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MC LC
MC LC..............................................................................................................................1 DANH MC HNH V.........................................................................................................2 DANH MC BNG BIU....................................................................................................2 DANH MC T VIT TT.................................................................................................3 LI NI U.......................................................................................................................5 CHNG I: TNG QUAN V GMPLS.............................................................................6 1. 1 Gii thiu GMPLS......................................................................................................6 1.2 Cc giao thc nh tuyn trong GMPLS.....................................................................9 1.2.2 Giao thc bo hiu RSVPTE, CRLDP..............................................................9 1.2.3 Giao thc qun l ng LMP ...........................................................................10 CHNG II MT S VN CA MNG GMPLS....................................................11 2.1 Tnh chuyn hng a dng.......................................................................................12 2.2 Tnh chuyn tip a dng...........................................................................................12 2.3 Cu hnh.....................................................................................................................13 2.3.1 Nhn xut........................................................................................................13 2.3.2 LSP hai hng.....................................................................................................14 2.3.3 Tnh m rng.......................................................................................................14 2.3.4 Cu hnh LSP......................................................................................................15 2.3.5 C ch b ng.................................................................................................16 2.4 tin cy...................................................................................................................17 2.5 Mt s vn tn ti trong mng GMPLS................................................................18 2.5.1 Bo mt................................................................................................................19 2.5.2 H thng qun l mng.......................................................................................20 CHNG III NH TUYN TRONG MNG GMPLS....................................................21 3.1 nh tuyn ng ngn nht......................................................................................21 3.2 K thut nh tuyn li nhanh....................................................................................25 3.3 D phng trong GMPLS............................................................................................26 3. 4 nh tuyn khi phc m bo cht lng...............................................................28 3.4.1 Nguyn l v hot ng u tin.........................................................................28 3.4.2 Thut ton nh tuyn trc tuyn m bo cht lng trong MPLS..................29 3.4.3 Thut ton nh tuyn khi phc ng................................................................30 3.5 K thut lu lng trong trong GMPLS....................................................................30 Gii thiu......................................................................................................................30 3.5.2 Vai tr ca MPLS................................................................................................31 3.5.3 nh tuyn trn c s rng buc: thnh phn chnh cho xy dng lu lng....32

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DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1: Cu trc ngn giao thc GMPLS.........................................................................10 Hnh 2.1: C ch chuyn tip k cn...................................................................................15 Hnh 2.2: Cu hnh mng....................................................................................................16 Hnh 2.3: Qu trnh thc hin qun l h hng trong mng GMPLS.................................17 Hnh 2.4: C ch phc hi h tr bi mng GMPLS..........................................................18 Hnh 3.1: Cc thit b cho DBR framework c s..............................................................24 Hnh 3.2: Nguyn l nh tuyn trn c s rng buc.........................................................32

DANH MC BNG BIU


Bng 1.1: Chc nng thc hin trong GMPLS......................................................................8 Chc nng thc hin ca cc giao thc GMPLS cho php qun l v iu khin cc h hng trn mng mt cch t ng. Khi xy ra h hng ti mt phn mng no thi n s c pht hin, nh v v cch ly vi cc phn mnh mng khc. y l mt im quan trng khi thc hin cc LSP t u cui ti u cui bng phng thc ng hm qua cc LSP c cu hnh cao hn. Cc bc thc hin cn thit qun l mt h hng (xc nh, nh v, cch ly v phc hi c th hin trong)................................................................17

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Chuyn Thng Tin Quang

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DANH MC T VIT TT
ABR ATM ASBR BGP BDR CIDR CBR DWDM FTP GMPLS ICMP IETF IGMP IP IS-IS FSC LSP LAN LMP MPLS MOSPF
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Area Boundary Router Asynchronous Transfer mode AS Boundary Router Border Gateway Protocol Backup Designated Router Classless Internet domain Routing Constraint Based Routing Dense Wave Division Multiplexing File Transfer Protocol Generalized Multiprotocol Labed Switching Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Group Management Protocol Internet Protocol

B nh tuyn vng bin Kiu truyn ti ng b B nh tuyn bin AS Giao thc gateway bin B nh tuyn c c d phng nh tuyn tn min khng phn lp nh tuyn da trn c s rng buc Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng cht Giao thc truyn file Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut Giao thc bn tin iu khin lin mng Nhm c trch k thut Internet Giao thc qun l nhm lin mng Giao thc Internet

Intermediate System to Intermediate H thng trung gian n h System thng trung gian Frame Check Sequence Trng kim tra khung Lable Switched Path Local Vng Network Link Management Protocol Multi Protocol Label Switching Multicast OSPF ng chuyn mch nhn Mng ni vng Giao thc qun l knh Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc a phng OSPF
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OSPF OSI OXC RIP LSR QoS RARP RSVP SPF TE TCP WDM SDH

Open Shortest Path First Open System Interconnection Optical Cross-connector Routing Information Protocol Lable Switching Router Quality of Service Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Resource Reservation Setup Protocol Shortest Path First Traffic Engineering Transmission Control Protocol Wave Division Multiplexing Synchronous Digital Hierrachy

Giao thc u tin ng i ngn nht Kt ni cc h thng m B u ni cho quang Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn Cht lng dch v Giao thc phn gii a ch ngc Giao thc thit lp v lu tr ti nguyn mng Giao thc u tin ng u tin ngn nht K thut lu lng Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng. H thng phn cp ng b

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Chuyn Thng Tin Quang

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LI NI U
Hin nay p ng c nhu cu bng thng cho cc ng dng dch v th mng truyn ti ch yu s l cc h thng truyn dn trn si quang. S a dng v phc tp trong qun l cc phn t mng ti cc phn lp mng khc nhau l nhn t c bn thuc y vic nghin cu giao thc GMPLS thng nht qun l gia cc thc th mng khng ch phng thc chuyn mch gi m trong lnh vc chuyn mch thi gian, khng gian qun l ng thi m rng chc nng h tr giao thc IP iu khin thit lp hoc gii phng cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP cho mng hn hp bao gm c chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch knh, mng quang. Trong cc mng vin thng, vic truyn ti c n nh v hiu qu th nh tuyn l mt trong nhng vn mu cht. T nhng l do trn, trong chuyn Thng Tin Quang chng em chn ch nh Tuyn Trong Mng GMPLS. Chuyn gm cc ni dung chnh nh sau: Chng I : Tng qut v GMPLS Chng II: Mt s vn ca mng GMPLS Chng III: nh tuyn trong mng GMPLS Sau khi hon thnh chuyn ny, chng em s c nhng hiu bit nht nh v mng chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut. T lm tin tm hiu cc cng ngh mi. Thay mt nhm em xin chn thnh cm n thy Hong Vn V tn tnh hng dn chng em la chn v hon thnh ti ny. H Ni ngy 20 thng 9 nm 2011 Sinh vin Bi Tun Anh Trn Tun Dng Nguyn Th Hoa Th Minh Tm

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CHNG I: TNG QUAN V GMPLS


1. 1 Gii thiu GMPLS
Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Labed Switching) l bc pht trin theo ca cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS (Multiprotocol Labed Switching). GMPLS thc cht l s m rng chc nng iu khin ca mng MPLS, n cho php kin to mt phng iu khin qun l thng nht khng ch lp mng m cn thc hin i vi cc lp ng dng, truyn dn v lp vt l. Vic to nn mt mt phng iu khin thng nht i vi cc lp mng ha hn kh nng to ra mt mng n gin v iu hnh v qun l, cho php cung cp cc kt ni t u cui ti u cui, qun l ti nguyn mng mt cch hon ton t ng v cung cp cc mc cht lng dch v (QoS) khc nhau cc ng dng trn mng. Xu hng pht trin mnh m vic xy dng cc h thng truyn ti quang trong c s h tng mng vin thng quc t ni chung, ca quc gia v cc nh cung cp dch v mng ni ring phn no p ng nhu cu rt ln v bng thng truyn ti cho cc ng dng mi trn mng, chng hn nh ng dng mng lu tr, thu bng thng, cp nht d liu trc truyn trong c s h tng mng truyn ti a dch v. Hin nay ngi ta cho rng p ng c nhu cu bng thng cho cc ng dng dch v th mng truyn ti ch yu s l cc h thng truyn dn trn si quang vi cc thit b ghp tch lung ADM, thit b ghp bc sng quang WDM, thit b u cho lung quang OXC... S a dng v phc tp trong qun l cc phn t mng ti cc phn lp mng khc nhau l nhn t c bn thuc y vic nghin cu ci tin b giao thc MPLS thnh GMPLS khng ngoi mc ch thng nht qun l gia cc thc th mng khng ch phng thc chuyn mch gi m MPLS thc hin m cn c trong lnh vc chuyn mch thi gian, khng gian qun l. GMPLS cn m rng chc nng h tr giao thc IP iu khin thit lp hoc gii phng cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP cho mng hn hp bao gm c chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch knh, mng quang.

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Chuyn Thng Tin Quang

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Mt trong nhng yu t kinh t ni bt ca GMPLS l n c chc nng t ng qun l ti nguyn mng v cung ng kt ni truyn ti lu lng khch hng t u cui ti u cui. Vic cung ng kt ni cho khch hng theo kiu truyn thng nh i vi mng truyn ti Ring SDH c c im l mang tnh nhn cng, thi gian p ng di v chi ph kt ni cao. thit lp c kt ni t u cui n u cui theo phng thc nhn cng ni trn ngi ta cn phi xc nh cc vng ring SDH no trong mng m ng kt ni i qua, dung lng cn li ca vng ring cn kh nng phc v khng, nu nh cha thi cn phi tm ng vu hi qua vng ring no khc? Sau khi xc nh c ng kt ni ngi ta phi thng bo cho ton b cc nt mng thuc cc vng ring thc hin cc thit lp lung hoc u chuyn nhn cng trong cc vng ring, cng vic ny i hi rt nhiu nhn cng v tn rt nhiu thi gian trao i thng tin nghip v. Cng ngh GMPLS cho php cc nt mng t ng cung cp cc kt ni theo yu cu do vy gi thnh chi ph cung cp kt ni cng nh gi thnh qun l bo dng gim i rt nhiu, thi gian cung ng kt ni cung cp dch v gim i rt nhiu so vi phng php truyn thng (tnh theo gi hoc pht so vi tun hoc thng ca phng thc nhn cng truyn thng). S pht trin MPLS hng ti GMPLS. Trong nhng nm tr li y, t chc IETF tp trung hng pht trin cc giao thc MPLS h tr cc phn t mng chuyn mch hot ng bi cc phng thc khc nhau nh theo thi gian, theo bc sng (DWDM), khng gian (OXC) thnh cc chun ca giao thc GMPLS. N cho php mng GMPLS xc nh v cung ng kt ni trn mng mt cch ti u theo yu cu lu lng ca ngi s dng v c kh nng truyn ti thng sut trn mng IP v sau l truyn xung cc tin ch truyn dn quang lp di nh l SDH, bc sng trong h thng DWDM trn mt si quang c th no . Bng di y cho ta mt ci nhn tng quan nht v cc chc nng thc hin trong GMPLS.

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Min chuyn mch Gi, t bo

Kiu lu lng IP, ATM

Thit b mng chuyn tip Nhn hay phn B nh tuyn tiu , kt ni IP, knh o (VCC)

Lc

Thut ng Kh nng mch

chuyn chuyn

mch ATM gi (PSC) H thng u Kh nng ghp ADM Kh nng mch DWDM chuyn

Thi gian Chiu di bc sng

TDM/SONE T Trong sut Trong sut

Khe thi gian cho s (DCS), knh TDM lp theo chu k Lambda

Khng vt l

gian

Si quang, cp OXC ng

Lambda LSC Kh nng chuyn mch quang FSC

Bng 1.1: Chc nng thc hin trong GMPLS

Mt trong nhng im hp dn nht ca GMPLS l s thng nht v giao thc iu khin thc hin thit lp, duy tr v qun l k thut lu lng theo ng xc nh t im u n im cui mt cch c hiu qu. Dng lu lng ca ngi s dng bt u t im ngun c th c truyn ti qua nhiu phm vi mng. V d, lu lng theo nhiu loi hnh truy nhp khc nhau ca nhiu ngi s dng c tp trung tch hp ti mt nt mng truy nhp hoc nt mng bin v sau c truyn ti vo nt mng th theo cng ngh SDH hoc cng ngh ATM...Cc lung lu lng t mng th ny ny li c tp trung tch hp mt ln na a ti mng ng trc bng bc sng mang lu lng, trn hng truyn ngc li cng thc hin vi phng thc tng t. Nh vy vic thc hin truyn ti lu lng nh ni trn qua rt nhiu cc tin ch truyn ti khc nhau, s dng cc cng ngh khc nhau, do vy nu nh thng nht c v mt iu khin, qun l, x l lu lng th s l mt u im tuyt i trong vic truyn ti lu lng v qun l s dng ti nguyn hiu qu, cung ng dch v
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mng nhanh chng. ng thi, l nhng mc tiu thc hin m GMPLS hng ti.

1.2 Cc giao thc nh tuyn trong GMPLS


S th hin chuyn i t MPLS sang GMPLS l cc giao thc m rng cho chc nng bo hiu (RSVPTE, CR LDP) v chc nng nh tuyn (OSPFTE, ISISTE). Nhng giao thc m rng ny l s b sung thm cc chc nng cho cc phn t mng TDM/SDH v mng truyn ti quang ni chung. Mt giao thc mi l giao thc qun l ng LMP (Lin kt-Management Protocol) c xy dng thc hin qun l v duy tr tnh trng iu khin cng nh trnh trng truyn ti lu lng gia hai nt k cn trong mng GMPLS. LMP l mt giao thc thc hin trn IP, n bao gm cc chc nng thc hin RSVP-TE v CR-LDP.

1.2.1 Giao thc nh tuyn OSPF-TE v IS-IS-TE


L cc giao thc t ng xc nh cu hnh t-p mng, thng bo ti nguyn kh dng (v d nh bng thng hoc loi hnh bo v...). Cc im ch yu ca cc giao thc ny l: thng bo v loi hnh bo v ng (1+1, 1:1, khng bo v hoc lu lng ph), thc hin tm ng (gia cc nt mng k cn) nng cao kh nng xc nh tuyn thng) m khng cn phi thc hin cc giao thc nh tuyn trn c s a ch IP. 1.2.2 Giao thc bo hiu RSVPTE, CRLDP Cc giao thc bo hiu thc hin k thut lu lng gia cc LSP. Nhng chc nng ni bt ca cc giao thc bo hiu ny l: chuyn giao lu lng bao gm c loi hnh lu lung khng phi dng gi, thc hin bo hiu hai chiu gia cc LSP xc nh tuyn d phng cho trng hp bo v, thc hin gn nhn cho phng thc chuyn mch nhn bc sng ngha l cc bc sng cn k nhau c chuyn mch theo cng mt hng.

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1.2.3 Giao thc qun l ng LMP Thc hin 2 chc nng chnh. Qun l knh iu khin: m bo vic thc hin theo c ch m phn thng qua cc tham s ng thng (chng hn nh s dng phng thc gi c chu k cc bn tin truy vn thi gian sng ca gi tin) m bo tnh trng ca ng thng lun c theo di. Kim tra cc kt ni trn mng: nhm duy tr hot ng ca cc kt ni gia cc nt mng k cn nhau thng qua cc gi tin kim tra.

Hnh 1.1: Cu trc ngn giao thc GMPLS Trong GMPLS, cu trc ngn giao thc cho chc nng nh tuyn ISISTE cng tng t nh i vi chc nng nh tuyn OSPFTE, ch c mt im khc l thay lp nh tuyn IP bng chc lp nh tuyn phi kt ni CLNP (Connectionless Network Protocol) s dng truyn ti thng tin theo giao thc ISIS-TE.

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CHNG II MT S VN CA MNG GMPLS


Trong mng GMPLS c mt s vn cn quan tm. Vic chuyn tip d liu khng n thun hn ch chuyn tip d liu dng gi m cn cn phi tm kim cc gii php n gin nht cho vic s dng mt khun dng nhn duy nht chuyn tip d liu qua cc loi thit b vi cng ngh khc nhau theo phng thc chuyn tip theo thi gian, bc sng hoc khng gian. Khng phi loi mng no cng thit k cc phn t chuyn tip d liu cho php truy vn ni dung thng tin, nhn hoc mo u ca d liu thu c. Mng chuyn mch gi cho php cc phn t chuyn tip ca mng kim tra mo u gi hoc nhn t a ra cc quyt nh d liu s c chuyn tip ti giao din u ra c th. Trong khi iu ny s khng thc hin i vi lung d liu u vo l cc d liu dng TDM (c th l cc lung ghp knh PCM, hoc l bc sng). Tnh cn i v ph hp l mt vn quan trng khi thit k nhng mng c ln. Thng thng ti nguyn cn phi qun l trong mng TDM v mng quang ni chung l nhiu hn rt nhiu so vi mng chuyn mch gi. V d, s lng bc sng cn phi qun l trong mt mng quang c th ln ti hng ngn v s lng si c th ln ti hng trm. Cu trc ca ca cc b chuyn mch quang hoc in cng l phn t gy ra s tiu tn thi gian x l d liu. V d mt thit b DSC c kh nng chuyn mch t hng chc ti hng ngn cng cho ng tn hiu s (DS-x), vic xc nh cng vo cng ra cho mt kt ni cng tiu tn kh nhiu thi gian, iu ng ngha vi vic gia tng ca phn t chuyn tip, ngha l tng tr truyn ti d liu. Mng SDH c kh nng rt tt trong vic thc hin c ch bo v ng truyn ti d liu (50ms). H thng qun l iu khin mng thc hin trong GMPLS cng cn phi thc hin chc nng bo v ng truyn ti tng t nh SDH, c th theo phng thc ci t trc, c ch ng, c ch u tin theo lp dch v.
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2.1 Tnh chuyn hng a dng


GMPLS c pht trin m rng c kh nng h tr cc phn t mng truyn ti thng tin t u cui ti u cui thng qua nhiu mng vi cc cng ngh khc nhau vi tc x l truyn ti nhanh. thc hin c iu ny trong cng ngh GMPLS, ngi ta chn thm thng tin trong cc nhn MPLS. nh dng mi ny ca nhn c gi l "nhn tng qut" (Generalized Label) cho php cc thit b thu nhn d liu cc dng ngun khc nhau (nh l gi tin trong mng chuyn mch gi, cc khung ghp knh d liu trong mng TDM, bc sng mang d liu trong mng truyn ti quang...). Mt nhn tng qut c th i din cho mt bc sng, si quang n l hoc mt time-slot, ngoi ra n cn i din cho d liu ca cc ngun lu lng khc thc hin vi nhn MPLS nh l VCC trong ATM, phn gn thm (shim) trong gi tin IP... Cc thng tin sau y gn lin vi nhn tng qut: - Dng ca m LSP ch th loi nhn mang lu lng ( v d: gi tin, bc sng, SDH...) - Loi hnh chuyn mch, ch th cho nt mng khi no s thc thi cc loi hnh chuyn mch khc nhau: chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch bc sng, chuyn mch si quang. Tng t nh MPLS, s phn b nhn c khi u t vic yu cu phn b nhn t ng ln i vi ng xung ca LSR. GMPLS thc hin bng cch cho php ng ln ca LSR xut trc gi tr ca nhn cho mt LSP v gi tr nhn ny c th c thay th bng gi tr nhn gi tr li t ng xung ca LSR.

2.2 Tnh chuyn tip a dng


GMPLS thc hin m rng tnh nng ny cc thit b GMPLS c th nhn bit mi loi mo u m chng thu c. Trng hp ny GMPLS cho php mt phng iu khin v truyn ti c th tch ri nhau khng nhng v mt lgc m cn c th tch ri v vt l. V d, thng tin iu khin ng iu khin gia nt mng c th truyn theo knh kt ni Ethernet hoc qua cc tin ch truyn dn khc
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m n khng cn quan tm vic thng tin qun l gia hai nt mng c truyn ti bng cch no. Vic la chn tin ch truyn ti thng tin iu khin gia cc nt mng GMPLS l rt c ngha v mt kinh t. R rng l khng nn s dng si quang ring bit truyn thng tin iu khin gia cc ADM trong mt mng ring SDH no . Thay vo chng ta c th tip cn gii quyt vn theo mt cch khc, mt trong nhng cch l s dng nhng byte thng tin mo u cn trng trong khung SDH truyn cc thng tin v iu khin. Vi mo u trng trong khung STM-1 chng ta c th tn dng c mt dung lng knh truyn ti 768 kbit/sec trao i thng tin iu khin gia cc nt mng. Phng php ny c rt nhiu u im v c tnh kh thi cao.

2.3 Cu hnh
Khi mt LSP cn c to lp khi u t phm vi mng truy nhp,n yu cu thit lp mt vi LSP khc dc theo tuyn t nt u ti nt cui. Cc LSP trung gian c th c to lp trong qua cc thit b TDM hoc LSC. Cc thit b ny c th c nhng c im ring khc nhau do vy chc nng GMPLS cn phi thng nht c cc c tnh khc nhau to lp cc LSP t u cui ti u cui. 2.3.1 Nhn xut Mt ng ln ti nt mng c th la la chn mt nhn xut vi ng xung ca n. ng xung c quyn t chi cc tham s kin to LSP do nhn xut a ra v xut cc tham s ca mnh. Nhn xut trong trng hp ny cn c s dng tm ng bn trong t ca vo ti ca ra mt cch nhanh chng. Nhn xut cho php cc DCS t nh cu hnh ca mnh bng nhn ngh (Proposed Label) thay v ch nhn a li t hng ngc li trn ng xung. Nhn xut ng vai tr quan trng trong vic thit lp cc ng d phng LSP trong trng hp c s h hng tuyn.. Tuy nhin, nu trong trng hp thit b ng xung t chi nhn ngh v a ra ngh ring ca nt v tham s kin to LSP th thit b ng xung phi nh li cu hnh vi nhn mi.

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2.3.2 LSP hai hng Bo v mng chng li nhng h hng ca mng, chng hn nh t si cp quang trong mng quang s cung cp chc nng tm si quang thay th trong cc cu cu trc mng c th . Cng tng t nh vy, cc LSP c thit lp trong mng quang cng cn phi c bo v. Vn ny c gii quyt bng cch thc hin cc LSP hai chiu n hng, mi LSP mt hng s l s phng cho LSP hng kia. LSP hai hng s thc hin k thut lu lng v c ch phc hi ging nhau trn mi hng. GMPLS thc hin chc nng kin to cc LSP hai hng thng qua cc mt tp bn tin giao thc bo hiu (v d cc bn tin RSVP/PATH v RESV). 2.3.3 Tnh m rng Chc nng chuyn tip LSP cn k (Forwarding K cnLSP (FALSP) Chc nng FA-LSP ny c thc hin trn c s cc LSP ca mng GMPLS truyn ti cc LSP khc. Mt FA-LSP c thc hin gia hai nt mng GMPLS c xem nh l mt ng kt ni o c nhng c tnh k thut lu lng ring bit v c thng bo cho chc nng OSPF/IS-IS nh mt ng thng ging nh bt k mt ng thng vt l no. Mt FA-LSP c th c lu vo trong d liu nh tuyn nh tuyn ng. ng thi, mt FA-LSP c th c nh s hoc khng nh s ty thuc vo vic xem FA-LSP l mt ng thng bnh thng hay khng. Hnh trn m t c ch hot ng ca mt TDM LSP (LSPtdm), n c xem nh l mt ng thng kt ni gia hai thit b LSR nh tuyn gi trong mng PSC thay v l mt ng thng kt ni vt l nh trong mng TDM.

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Hnh 2.1: C ch chuyn tip k cn 2.3.4 Cu hnh LSP Cu trc mng (bao gm cc lp truy nhp, lp li v lp mng trc). Gi thit rng khi nhu cu kt ni trn mng tng ln, ngha l xut hin nhng kt ni dng lu lng t u cui ti u cui ca cc doanh nghip t lp mng truy nhp yu cu. Nu nh cc nt mng khng c c ch nh bng thng mt cch mm do, ngha l ch c cc bng thng c nh kt ni gn vi cc ng thng vt l th vn l rt kh gii quyt. Trong trng hp nh vy, mt lung bng thng kt ni vt l STM-64 gia hai chuyn mch OXC ca mng ng trc cng khng th truyn ti mt dng lu lng yu cu vi tc 100 Mbps t lp truy nhp.

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Hnh 2.2: Cu hnh mng 2.3.5 C ch b ng Trong tng lai c th s pht trin ca mng quang s l rt dy c. Mt mng cp quang c cn phi qun l c th ln ti hong chc ti hng trm si quang trn cng mt tuyn, mi mt si quang li c th truyn ti hng trm ti hng ngn bc sng quang, vic qun l ng, qun l tuyn s tr ln rt phc tp nu nh khng c mt cch thc hp l.GMPLS a ra mt phng thc qun l ng v tuyn trong mng quang tng i hp l l phng thc b ng. Phng thc b ng cho php ghp mt vi ng vo lm mt v thng bo v ng cho cc giao thc nh tuyn, chng hn nh OSPF, hoc IS-IS. Thng tin truyn ti theo phng thc ny c th l mang tnh cht rt gn v khng y nhng u im l dung lng x l s gim i rt nhiu nu nh s dng phng php lu tr c s d liu nh tuyn. K thut b ng ch cn mt ng iu khin, iu cho php gim s lng bn tin bo hiu iu khin cn phi x l. GMPLS c th cho php b ng mt cch mm do theo phng thc im im (PTP) thc hin cho cc LSP v thng bo thng tin b ng ny cho cc giao thc OSPF (chuyn tip cn k). Tuy vy, phng thc b ng ny cng bc l mt s hn ch nh: - Ton b cc ng trong cng mt b phi bt u v kt thc trong cng mt
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cp LSR. - Ton b cc ng trong cng mt b phi c cng chung mt loi (v d nh PTP hoc qung b). - Ton b cc ng trong cng mt b phi c cng mt dng cho c ch chuyn mch - PSC, TDMC, LSC, hoc FSC.

2.4 tin cy
tin cy (Reliability)

Hnh 2.3: Qu trnh thc hin qun l h hng trong mng GMPLS Chc nng thc hin ca cc giao thc GMPLS cho php qun l v iu khin cc h hng trn mng mt cch t ng. Khi xy ra h hng ti mt phn mng no thi n s c pht hin, nh v v cch ly vi cc phn mnh mng khc. y l mt im quan trng khi thc hin cc LSP t u cui ti u cui bng phng thc ng hm qua cc LSP c cu hnh cao hn. Cc bc thc hin cn thit qun l mt h hng (xc nh, nh v, cch ly v phc hi c th hin trong). GMPLS thc hin c ch bo v chng li cc h hng trn knh kt ni (hoc ng thng) gia hai nt mng cn k (bo v on) hoc bo v t u cui ti u cui (bo v tuyn). cc chc nng m rng nh tuyn OSPF v IS-IS trong mng GMPLS cung cp cc thng tin nh tuyn ngay c khi tuyn ang trong qu trnh thit lp. Khi tuyn truyn ti lu lng c thit lp chc nng iu khin
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bo hiu s c thc hin kin to cc tuyn d phng theo hng ngc li bng cc giao thc RSVPTE hoc CRLDP. Phng thc bo v tuyn c th l dng 1+1 hoc M:N. Hnh 3.7 m t cc c cu thc hin chc nng bo v c h tr bi mng GMPLS. Trong c cu bo v t u cui ti u cui cc tuyn s cp v tuyn th cp c tnh ton v thc hin kin to sao cho l hai tuyn ring r v vt l hoc l nhm cc knh kt ni khng c chung him ha.
PSC-LSP1 IDM-LSP1 mang PSC-LSR Cc node LSC Node 1
Cp pht ng xen k d phng cho LSC -LSP1 ( Bo v ng)

Cc node PSC Cc node TDM

LSC-LSP1 Mang IDM-LSP1


Knh hot ng

Knh bo v 1
Bo v tuyn Khi phc ng Khi phc ng dn LSP u cui -u cui

Cc node TDM Cc node PSC

Hnh 2.4: C ch phc hi h tr bi mng GMPLS Chc nng phc hi ng c thc hin trong mng GMPLS c thc hin theo c ch phc hi ng. C ch ny i hi c cc c cu ci t ti nguyn ng trn cc tuyn u ni. C hai phng php phc hi p dng trong mng GMPLS, l phc hi knh kt ni v phc hi on kt ni. Phc hi knh kt ni l tm tuyn thay th ti mt nt mng trung gian. Phc on kt ni l phc hi tuyn cho mt LSP c th no c thc hin bt u t nt mng ngun tm tuyn thay th xung quanh phm vi mng c s h hng.

2.5 Mt s vn tn ti trong mng GMPLS


GMPLS thc cht l b cc giao thc c m rng thc hin mt s chc nng mi ca mng MPLS. Trong , mt s phn thc hin cn phi c chun ha trong tng lai gn. Mt s vn trong mng GMPLS c cp di y
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cn c gii quyt. 2.5.1 Bo mt Cc c cu nh tuyn truyn thng trong mng IP cho php kim tra ton b thng tin phn mo u gi tin xc nh nt chuyn tip gi tin . Tuy rng cch thc hin nh vy tn nhiu thi gian x l nhng c u im l to iu kin thun li thit lp cc Firewall cng nh m bo rng a ch ch v ngun ca gi tin l duy nht trong phm vi ton cu. Trong mng GMPLS nhn c s dng gia tng tc chuyn giao gi tin nhng ngha s dng gi tr nhn ch mang tnh ni b trong phm vi mng GMPLS c th. Do vy, nhn s khng th s dng cho iu khin truy nhp vi yu cu bo mt. gii quyt vn bo mt trong mng GMPLS c th p dng c ch bo mt ngay trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni, ging nh thc hin trong mng X.25 hoc ATM. S thnh cng ca mng GMPLS ph thuc vo kh nng phi hp hot ng vi c s h tng mng hin c nh l ATM hoc Frame Relay. Kh nng kt hp gia GMPLS vi mng ATM v Frame Relay chnh l s cho php h iu khin bo hiu ca chng c th trao i thng tin vi nhau nh hai mng ging nhau v cng ngh thng qua mng a loi hnh. Thc thi cc chc nng phi hp gia hai mng s phi i mt vi mt s vn sau: - Phi hp iu khin hai mt phng iu khin vi cc giao thc bo hiu iu khin khc nhau l mt cng vic phc tp (chng hn nh vn phi hp nh tuyn PNNI trong mng ATM v OSPFTE trong mng GMPLS. - Duy tr cht lng dch v trong mng a loi hnh cng l mt cng vic phc tp. - Chuyn mch GMPLS c th h tr cc loi hnh chuyn mch nh l chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch TDM, chuyn mch bc sng / si iu ny ny sinh mt vic l la chn t hp cc loi hnh d liu mt cch ph hp chuyn i gia mng GMPLS v cc mng khc.

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2.5.2 H thng qun l mng

Mng GMPLS cn phi thc thi vic qun l cc LSP c s tng t hng ngn n hng triu hot ng trong mng theo cc kha cnh lin quan nh tnh trng hot ng, nh tuyn, k thut lu lng v.v.. iu c ngha l h thng qun l mng GMPLS l phc tp hn nhiu so vi mng khc, chng hn nh mng Internet.

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CHNG III NH TUYN TRONG MNG GMPLS


Chc nng nh tuyn trong mng GMPLS c m rng t cc chc nng ca MPLS, cc giao thc nh tuyn chnh c s dng l OSPF-TE, IS-IS-TE. Trong bo co ny em ch gii thiu n giao thc nh tuyn OSPF-TE l giao thc t ng xc nh cu hnh t-p mng, thng bo ti nguyn kh dng (v d nh bng thng hoc loi hnh bo v...). Cc im ch yu ca cc giao thc ny l: thng bo v loi hnh bo v ng (1+1, 1:1, khng bo v hoc lu lng ph), thc hin tm ng (gia cc nt mng k cn) nng cao kh nng xc nh tuyn thng m khng cn phi thc hin cc giao thc nh tuyn trn c s a ch IP. Giao thc OSPF ng dng trong mng vin thng nh nu ln phn trc. Phn ny ta ch xem xt giao thc OSPF-TE c m rng ng dng trong mng GMPLS.

3.1 nh tuyn ng ngn nht


Thut ton ng ngn nht nh SPF v CSPF c s dng rng ri trong k thut iu khin lu lng trc tuyn,cc kt ni cn c thit lp mt thi im, ging nh kt ni yu cu n lin tip. Chng ta a ra khi nim gn ging gi l nh tuyn da trn thit k (DBR), nh vic tnh ton ng ti u ngoi tuyn (offline) c s dng ch dn vic ci t ng trc tuyn (online). Tnh ton ng ngoi tuyn trong mng GMPLS khng c kh khn khi mng li quang hoc mng ni th ch c khong t mt vi n 100 nt so vi 100 n 1000 nt trong mng d liu thun tu. DBR c nhng u im nh thng tin yu cu da vo nhu cu ca khch hng, tham chiu lu lng v php o t trc, xy dng gn ng mt b o lu lng yu cu cho vic ti u ho ng truyn. Chng ta s thc hin vic so snh, c lng trong mng GMPLS khng trong sut di cc kt ni tnh v ng vi cc kiu m bo khc nhau. Kt qu cho thy rng DBR tt hn SPF v CSPF di iu kin hot ng vi phm vi rng, nhng li khng xc nh c ng sai trong vic tnh ton b o lu lng yu cu. Chng ta xy dng s nh tuyn vi qun l ti nguyn v php o trc
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tuyn. Kt qu m phng ch ra rng qun l ti nguyn cung cp mt cch c hiu qu lm gim bt nhng thiu st trong CSPF, v php o trc tuyn cung cp mt cch c hiu qu ci thin s hot ng ca DBR khi thng tin lu lng yu cu c s dng trong vic thit k ng DBR l khc nhau t lu lng yu cu thc t H thng k thut iu khin lu lng (TE) trong mng MPLS v GMPLS da trn cc phng php ging nhau, vi im khc nhau chnh l yu cu lu lng hi t v sc cha ca ng lin kt v cc dch v rng buc. H thng k thut iu khin lu lng trong mng kt ni c hng thng c phn bit nh l h thng iu khin lu lng trc tuyn (online) hoc h thng iu khin lu lng ngoi tuyn (offline). Vi h thng iu khin lu lng trc tuyn cc yu cu kt ni c tha nhn l n ti mt thi im. i vi mi yu cu kt ni, mt h thng iu khin lu lng trc tuyn tnh ton mi ng c lp khng cn bit v cc yu cu n sau. Sau ng c xc nh v kt ni thng xuyn ci t bo hiu. Tng thi gian t khi mt yu cu kt ni n, n khi n c thit lp mt t 10 n 100 ms. V th vic xc nh ng trong h thng iu khin lu lng trc tuyn phi tng i nhanh (tnh bng ms). Vi mt h thng iu khin lu lng ngoi tuyn ton b yu cu kt ni phi chc chn bit chnh xc mt ng tr li u tin trc khi tnh ton. S dng thng tin cu hnh, sc cha ca ng lin kt v b o lu lng yu cu, mt kiu server trung tm thc hin ti u ho ton b xc nh ng cho mi yu cu kt ni. Vic thit k ng ng hon thnh mt ln, h thng qun l mng s ci t kiu kt ni. Mt h thng ngoi tuyn vi vic ti u ho ton b c th t c ci thin trong vic s dng ti nguyn qua mt h thng trc tuyn. Tuy nhin tng thi gian cn vi mt h thng ngoi tuyn n nhiu pht hoc hng gi. Khng ging vi vic qun l mng trong mng truyn ti truyn thng, mng GMPLS-based s dng nh tuyn ng v bo hiu cho php cc kt ni thit lp theo yu cu trong vic tr li yu cu ca khch. V th k thut iu khin lu lng trc tuyn trong mng GMPLS-based c xem xt nhiu nh kiu hot ng ph hp hn, khi cc dch v mi yu cu cung cp nhanh th c th sn sng cung cp. K thut iu khin lu lng trc tuyn cng c quan tm nhiu trong
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mng GMPLS, khi k thut thit k ng c tch hp trong mi nt cho php t ng thit lp ng x l v cc bc cu hnh nh nht. T nh tuyn ng ngn nht n nh tuyn da trn thit k Trong phn trc, chng ta phn bit thut ton nh tuyn i vi k thut iu khin lu lng. Phn bit ny th khng dng nghin cu k hn. Tuy nhin, n c lc s dng trong cc php o ngoi tuyn v trc tuyn, ti u ho ni b v ton cu, k hoch qun l ti nguyn v yu cu bo hiu. mc cao nht thut ton c th phn bit theo vic ti u ho ti nguyn s dng c c hay khng. Nhm nh tuyn da trn thit k th th hin bng cch s dng c lng b o lu lng yu cu v ti u ho ton b ng. Nhm nh tuyn pathshortest bao gm tnh ton ng chc chn ngn nht, vi hoc khng cn qun l ti nguyn, i vi mt cp ngun-ch mt thi im. Thut ton nh tuyn trong nhm ng ngn nht bao gm thut ton SPF v CSPF chun. Trong nhm ny, chng ta cng m rng vic qun l ngun, gi l CSPF-TR. Thut ton nh tuyn trong nhm nh tuyn da trn thit k c th pht trin hn na da vo vic s dng cc php o trc tuyn. Trong DBR cc ng tnh ton li ti u da vo kin thc gn ng ca b o yu cu c s dng ci t ton b ng ngun ch trc tuyn. Trong k hoch , gi l tng ng DBR, php o trc tuyn c s dng cho vic chn ng v iu khin u vo. Hnh di y gii thiu cc thit b chnh cho DBR framework. Thit b ti u ho ng truyn ly thng tin t cng vo, nh cu hnh mng, sc cha ca lin kt, c lng lu lng yu cu, v thng tin c lin quan khc nh cng bc. Da vo thng tin cng vo ny, k thut DBR tnh ton ti u ton b ng c th ngoi tuyn v lu kt qu trong mt database s dng v sau. Thit b iu khin u vo lm ti u ho s dng, kt qu lu trong mt database. Trong DBR c s, iu khin u vo ch p dng trn ng DBR. Trong tng ng DBR, iu khin u vo ng dng trong DBR, nh ng k tip (v d: CSPF).

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Thu thp d liu v yu cu phn tch
Thng tin trng thi chn ng lin kt

nh Tuyn Trong Mng GMPLS


nh gi nhu cu lu lng

S offline

ng dn ti u vi D B R

D liu c bn D B R

C i t trc tuyn Y u cu kt ni

Q un l iu khin c s thit k cc ng dn theo bn phn

C i t kt ni

Hnh 3.1: Cc thit b cho DBR framework c s Nghin cu s hot ng

Chng ta bit rng mt mng truyn ti quang h tr nh tuyn ng (OSPF-TE) phn phi thng tin trng thi lin kt v mt giao thc bo hiu (RSVP-TE) thit lp kt ni theo yu cu. Mc tiu chnh l so snh DBR vi cc phng php thit k ng khc di cc iu kin khc nhau. V d, Chng ta bit hai phng php thit k ng trc tuyn, c pht trin rng ri l SPF v CSPF. SPF chn mt ng c gi tr nh nht. Vic thc hin ca CSPF cng ging nh trong SPF, tr ra cc lin kt c rng bng thng khng ph hp hoc rng buc khc trc tin s c gim bt. Sau SPF s chy trn mng xc nh . Chng ta xem xt hai kiu kt ni: Tnh v ng. Trong kiu tnh, yu cu kt ni n ln lt (one-by-one). Mi yu cu c th nhn dng nt li vo v nt li ra, v c nhim v thit lpkt ni gia nt li vo v nt li ra. Nu kt ni nh tuyn c thnh cng, n s tn ti sut qu trnh hot ng. Nu yu cu kt ni b tc nghn, th qu trnh tc nghn b mt sut qu trnh hot ng. Lu kiu tnh ging nh kiu mch o c nh (PVC) trong mng ATM.

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Trong kiu ng, yu cu kt ni n c mc nh, thi gian ca kt ni l gii hn. Mt yu cu kt ni b tc nghn th s mt sut trong qu trnh hot ng. Kiu ng ny c th m rng hn khi khch hng ca mng quang l mng s dng bng thng theo yu cu, m c th s dng cho k thut lu lng trong mng khch. Trong phn ny, vic thit lp kt ni v ng xung c khi xng bi nt khch theo yu cu thng qua giao din quang gia ngi s dng v mng (O-UNI). Ch l kiu ng ging nh kiu mng chuyn mch o (SVC) trong mng ATM. Mng quang c th hot ng di cc s m bo khc nhau ph thuc vo cc yu cu dch v. C ba kiu ng m bo i vi tt c k hoch nh tuyn:
-

Khng m bo

Mt hot ng v mt d phng(1+1 hoc 1:1). m bo ng ch nh m bo ng dng chung (1:1)

3.2 K thut nh tuyn li nhanh


Cng ngh MPLS s dng k thut kt ni c hng nn n gp phi hn ch nh thi gian tr li chm t thit b mng, v th thi gian cn thit lp mt LSP mi mang lu lng o. Li lin kt thng do cc dch v chia s trong mng my tnh.. Li trong cc lin kt c kh nng cha cao hoc gia cc b nh tuyn ng trc, c th nh hng nghim trng n lung a truy nhp, cc dch v ng dng thi gian thc tuyt i v cc giao thc. lm gim bt vn ny ngi ta a ra phng php nh tuyn li nhanh. K thut nh tuyn li nhanh da trn vng c nh trc m mt mt LSP d phng c tnh ton, thng bo v ci t t trc, khi mt li lin kt c pht hin. LSP d phng kt hp vi mc tiu sa cha bn trong lm nh nht s mt gi trong thi gian khi phc. Hin nay chng ta tng cng k thut nh tuyn li nhanh cho mng MPLS-based m lu lng nh tuyn li thng qua mt LSP d phng khi mt lin kt/nt ca LSP bo v b li. Mc ch l cung cp cht lng dch v cho lu lng mang bi LSP bo v, thm ch trong trng hp li trong qu trnh khi phc, cho n khi n tnh
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ton xong. LSP khng bo v c th nh tuyn li nhng khng c bo m (n lc ht sc). Thc hin xut ca chng ta tt hn so vi thc hin xut trong c tr gi v mt th t gi. Chng ta cung cp mt thut ton ngn gn v n gin trong LSRs trung gian m hot ng theo mt kiu phn b no , gii thiu chc nng truyn thng lm gim vic sp sp li th t gi v lm gim tr truyn thng khng cn thit. K thut a ra c th s dng cho vic cung cp cht lng dch v (QOS). Bi v thut ton c kh nng din t tiu chun khc hn l pht hin li lin kt cho s hot ng ca n. Hn na mt LSP nh sn pht hin tc nghn hoc trng thi dn n tho thun mc dch v (SLA) hoc tho thun Cht lng dch v (QoS) b vi phm, th LSP bo v bt u nh tuyn li nhanh. m rng k thut ca chng ta n vn tc nghn th phi m bo rng LSRs cn phi c kin thc v vn tc nghn. Ch trong trng hp li lin kt, lung c th i trch hng n mt LSP khc th tnh hung tc nghn c pht hin. Thut ton a ra c nh gi thng qua m phng v kt qu cho thy s ci thin trong tr truyn gi trung bnh. xut a ra gim bt vic sp sp li th t gi, ci thin hiu sut u cui v thi gian khi phc li ngn hn so vi xut ca Haskin. Chng ta tha nhn trong xut ca chng ta tt c cc LSPs bo v trn mt lin kt ging nh l mt LSP thay i li v theo hon ton kin trc MPLS. M rng ca MPLS trong mng quang l GMPLS, cho bi kh nng mang c bit ca LSP bo v trn lambda (DWDM).

3.3 D phng trong GMPLS


ng d phng c th c chn sn sng truyn lu lng gia LSP ngun v ch khi m bt k mt lin kt/nt no b li nh tuyn c s. Mt vn quan trng l chn c s v chn tuyn d phng trong bng m c s yu cu ca LSP ln nht c th c th cung cp trong tng lai. V th nn x l vic chon tuyn, ngn nga cc lin kt vt l khi m mng c s cp ngun ch ln. C s ca ng d phng khng m nhim nhng ri ro ging nhau ca li, ni cch khc li ging nhau c th gy ra bi li ng dn. Nu mt ti nguyn
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c nm gi bi mt ng bo v m ti nguyn c th chia s, ging nh l c th nm gi bi mt ng bo v khc, cho n con s ln nht cho php trn ti nguyn . a ng bo v chia s ti nguyn chung khng hot ng ng thi. t c iu ny thut ton nh tuyn phi khng cho php ng bo v chia s ti nguyn nu ng c s c li chung. Bo v chia s thng c s dng mng ln hn bo v ch dn. Tuy nhin, ch ng vi yu cu bo v nghim ngt th cn c bo v lin tc. Nhng ng khc c th bo v bn di bo v chia s m c th khi ti nguyn mng cn tha. Chi ph ti nguyn trong ng d phng Chi ph ti nguyn (RC) trong phng php m bo c nh gi ph thuc vo vic s dng phng php phc hi. V d, chng ta a ra vic s dng rng bng thng c cp trn mi lin kt. Chi ph ti nguyn c tnh ton trn mi lin kt bi vic tnh ton s lin kt trn ng v rng bng thng c cp trn mi lin kt. Vic cp ti nguyn c tha nhn l rng bng thng trong khi cha truyn l: Rc = NL . RB Vi RB l rng bng thng d tr, NL l s cc lin kt. Cng thc trn tng ng dng m t phng php ng d phng khc nhau. Chi ph ti nguyn cho phng php ton cu (RCG) ph thuc vo s cc lin kt trong ng d phng (NLs). Chi ph ti nguyn cho phng php khi phc d tr (RCR) l tng ca RCG vi yu cu ti nguyn i vi ng d tr (NLR.RB). Chi ph ti nguyn cho phng php khi phc ni (RCL) ph thuc vo rng bng thng d tr v s cc lin kt (NLL). Trong trng hp d phng ni, c lu hn mt d phng ni c th c to ra m bo mt vi lin kt trong ng hot ng. RC i vi phng php khc nhau c cho bi: RCG = NLG.RB RCR = RCG + NLR.RB RCL = NLL.RB Vi RCG, RCR, RCL l chi ph ti nguyn (tng ng cc phng php ton cu, d tr, nh sn ni)
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NLG, NLR, NLL l s cc lin kt (tng ng cc phng php ton cu, d tr, nh sn ni).

3. 4 nh tuyn khi phc m bo cht lng


Cc k thut khc nhau la chn ng ph hp ph thuc vo cc yu cu m bo cht lng dch v (QoS). Cc thut ton nh tuyn s dng tm ng i kh thi nht, Nhng thut ton c phn chia theo loi thng tin nh tuyn v c s dng tnh ton ng chn ng. Vn quan trng th nht trong thut ton nh tuyn phn lp l nh tuyn tnh hoc ng. Thut ton tnh ch s dng vi thng tin mng tnh, cn thut ton ng s dng vi thng tin ti lin kt c cp nht mt cch nh k. Vn th hai, thut ton nh tuyn c th nh tuyn trc tuyn (theo yu cu) hoc tnh ton ngoi tuyn (tnh ton t trc). Vic tnh ton ng ng truyn vi thut ton nh tuyn trc tuyn din ra lin tc, trong khi , thut ton nh tuyn ngoi tuyn khng theo vic tnh ton chn mt ng mi v chng c tnh ton t trc. 3.4.1 Nguyn l v hot ng u tin Mc ch chnh ca thut ton ny l tm ng truyn ti u nht (ng m bo Qos, rng bng thng) m t c hiu qu ti nguyn s dng. u tin la chn ng c gi tr nh nht trong theo th t gim bt vic chi ph ti nguyn. Th hai, cn bng ti trn mng (v d: ng c ti nh nht c chn). Vic ti u ho s dng mng ny lm gim chi ph ti nguyn v cn bng ti trn mng, vn ny khng d dng nu ch s dng mt thut ton, do hai mc tiu thng khng ph hp vi nhau. Mt ng vi gi tr nh nht khng tt yu khng c chi ph ti nguyn tt nht. Do , vic pht trin thut ton nh tuyn m bo cht lng l ph hp. Mt cch ph hp pht trin thut ton nh tuyn m bo cht lng, gi ly mc tiu cn bng ti v kh nng tnh ton ti nguyn, l ng dng tiu chun nh tuyn mi hoc trn mt vi tiu chun m bo cht lng. Nhng tiu chun m bo cht lng c th l: s bc nhy nh nht, rng bng thng cn d ln nht, gi tr ng nh nht da vo vic s dng lin kt.

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Mt phng php nh tuyn thng thng l s dng thut ton bc nhy nh nht (min-hop algorithm MHA). Thut ton ny ch chn ng nh nht vi lin kt thp nht gin nh tiu chun nh tuyn n. Thut ton ng ngn nht rng nht (WSP) da trn thut ton Bellman-Ford cng c a ra. Hai tiu chun c trn l: th nht, chn ng vi s bc nhy nh nht gia tt c cc ng ti u, th hai nu c hn mt ng chn th chn mt ng vi rng bng thng d tr ln nht (MRB). MRB ca mt ng l nh nht gia trong s tt c cc lin kt trn ng c bng thng d tr. Mt phng php nh tuyn khc c a ra l ngc vi thut ton WSP. Trong trng hp ny, u tin u tin chn ng vi rngbng thng nh nht v nu c hn mt ng ti u th ng vi s bc nhy nh nht c chn. Thut ton ny gi l ng rng nht ngn nht (SWP) WSP u tin cao nht cho vic s dng ti nguyn trong khi SWP dng cho vic cn bng ti trn mng. xut khc nh ngha chc nng ca gi tr (cost) v ng dng tnh ton ng ngn nht da trn gi tr . Tuy nhin, cc thut ton hin ti c mt vi hn ch khi chn mt ng vi s bc ln hn (trong trng hp ca WSP) hoc ng vi mt tiu chun cp cho rng bng thng, c hai trng hp ny c th tr thnh im hn ch. lm gim iu ny, xut khc c a ra l dng bin php cng p cc hot ng ca thut ton lm gim cc hn ch ca n. Trong thut ton ng thay th ng (DAP), gii hn bc nhy c s dng ngn nga ng c chn ln hn mt ngng l s bc nhy c tnh ton bi MHA. y l c s ca mt thut ton WSP vi gii hn s bc nhy. 3.4.2 Thut ton nh tuyn trc tuyn m bo cht lng trong MPLS MPLS c kh nng thc hin d dng php o m bo cht lng la chn mt ng mi. (LSPs). Trong phn ny ta xem xt mt vi xut nh tuyn trc tuyn m bo cht lng dch v ca MPLS, nhng u im v nhc im. nh tuyn ng trong vic m bo bng thng ng ngang vi vic khi phc d liu.

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y l mt xut u tin c a ra xem xt MPLS trong vic thit kt thut ton nh tuyn. H pht trin thut ton nh tuyn trc tuyn m bo rng bng thng LSPs nh tuyn d phng v ng hot ng ging nh cc yu cu n. Trong thut ton ny, nu rng bng thng thit lp c ng hot ng v d phng m cha sn sng, th yu cu b loi b. Ch bo m cc li lin kt/nt s c tnh ton ti. D phng a ng c thit lp v v th c kh nng d phng s phi c chia ra. Cc thut ton nh tuyn khc, da trn h thng cha sn sng tnh ton ng, c a ra. Cc phng php v c bn tnh ton vn v chiu di ca chng trnh theo s nguyn. Mt thut ton vi s kt hp thng tin s dng rng bng thng lin kt (gi l nh tuyn ng vi thng tin mt phn) c a ra nh l mt gii php tt trong vic tnh ton gi tr v hiu sut mng. Mc ch chnh ca xut ny pht trin thut ton nh tuyn trc tuyn s dng rng bng thng nh nht. Khng ging nh cc xut khc phng php ny khng xem xt n vic ti u ho t l yu cu loi b, ging nh mc ch ban u. Hn ch chnh ca xut ny l yu cu loi b s bc nhy hoc yu cu d phng a ng. 3.4.3 Thut ton nh tuyn khi phc ng Trong xut ny vic thit lp ng vng (d phng) cho mi lin kt hoc nt ngang bi ng hot ng ban u. S dng khi phc ni (d phng ni) vi chi ph ti nguyn chia s. So snh gia hai mng thng tin khc nhau v kt hp vic s dng thng tin trn mi ng, cung cp thng tin cho vic chn ng c hiu qu vi rng bng thng ni v ng d phng bo m. Thut ton ny ch cho bit mt phn nh v rng bng thng ca mi lin kt, c s dng cho cc ng hot ng v chc nng s dng ca ng d phng.

3.5 K thut lu lng trong trong GMPLS


Gii thiu Mc ch ca TE (k thut lu lng) l tng hiu qu v tin cy vn hnh mng khi ti u ho vic s dng ti nguyn mng v hiu nng lu lng. Trong
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vi nm gn y lng lu lng bi cc dch v da vo Internet ngy cng tr nn r rng hn. Do , cc thit b trong tng lai phi c kh nng a dch v h tr cc loi dch v khc nhau vi cc yu cu QoS khc nhau. Tnh khng n nh v khng d on trc c ca lu lng Internet, a ra cc yu cu thch thc cho NGN: tnh mm do v kh nng phn ng li nhanh chng s thay i lu lng. Phng php da vo cung cp ti nguyn vt qu c s dng trong cc mng vin thng ngy nay khng phi l gii php mang li li nhun cho NGN. 3.5.2 Vai tr ca MPLS Kin trc MPLS cn c vo s ngn cch gia mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin, ti s dng v m rng cc giao thc IP hin ti cho cc chc nng nh tuyn, bo hiu, khi m li a vo mt m hnh hng kt ni trong bi cnh da vo Internet. N da vo s ng cc gi IP thnh cc gi c gn nhn m c gi vo min MPLS theo kt ni o c tn l tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LPS). Cc phn t chnh ca mng MPLS l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSRs)-thc hin chuyn mch nhn, v cc b nh tuyn nh (E-LSRs)-hot ng ti u vo v u ra ca min MPLS. Mi kt ni o, ngha l mi LPS, c th c thit lp ti LSR u vo bi iu khin theo th t, trc khi gi cc gi. LSP ny c th b p theo mt tuyn m quyn u tin c tnh nh vo chc nng nh tuyn hin. c trng ch yu ca m hnh MPLS lin quan ti kh nng ti s dng ngun ti nguyn mng trn mt tuyn ring bit bi cc giao thc bo hiu ph hp (v d: RSVP-TE, CR-LDP). Do , LSP biu din mt kt ni o trong mng MPLS nh cc mch o v cc tuyn o trong ATM. C th, mi LSP c th c thit lp, xo b, nh tuyn li nu cn, v c iu chnh bi s bin i mt s thuc tnh ca n, gm c bng thng. Thc cht, bng thng ca LSP c th iu chnh mt cch t ng, tng theo mong mun, theo mt yu cu c bit ti LSR u vo duy tr tt c cc thuc tnh khc. Hn na, k thut chim hu trc trong LSP cng c th c s dng h tr cc lung d liu c u tin cao hn trnh tranh chp trong mng. c trng quan trng khc ca MPLS lin quan ti kh nng sp xp cc nhn a ra cc
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mc c th bc khc nhau thay v hai mc trong ATM. c trng ny h tr cc dch v VPN, cho php m rng iu khin MPLS cho cc cng ngh khc. 3.5.3 nh tuyn trn c s rng buc: thnh phn chnh cho xy dng lu lng S kt hp ca chc nng nh tuyn hin, k thut dnh ring ti nguyn v nh tuyn trn c s rng buc (CBR) trong mng MPLS biu din cc thnh phn chnh thc hin chin lc xy dng lu lng hiu qu. C th, tiu chun c s dng chn cc tuyn trong mng v nh tuyn li cc lung lu lng theo cc tuyn khc, l quyt nh trong vic p dng cc chin lc TE. Chun ny cn tnh nhiu tham s hn cu hnh mng n gin. Tm tt hot ng nh tuyn trn c s rng buc c minh ho trong hnh 3.14. Thc ra, khi tnh ton tuyn cho ng dn c yu cu (LSP trong trng hp mng MPLS), CBR phi xem xt c rng buc mng v ngi s dng. Vn trc quan tm ti trng thi lin kt, kh dng ca ti nguyn ngoi cu hnh mng, trong khi vn sau lin quan ti cc yu cu bng thng, cc nhm kinh doanh, quyn u tin,.... Khi tuyn hin c tnh, th tc dnh ring ti nguyn c bt u bi cc giao thc bo hiu nh RSVP. Theo cch ny, CBR tm tuyn di hn nhng nh hn cc tuyn b tc nghn thay v cc tuyn ngn nht. Do lu lng mng c phn b u hn v tc nghn c ngn cn.
Cc rng buc mng (trng thi lin kt ti , nguyn d tr cu hnh , mng) Cc rng buc ngi s dng (nhm qun l rng bng thng yu cu, u tin)

Rng buc ng u tin ngn nht(CSPF)

nh tuyn hin Ginh trc ti nguyn (v d: RSVP-TE, CRLDP)

Hnh 3.2: Nguyn l nh tuyn trn c s rng buc


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C hai phng php chnh c xem xt tnh ton tuyn l: trc tuyn (online), ngoi tuyn (off-line). V c bn, phng php off-line lin quan ti tnh tuyn c xc nh trc, thng c thc hin bi cng c ti u ho mng ngoi, cn phng php on-line lin quan ti tnh ton tuyn theo yu cu, t c t ng bi cc giao thc bo hiu hoc bi cng c ngoi tuyn. Phng php offline thch hp t c tuyn ti u ton b trn c s ma trn lu lng (biu din cc yu cu kt ni bit trc cho mi cp node mng). V mt logic, phng php ny rt thch hp khi nhu cu lu lng l kh n nh: ngha l s thay i lu lng khng lin quan ti yu cu thit k li tuyn cho cc lung d liu khc. l trng hp lu lng thoi truyn thng m hon ton c th d on c v kh n nh: v vy ma trn lu lng kh nht qun. Nhng lu lng Internet khng d on c m cng khng n nh. V vy, phng php off-line khng thch hp v hoc l n dn n lng ph ti nguyn mng (cc ng truyn dn khng c lp y) hoc xy ra tc nghn do lu lng tng v ti nguyn c cp pht khng . p ng li nhanh chng cc thay i lu lng Internet, phng php on-line tho mn hn. C th, phng php nh tuyn on-line gm c c lng tuyn theo yu cu, khi cn, ngha l, khi c mt yu cu hoc thay i yu cu trc. Do , n thch hp thc hin qu trnh iu chnh LSP k tip. Vn chnh trong cc trng hp ny l duy tr s n nh. Thc cht, tnh n nh c th xut hin khi thi gian cn thit nh tuyn mt lung d liu mi l bc ca thi gian u tin m yu cu c bt u. R rng, phng php on-line cng khng ph hp thc hin qu trnh iu chnh tuyn. Tuy nhin, nh tuyn on-line cn tiu th nhiu ti nguyn hn. Kt qu l, phng php lai l mt gii php tt nht khai thc cc u im ca c hai phng php. T ta thy CBR trong cc mng thc t l mt vn ct yu v phc tp. y ta xut mt h thng xy dng lu lng thc t, s dng phng php nh tuyn lai mi. C th hn, h thng TE vin dn th tc off-line t c tnh ton cc tuyn ti u ton b, theo ma trn lu lng, cn vic dn th tc nh tuyn on-line iu chnh t ng mt cch tun t cc yu cu lu lng thc t, cho php p ng nhanh chng s thay i lu lng.

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