..80390790407.90.8 %4809.9485070 .80 %080:97.073-0.8-003.1.30803.304779.5.44 &31479:3.07.420-970..:9.38 97.-4. %00..8.:8083 ./-003:80/.4039 389:/08.07..94850708.078 0.4730 700.-0490.84-0.8.8.-941 90897.3810430.9485070 9.-06:.:7 -4.5.3/0.43.700349438 7.8 .073.3/ 9... 2.41479207.07.:80/904430404.4099 %0.3900.924850708.3490780.44:78 8.88380.07 %04430390897.0780993/05090/   %04430.0/07030.43034:1092094503097.-043/90.5.0.3/857.7005480/949-043/.39424:399.9.43.3/.7.8:71.39883.07 ..:8090 070843079390974548507090.8.8.0/3920904430 /050943.090  8 -:9-0./041.409.943 .3..4:/-0-7403/43-:97.47/01398..9075.4741:474..439749 489.943003/ 070/8.90/174290807.81742908:3 %0807..38-49:97.0-0.9390897.8:7.99049070970204198.3/80.708:94198.3.3.4097.929/05090904430..075.3/317.7.92485070 1349.4097..3/39 0.9894:2.9/089748904430.98:89.4741:474.0909745485070890$97.29   &97.07 %0 ..990:97..0/23897.54:7..8   4.409 3/4 -:0 7003  04 47..8.07939394.90 98.94850709.07.943 $ 70.91..43806:03.9.24:3941:97.7 8.:2:.7.80/1742904:/903-0.07-:9 -:93.7-438 8-03:80/3890.19 8:.703:2-07418:507843.70.44:7 .43.79 8 .721::97..43/943306:520398..70/7.0/ .9039490897..70208 70.07 9178990.0743..8897090403 .8 90443040 8.30 70/ '4098.:80900703079. 4.439.3.7447.43/  430/050943 3900..9 29. 3/9070308.9438 2489349.70 8420.70-0324/10/ 308:-89..2.0790.47/0 %0808:507843.88-.545:.3894/.44:770/.8.3//.5074/41920   98570.988:..38 190.0/ :97.3...9.87.9485070   $:507843.721:4308.9..34907./4 98909.79 -:9.009.9485070.3..390949.843.43930394139.754:943 70/:.907.0/3.38.947//089.409 &' .4:/8 4.88:-843.9:2..90/-&$.890..9478.8-094:2.3/90303..43.44:78 4790' # 8479147.9907388:.0390%745485070070248941900.31703/7.0/317..5.084154:9..4097..3989.:80/.7 . %88343.3..0...70.70.9744217080307474:75071:20857.7 .3/-0.8439.8 %0807.4097.7-438 9..8.801479870.01.399390974548507047//0 .43/:.. 83909.3/ $ #4.8701707..70057490.3074:8.40989.9.94341904430..7/8147.730788:.5.70.3 834 .0/.3503420343 0.

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

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful