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Ministry of Culture Republic of Macedonia

Institute for protection of cultural monuments and Museum-Strumica

Vtor me|unaroden Simpozium po Arheologija The 2nd International Symposium of Archaeoloqy

Tema: Pogrebni obi~ai Topic: Funerary customs

PROGRAMA / PROGRAMME ABSTRAKTI / ABSTRACTS


Urednik: Vane P.Sekulov

Edited by Vane P.Sekulov


Organizacionen odbor: Organising Committee: Vane P.Sekulov/Vane P.Sekulov Vasilka Georgieva/ Vasilka Georgieva Zorica Kostadinova/Zorica Kostadinova Zoran Rujak/Zoran Rujak Penka Mi{eva/Penka Misheva Vaska Maneva/Vaska Maneva

Hotel Tiveriopol Strumica/ Strumica 03-06.11.2011

0311.2011

^etvrtok / Thursday

17.00-18.00 Pristignuvawe na u~esnicite i smestuvawe vo hotel Tiveriopol, Strumica Arrival of participants and accommodation at the hotel Tiveriopol, Strumica 19.00 Oficijalno otvarawe na Simpoziumot Offical opening of the Symposium Promocija na zbornikot trudovi od Prviot me|unaroden Simpozium: Promotion of the papers from the 1st International Symposium of Archaeoloqy: Aqva-Vita Et Voluptas Koktel za zapoznavawe Introduction Coctail

04.11.2011
7.30-8.30

Petok / Friday
Doru~ek / Brekfast

9.00-13.00 1.session, chairperson Zoran Rujak / Zoran Rujak 1. Zlatko Videvski / Zlatko Videvski (Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Dimov Grob - Nekropola od docnoto bronzeno vreme. Studija za socijalnata kultura na docnobronzenoto op{testvo

Dimov Grob - Late Bronze Age Necropolis ,Study of social culture of the Late Bronze Age society

2. Silvana Bla`evska, Goce Pavlovski / Silvana Blazevska, Goce Pavlovski


(Stobi, Makedonija / Stobi, Macedonia)
Nekolku docnohelenisti~ki pogrebuvawa od Stobi

Few Late Hellenistic Burials at Stobi

3. Milena Tonkova / Milena Tonkova


(Sofia, Bugarija/Sofia, Bulgaria) Thracian domed tomb in Momina tumulus of the fourth-third century BC from the region of the Chirpan eminences (South Bulgaria)

4. Trajce Nacev, Vane P.Sekulov / Trajce Nacev, Vane P.Sekulov


([tip-Strumica, Macedonia / Stip- Strumica, Macedonia) Mogilata na gospodrakata od Gajnov Dol The tumulus of domina from Gaynov Dol

5. Maja Petrinec / Maja Petrinec (Split, Hrvatska / Split, Croatia) Pagan burial customs in the Early and Late Middle Ages in the Croatian territory based on archaeological finds from medieval graveyards
Diskusija, so kafe, ~aj ili ne{to drugo Discussion with coffe and tea or something else

6. Milo{ Jevti} / Milos Jevtic


(Belgrad, Srbija / Belgrade, Serbia)
Pogrebuvaweto vo docnoto bronzeno i `eleznoto vreme na celata teritorija na isto~na Srbija

Burial in the Late Bronze and Iron Age in the all territory of Eastern Serbia

7. Valeriu Sirbu, Roksana Asandoae / Valeriu Srbu, Roxana Asndoae (Braila, Romanija/Braila, Romania) Tumuli graves of the Getae basilei in the 4th-3rd c. BC (general considerations and south Balkans influences) 8. Anita Vasilkova Midoska / Anita Vasilkova Midoska (Veles, Makedonija / Veles, Macedonia) Chthonic aspects of the Gods attested through tombstones on the territory of Republic of Macedonia 9. Aleksandar Bulatovi} / Aleksandar Bulatovic
(Belgrad, Srbija / Belgrade, Serbia) Horizon of the Late Roman Graves with rectangular vessels in southeast Serbia, east Macedonia and west Bulgaria

10. Radmila Ta{eva, @ivko Velovski, Radmila Tasheva / Zivko Velkovski


(Strumica, Makedonija / Strumica, Macedonia) Drill a archaeological explorations along the foundations of St. Petka church in the village of Tribichino

11. Fanica Veljanovska / Fanica Veljanovska


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Traumatski povredi na skeletite po dolinata na rekata Vardar, od bronzenoto vreme do srednovekovieto

Traumatic injuries in Vardar valley skeletons from the Bronze Age to the Middle Age

Diskusija / Discussion

13.30-14.30

Ru~ek / Lunch

15.00-19.00

2.session, chairperson Kristina Panajotova / Kristina Panajotova 12. Kristijan [uster / Cristian Schuster
(Bukure{t, Romanija / Bucharest, Romania)
Pogrebni formi vo ranoto bronzeno vreme vo ju`na Romanija

Funeral customs of the Early Bronze Age in Southern Romania

13. Marjan Jovanov / Marjan Jovanov


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Docnoarhajskiot period, po~etok na zlatnata doba vo Makedonija

Late archaic period, beginning of the golden age in Macedonia

14. Alka Starac / Alka Starac


(Pula, Hrvatska / Pula, Croatia)

Social rank and funerary monument. Example of Pola and Nesactium

15. Len~e Jovanova / Lence Jovanova


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia) Colonia Flavia Scupinorum svetot na mrtvite Colonia Flavia Scupinorum - world of the dead

16. Slavica Babamova / Slavica Babamova


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia) MNHMHC XAPIN EOIEI- The meaning of grave monuments in Macedonia in Roman times

17. itja Gu{tin / itja Gustin


(Koper, Slovenija / Koper, Slovenia)
Kontinuitet i diskontinuitet na funerarniot prostor preku primerot na Prekumurje i i Posavje, Slovenija

Continuity and discontinuity a funeral area in the case of Prekmurje and Posavje / Slovenia
Diskusija, so kafe, ~aj ili ne{to drugo Discussion with coffe and tea or something else

18. Lorenc Bejko / Lorenc Bejco (Tirana, Albanija / Tirana, Albania)


Pogrebnite obi~ai i socijalniot horizont vo docnata praistorija na Albanija

Burial practices and social landscapes in Albanian later prehistory

19. Anelia Bo{kova / Anelia Boskova


(Sofia, Bulgaria / Sofia, Bulgaria)
Nekropolite od klasi~nata epoha na

Mesembria Pontica. Topografija i

karakteristiki. Mesembria Pontica necropolis of the classical epoch. Topography and characteristics

20. Zoran Rujak / Zoran Rujak


(Strumica, Makedonija / Strumica, Macedonia)
Nekropolite na Ju`niot rid Carevi Kuli, Strumica

Necropolis "South hil Carevi Kuli", Strumica

21. Sne`ana Golubovi} / Snezana Golubovic

(Belgrad, Srbija / Belgrade, Serbia)


Pogrebni rituali na isto~nata nekropola na Viminacium

Burial rite at eastern necropolis of Viminacium

22. @ivko Velkovski / Zivko Velkovski (Strumica, Makedonija / Strumica, Macedonia)


Islamska nadgrobna arhitektura

Islamic tomb architecture

Diskusija / Discussion

19.30 Ve~era / Dinner No}na poseta na muzejot i Strumica Visiting the museum and Strumica by night

05.11.2011
7.30-8.30

Sabota / Saturday
Doru~ek / Brekfas

9.00-13.30 3.session, chairperson Sne`ana Golubovi} / Snezana Golubovic 23. Zlatko Videski / Zlatko Videski
(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia) Nekropolite na Isar Marvinci. Preliminaren izve{taj od istra`uvawata 20082001 godina. Nesropolises at Isar Marvinci, Preliminary report of the 2008 2011 researches

24. Kristina Panajotova / Kristina Panajotova


(Sofija, Bugarija / Sofia, Bulgaria) Family plots in the necropolis of Apollonia Pontica

25. Zlatko Kovancaliev / Zlatko Kovancaliev


(Stobi, Makedonija / Stobi, Macedonia)
Pogrebni obi~ai vo rimskiot period vo Stobi

Burial Customs in the Roman Period at Stobi

26. Zvonko Nikolovski / Zvonko Nikolovski


(Kumanovo,Makedonija / Kumanovo, Macedonia)
Tipologija na pogrebnite formi vo severoisto~na Makedonija

Typology of funeral forms the northeastern part of Macedonia

27. Nikolina Uroda / Nikolina Uroda


(Split, Hrvatska / Split, Croatia) Pogrebuvawata vo mona{kite crkvi vo Centralna Dalmacija Burials in Monastic Churches in Central Dalmatia)

28. Slavica Taseva / Slavica Taseva


(Strumica, Makedonija / Strumica, Macedonia) Konzervacija i restavracija na evrejskite grobi{ta vo [tip Conservation and restauration works on the tomb features from the Jewish graves in Shtip
Diskusija, so kafe, ~aj ili ne{to drugo Discussion with coffe and tea or something else

29. Dijana Gergova / Dijana Gergova


(Sofija, Bugarija / Sofia, Bulgaria)
Jugozapadna Trakija pome|u severot i jugot. Pogrebni obi~ai vo Bronzenoto i ranoto @elezno vreme

Southwest Thrace between north and south. Burial practices in the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age

30. Emil Slamkov / Emil Slamkov


(Gevgelija, Makedonija / Gevgelia, Macedonia)
Pogrebni formi vo rimskiot period po dolnoto te~enie na Vardar

Burials from the Roman Times in the Lower Vardar Valley

31. Gordana Janeva / Gordana Janeva


([tip, Makedonija / Stip, Macedonia)
Monetite od nekropolata na Crveno Pole

Coins from the necropolis Crveno Pole

32. Dejan Radi~evi} / Dejan Radicevic


(Belgrad, Srbija / Belgrade, Serbia)
Na~in na pogrebuvawe i pogrebni obi~ai vo nekropolite od 9ti - 11ti vek na teritorijata na Srbija ju`no od rekite Sava i Dunav

The way of inhumation and burial rites of the cemeteries of the 9th -11th century in the territories of Serbia south of the Sava and Danube rivers

33. Kiril Trajkovski / Kiril Trajkovski


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Pogrebuvawa vo i okolu crkvata vo srednovekovniot Morovisdos Burials in and around churches in the medieval Morovisdos

34. Penka Mi{eva / Penka Misheva


(Strumica , Makedonija / Strumica, Macedonia)
Tradicii vo pogrebuvaweto vo strumi~kiot kraj

Funeral traditions in the area of Strumica

13.30-14.30 15.00

Ru~ek / Lunch

Poseta na Docnorimskoto termalno lekuvali{te vo Bansko i crkvite Sv.Leontij vo Vodo~a i Sv.Bogorodica Milostiva vo Veljusa Visit of the Late roman thermal spa- Bansko and the churches: St. Leontij - Vodocha and St. Bogorodica Eleusa- Veljusa

20.00 Oficijalno zatvarawe na Simpoziumot Official close of the Symposium

06.11.2011,
7.30-8.30

Nedela / Sunday
Doru~ek/ Brekfas

Zaminuvawe na u~esnicite Departure of participants

1. Zlatko Videvski / Zlatko Videvski


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Dimov Grob - nekropola od docnoto bronzeno vreme. Studija za socijalnata struktura na docnobronzenodopskoto op{testvo Organizacija na nekropolata na grobovi vo redovi so identi~na orientacija, standardizacija na pogrebnata forma so dominatna upotreba na kamenata cista i jasno unificiranite pogrebni obi~ai, sozdavaat slika na ednakvost i homogenizacija prisutna na nekropolata. Za koja pak mo`e da se ka`e deka poka`uva socijalna ednakvost vo op{testvoto. Ovakvata situacija najverojatno pretstavuva rezultat na op{testvenata i ekonomska neizdiferenciranost na zaednicata. Vaka formiranata nekropola, vo koja poedine~nite pogrebuvawa se dominatni i nepostoeweto na grupi, poka`uva apsolutna podredenost i izedna~uvawe na poedinecot so zaednicata.

Dimov Grob - Late Bronze Age Necropolis ,Study of social culture of the Late Bronze Age society
The organization of the necropolis in rows of identical orientation, standardized burial form with predominance of stone cists and clearly unified burial practice compose a picture of equality and homogenization of the necropolis indicating social equality in the community. This situation presumably results from the still undifferentiated population regarding the economic and social status in the community. The necropolis formed in a way that individual burials are predominant and no groups have been separated points out the absolute submission of the individual to the community and identification with it.

2. Silvana Blazevska, Goce Pavlovski (Stobi, Macedonia)


Few Late Hellenistic Burials at Stobi
After almost a century of excavations at Stobi, the Pre - Roman urban phase or Livys urbs vetus still remains unknown. More data, regarding the material and spiritual culture, the influences and the relations with the other Hellenistic centres, is provided by the Hellenistic burials uncovered in the area between the House of Peristeria and the Western Cemetery. This article is an overview of the known burial customs, grave forms, beliefs, basic features and changes of the local culture as well as the area that the necropolis occupied in the last centuries BC. The analysis is focused on several grave units where the dominant rituals and grave constructions reflect the strong Hellenistic tradition at the end of the 1st century BC besides the growing Roman influence since the middle of the 2nd century BC.

3. Milena Tonkova

(Sofia, Bugaria) Thracian domed tomb in Momina tumulus of the fourth-third century BC from the region of the Chirpan eminences (South Bulgaria)
A newly discovered Thracian domed tomb in Momina tumulus at the village of Bratia Daskalovi, Stara Zagora district was fully excavated, restored and exhibited in 2010. It consists of a dromos and a chamber precisely built with stone slabs. Although, the tomb was plundered in the past, remains of a rich burial of the late fourth or the early third century BC were found there a piece of a gold diadem, threads of a gold woven fabric, fragments of Greek amphora, as well as a part of a gilt bronze funeral wreath. Remains of a burial of an adult, a baby and a horse were also found during the excavations. The tomb presumably belonged to a ruler of the lands just south of Sarnena gora mountain in the close proximity of the Thracian king Seuthes III capital Seuthopolis.

4. Trajce Nacev, Vane P.Sekulov

( Stip- Strumica, Macedonia)

Mogilata na gospodarkata od Gajnov Dol


Tekstot go obrabotuva procesot i rezultatite od iskopuvaweto na Mogilata br.1 od Gajnov Dol kaj selo Kon~e. Mogilata e visoka 3,84 m i {iroka vo osnovata 23,90 m so 1 200 m kompakten sloj od nabiena glina izme{ana so ~akal, pesok i kamen so sitna granulacija koj centarot na mogilata go pravi vonredno tvrd. Slojot okolu periferijata na mogilata e pomek i e sostaven od zemja

crvenica. Tvrdosta na sloevite i kompaknosta na istite edinstveno mo`e da se objasni so toa deka prilikum nasipuvaweto mogilata tie bile nabivani i poramnuvani. Na odredeni mesta po povr{inata od sloevite mo`at da se zabele`at i pogolemi fleki od kalcinirana pepel izme{ana so zemja. Grobot se pojavi na dlabo~ina od 3,84 m od najvisokata to~ka na mogilata pomesten vo sevrnata polovina, 1 m severno od oskata Istok-Zapad. Orientiran e Zapad - Istok so mal otklon kon Jug. Dolg e od nadvore{nata strana 4,30 m, {irok na zapad 3,55 a na istok 3,10 m {to na grobot mu dava trapezoidna forma. Nad povr{inata od osnovata na mogilata grobot e graden od eden red na nepe~ena tula. Ima dva eta`i i tesna tran{ea na dnoto od vtoriot eta`. Nad grobnata jama e podignata konstrukcija od teguli na dve vodi. Po ~etiri teguli so dimenzii 85h45h3 sm se postaveni od ju`nata i severnata strana i toa vo dva reda eden preku drug. Od ju`nata strana preku spoevite od centralnite teguli ima postaveno i dva imbreksa. Zapadna i isto~nata strana se zatvoreni so po edna, vertikalno postavena tegula. Grebenot od spoevite e pokrien so imbreksi. Kremiranite ostatoci od pokojni~kata se nao|aat po celata grobna jama izme{ani so ostatocite od kladata. Iako se vnimavalo da se zapazi anatomskata polo`ba na pokojnikot sepak ne se uspealo do kraj vo taa namera. Ostaoci od ~erepot se sre}avaat i na zapadniot no i vo centralniot del od grobnata jama. Prilozite isto taka se rasporedeni po celata povr{ina od grobnata jama iako vo pogolema koncentracija po ju`niot rab i osobeno vo isto~niot kraj Vo severnoto podno`je od ridot na koj e podignata mogilata se vkopana i ~etirikolkata so koja gospodarkata bila donesena do svoeto ve~no po~ivali{te. (kola so 4 trkala, informacija za preveduva~ot). Vremeto koga gospodarkata go zamenila zemskiot so ve~niot `ivot e prvata decenija od 3 vek po hristovoto ra|awe.

The tumulus of domina from Gaynov Dol


The paper covers the process and the results from the excavations of Tumulus No1 from Gaynov Dol, near the village of Konche. The tumulus is 3.84m high and 23.90m wide in its basis with a compact layer of 1,200m of pressed clay mixed with gravel, sand and tiny stones, which makes the center of the tumulus unusually hard. The layer around the edges of the tumulus is softer and is composed of red clay. The firmness of the layers and their compactness can be explained only by the fact that during its building of the tumulus they were pressed and levelled. At certain spots upon the surface of the layers large stains of calcified cinder mixed with soil can be noticed. The grave appeared at a depth of 3.84m from the highest point of the tumulus and it was situated in its north half, 1 m north of the East-West axis. It has a West East orientation with a small inclination to the South. On the outer side it is 4.30m long, 3.55m wide on its western side and 3.10m wide on its eastern side, which gives the grave a trapezoid form. Above the surface from the basis of the tumulus the grave is built from one layer of unbaked brick. There are two storeys and a narrow passing at the bottom of the second storey. Above the grave pit there is erected a construction of tegulae on two slopes. Four tegulae with dimensions 85x45x3sm are arranged on the southern and the northern side in two rows one across the other. On the southern side over the joints of the central tegulae there are placed two imbrices. The western and the eastern side are each closed by one, vertically placed tegula. The ridge of the joints is covered with imbrices. The cremated remains form the deceased woman are all over the grave pit mixed with the remains of the funeral pyre. Although care was taken to maintain the anatomical position of the deceased, this was not altogether successfully achieved. Remains from the skull can be also found in the western and in the central part of the grave pit. The supplements are also scattered all around the area of the grave pit, but their concentration is greater in the southern rim and especially in the eastern end. In the north foot of the hill where the tumulus is erected there is also buried the four-wheel cart with which the domina was carried to her eternal resting place. The time when the domina replaced her earth life with the eternal one is the first decade of the 3th century AD.

5. Maja Petrinec

(Split, Croatia) Pagan burial customs in the Early and Late Middle Ages in the Croatian territory based on archaeological finds from medieval graveyards

Pagan burial customs within mediaeval graveyards in Croatia were recorded for the first time in the earliest layer of graves that belong to the time immediately after the Slavic colonisation. Archaeological excavations in the past two decades showed that the horizon of cremation graves, whose existence has been questioned until recently and even negated, is becoming more and more obvious. Distinctive pagan customs related to the ritual of the funeral feast (strava and trizna) were also noticed in the oldest horizon of inhumation cemeteries. Significant changes occurred during the 9th century when the Croatian Principality was established and all pagan customs were disappearing due to the spread of Christianity. Consequently, only jewellery and metal parts of the deceaseds clothing can be found in those graves. This situation remained until the Late Middle Ages, when, despite the developed church organisation, glass ware and pottery, but also weaponryas a basic pagan grave good- started appearing mostly in graves with tombstones (steci), but also on some other graveyards. Funeral feasts as part of the typical pagan burial custom were also noted for this period. These phenomena indicate to the influence of the new settlers, the Vlachs, who were increasingly mentioned in historical sources from the 13th century onwards. Such traditional rites were typical particularly for the stock breeders on the Balkans, but expanded further, all the way until the district of the Dalmatian coastal towns.

6. Milos Jevtic

(Belgrade, Serbia) Burial in the Late Bronze and Iron Age in the all territory of Eastern Serbia

7. Valeriu Srbu, Roxana Asndoae (Braila, Romania) Tumuli graves of the Getae basilei in the 4th-3rd c. BC (general considerations and south Balkans influences)
During 5th-3rd centuries BC, the Getae society experienced exceptional development, visible in a number of monuments (fortresses, settlements fortified or not, tumulus graves etc.) and the creation of an original art of precious metal, with an iconography that illustrates the various aspects of their spiritual life. Outstanding among the remarkable monuments of these periods are the many tumuli, some of them of impressive size, sometimes with lavish inventories (unless robbed at some point). The archaeological finds show that the history of the Getae was connected to the values of the time, from both the elites of the other Thracian peoples and the Greek-Macedonian world. Particularly after mid-4th century BC, one sees a number of innovations in the Getae world, in the funerary and civil architecture, as well as the figurative representations on the precious metals. Worth noticing among these are the constructions under the tumuli (sometimes with funerary chambers made of stone decorated with frescoes and bas-reliefs) or in the residential centers (enclosure walls, habitat systematization based on the Hellenistic model, imposing edifices). The most representative are in Sboryanovo-Sveshtari area. The princely Getae tumulus finds are mostly present in north-eastern Balkans (the SboryanovoSveshtari area, Yankovo, Borovo), but they also appeared in Dobrudja (Agighiol) or north of the Danube (Peretu), as well as east of the Carpathians (Cucuteni). As expected, the constructions, rituals and inventory from the Getae tombs display mostly features analogous with those found at the other Thracian peoples, mostly those inhabited by Odrysians and Triballi. However, in the funerary sector, there are several Macedonian influences, including the excavations of underground chambers, adopting the semi-cylindrical arch and rendering iconographic motifs (hunting, fighting or ceremonial scenes). One has found, particularly when close to the Greek colonies of Odessos and Callatis, groups of graves with strong Macedonian influences. These influences are the result of the increasing presence of Macedonian power north of the Balkans, particularly after the expeditions of Philip II and Alexander the Great. The Thracian dynasts, including the Getae ones, thus wanted to integrate in the trend of turning the leaders into heroes and gods, a trend that spread in the Hellenistic world.

However, the large majority of Thracian elite graves, including the Getae ones, continued with the local traditions, save for an obvious tendency to have monumental funerary constructions. The characteristics of the Getae tumulus graves include: raising the funerary chambers on the ancient walking level or in the mounds, the presence of long dromoi, the categorical predominance of the rite of inhumation in the case of the aristocratic elite, possible dead dismembering and handling rituals, horse and dog sacrifices and inhumations. Several items or iconographic scenes illustrate the relations between the elites of the southern Thracians and that north of the Balkans. The artifacts include some items characteristic of Getae art and craftsmen found at other Thracian peoples, such as the greave from Malomirovo-Zlatinitza, south of the Balkans, in the Odrysian area, the greave from Vraca or the goblet from Rogozen, in north-Western Balkans, found in Triballi land. They could be the result of gift exchanges between the Greek dynasts

8. Anita Vasilkova Midoska

(Veles, Macedonia) Chthonic aspects of the Gods attested through tombstones on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

The Olympian gods famously have nothing to do with the dead. They are, after all, defined by their immortality, and the death is antithetical to their very being. Besides the fact that in ancient religion especially Greek religion there is demarcation between Olympian and Chthonic gods in some aspects and instances the gods of the Olympian cycle who refuse to take part in the Underworld are presented in the iconography of tombstones or votive reliefs. The aim of the study is the examination of the tombstones on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, where we can observe iconography of the Olympian gods and heroes (Herakles) in their chthonic aspect. The main corpus for the study of the issue are tombstones but also, in order to get complete picture of the subject, some votive reliefs and grave offerings will be considered. Namely, according to known data few Olympian and minor gods and heroes can be traced in the iconography of tombstones on the territory of Republic of Macedonia: Aphrodite, Eros, Athena, Artemis, Dionysus, Telesphoros, Herakles etc., and all of them took some part of the rite of passage as guide, helper or psychopomp. In this presentation them main focus of interest will be post on the problem of the connection of the gods and the Underworld and conclusions will be based on the archaeological material presumably tombstones.

(Belgrade, Serbia) Horizon of the Late Roman Graves with rectangular vessels in southeast Serbia, east Macedonia and west Bulgaria
In recent years at Late Roman necropolises in the mountainous regions of southeastern Serbia, southwestern Bulgaria and eastern Macedonia unusual coarse vessels with a rectangular base have been found. The same funerary rites and pottery types were observed at all mentioned cemeteries. This data suggest very conservative populations whose culture was based on prehistoric traditions. According to funerary customs and pottery analogies, as well as historical sources, we attempted to determine the ethnicity of the population that buried its dead at these cemeteries.

9. Aleksandar Bulatovic

10. Radmila Tasheva / Zivko Velkovski (Strumica, Macedonia)


Drill a archaeological explorations along the foundations of St. Petka church in the village of Tribichino
The building of the monuments of culture in the renaissance period was very often upon the basis of old Christian cullt places, which by their position, importance and spiritual influence were the foundations for building churches in the middle of the 19 century. The church of St. Petka in the village of Tribichino is one of those buildings that contains spiritual and cultural relations and continuity regarding the spiritual closeness to Christian dogma, the reflections of which can be seen in the making of specific grave forms, and even more specific

grave supplements that belonged to the deceased persons buried there, thus comprising a late medieval necropolis under the church. This has been confirmed by the drill archaeological explorations conducted in 2003 and 2007 along the foundations of the east and north parts of the church. These explorations showed that the people buried there were of Christian origin and had a specific attitude towards spiritual matters, which is evident from the material excavated there.

(Skopje, Macedonia) Traumatic injuries in Vardar valley skeletons from the Bronze Age to the Middle Age

11. Fanica Veljanovska

The study reviews the frequency of traumatic injuries in the Middle and Lower Vardar Valleys in the span from the Bronze Age till the Middle Ages, more precisely, from the second millennium BC to the late medieval period, i.e., the 15th century AD. A total number of over 811 individual skeletons from 4 necropolises in the Vardar valley have been considered. They include the Bronze Age necropolis in Ulanci-Gradsko (13th-11the centuries BC), the Iron Age necropolis in Suva Reka Gevgelija (7th-5th centuries BC) 42 skeletons, the Roman necropolis in Marvinci (1st c. BC 4th c. AD) -138 skeletons and the medieval necropolis in Crkvishte Demir Kapija (9th-15th centuries AD) 476 skeletons. The studies focus on cranial and long bone fractures. Due to the poor condition of prehistoric skeletons dislocations, stress fractures and pathological fractures have been exempt from the analyses. The issues taken into consideration are whether there were differences in frequency throughout time, gender differences, differences in the type of fracture as well as in the medical treatment. Cranial and long bone injuries show low frequency in prehistory and they were most common in the Roman times (one fourth of the group). Their number decreased almost to a half in the Middle Ages. There is also difference in the type of fractures. In the Roman times two/thirds of ?? fractures affected lower extremities and one/third were on the upper ones. The situation was quite the opposite in the Middle Ages. As regards the gender differences, cranial fractures were more common with women in the prehistoric periods. The Roman times were especially hard for women showing the highest frequency of long bone structures with them. Fractures had rather good medical treatment, except for several cases in Demir Kapija.

12. Cristian Schuster

(Bucharest, Romania) Funeral customs of the Early Bronze Age in Southern Romania

The information and data regarding the funerary customs of the Early Bronze Age in Southern Romania, meaning Oltenia, Muntenia and Dobrudja, are still lacunary and sometimes contradictory in the present research stage. Thus, if for the less sedentary populations, like, for instance, the Yamnaya Culture we have a better knowledge, for others with a stressed stability, like the Glina Culture, such information is missing. The sedentary cultures were expressed by a large number of settlements but, they seemed to have been deprived of funerary customs. In turn, the communities with more dynamic manifestations, in permanent movement, like those already mentioned, of the Yamnaya culture, as well as those of the Zimnicea-Mljet horizon, or belonging to the stone cist burials, were almost exclusively documented by burials. The funerary monuments of the Early Bronze Age in Southern Romania could be categorized in tumular or flat burials, using the inhumation or cremation rite, simple or multiple, with stone, wood, or mix constructions. About all this funerary customs we will speak in our presentation.

13. Marjan Jovanov

(Skopje, Macedonia)

Docnoarhajski period, po~etok na Zlatnoto doba vo Makedonija U{te od pronao|aweto na bogatite Trebeni{ki grobovi pred re~isi eden vek, pa se do denes , svedoci sme na brojni arheolo{ki otkritija na teritorijata na Republika Makedonija i Severna Grcija, otkritija koj definitivno vremeto od krajot na 6.vek p.n.e. i po~etokot na 5.vek p.n.e. go osvetluvaat kako zlatno doba na

ovie prostori. Zlatno, ne samo zaradi ogromniot broj na artefakti izraboteni od zlato, tuku zlatno zaradi visokoto nivo na kulturen i ekonomski razvoj koj mo`eme da go sogledame preku bogatite pogrebuvawa kaj Trebeni{te, Ohrid, Beranci, Pela, Sindos, a vo taa niza sega go vklu~uvame i otkritieto na isklu~itelno bogatata grobnica kaj Kore{nica, Demir Kapija. Niz blesokot na naodite od ova grobnica, ovoj trud go osvetluva u{te edna{ po~etokot na zlatnoto doba na anti~ka Makedonija. Late Archaic period, the beginning of the Golden age in Macedonia Since the findings of the wealthy graves in Trebenishte, almost a century ago until nowadays, we are witnesses of a countless archaeological discoveries in the territory of Republic of Macedonia and North Greece, discoveries which definitely brighten the time between the VI century B.C. and the beginning of the V century B.C. as a Golden Age in these regions. Golden not just because of the huge number of artifacts made of gold, but Golden because of the high level of cultural and economical development we can see in the wealthy burials in Trebenishte, Ohrid, Beranci, Pela, Sindos and now in this array we include the discovery of an exclusively wealth tomb in Koreshnica, Demir Kapija. Through the glow of the findings in this tomb, this work brightens once more the beginning of the Golden Age in Ancient Macedonia

14. Alka Starac

(Pula, Croatia) Social rank and funerary monument. Example of Pola and Nesactium

Paper examines forms and choice of decorative elements on funerary monuments belonging to various social classes of the colony of Pola and their rapport to the territory. The most prominent funerary monuments belonged to municipal aristocracy. Typical monuments of the high class were large funerary altars roofed over with pulvinaria, tumuli, imposing monuments with a cubiform body and temple-shaped superstructures with statuary and pyramidal or conical covers, decoratively enclosed sepulchral lots with diagonally placed small rectangular pillars, and finnally sarcophagi. The social status of the deceased was expressed by epigraphic content and decorations in relief indicating symbols of social rank, but also by size and value of the funerary monument. Chronological and prosopographical data were taken into consideration as indicators of social tendencies and advancement of certain families.

15. Lence Jovanova

(Skopje, Macedonia) Colonia Flavia Scupinorum Svetot na mrtvite


, . . , . . , (VIII VI . .). , I VI . , 4000 , 300 . , , , - . , . , , .

. (I II ) , , , , IV . , . : - , . - . . , , . , , . . , , . , , , , , - .

Colonia Flavia Scupinorum - world of the dead


Just as the death is an integral part of the life, so is the city of the dead inseparable part of the city of the living. The city necropolises of Scupi were located along the main roads that lead in and out of the city. There are indications for the existence of necropolises on all four sides of the city, but only parts of the south-eastern and north-western city necropolis, have been researched. The research of Scupi's urban topography suggest that the positioning and organisation of the necropolises corresponds to the urban structure and the network of streets in the city. The two suggested location have long-lasting sacral essence and contents, which was confirmed by the continued burials ever since the Late Bronze Age, i.e the Iron Age (VIII - VI century BC). After a hiatus of six centuries, the burials on these grounds reoccur in the Roman period from 1st to 6th century. So far, around 4000 graves were discovered at the area of the south-eastern necropolis, while only a small segment with around 300 graves has been researched. In this occasion we shall try to make an overview of the spatial disposition and dispersion of the necropolises in the regard of the city, than an analysis of the internal structure and organisation of the necropolises, cross-section of the typology and the chronology of the grave complexes, and we shall also cover some socio-economic aspects regarding the grave rituals and offerings. This is a case of urbanly planned city necropolises, organised to the left and to the right along the main road that entered the city from the east, connecting itself to the city decuman, and continuing to the west of the city. The grave plots, i.e. the graves were positioned in lines with almost identical orientation, determined by the position of the main road. There is a presence of bi-ritual burials with cremation and inhumation. In the earlier period (1st - 2nd century) there is a dominance of burials with cremation, while afterwards, as a result of certain social, economic and sociologic changes, the inhumation gains its primacy, i.e. a total dominance in the 4th century. A special accent is put on the typology, origin and the genesis of the graves with cremation. General characteristics of the graves with cremation are: incineration of the diseased on a common pyre - ustrinum, burial of the pyre remains in a pre-prepared grave pit with sealed walls. This type of graves is characteristic for a broader region at the Central Balkans. It cannot be identified as Roman and it is most often interpreted as a spiritual manifestation of the autochthonous population. The genesis and the evolution of this grave form, are obviously result of a long process originating from the earlier local tradition of the Central Balkans region, whereas the regions of Stobi and Scupi, where the chronologically oldest graves are, have the advantage.

In order to receive as realistic picture about the population composition in Skupi as possible, there was an attempt to make a comparative analysis of the graves and the burial rituals with the tomb monuments, the epigraphic and anthropological data. This resulted in divergently different pictures. Dominance of the autochthonous element in the manner of burial, stands in opposition to the dominant use of the Latin nominal formula with great influence from the South east in the terms of its onomastics, i.e. ethnically heterogeneous composition in the terms of anthropology. However, we can conclude that no matter how big was the influence and the change brought by the Romanisation on the plan of social, cultural and ethnical structure of the indigenous population, it still preserves, in somewhat altered form, its individuality, especially in the burials, which is one of the most conservative processes, but at the same time is one of the basic markers of the ethnocultural continuity.

16. Slavica Babamova / Slavica Babamova


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia) MNHMHC XAPIN EOIEI
, , . , . , , , , , , . . , . , , , : , , , ., . , .

MNHMHC XAPIN EOIEI- The meaning of grave monuments in Macedonia in Roman times
This paper considers texts on the grave -monuments in Macedonia in Roman times, a method to perceive social and economic differences of population, as well as cultural assessments of the bearers of those monuments. There are two big groups of grave inscriptions the first one with formulaic epitaphs, with several usual grave formulas which are typical for the Eastern part of the Roman Empire. Most frequently it is inscribed on grave stelae with fronton, one or two relief fields, on arae, columns, plaques or ossuaries, which indicates that it is not strictly connected to the funeral ritus, but it can inform about the space of the burial and about the relationship of the living to the dead and to the death as an idea. Comparison between formulas in Roman period and those from Hellenistic times depicts influences of Romans towards the autochthonic population. The second group is the one which varies from the usual grave formula and contains some elements which are sometimes common, but mostly each of these monuments has its own message.

That message considers the life of the deceased and his family, the violation of the tomb, to the emotional moment of those who ordered the monument and what is specifically appointed in this paper are different types of tomb constructions mentioned in inscriptions: heroon, mnemion, taphos, tymbos etc., which are also spread through the provinces to the east and to the south of Macedonia. Comparison of grave texts from the northern part of the province with other parts of Macedonia and with those from Thrace and Asia Minor reflects similarities in the cult of dead.

17. itja Gustin

(Koper, Slovenia) Continuity and discontinuity a funeral area in the case of Prekmurje and Posavje / Slovenia

Slovenia has some smaller lowland regions suitable for agriculture. In the past, these areas were settled by people whose priority was the cultivation of land. For our contribution to the Mortio vivos docent meeting we have chosen Posavje (an area along the river Sava between Novo mesto and the border to Croatia near Zagreb) and Prekmurje (along the river Mura between Murska Sobota and Lendava), which have until today remained characterised by extensive lowland farming. People settled these regions in various chronological phases: in the Neolithic and Eneolithic, Late Bronze Age, Late Iron Age, Roman period and the Early Middle Ages. In between these periods different types of cultivation and settlement were preferred, occurring primarily in the hilly areas with conditions for fortified hill-top types of settlement and cultivation, combined with stock breeding and hunting, but also, although to a much smaller extent, with farming. It is interesting that these primarily farming communities, after their initial settlement in the great lowland plains, designated exactly the same areas for burial, although these were without any visible burial monuments and had through their century-long abandonment become overgrown with woods, together with the once cultivated fields. The paper will show examples of such burials at the same location in the cases of the Murska Sobota-Nova tabla and the Dobova cemeteries.

18.Lorenc Bejco

(Tirana, Albania) Burial practices and social landscapes in Albanian later prehistory

This paper examins burial practices of the Bronze and Iron Ages from Abania and discusses them in a regional perspective. Tumuli burials, as the most dominant form of burial in Albanian late prehistory, are seen as important land marks in the landscape, as well as social symbols for the prehistoric communities. A substantial part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of burial practices in different regions of the country and to their comparison, as a means of defining social groups and cultural traditions. At the base of the analysis stands the theoretical assumption that burial practices and rituals constitute actions of the living that give shape to social relations of the communities, not merely the social personalities of the dead. With this background, different levels of social relations are examides: individual, families, groups, communities, regions. These different levels of engagement into social relations and networks create a part of the social landscapes of Albanian late prehistory where burial customs and material culture are a large part. Tumuli, individual burials, and community cemeteries, is argued here, negotiate significant number of social interactions as well as become material expressions of social relationships. Their given meaning and their material form is thus an important part of the social landscapes of the Albanian prehistoric communities.

(Sofia, Bulgaria) Mesembria Pontica necropolis of the classical epoch. Topography and characteristics The necropolis of Mesambria Pontica, a Doric colony on the West coast of the Black Sea, was situated on a slight coastal slope on the mainland across from the main gates of the ancient city and the isthmus of the peninsula on which it was situated. The necropolis from the Classical Age became known only recently. Over 60 graves datable to between the middle of the fifth and the last quarter of the third century B.C. were investigated in the course of rescue excavations; of these 62 are certain and a further 20 remain indefinite, being either of Classical or Hellenistic date. Most of these graves were inhumations in simple rectangular pits, each one containing the remains of one burial with the accompanying burial offerings and

19. Anelia Boskova

personal belongings. Among the typical grave finds are the small receptacles for perfumes and oils (lekythoi, usually with painted decoration), and the terracotta figurines and reliefs. A few of the investigated graves are marked by more abundant and opulent finds, standing out as representative of the social elite of the polis. The strict regulations of the funerary ritual were gradually attenuated in the fourth century B.C., while the differences between the outfit of male and female graves became more pronounced. Ornaments made of silver and bronze such as earrings, necklaces and bracelets become more and more common, and are accompanied in some cases by bronze mirrors. The terracotta figurines and relief female protomes remain popular among the grave goods of this age.

20. Zoran Rujak

(Strumica, Macedonia)

Necropolis "South hil Carevi Kuli", Strumica The explorations at the site of the South Hill - Carevi Kuli have started in the course of 2004 after the previous devastations of the necropolis by illegal excavations. Since then, the necropolis has been a subject to exploration in several archaeological campaigns during 2007, 2009 and particularly in 2010. This is a necropolis of several layers that were used in various periods. Although it has undergone severe damages, the necropolis has offered valuable data about the burials in the Ancient, Macedonian-Hellenic, Late Roman, Late Ancient and Medieval periods. In the campaigns conducted so far there have been explored an overall of 355 burials belonging to different periods. As a result, a rich archaeological material was discovered which, together with the burial rites, offers significant information about the spiritual life of the population living in Carevi Kuli, i.e. Strumica.

21. Snezana Golubovic

(Belgrade, Serbia)

Burial rite at eastern necropolis of Viminacium


During eighties and nineties of XX century huge archaeological research at the teritorry of Viminacium have been conducted. Namely, the threat posed to the city as a result of the construction of the thermal power plant and coal mining at the strip mine Drmno and has made necessary extensive excavations of the city necropolis. The excavations revealed more than 13,500 tombs with extraordinary contents and more than 30,000 artefacts, of which more than 700 gold and silver artefacts and dozens of unique world artefacts. Those exceptional finds in the necropolies around the city confirm the assumption of great wealth of its residents. The Viminacium necropolis contained a number of fresco-painted tombs, including the one with a fresco depicting a young woman, which belongs to the masterpieces of late ancient fresco-painting from all territories of the Roman Empire. In the period from 1977 to 1997 necropolis were excavated, that extend to the south and to the west from the city of Viminacium. From 2000, the necropolis spreading to the east from the military camp was also explored. The greatest number of burials belongs to the period from the end of the 1st to the 4th century, during the Roman domination. Tombstones and sarcophagi were often decorated with relief bearing mythological scenes or scenes from everyday life. Numerous graves with built constructions were also found. In 1997 the most eastern part of Viminacium cemetery than was uncovered at the site called Pirivoj. The complex of the mausoleum surrounded by wall was square in plan and measures 20 by 20 meters. It was built of stone blocks and ashlars and decorated with columns. The main building in the central part of the mausoleum has dimensions 5 x 5 meters and was built of green schist bonded by plaster. A tomb was in the central part of the structure. This form of burial, known as bustum, is generally very rare, and it was quite exceptional in the period to which the mausoleum belongs. The individual cremated and buried in this place must have been a person of great distinction in the Roman hierarchy. The mausoleum was probably plundered at the beginning of 4th century, and its ashlars and columns were used secondarily for the construction of some 4th century tombs. About twenty gold objects and a gilded fibula have been found in the immediate vicinity of the place of cremation. The necropolis was biritual 412 graves with inhumation and 68 with cremation were explored. The site called Kod Koraba was situated in the zone of the eastern necropolis of Viminacium. It was than in fact the easternmost part of the necropolis and located in the broader zone of Viminacium, approximately 650 m to the South-East from a military camp. The whole area of the

locality was endangered by the expanding Drmno strip coal mine. Rescue investigations lasted from 2005 until 2008 and they included geophysical survey and archaeological excavation. Geophysical prospection by applying geomagnetic method was conducted first. Archaeological excavations were planned based on this survey. During investigations, a previously unknown Roman necropolis was discovered. At this location 211 graves were found. Both types of burials were detected there were 132 cremations and 79 inhumations. According to the types of graves and the goods found in them, the necropolis dates back to the period between the second part of the first century A.D. and the second part of the third century, with the exception of a single fourthcentury grave. Finally, from 2009 at the site Nad Klepekom, now the easternmost cemetery of the Roman period appeared. Just as at former cemeteries, archaeological excavations were planned based on previous geophysical survey. Number of 49 graves with inhumation and 87 with cremation is not final cause excavations still going on. In the moment seems, judging to the grave inventory, that it is the slightly older than the south necropolises explored at the end of XX century. The form and typology of the constructions whether of inhumation or cremation do not differ too much than formerly found. However, grave or group of graves surrounded by the walls built of stone are considerable. These last researches are leading us to conclusion of developing Viminacium necropolis primary at the eastern side of the city and for confirmation seems we shall not wait too long.

22. Zivko Velkovski


Islamic tomb architecture

(Strumica, Macedonia)

Among the civilizations that are part of the cultural-historical past of the city of Strumica and its region during the Ottoman period, the Islamic religion with all its features has left a significant trace in the cultural, artistic and spiritual field both within the city and in the surrounding rural settlements. In the spiritual filed it is evident in the valuing of the views of life and death - namely, the Islamic religion with all its sects in the 17, 18 and 19 centuries is present in all its power both in the architecture and in the rituals. Among the many sects that are part of the Islamic religion there is the Melamitic sect in Strumica and its region, which is the most dominant and which was one of the strongest and oldest Islamic teachings. For its propagators it is important to notify that they viewed Strumica as one of the oldest and the most important spiritual and political urban areas and that it was important for the Isamic teaching to be upgraded and built in this part of Macedonia. Of all the tombs built in memory to members of this sect, the largest is the so called Tulbe (Tomb) of Pir nur Arabi, which is a family tomb situated in the central part of the city, to the south of the Marshal Tito street. Dating from the 19 century there is the Tomb of Ismail Baba, which is situated in the south-east part of the village of Bansko, near the thremal spring (unfortunately it was damaged while piping the thermal springs); there is also the Tomb of Mesi Beg in the northwest part of Bansko Tulbeto; then the Tomb of Islamil Baba in the village of Abnica. It is a common feature for all of these tombs that they were erected in memory of the religious heads fulfilling the ritual needs of the Islamic people who in that way nurtured the memory of their teachers who acted in this area. It is worth saying that this religious teaching was brought by Turkish people who moved to Strumica by the end of the 16 and the beginning of the 17 century from the area of Konya from Asia Minor. The architectonic variety of these buildings contribute to the statement that this was one of the most significant civilization eras.

23. Zlatko Videski / Zlatko Videski


(Skopje, Makedonija / Skopje, Macedonia)
Nekropolite na Isar - Marvinci, istra`uvawa 2008 - 2011, preliminaren izve{taj Lokalitetot "Isar" s. Marvinci - Valandovo e afirmiran kao eden od pozna~ajnite arheolo{ki punktovi na teritorijata na R. Makedonija, a negovite arheolo{ki potencijali potvrduvaat postoewe na kontinuiran `ivot od praistorijata do krajot na rimskiot period. Od druga strana vo poslednite petnaesetina godini "Isarot", posebno negovite nekropoli se cel na kontinuirani "divi" kopawa, so {to na lokalitetot mu e nanesena neprocenliva {teta, od tie pri~ini se nametnuva{e potreba za poseopfatna istra`uva~ka kampawa. Cel na

arheolo{kite istra`uvawa pretstavuvaa napadnatite nekropoli, so zada~a prvi~no da se utvrdi stepenot na nivnata devastiranost, a voedno da se doistra`i prostorot na "Jugozapadnata Nekropola" , Rimska Nekropola i praistoriskata nekropolata vo mesnosta "Lisi~in Dol.

Nesropolises at Isar Marvinci, Preliminary report of the 2008 2011 researches The site of Isar, v. Marvinci near Valandovo has been affirmed as one of the major archaeological areas in the territory of R. Macedonia and its archaeological potentials provide evidence of continual life from prehistory till the close of the Roman times. On the other hand Isar and especially the necropolises associated with it have continuously been target of illegal diggings in the last fifteen years, which made irreparable damage to the site. This imposed the need of conducting a thorough research campaign and the affected necropolises were in the focus of the archaeological excavations for the purpose of defining the extent of their devastation. Another goal was completing the research of the entire surface of the Southwest Necropolis, Roman Necropolis and the prehistoric necropolis at the locality Lisichin Dol
(Sofia, Bulgaria) Family plots in the necropolis of Apollonia Pontica The necropolis of Apollonia is the best investigated site of this type and date in the Western Pontic Region. In the Classical and the Early Hellenistic periods (mid-5th 3rd c. BC) it spread to the south of the city in Kalfata locality and on the peninsula of Budzhaka. Initially, the territory of the necropolis was marked off with a ditch that was dug in the clay or the soft bedrock. The ditch followed the coast and had a NW-SE orientation. As tumuli were piled over the graves and some natural changes occurred (accumulation of dunes), soon the ditch was abandoned and graves were dug into it. About a century later, the territory of the necropolis of Apollonia was reorganized on both sides of a coastal road that was 6.5-7 m wide. It had the same orientation like the ditch (NW-SE) and was situated two to three meters to the east of it. On both sides of the road, there were separate family plots, delimited with stone walls, built of split stones and more often of small limestone blocks on a foundation of split stones. The limestone ashlars were arranged step-like in two or three rows, facing the road. The longest continuous part of the peribolos is more than 40 m long. The fine masonry of the Apollonian peribolos is an indication that the wall was built stage by stage, following a premeditated plan and layout, and was meant to be seen. It seems that the necropolis was divided into plots for every family, as it was the case with the arable land. The dimensions of the funerary plots vary, with average length of 3.5 to 6 m. The internal division of the family plots was marked off with stone blocks, or short walls of ashlars and split stones, set perpendicularly to the peribolos. The space, delimited in that manner, had square or rectangular layout, left open at the back. Two structures are exceptional, as they are closed off with walls on all four sides. The absence of graves and the marble fragments, probably of monumental decoration, characterize the first one as a memorial monument. The second structure is a four-part complex, where for the first time in Apollonia a marble sarcophagus was discovered, with the chamber painted in red, along with two cist graves. There was no funerary structure in the fourth compartment. The specifics of the necropolis of Apollonia could be observed also in the diversity of burial structures and in the simultaneous occurrence of inhumations and cremations in the latter half of the 4th and the 3rd c. BC. The tombstones were placed along the line of the peribolos, or within the enclosed plots. The postburial rituals, in which the sacrifices and the vases that were used were burnt, were carried out over and between the graves, or outside the walls that delimit the family plots. The large fireplaces, investigated in front of (i.e. outside) the peribolos, could be related to collective commemorative rites, organized by the clan or the community, probably in the days of communal commemorations of all dead.

24. Kristina Panajotova

25. Zlatko Kovancaliev

(Stobi, Macedonia) Burial Customs in the Roman Period at Stobi


Stobis unique position at the intersection of the road through the valley of the River Vardar and the road which connected Via Egnatia and Via Militaris allowed the city to be open to a wide range of influences regarding material and spiritual culture, and this rich diversity can easily be seen in the burial processes practiced therein. Burial practices in Stobi from the I-IV Century AD represent a symbiosis of autochthonous beliefs, oriental influences, and new elements introduced by the Romans

26. Zvonko Nikolovski / Zvonko Nikolovski


(Kumanovo, Makedonija/ Kumanovo, Macedonia) Tipologija na pogrebnite formi vo severoisto~na Makedonija , 1 - 4 , . , , , . , , , , constitutio Antoniniana 211 . ; , , . , . , . , , , , 5 6 . , , , , . , , , . - , 500 7 ... 6 .. . Typology of funeral forms the northeastern part of Macedonia
The main objective of the discourse is through a paradigmatical approach to elaborate the typology of the funus and the typology of the funeral forms in the Roman necropolis from I-IV century in the Northeastern region of the Republic of Macedonia. According to the results from the past archaeological explorations, the elaboration will enclose three of the more explored funeral wholes in the area of Kumanovo and several examples, that were partially explored and were a part of the areas of Kratovo and Kriva Palanka. The most complete review of the typology of tomb constructions is evident on the necropolis of the locality called Drezga in the area of the village of Lopate, near Kumanovo, through the Early

Christian forms of inhumation with incineration till the Late Antique forms with inhumated decedents, after the promulgation of Constitutio Antoniniana on Karakala in the year 211. We can find direct analogies of the typology of tomb constructions and the form of inhumation with the necropolis on the locality called Skupi, which is directly connected with a road communication, that can with small aberrations be found in the so called Old road/Star pat to Skopje. A rich active material will be also presented in the elaboration for the necropolis , which was applied as a supplement with the sepulchral ritual. The explored part of the necropolis of the locality called Kostoperska Karpa in the area of the village of Mlado Nagorichane will be presented as a second funeral whole, which supplements the image about the types of tomb constructions in the Late Antique period and through a part of the findings, the ethnical belonging of the decedent. In its nearness, eastern of the region called Crkvishte and Ramnishte in the area of the village of Klechovce, with several archaeological campaigns, an existence of a settlement and a necropolis was confirmed, which according to all of the elements chronologically refers to V and VI century. Typologically, those are, in more of the exmples, simple tomb constructions which will be thoroughly presented in the discourse, together with the active material. In the area of Kratovo, according to the partially explored necropolis of the locality called Kshla and the necropolis in the village of Talashmance, we are meeting with the same or similar typology of tomb constructions, with recidives of tumular inhumation from the eastern areas. In the area of Kriva Palanka, with protected explorations of the locality called Chiflik-Babunci 500 tombs were discovered, dating from VII B.C. till VI B.C. In short, that is the plan of the discourse about the typology of tomb constructions and the form of inhumation in the Northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia.

27. Nikolina Uroda

(Split, Croatia) Burials in Monastic Churches in Central Dalmatia

Exploration of the monastic objects is an unfinished chapter of the archaeological praxis in Central Dalmatia. Although many church buildings have been explored, the publications that followed the archaeological excavations did not pay too much attention to the interpretation of the graves that were found in the churches or around them. It is difficult to distinguish monastic churches and non monastic ones, especially if they belong to the Early Christian or Early Medieval period, since we do not have valid sources to prove that, and the archaeological publications do not offer enough data. One of the questions that arises from this problematic issue is weather the continuity of the sacral building implies the continuity of the type of sacral building. We shall try to find the monastic pattern by analyzing the graves, their posture and content in several explored monastic churches in Central Dalmatia, and compare them with the other contemporaneous monastic buildings on the other territories

28. Slavica Taseva

(Strumica, Macedonia) Conservation and restauration works on the tomb features from the Jewish graves in Shtip
The Jewish graves in Shtip are situated at 2.5km from the city, on the left bank of the Bregalnica river, on the road to Radovish. They are placedon a hill right above the Orthodox graves. They were built in the 19 century, and although it is not known exactly when, it is certain that burials were conducted there until 1943. These Jewish graves are the only sacred space of this type in Shtip and they deserve the due attention, regarding the historical circumstances and the social and religious aspects of the development of the city. The preserved parts of the tomb features and their further preservation by methods of conservation and restoration, have today the significance of presenting the historical development of the city heritage

29. Dijana Gergova

(Sofia, Bulgaria) Southwest Thrace between north and south. Burial practices in the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age

Archaeological surveys and excavation in Southwestern Thrace ( mainly the Western and Central Rhodopi) reveal the deep changes in the cultural development of the area that begin in the end of the Late Bronze Age. Similar to the processes in the other parts of Thrace, the formation of a new settlement system is accompanied by the appearance of sanctuaries , the appearance of the tumuli and the formation of the sanctuary-necropolis complexes There is no doubt that the changes in the organization of the religious life and the burial practices should be connected with the Orphic religious reform. The excavations of the necropolises in the Western and the Central Rhodopi (Kochan, Liubcha, Gela,etc.) reveal the extreme complexity of the burial rites, the synchronous practicing of burials by inhumation and cremation, burials in sitting position as well as reburial of the bones. Archaeological material allows the social interpretation of these burials. At the same time the rich bronze ornaments, amber and weapons suggest the penetration of Northern Thracian tribes in the Western Rhodopi as well as the preservation of earlier , Northern Bronze Age traditions of the female costume in this territory , similar to the territory of the Strymon and Vardar valleys. The appearance of the local SW Thracian types of fibulae and other ornaments in the Greek sanctuaries are evidence for the transhumans processes in the Southern part of the Balkans, as well l as for the similarity in the religious beliefs and rituals between Thracians and Greeks in the Late Bronze - Early Iron Age.

30. Emil Slamkov / Emil Slamkov


(Gevgelija, Makedonija / Gevgelia, Macedonia)
Pogrebuvawa od rimsko vreme vo Dolno Povardarie Vo trudot }e bidat prezentirani vkupno 47 pogrebuvawa od slednive lokaliteti: Seli{te - s. Gabrovo (4), Ba{ot/Gorna Korija - s. Negorci (17), Vardarski Rid Gevgelija (11) i Manastir/Karaula - Nov Dojran (11). Kako grobni tipovi zastapeni se pove}e vidovi na grobni konstrukcii so upotreba na dvata pogrebni rituali, inhumacija i inceneracija na pokojnicite. Vo hronolo{ki ramki predmetnite pogrebuvawa mo`at da se smestat od 2-4 vek.

Burials from the Roman Times in the Lower Vardar Valley


The article presents a total number of forty-seven burials from the following sites: Selishte v. Gabrovo (4), Bashot / Gorna Korija v. Negorci (17), Vardarski Rid Gevgelija (11) and Manastir / Karaula Nov Dojran (11). Several kinds of grave structures have been observed as burial types implementing both funeral practices inhumation and incineration. As to the chronological framework the above-mentioned burials can be dated to the span of the 2nd4th centuries.

31. Gordana Janeva / Gordana Janeva


([tip, Makedonija Stip, Macedonia) Monetite od nekropolata na Crveno Pole Vo statijata e daden sumaren pregled na 136 primeroci na monetni naodi od nekropolata na Lok. Crveno Pole, Strumica, so vremenski raspon na kovni~ko emituvawe od I-III vek n.e. Hronolo{kata i tipolo{ka identifikacija poka`a najgolema pripadnost na regularnite rimski imperijalni izdanija (122 pr.), od koj dominiraat antoninijanite (117pr.), emitirani od vladetelite od vtora polovina na III vek n.e., vo ~ij sostav se izdanijata od prviot period na tetrarhijata. Ostanatite se emisii na rimskoto provincisko monetokovawe, Makedonski Kojnon, II i III vek n.e. Coins from the necropolis Crveno Pole
In this article is given a summary review of 136 samples of coins found in the necropolis at the site of Crveno Pole, Strumica, ranging in time, by the date of their production, from I up to III

century AD. The chronological and typological identification has proved that the majority of the coins belong to the regular Roman Imperial issues (122 items), out of which most numerous are the anthonians (117 items), issued by the sovereigns from the second half of III century, into which are also included the issues from the first period of the tetrarchy. The rest of the coins are issues of the Roman provincial coinage - Macedonian Coinage, II and III century AD.

(Belgrade, Serbia) The way of inhumation and burial rites of the cemeteries of the 9th -11th century in the territories of Serbia south of the Sava and Danube rivers
Over the last six decades, a total of twenty necropolises, dated approximately between the 9th and the 11th century, have been registered in the territory of todays Serbia south of the Sava and Danube rivers. These findings were not caused by any specific interest in the matter, but were mostly side-effects of protective excavations of localities endangered by various construction and agricultural works. This is the main reason why none of these necropolises have been thoroughly investigated. The number of graves that have been researched in individual localities varies from as few as ten up to 112 graves, the latter being the number of grave sites excavated in the locality of Breg in the village of Matiane in Kosovo. Necropolises almost uniformly occupied positions whose specific features allowed them to stand out in their surroundings, such as elevated ground, river banks or dry and sunny hill slopes. The burial was often conducted in areas that had previously been occupied by ancient settlements or necropolises of different prehistoric and antiquity periods. In cases of cemeteries for which there is available data, evidence indicates that the tombs were located in the close vicinity of their respective settlements. As for the settlements built within older antiquity fortifications, such as Kostolac, Gamzigrad and Belgrade, the entombment took place just outside the city walls. The only exception to this rule is the example of Mihailovac, where people were buried inside a smaller fortification of the late antiquity period. All the cemeteries could generally be classified as necropolises in rows. Although no evidence of tombstones has been found, the fact that the graves were very accurately positioned and that there was no overlapping of individual grave sites indicates that some kind of original headstones must have existed. The necropolises comprise simply dug graves, with no grave constructions. Simple grave constructions, made of stone or brick, served as partial or complete separation of the deceased. The analyzed cemeteries are of Christian origin and are characterized by the habitual Christian funeral ritual. Nevertheless, apart from the cemetery in Mavanska Mitrovica, no evidence of concurrent churches was found in any of the investigated necropolises. Few graves contain archaeologically verified traces of funeral customs featuring pre-Christian traditions. Such traditions can be archaeologically exemplified in graves containing traces of the funeral ceremonial offers or food contributions. A firm confirmation of such rituals is found in the graves of Ravni near Knjaevac, where ceramic pots and containers account for this highly important feature of the funeral rite. Archaeological material retrieved from all the graves can be separated into two large groups: artifacts that belonged and were placed in the tomb along the deceased, or funeral contributions which were laid in the grave in order to benefit the deceased on their way to or in the after world. Personal belongings that were placed alongside the deceased are generally divided into two groups: jewelry (ornaments) and pieces of functional garment. The largest group of these is represented by various head, body and arm ornaments. Findings that could be interpreted as an expression of the deceased personal piety are comparatively rare. Another group of findings comprises items of everyday use, mainly various tools and equipment. Taking into account burial rituals and related customs, the cemeteries here discussed concur with the general trends of the concurrent Slavic necropolises in the wider area of the Central Balkans.

32. Dejan Radicevic

33. Kiril Trajkovski / Kiril Trajkovski


(Skopje, Makedonija /Skopje, Macedonia)
Pogrebuvaweto vo i okolu crkvata na srednovekovniot Morovisdos Srednovekovnata nekropola Crkvishte e edna od nekolkute nekropoli na gradot Morovisdos kade zasega se otkrieni okolu 380 grobovi.Vremenskata ramka vo koja so

odredeni pauzi se pogrebuvalo od 12 do krajot na 19 vek.Pogrebniot ritual e hristijanski so ne retki paganski manifestacii vo samite pogrebni i postpogrebni momenti.Predmet na deskripcija i mozjna interpretacija se nevoobichaenite pogrebenija na edna ili poveke individui za koi predpolagame deka se monashki,ktitorski,sveshtenichki i vo eden sluchaj pogrebuvanje na moshti.Pravilnata interpretacija na takvite pogrebuvanja mozje da ja zbogati i precizira opshtata istoriska,kulturna i religiozna slika na crkovniot kompleks i na gradot Morovisdos niz srednovekovieto.

Burials in and around churches in the medieval Morovisdos


The medieval necropolis of Crkvishte is one of the several necropolises of the city of Morovisdos where so far about 380 graves have been discovered. The time frame within which the necropolis was active with certain breaks ranges from 12 until the end of the 19 century. The burial rite is Christian with some pagan features in the after-burial moments. Subject of description and interpretation are the unusual burials of one or more people that seem to be of monastic, donor's, or priestly origin while in one case there is a burial of relics. The right interpretation of such burials may enrich and specify the general historical, cultural and religious image of the church complex and the city of Morovisdos through The Middle Ages.

34.Penka Misheva

(Strumica, Macedonia) Funeral traditions in the area of Strumica


There have been done Comparative explorations of the burial rites through literature and through site-exploration in the village of Monospitovo, area of Strumica, so that a conclusion has been reached that the burial rites, the beliefs in fortune, the omens for death and afterlife are present in Macedonian people as well as in other South Slavic people. In this article we are going to include: beliefs about who determines death; omens for death; rites before death; customs after death; burial and after-burial rites. The beliefs and the rites are conducted to ensure a safe passover of the deceased person from the world of the alive to the the world of the dead, and to protect the dead person from a sequence of certain unwanted phenomena (becoming a vampire, wandering of the soul), to protect the alive from the influence of the dead person, who is considered unclean, to get accustomed to the new state, I.e. to continue living without the physical presence of the deceased person. A great number of these customs are losing their apotropaic function, this erosion being more present in the cities , but it Ialso appears in the villages through communication with the cities.