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132 Chapter 4 The Circle Section 5.

1 Conic Sec-
tions

5.1 Conic Sections

Early Greek mathematicians are credited with developing the geometric properties of conic sec-
tions. Conic sections, or simply conics, are sections formed when planes cut at various angles a right cir-
cular cone of two nappes. Three types of conics are formed, namely the parabola, the ellipse (with circle
as its special case), and the hyperbola.

Parabola Circle Ellipse Hyperbola

Fig. 5.1.1

In addition to these sections formed, the plane may pass through the vertex of the cone and de-
termine a point (point-ellipse), coincident lines, or two intersecting lines. An intersection of each of
these kinds is called a degenerate conic.

There are numerous applications of conics. For instance, they are used to study the paths of orbit-
ing planets and satellites, and trajectories of projectiles. They are important in optics and atomic physics.
They are also found in the different architectural designs.

Definition 5.1.1 Conic Section

A conic section is the locus of a point that moves in a plane so that the ratio of its
distance from a fixed point to its distance from a fixed line is a positive constant.

From the definition of a conic section, any point on this curve satisfies the relation (see Fig. 5.1.2.)

PF
PF = e PD ⇒ e=
PD
Section 5.2 Parabola Chapter 5 The Parabola 133

• General Parts of a Conic •

1. Focus − the fixed point F.
2. Directrix − the fixed line D.
3. Eccentricity − the positive constant ratio L
denoted by e. •
P
D •
Conic sections may be classified according
to the value of eccentricity as follows: F

1. If e = 1, the conic is a parabola.
2. If e < 1, the conic is an ellipse (as e → 0, the ellipse •
approaches to a circle). R
3. If e > 1, the conic is a hyperbola.
Fig. 5.1.2

5.2 Parabola
One of the members of conic sections is a parabola. This conic has many practical applications. The
construction of a parabolic reflector mirror is obtained by revolving a parabola about its symmetry. Sus-
pension bridges are supported by parabolic cables suspended from two or more towers. When an object
is given an initial thrust and then moves under the influence of the force of gravity and eventually strikes
the ground, the path of the object is a parabola.

Definition 5.2.1 Parabola

A parabola is the locus of a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a
fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line. Its eccentricity is one.

• Parts and Properties of a Parabola •

y
1. The fixed point F is called the focus.
2. The fixed line D is called the directrix. L

3. The point on the parabola which is halfway from the P
focus to the directrix is the vertex. D • •
4. The axis of symmetry (axis of the parabola) is the V F(a, 0)
• x
line passing through the focus and perpendicular to
the directrix. This axis divides the parabola into two
equal branches.
R•
5. A chord connecting two points of the parabola pass-
ing through the focus and perpendicular to the axis x = −a
of symmetry is called the right chord or latus rect-
Fig. 5.2.1
um (LR).
134 Chapter 5 The Parabola Section 5.3 Equations of Parabola

• Important Lengths and Distances Involved in a Parabola •

1. a = distance from vertex to focus or from vertex to directrix 3. 4a = length of latus rectum
2. 2a = distance from focus to an end of latus rectum or a directrix 4. e = 1

5.3 Equations of Parabolas

Consider the parabola in Fig. 5.2.1. This parabola has a vertex at (0, 0), focus at (a, 0), and a mov-
ing point P(x, y). From the definition of a parabola, we have

PF = PD

( x − a ) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = x − (−a )
( x − a) 2 + y 2 = x + a
( x − a) 2 + y 2 = ( x + a)2
x 2 − 2ax + a 2 = x 2 + 2ax + a 2
y 2 = 4ax
which is one of the standard equations of parabolas. A complete list of the standard equations of para-
bolas is summarized in Formulas 5.3.1a and 5.3.1b.

The standard equation of a parabola with vertex at (0, 0),

I. axis of symmetry on OX, and
A. right opening is B. left opening is

y 2 = 4ax y 2 = −4ax
II. axis of symmetry on OY, and
A. upward opening is B. downward opening is

x 2 = 4ay x 2 = −4ay

The standard equation of a parabola with vertex at (h, k),

I. axis of symmetry parallel or identical to OX, and
A. right opening is B. left opening is

( y − k )2 = 4a ( x − h) ( y − k )2 = −4a ( x − h)
II. axis of symmetry is parallel or identical to OY, and
A. upward opening is B. downward opening is

( x − h)2 = 4a( y − k ) ( x − h)2 = −4a ( y − k )

Section 5.3 Equations of Parabolas Chapter 5 The Parabola 135

The equation of the directrix of a parabola that opens

A. to the right is B. to the left is
x = h−a x = h+a

C. upward is D. downward is
y = k −a y = k+a

The general equation of a parabola with

i. vertical axis of symmetry is
x 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 , E≠ 0
or Ax 2 + D′x + E ′y + F ′ = 0 , A, E′ ≠ 0
ii. horizontal axis of symmetry is

y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 , D≠0
or Cy 2 + D′x + E ′y + F ′ = 0 , C, D′ ≠ 0

y y y y

x
x x
x

Fig. 5.3.1a

y y y y

x
x x x

Graphs of Parabolas with Vertex at (h, k)

136 Chapter 5 The Parabola Fig. 5.3.1b Section 5.3 Equations of Para-
bolas

Example 5.3.1The following equations of parabolas are each in general form.

1. x 2 − 8 y = 0 5. x 2 + 4 x − 2 y = 0
2. 4 y 2 − 5 x = 0 6. 2 x 2 − 6 x − 13 y + 5 = 0
3. 2 y 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 7. 2 y 2 − 8 x − 2 y + 15 = 0
4. x 2 − 24 y − 36 = 0 8. y 2 − 36 x − 6 y + 27 = 0

Example 5.3.2The following equations of parabolas are each in standard form.

2
1. y2 = 4x 5. y = − 25
81
( x + 2)
2
2. x 2 = −12 y 6. ( x − 12 ) = 100( y + 6)
2
3. ( y − 3) 2 = 48 x 7. ( y − 23 ) = −24( x − 12 )
4. x 2 = −36( y + 1) 8. ( y + 200) 2 = 2500( x − 150)

Example 5.3.3Reduce each of the following equations of parabolas in standard form.

1. x 2 − 4 x − 16 y + 4 = 0 2. x 2 − 2 x + 12 y − 35 = 0 3. 4 y 2 + 96 x + 4 y + 97 = 0
Solution. We reduce each given equation of the parabola to its standard form as follows.
1. Given equation of the parabola: x 2 − 4 x − 16 y + 4 = 0

x 2 − 4 x − 16 y + 4 = 0
x 2 − 4 x = 16 y − 4
x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 16 y − 4 + 4
( x − 2) 2 = 16 y , standard form 

2. Given equation of the parabola: x 2 − 2 x + 12 y − 35 = 0

x 2 − 2 x + 12 y − 35 = 0
x 2 − 2 x = −12 y + 35
x 2 − 2 x + 1 = −12 y + 35 + 1
( x − 2) 2 = −12 y + 36
( x − 2) 2 = −12( y − 3) , standard form 

3. Given equation of the parabola: 4 y 2 + 96 x + 4 y + 97 = 0

4 y 2 + 96 x + 4 y + 97 = 0
y 2 + 24 x + y + 974 = 0
y 2 + y + 14 = −24 x − 974 + 1
4

( y + 12 ) 2 = −24 x − 24
( y + 12 ) 2 = −24( x + 1) , standard form 

Section 5.3 Equations of Parabolas Chapter 5 The Parabola 137

Example 5.3.4 For each equation of the parabola, reduce it to its standard form and then find the dir-
ection of its opening, vertex, focus, and endpoints of the latus rectum. Determine the equation of the dir-
ectrix and draw the parabola.

1. y 2 − 16 x = 0 3. y 2 + 16 x − 32 = 0
2. x 2 − 4 x + 8 y − 20 = 0 4. x 2 − 2 x − 24 y − 47 = 0
Solution.

direction of opening: parabola opens to the right 

4a = 16, length of the latus rectum,
2a = 8, distance from focus to an end of latus rectum, and
a = 4, distance from vertex to focus (or to directrix).

Vertex: V(0, 0)  Focus: F(4, 0) 

Latus rectum endpoints: L(4, 8), R(4, −8)  Equation of directrix: x = −4 

y
_
10
_
_
L(4, 8)
x = –4 _ •
_
6
_
_
4
_
_
_ F(4, 0)
V
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
−6 −2 _• 2 • 7
_
−2
_
_
_
−5
_
_
_ R(4, −8)
−9 _
_ •

Fig. 5.3.2

2. Reducing x 2 − 4 x + 8 y − 20 = 0 to its standard form, we have

x 2 − 4 x = −8 y + 20
x 2 − 4 x + 4 = −8 y + 20 + 4
( x − 2) 2 = −8( y − 3)
138 Chapter 5 The Parabola Section 5.3 Equations of Para-
bolas

direction of opening: parabola opens downward 

−4a = −8
4a = 8, length of the latus rectum,
2a = 4, distance from focus to an end of latus rectum, and
a = 2, distance from vertex to focus (or to directrix).

Vertex: V(2, 3)  Focus: F(2, 1) 

Latus rectum endpoints: L(−2, 1), R(6, 1)  Equation of directrix: y = 5 

_
_
_
6
y=5
_
4
_ V(2, 3)
_ •
L(−2, 1) _ F(2, 1) R(6, 1)
• • •
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
−6 −2 _ 2 7
_
−2
_
_
_
−5

Fig. 5.3.3

3. Reducing y 2 + 16 x − 32 = 0 to standard form, we have

y 2 + 16 x − 32 = 0
y 2 = −16 x + 32
( y − 0) 2 = −16( x − 2)

Direction of opening: parabola opens to the left 

–4a = –16
4a =16, length of the latus rectum
2a = 8, distance from focus to an end of latus rectum
a = 4, distance from vertex to focus (or to directrix)
Vertex: V(2, 0)  Focus: F(–2, 0) 
Latus rectum endpoints: L(–2, 8), R(–2, −8)  Equation of directrix: x = 6 
Section 5.3 Equations of Parabolas Chapter 5 The Parabola 139

y x=6
10 _
_
_
L(–2, 8)
• _
6 _
_
4 _
_
_
F(–2, 0) _ V(2, 0)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
−6 −3 • _ • 7
−2 _
_
_
−5 _
_
_
R(–2, −8) _
• −9 _
_

Fig. 5.3.4

4. Reducing x 2 − 2 x − 24 y − 47 = 0 to its standard form, we have

x 2 − 2 x − 24 y − 47 = 0
x 2 − 2 x = 24 y + 47
x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 24 y + 47 + 1
x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 24 y + 48
( x − 1) 2 = 24( y + 2)

This takes the form ( x − h) 2 = 4a ( y − k ) so that the opening is upward. From this form, it follows
that

4a = 24, length of the latus rectum,

2a = 12, distance from focus to an end of latus rectum, and
a = 6, distance from vertex to focus (or to directrix).

Vertex: V(1, –2)  Focus: F(1, 4) 

Latus rectum endpoints: L(−11, 4), R(13, 4)  Equation of directrix: y = –8 
140 Chapter 5 The Parabola Section 5.3 Equations of Parabolas

y
_
_
6
_
F(1, 4)
_
L(−11, 4) • _ •
• R(13, 4)
3
_
_
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
–11 –8 −6 −2 _ 2 9 12 15
_
_

−3 V(1, –2)
_
_
−5
_
_
y = –8
_
–9

Fig. 5.3.5

Exercise 5.1

A. For each equation of the parabola, find the direction of its opening, vertex, focus, and endpoints of
the latus rectum. Determine the equation of the directrix and draw the parabola.
1. y 2 = −4 x 7. ( x − 3) 2 = −12( y − 4)
2. x 2 = 4 y 8. ( y + 2) 2 = 8( x − 1)
3. y 2 = −8( x − 2) 9. ( y − 1) 2 = −36( x − 1)
2
4. x 2 = −12( y + 1) 10. ( x + 12 ) = 16( y + 32 )
5. ( x + 4) 2 = 8 y 11. ( x + 5) 2 = −24( y − 4)
2
6. ( y − 12 ) = 20 x 12. 1
12
(x + 2) 2 = 3( y − 1)

B. For each equation of the parabola, reduce to its standard form and then find the direction of its open-
ing, vertex, focus, and endpoints of the latus rectum. Determine the equation of the directrix and
draw the parabola.
1. y 2 + 12 x = 0 7. x 2 + 2 x + 10 y − 19 = 0
2. x 2 − 2 x − 36 y + 1 = 0 8. y 2 − 12 x − 14 y + 25 = 0
3. y 2 + 24 x + 48 = 0 9. y 2 = −4(3 x + y + 4)
4. y 2 − 6 x − 4 y + 4 = 0 10. x = y 2 + 6 y + 12
2
5. x 2 − 4 x − 2 y + 2 = 0 11. y = − 14 x + x + 6
6. x 2 + 10 x − 8 y + 57 = 0 12. 4 y 2 − 16 y − 15 x + 16 = 0
Section 5.4 Parabolas Determined by Conditions Chapter 5 The Parabola 141

5.4 Parabolas Determined by Conditions

The equations of parabolas can be determined if enough conditions are given. Equations listed in
Formulas 5.3.1 and 5.3.3 can be used to find such equations desired. We illustrate these in the following
examples.

Example 5.4.1Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at (0, 0) and focus at (2, 0).
Solution. We plot the vertex and focus to determine the specific standard form of a parabola to be used
(Fig. 5.4.1). We see from the illustration that y 2 = 4ax
fits the conditions of the problem. We make the follow- y
ing computations. _
6
_
| VF | = a = | 2 − 0 | = 2 _
4
LR = 4a = 4(2) = 8 _
_
_ F(2, 0)
V
Hence, the equation of the parabola is | | | | | | | | | | | | x
−2 _• •2 7
_
y 2 = 8 x , standard form −2 _
or y 2 − 8 x = 0 , general form  _
_
−5
_

Fig. 5.4.1

Example 5.4.2Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at (0, 0) and endpoints of the latus
rectum at (–6, 3) and (6, 3).
Solution. We plot the vertex and endpoints of latus rectum to determine the specific standard form of a
parabola to be used (Fig. 5.4.2). We see from the illustration that x 2 = 4ay fits the conditions of the
problem. We solve the length of the latus rectum
to get the value of 4a. y

LR = 4a = | 6 − (−6) | = 12 _
_
6
_
Hence, the equation of the parabola is _
L(–6, 0) 4 R(6, 0)
_
• _ •
x 2 = 12 y , standard form
_
2
or x − 12 y = 0 , general form  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
–6 −2 V _• 2 6

Fig. 5.4.2
Example 5.4.3Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at (−2, 1) and equation of directrix y = 6.
142 Chapter 5 The Parabola Section 5.4 Parabolas Determined by Conditions

Solution. The vertex is (−2, 1) so that h = −2 and k = 1. Since the directrix is horizontal and the vertex (−
2, 1) is below it, the parabola opens downward. (See Fig. 5.4.3.)

Distance from vertex to directrix: a = |6 − 1| = 5

LR = 4a = 4(5) = 20
Thus, we have
( x − h ) 2 = −4 a ( y − k )
( x + 2) 2 = −20( y − 1) or x 2 + 4 x + 20 y − 16 = 0 

y
_ y=6
_
5
_
_
3
_
V(–2, 1)
_

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
_
–11 –6 −2 2 6 9
_
–2
_
L F _
• • _
• R
_
–6
_
_
–8

Fig. 5.4.3

Example 5.4.4Find the equation of the parabola with focus (0, 6), axis on OY, and length of latus
rectum 12.
Solution. We first calculate the distance from vertex to focus.

LR = 4a = 12 ⇒ a=3

Since the axis of parabola is on OY, the vertex is (0, k). There are two possible parabolas (Fig. 5.4.4);
one that opens upward and the other one downward. Solving for k gives

k1 = 6 − 3 = 3 or k2 = 6 + 3 = 9

First parabola : V1(0, 3); the opening is upward

( x − h) 2 = 4a ( y − k ) ⇒ ( x − 0) 2 = 12( y − 3)

x 2 = 12( y − 3) , standard form

or x 2 − 12 y + 36 = 0 , general form 

Second parabola: V2(0, 9); the opening is downward

( x − h ) 2 = −4 a ( y − k ) ⇒ ( x − 0) 2 = −12( y − 9)

x 2 = −12( y − 9) , standard form

or x 2 + 12 y − 108 = 0 , general form 

y
_
_
10 _ V2(0, 9)
_
•_ x 2 = 12( y − 3)

7_
_
5_
_
x 2 = −12( y − 9)
•__ V (0, 3)
2 1
_
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | x
_
–11 –6 −2 2 6 9
–2 _
_
–4 _

Fig. 5.4.4

Example 5.4.5Find the equation of the parabola with axis horizontal and containing the points (9, 1),
(9, –2), and (1, –1).
Solution. The general equation of the parabola is useful in this type of problem. Since the axis is hori-
zontal, we use y 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 . The three given points must satisfy this equation leading to a sys-
tem of linear equations in D, E, and F. See Fig. 5.4.5.

At (9, 1) : 12 + D(9) + E (1) + F = 0 ⇔ 9 D + E + F = −1 (1)

At (9, –2) : (−2) 2 + D(9) + E (−2) + F = 0 ⇔ 9 D − 2 E + F = −4 (2)
2
At (1, –1) : (−1) + D(1) + E (−1) + F = 0 ⇔ D − E + F = −1 (3)

Let us solve these three linear equations simultaneously.

(1) − (2) (1) − (3)
At D = –1/4 and E = 1:
9 D + E + F = −1 9 D − 2 E + F = −4
9 D − 2 E + F = −4 D − E + F = −1 D − E + F = −1
⇔ 14 − 1 + F = −1

3E =3 8D − E = –3 F = 1/4
E=1 At E = 2: 8D – 1 = −3
D = –1/4
Hence, the equation of the parabola is

y 2 − 14 x + y + 14 = 0 ⇔ 4 y 2 − x + 4 y + 1 = 0 . 

y
2_
(9, 1)
_ •
| | | | | | | | | | x
• 2 4 6 8 10
_

(1, –1)
–2 _ •
(9, –2)
_

–4 _

Fig. 5.4.5

We can use the standard forms of the equations of parabolas as an alternative solution to this prob-
lem. The problem says that the axis of parabola is horizontal, hence we can use ( y − k ) 2 = 4a( x − h) or
( y − k ) 2 = −4a( x − h) , or equivalently ( y − k ) 2 = ±4a ( x − h) with the assumption that the opening is not
known and then solve the value of ± 4a together with h and k.

At (9, 1) : (1 − k ) 2 = ±4a (9 − h) (1')

At (9, –2) : (−2 − k ) 2 = ±4a(9 − h) (2')
At (1, –1) : (−1 − k ) 2 = ±4a (1 − h) (3')
From equations (1') and (2'), we have

1 − 2k + k 2 = 4 + 4k + k 2 ⇔ − 6k = 3 ⇔ k = − 2
1
(1 − k ) 2 = (−2 − k ) 2 ⇔

Section 5.4 Parabolas Determined by Conditions Chapter 5 The Parabola 145

(1 − k ) 2 ( −1 − k ) 2
From equations (1') and (3'), we can write = ±4 a and = ±4a respectively and get
9−h 1− h

(1 − k ) 2 (−1 − k ) 2
= .
9−h 1− h

But k = − 12 sot that

(1 + 12 ) 2 (−1 + 12 ) 2 9 1
= ⇔ 4
= 4 ⇔ 9
4
(1 − h) = 14 (9 − h) ⇔ 9 − 9h = 9 − h ⇔ h = 0 .
9−h 1− h 9−h 1− h

Solving for ± 4a :
1
(−1 + 12 ) 2 = ±4a (1 − 0) ⇔ ± 4a =
4
Note that the value of ±4 obtained is positive which means that the parabola opens to the right. There-
fore, the equation of the parabola is
( y + 12 ) 2 = 14 ( x − 0) , standard form
or 4 y 2 − x + 4 y + 1 = 0 , general form 

Exercise 5.2

A. Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin and satisfying the given conditions.
1. Focus at (3, 0) 6. Length of latus rectum is 25, opening is to the left
2. Focus at (–5/2, 0) 7. Focus on x-axis and containing the point (−3, 4)
3. Focus at (0, –4) 8. Containing the point (3, –1) and opening is downward
4. Directrix is x – 5 = 0 9. Distance from focus to directrix is 36 and opening is upward
5. Directrix is y + 4 = 0 10. One endpoint of latus rectum is on y = 3, opening is upward
B. Write the equation of the parabola satisfying the given conditions.
1. Vertex (2, 1), focus (2, −1).
2. Vertex (−1, 2), focus (0, 2).
3. Vertex (2, 3), equation of directrix y − 6 = 0.
4. Vertex (−2, 5), equation of directrix x + 4 = 0.
5. Vertex (−3/2, 2), containing the point (−1, −1), latus rectum parallel to OX.
6. Vertex (0, 2), axis parallel to OX, passing through (3, 8).
7. Vertex (2, 1), axis parallel to OY, latus rectum 6.
8. Vertex (−2, 4), latus rectum 8, opens to the left.
9. Vertex (−2, −2), latus rectum 10, opens upward
10. Passing through (−7/2, 2), (−14/3, −5), axis parallel to OX, latus rectum 6.
11. Passing through (2, 2), (2, −2), (−1, 1), axis horizontal.
12. Vertex on OX, latus rectum 8, containing (4, 4), axis on OX.
13. Vertex on the line x = −1, axis parallel to OX, containing the points (1, 0), (7, 3).

146 Chapter 5 The Parabola Section 5.4 Parabolas Determined by Conditions

14. Focus (1, −4), one end of latus rectum (1, −1).
15. Axis parallel to OY, vertex on OX, containing the points (4, 2), (−2, 8).
16. Axis parallel to OY, passing through (−1, −1), (0, 0), and (−3, 3).
17. Axis horizontal, containing the points (0, −1), (0, 5), and (8, 1).
C. Find the points of intersection of the given curves. Sketch their graphs and shade the region en-
closed.
1. x = 3 − y , y 2 − 4 x = 0 4. x + 4 y − 8 = 0 , x 2 + 8 y − 16 = 0
2. x − y − 3 = 0 , x 2 − 4 y − 12 = 0 5. x 2 + x − y = 0 , y 2 = −2 x
3. 2 x − y − 12 = 0 , y 2 − 4 x = 0 6. y 2 − 2 y + 2 x + 5 = 0 , y 2 − 2 y + x + 1 = 0
D. Sketch the region enclosed by the given set of curves.
1. y = x 2 , x 2 + y − 8 = 0 , 4 x − y + 12 = 0
2. 4 x − y + 12 = 0 , 7 x + 2 y − 24 = 0 , x 2 + y − 9 = 0
E. Find the equation of the locus as indicated for the specified condition.
1. Locus of a point equidistant from the point (4, 2) and the line y = −2.
2. Locus of a point equidistant from the point (2, −3) and the line x = 1.
2 2
3. Locus of the center of a circle tangent to the circle x + y − 9 = 0 externally and the line
y = −5 .
4. Locus of the center of a circle tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 = 0 externally and the
x = −4 and. Find the locus of its center.
F. Solve as indicated.
1. A circle touches the line x = 5 and the circle x 2 + y 2 − 4 = 0 . Find the locus of its center. (Two
solutions).
2. Find the equation of the circle passing through the vertex and endpoints of the latus rectum of the
parabola y 2 = 8 x .
G. Classify each equation of the curves as to a straight line (L), a circle (C), a parabola (P), or neither
of the three (N).

_____ a. x 2 + y 2 − 6 x + 4 y + 1 = 0 _____ i. y = −2 x 2 + 4 x + 1
_____ b. x 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 = 0 _____ j. y = 4 x − 6
_____ c. 2 x + 4 y + 1 = 0 _____ k. 4 y 2 = −2( x + 4)
_____ d. x 2 + 4 y 2 − 16 = 0 _____ l. ( y − 4) 2 = 16(2 − x)
( x − 2) 2 ( y − 4) 2
_____ e. y − 2 = −4( x − 5) _____ m. + =1
16 16
x−2 y+2
_____ f. + =1 _____ n. y 2 = x 2 + 4 y + 1
3 9
_____ g. y 2 = −2 x + 4 y + 1 _____ o. y 2 = −2 x 2 + 8 y + 1
_____ h. 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y − 7 = 0 _____ p. y = −2