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Automotive Electrical and

Electromechanical System Design


Dr.-Ing. Uwe Knorr
Product Marketing Director
Ansoft Corporation
Pittsburgh, PA
Challenge #1:
Multi-Domain Design
Electrical Mechanical

Controls
Hydraulic

Magnetic
Thermal

Pneumatic Electro-
Chemical
Multi-Domain Design
Z Multiple Domains are interconnected and influence
each other
Z The electrical content of vehicles increases
Z More and more controls are involved
Z Electrical systems closely interact with other
domains
Z Electro-Chemical
Z Electro-Mechanical
Z Electro-Magnetic
Z Electro-Thermal
Challenge #2:
Multi-Level Design
Complexity

# of Components
INREG
+
vbus I_main
VBUS>=VSET V D1

VBUS<VSET VM1
EQU
OUTREG
vbus := VM1.V
vset NL1
GAIN2
sp GAIN NL

XY1 I1
engine2generator XY

VSET GAIN3 GAIN1


CONST GAIN GAIN

VBUS GAIN4 ERR INTG1 SUM1 LIMIT1


CONST GAIN I LIMIT

dψ 1d (t )
v1d (t ) = i1d (t ) ⋅ R1 + − p ⋅ ω (t ) ⋅ψ 1q (t )
dt
dψ 1q (t )
v1q (t ) = i1q (t ) ⋅ R1 + + p ⋅ ω (t ) ⋅ψ 1d (t )
dt
Accuracy

Details
Multi-Level Design
Z Different analyses require different model accuracy
levels
Z Different analyses require different algorithms
Z Different accuracy levels require different modeling
languages
Z Model exchange from one level to the next higher
level requires model extraction
Z Design information must be exchanged between
different design groups
Challenge #3:
Multi-Organizational Design
OEM
System

Tier I
Subsystem

Tier II
Component
Multi-Organizational Design
Analysis Model

OEM Statistical, Worst Case, System Models with


Drive Cycle, FMEA, Long lookup tables minimum
Transients parameters
TIER I Controls, Circuit Design, Circuits, Block Diagrams,
Statistical, Optimization, State Machines, C-Code,
AC, Short Transients Lookup Tables
TIER II Fundamental Physics, Geometry, Material,
DC, AC, TR, FEA, Stress Structure
Design Challenges Today
Thermal Tier 2
Supplier
System

Electrical Circuit
Hydraulics

System
Integrator
Control
Mechanical

Component
Tier 1 Supplier
Supplier
Component Magnetic
Need for Integration
System

Component Circuit
Multi-Level

System
Electrical Integration Integrator

Tier 1 Component
Mechanical Control Supplier Supplier
Multi-Domain Multi-Organization
EM Design Environment
Maxwell2D/3D SIMPLORER Simulation Data Bus Simulink
Electromagnetism
Electro mechanics Simulator Coupling Technology

C/C++
MathCad
Interface

Circuit Block Diagram State Machine VHDL-AMS


Simulator Simulator Simulator Simulator

Model Database
Electrical, Blocks, States, Machines, Automotive, Hydraulic,
Mechanics, Power, Semiconductors…
Integrated Design Environment

ƒ WIN/2000
ƒ WIN/XP
ƒ WIN/NT

ƒ Pentium
ƒ >256MB
Compatibility
Z MS-Office compatible
Z Read and write Excel, Access
Z Copy & Paste to and from Word, PowerPoint,
Excel…
Z Windows Printing Support
Z Data Format compatible
Z ASCII
Z Access (*.mdb)
Z Excel (*.xls)
Z CSV (*.csv)
Z Comtrade (*.cfg)
Z SPICE (*.out)
Z TEK – Oscilloscope data (*.dat)
Post Processing
ƒ IEEE 488.2 Data
Interface (GPIB)
ƒ Graphical and
numerical data
analysis and
representation
ƒ Power Module
ƒ Channel Calculator
ƒ FFT
ƒ Presentation Mode
ƒ Matlab® and
Mathcad®
Integration
Component Characterization
A
M_LUT1
Data Transfer
• Characteristics Yt
B
M
3~
C
• Stimuli
IM1
• Loads

NL_Charact
Data Acquisition NL

2D, 3D, multi


dimensional V3DLUT
lookup table Z Y

V_LUT
L1 #
Yt
E1
C1 #
Data Processing
State Machines

Event driven
modification of Behavioral Modeling
topologies &
parameters

Online measurement
of characteristic
values

Smart models, state


dependent step size
modification
Relay Model
tdmk := 12m VDROP := 2 RSup := 680
VPULL := 7 RCoil := 3 ROn := 5m
LCoil := 250m CCoil := 40n tdbrk := 8m
Relay Macro
S1
drvp no
Relay

drvm com
Relay.Iin
14.00 Relay.Iout

E1 R1
E2 10.00
8.00
6.00

Symbol Editor 4.00


S3 2.00

-2.00
0 0.20 0.40 0.60 t
E6

E5 R1pNoRs1
R3
Final Relay Model
Relay Model
AM1
+
drvp A

no
LCoil CCoil

Rsup ROn + VM1


V
S1
RCoil

drvm
com
ON_DIS
lon
• Fast!
EQU

DELAY_OFF_ON IPULL := VPULL/RCoil.R • Easy model


DEL: lon##tdmk LCoil.I <= IDROP IDROP := VDROP/RCoil.R
generation
DELAY_ON_OFF
LCoil.I >= IPULL
DEL: loff##tdbrk
• Good numerical
behavior
loff
OFF_DIS
Block Diagrams
Analog and Digital Controller Modeling
N"GSMP_1" PI
P_GAIN LIMITER CONTR_OUT
EXT NL
P LIMIT

-16.66m KP := 50 u_limit := 20 op1 := -2.5


NSET C/C++I_GAIN l_limit := 0
op2 := 2.5
CONST Code I
ymax1 := -1
16.666667 KI := 20 ymax2 := 1
EXT

Each block
can be
assigned an
individual
sampling time
or run with
system time
step
DC Motor Drive System

TR

D1 D2 +
D3 AM1
R_R A
L_R

ET1 10m 0.3m LOAD


R_S L_S CD tY
M D7
1m
ET2
Wiper System R_T L_T
DCM
RA := 1.2
LA := 9.5m
ET3 KE := 0.544
D4 D5 D6 J := 4m

DCM.N P_GAIN LIMITER CONTR_OUT


GAIN GAIN LIMIT

-16.66m KP := 50 UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5


LL := 0
N_REF CLOCK I_GAIN THRES2 := 2.5
I
CONST CONST
VAL1 := -1
KI := 20 VAL2 := 1
16.6667 .1m
Wiper System – Result
0 50.00m 100.00m
15.00

Motor Torque and Load Torque


10.00 10.00

0
0 0 100.00m T 50.00m 100.00m
20.00 N_REF
0 50.00m N

0 0

Motor Speed
-10.00 -10.00
0 50.00m 100.00m T
Automotive System Library
Automotive Library
Power Storages Fuses Spark Plugs PWM Models
Battery - Basic Model Fuse - Single Element Spark Plug PWM
Battery Fuse - Double Element Machines PWM Switch
Fuel Cell Fuse - Advanced Alternator - Transient Model PWM Load
Wires PPTC (Three RC combinations) Alternator - Average Model Flasher Switch
Wire - Thermal static PPTC (Two RC Combinations) Alternator - Current Source Connectors
Wire - Thermal dynamic Lamps Starter Inline Terminal Pair
Wire - Thermal dynamic II Lamp - Filament DC Machine Eyelet Terminal
Wire with Thermal Pin Lamp - Single Filament Mechanical Models Engine Models
Wire - Advanced Lamp - Double Filament Inertia Engine - Speed Source
Wire - Advanced II Lamp - Advanced Friction Engine - Dynamic Model
Gauge based Relays Fan
Wire - Thermal static Relay - Normally Open Ideal Gearbox
Wire - Thermal dynamic Relay - Normally Closed Gearbox with Losses
Wire - Thermal dynamic II Relay - One Pole, Two Throws
Wire with Thermal Pin Relay - Two Poles, Two Throws
Wire - Advanced Relay - Two Poles, Cross-Strap
Wire - Advanced II

Applications: Industries:
• Electrical Distribution • Automotive
System of Vehicles Manufacturer
• Power Management • EV/EHV
• Drive Cycle Analysis • Aerospace
• FMEA • Defense
• Statistical Analyses • Ship Building Industry
Automotive Library Yt

S2

Lamp Switch
Engine Block Ground To Head Lamp Switch
fuse1_5Amp
Yt
Turn Signal
S3 Yt

TS1_HIGH_LOW_Beams_Switch
rlyno1
itp19
Chassis
fuse2_15Amp Low High
Ground itp11
To Hazzard Flasher S1

D1 D2

tY

Tail
- + battery1 Lamps
Battery

QuickGraph1
t
14.00 N0161.V
10.00 60s
6.00
RH HeadLamp
2.00 High Low
-2.00
0 20.00 40.00 60.00 t
Low High
Turn Signal Voltages
LH HeadLamp

Inrush Currents Probe1

7.50

Exterior Lighting System


5.00

-2.50
0 25.00 50.00 60.00 t
Automotive Library
Z Benefits
Z Easy to use and intuitive graphical modeling
Z Easy parameterization using Wizard technology
Z Statistical analyses, optimization and parameter variations
Z Characterization tool for fuses
Z Multiple model levels for components
Z Web based example database with jump start projects
Z Animated symbols for easy visual inspection
Electro-Chemical Components

- +
Fuel - +
Cell Battery

Fuel Cell Lead Acid Battery


EV/EHV – Charging System L1

Boost 0.1m D1

0
Converter VM1
+
V
TR1
RL
Output Voltage
- - RLoad
+ +
Fuel Battery
Cell
LBATT_A2
FUELCELL_A2
0 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 12.50m 15.00m 20.00m t
ICA:

period := 20u
6.10 VM1.V
SET: cs:=1 6.00
ST_r1
Transistor
5.90
On
5.80 Input Voltage
Control modeled ST_r1.VAL>=0.99 and L1.I<I_command 5.70

using state
5.60

L1.I>=I_command 5.50

machines Off
5.40

5.30

5.20
SET: cs:=0 5.10
0 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 12.50m 15.00m 20.00m t

Load resistance 16.00

and reference t>3m


Off2
t>12m
14.00
L1.I

current 12.00

modification
10.00
SET: RL:=5 SET: RL:=10 SET: RL:=5
8.00

modeled using t>0.0025


6.00

state machines 4.00


Inductor Current
SET: I_command:=10 SET: I_command:=15 2.00

0
0 2.50m 5.00m 7.50m 10.00m 12.50m 15.00m 20.00m t
Multi-Domain Design

• Hydraulics
• VHDL-AMS
• Mechanics
• Electro Mechanical
• Magnetics
• …
Hydraulic Library
r1 1 0

50
pk_1
Hydraulic Library
MASS_TRB1
VOL_ACT1

LIMIT_TRB1

PIPE Sharp-Edge
Level1 15.00m LIMIT_TRB1.SUL
Generic
MASS_TRB1.S
PIPE1 OR_SE1
10.00m

P1

0
0 0.50 1.00 t
Power Library
Power Library
Power System and Cable Models Inverter Topologies Applications:
Single Phase Power Supply
Ideal Three Phase Power Supply
Two Level Inverter Equivalent Circuit
Three Phase Two Level Inverter
• AC/DC Converters
Three Phase Power Supply with Impedance
WIRE - Gamma Model
Single Phase Two Level Inverter
Three Phase Three Level Inverter
• Inverters (DC/AC)
Wire T-Model Single Phase Three Level Inverter • Drive Systems
Line-commutated Converters DC Link
B2 Diode Bridge Control Algorithms • Power Quality
B2 Fully Controlled Two Level Square Wave
B2 Half-Controlled, Symmetrical Two Level Natural Sampling • Alternative Power
B2 Half-Controlled, Asymmetrical Three Level Single Phase
B6 Diode Bridge Three Level Three Phase
B6 Thyristor Bridge
B6 Bridges - Inverse Parallel Connection
Three Level Single Phase NS
Three Level Three Phase NS
Industries:
B12 Diode Bridge Four Quadrant Current Control • Industrial Automation
B12 Thyristor Bridge Parallel Connection Four Quadrant Natural Sampling
B12 Thyristor Bridge Cascade Load Models • Drives Manufacturers
B24 Thyristor Bridge Three Phase RL Load
Single Phase A.C. Chopper Logic • EV/EHV
Three Phase A.C. Chopper Dead Time
• Power Conversion
• Power Quality
Power Library
2L3_GTOS

Us1

g_r1 g_s1 g_t1 Ua


Us1 +
V
Us2
M M
M1 C M2
Us3 Us2 J1 J2
ω ω1 ω2 ω
Us3

Direct inverter
g_r2 g_s2 g_t2
Uf
2L_NSAMP

driven squirrel
2-level natural sampling
cage induction
Machine Characteristic Torque
1.60k
1.40k
350.00
300.00 machine with
2-level natural
1.20k
200.00
1.00k
CONST
800.00
KONST1

sampling
100.00 CONST
600.00
ein_aus
400.00 Omega
0

control and
200.00
SPR1
0 -100.00
-200.00 -150.00
-173.34 0 200.00 359.12 0 1.00 1.50

200.00
Stator Current
asm_k_g22.Is_d
asm_k_g22.Is_q
1.40k
Rotor Current
asm_k_g22.Ir_d
asm_k_g22.Ir_q
mechanical
0

-200.00
1.20k

1.00k load
-400.00 800.00

-600.00 600.00

-800.00 400.00

-1.00k 200.00

-1.20k 0

-1.40k -200.00
0 1.00 1.50 t 0 1.00 1.50 t
Power Library
Z Benefits
Z Predefined macro models of frequently used power
electronic topologies
Z Includes common control algorithms
Z Auxiliary elements, such as power grid models and loads
Z System level models for rapid computation of overall
system behavior, power quality and control algorithms
Z Easy and intuitive graphical building blocks
Mechanical Elements Library
Mechanical Systems
Rotational Coordinate Transformation
Mass Rotational-Rotational
Rigidity Rotational-Translational
Torque Source Translational-Rotational
Angular Velocity Source Translational-Translational
Ground Electrical Machines
Translational DCMP DC-Machine Permanent Excitation
Mass ASMS Slip Ring Induction Machine
Rigidity SYMP Synchronous Machine Permanent Excitation
Force Source SYMP Synchronous Machine Permanent Excitation w Damper
Velocity Source
Ground

Applications: Industries:
• Drive Trains • Automotive Suppliers
• Electro-Hydraulic • Drive Manufacturers
Systems
• Industrial Automation
• Electro-Mechanical
Systems • Defense
• Load Variations • Aerospace
Mechanical Elements Library
ET1

Square_wave1.VAL
Motor-generator
M Stf1 M M Stf2
Mas1
J
combination driving a
DCMP STF DCMP DCMP STF
mass with limitations
Dcmp1 Dcmp2 Dcmp3
J := 2m J := 2m J := 2m J := 10m

250.00 Dcmp1.VA
Dcmp2.VA
100.00 Dcmp3.VA
0
-100.00

-250.00
0 0.50 1.00 t

200.00 Dcmp1.OMEGA
100.00 Dcmp2.OMEGA
Dcmp3.OMEGA
0 Mas1.OMEGA

-100.00
-200.00
0 0.50 1.00 t

1.25k Mas1.MACX

500.00
0
-500.00

-1.25k
0 0.50 1.00 t
Mechanical Elements Library
Z Benefits
Z Non-linear friction models incl. stick friction
Z Non-linear rigidity models incl. backlash
Z Fast computing 1D modeling approach based on
SIMPLORER C-Code interface
Z Electrical Machine model implementation with mechanical
pins provide connectivity between electrical and
mechanical world
Z Schematic based graphical modeling with mechanical
building blocks
Multi-Organizational Design

VHDL-AMS Simulink MathCad Sim-Interface

External Simulators

SIMPLORER Simulation Data Bus


Internal Simulators

Digital Block Diagram State Flow


Analog
Solver Simulator Simulator
Solver

AMS Circuit
Elements
VHDL-AMS
VHDL-AMS Schematic
Z Fully
supported by
SIMPLORER
Schematic

Z Embedded
Editor with
Syntax
coloring
allows to
create models
on sheet and
in the
ModelAgent
VHDL-AMS Code for a Resistor
ENTITY Resistor IS Resistor
PORT (
p m
QUANTITY r : REAL := 1.0e+03; -- Default = 1 K
TERMINAL p,m : ELECTRICAL); r := 1.0e3
END ENTITY Resistor;

ARCHITECTURE Rbehav1 OF Resistor IS


QUANTITY voltage ACROSS current THROUGH p TO m;
BEGIN
current == voltage/r;
END behav;

Rbehav1
Entity and Architecture
Z Entity Z Architecture
Z Interface description of a Z Behavior description of the
subsystem or physical model
device Z Can be dataflow,
Z Specifies input and output structural, procedural, etc
ports to the model Z Modeling can deal with
both analog (continuous)
and digital (discrete)
domains

Entity inout ports


input ports
Architecture 1
Architecture 2
output ports
Architecture 3
VHDL-AMS Basic Library
OPEN!
VHDL – Digital Systems
A.val

Two bit adder with Carry B.val

CLK C.val
A

CLK
XOR2
Sum
B SUM.y
XOR2
CLK
C
CARRY.y

Carry
AND2

0 2m 4m 6m 8m 10m 12m 14m 16m 18m 20m 22m 24m 26m 28m 30m 32m 34m 36m 38m 40m t

AND2 OR3

AND2
VHDL – Digital Systems
Complete Automotive System Analysis across Domains
• ASICs
• Micro Controller
• FPGAs …
ECU

PTCU

MCU
VHDL
VHDL-AMS Multi Domain Design
vm_rotb ω
+ crank_radius 1/pipe_area
CONST CONST

+ spring_rotb damp_rotb T
v_rotb ω fm_rotb torque force pressure

Spped
40 damp_rotb.omega
25
EQU
mass_rotb
0
pipe_area:= 0.05
Mechanic
-25 crank_radius:= 0.2
-40
0 50 0.1k t [s]

rho := MATH_PI
Fluidic k := 10 dia := 1
len := 1/4
L QuickGraph2
1Meg flow_meter.q

P rhyd1 lhyd1
flow_meter
0

chyd1
-1Meg
vol := 1 0 50 0.1k t [s]

b := 1
VHDL-AMS
Multi Organization Design

System Simulation
OEM Drive Cycles
Fuel Economy

VHDL - AMS
Subsystem Power Train
Providers - Electrical System
Suppliers Sensors …
VHDL - AMS
Component Solenoids, Motors,
Providers Battery, Sensors, Semiconductors,
Fuse …
DC Drive – VHDL-AMS Controller
0 0.1 0.2
TR 4.00e+001

AM1
A
R_R L_R

ET1 10m 0.3m TLoad 2.00e+001


R_S L_S
M D7 motor
ET2 R_T
3
current
L_T
Bridge1
DCM
RA := 1.2 0
ET3 LA := 9.5m 0 0.1 0.2 t [s]
KE := 0.544
J := 4m 0 0.1 0.2
1.00e+003

LIMITER CONTR_OUT DC Link


PIC LIMIT 5.00e+002 Voltage and
Current
N_REF UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5
LL := 0
CONST THRES2 := 2.5
1000 VAL1 := -1
GAIN VAL2 := 1 0
0 0.1 0.2 t [s]

0 0.1 0.2 0 0.1 0.2

VHDL-AMS
2.00e+001 DCM.MI [N·m] 1.50e+003
TLoad.VAL

1.00e+003

0
motor torque
and speed and
load torque reference speed
-1.00e+001 0
0 0.1 0.2 t [s] 0 0.1 0.2 t [s]
DC Drive – VHDL-AMS Controller
C/C++ Interface

µ-Controller Electrical
Code Components

ODE
External
Simulators Non-
Electrical
Elements
C/C++ Interface
®

System Simulation

The Multi Domain Simulator

Dynamic
Link Symbol
C/C++ make
Library Library
.dll

Symbol Editor
DC Drive – C-Code Controller
0 0.1 0.2
TR 3.00e+001 DCM.IA [A]

AM1
A
R_R L_R 2.00e+001

ET1 10m 0.3m TLoad


R_S L_S M D7 motor
3
ET2 current
Bridge1
DCM
R_T L_T RA := 1.2 0
0 0.1 0.2 t [s]
LA := 9.5m
ET3
KE := 0.544
J := 4m 0 0.1 0.2
1.00e+003 Bridge1.Vout [V]
Bridge1.Iout [A]

DC Link
CONTR_OUT Voltage and
PIC1 LIMITER
Current
PIC LIMIT 5.00e+002

N_REF IGain := 2 UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5


PGain := 3 LL := 0
CONST THRES2 := 2.5
1000 VAL1 := -1
GAIN
VAL2 := 1 0
0 0.1 0.2 t [s]

0 0.1 0.2 0 0.1 0.2


2.00e+001 DCM.MI [N·m] 1.50e+003 DCM.N [rpm]
TLoad.VAL N_REF.VAL

C-Code 1.00e+003

speed and
0
motor torque reference speed
and
load torque
-1.00e+001 0

0 0.1 0.2 t [s] 0 0.1 0.2 t [s]


DC Drive – C-Code Controller
SIM2SIM
SIMPLORER to Simulink Interface

• Co-Simulation Interface
• Link blocks in both Simulink
packages
• Using SIMPLORER's
external simulator
integration interface and
SIMPLORER
S-function in Matlab
• Co-Simulation Interface
is an open API that can
be used for other
simulation packages
Drive System Control
TR
+
AM1
A
R_R L_R
Bridge1
ET1 10m 0.3m TLoad
R_S L_S M D7
3
ET2
DCM
R_T L_T RA := 1.2
LA := 9.5m
ET3 KE := 0.544
J := 4m

P_GAIN LIMITER CONTR_OUT


GAIN LIMIT

N_REF KP := 3 UL := 20 THRES1 := -2.5


LL := 0
CONST
CLOCK I_GAIN THRES2 := 2.5
I
1000 CONST
VAL1 := -1
KI := 2 VAL2 := 1
.1m
Drive System Control
TR
SIM2SIM1.CS

R_R L_R
Bridge1
ET1 10m 0.3m TLoad DCM
R_S L_S M D7
3
ET2
R_T L_T RA := 1.2
LA := 9.5m
ET3 KE := 0.544
SIM2SIM1
J := 4m
SiM2SiM
50

SIMPLORER Link Interface
Drive System Control
Complete Vehicle Simulation
SIMPLORER – Advisor Link
SIMPLORER – Advisor Link
SIMPLORER Single Voltage Electrical Automobile System Template
GAIN
Generator Battery
generator
generator1
50
SiM2SiM
generic
generator

generic +
SIMPLORER Link Interface
generator A
AM1 +Battery-

p p

BatteryPower
GeneratorPower m m
Regulator LoadPower

voltage ® m p
regulator curve

Loads
RadiatorFan +
Engine Misc BrakeLights TurnSignal ExternalLights FrontWipers
V p

Starter
VM1
m
Simulation properties:
Step width max 100m RearWipers RearDefrost FrontHVAC RearHVAC HeatedSeats Radio
Step width min 100u
Simulation end time 1369
Results
Generator Current Speed in RPM
4.00k Speed
100.00 AM1.I

2.50k

0 0

-50.00
0 500.00 793.91 t -2.00k
0 500.00 793.91 t

Load Power Bus Voltage


13.00 VM1.V
500.00 LoadPower

12.00
-1.00k
-1.50k
0 500.00 793.91 t 11.50
0 500.00 793.91 t
Complete Set of Analyses
OP: -7.9752e-006 V
DC Analysis
OP: -0.00405477 V
NINV +
C1
100p R
OUT
INV -
15916 10k
NSC_LM_7411 OP: -3.98873 V
R1
OP: -0.00100994 V R9 R2 R4
OP: 1 V
OP: 0.999992 V 30k 10k 10k
NINV +
OP: 3.99573 V OUT
NINV + -
Rp INV
E1
15916 C2
OUT
+
INV -
R3 NSC_LM_7413
1n V VM
NSC_LM_7412 10k
R1p 30k OP: 0.000980576 V
10k
OP: 0.998936 V Rfp
R1
Complete Set of Analyses
L1

500m 3.18m
OP: 0.969697 V
OP: 0.969697 V
OP: 1 V R2 16

E1 1 OP: 0 V
C1 132.6u AC Analysis
L2 31.83m

Bode
Gain C1.V
[dB] 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1k
20.00 20.00

0.00 0.00

-20.00 -20.00

-28.01 -28.01
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1k f [Hz]

Phase
[rad] 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1k

3.14 3.14

2.36 2.36

1.57 1.57

0.79 0.79

0.00 0.00

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1k f [Hz]
Experiments
Z 1D, 2D & 3D Parameter Sweep
Z Monte Carlo
Z Sensitivity
Z Worst Case
Z Optimization
Z Simplex Algorithm
Z Successive Approximation
Z Genetic Algorithms
Disconnected Technologies

System
Block Diagrams/State Machines
OEM

Sub-System
VHDL-AMS
Circuits
Circuit Supplier

FEA
Component

Logic Magnetic Thermal


Electrical Mechanical Hydraulic
Integrated Technologies

ne /
hi ms
s
ac ra

Matlab/
M iag

Ci
rc
at D

Simulink

ui
St ock

ts
e
Bl

MathCAD
Simulator
Co-Simulation
Coupling
Advisor
VH
D

L-
E A

AM
F

S
Integrated Design Environment

Ac
rd
da

cu
an

rac
St

y
Co m
y

m
n c

u
e

n
i

ic
i c

a
ff

ti
E

on