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Human eyes

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 16 million colors.[1] In common with the eyes of other mammals, the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive the light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil, regulation and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock.

The eye and its part

Functions of each parts


Cornea-The cornea is the transparent, dome-shaped window covering the front of the eye. It is a powerful refracting surface, providing 2/3 of the eye's focusing power. Like the crystal on a watch, it gives us a clear window to look through Because there are no blood vessels in the cornea, it is normally clear and has a shiny surface. The cornea is extremely sensitive - there are more nerve endings in the cornea than anywhere else in the body.

Pupilthe pupil is the opening in the center of the iris. The size of the pupil determines the amount of light that enters the eye. The pupil size is controlled by the dilator and sphincter muscles of the iris. Doctors often evaluate the reaction of pupils to light to determine a person's neurological function.

Lens- The crystalline lens is located just behind the iris. Its purpose is to focus light onto the retina. The nucleus,
the innermost part of the lens, is surrounded by softer material called the cortex. The lens is encased in a capsularlike bag and suspended within the eye by tiny "guy wires" called zonules. Retina- The retina is a multi-layered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of photoreceptors that capture light rays and convert them into electrical impulses. These impulses travel along the optic nerve to the brain where they are turned into images.

There are two types of photoreceptors in the retina: rods and cones. The retina contains approximately 6 million cones. The cones are contained in the macula, the portion of the retina responsible for central vision. They are most densely packed within the fovea, the very center portion of the macula. Cones function best in bright light and allow us to appreciate color. Iris- The colored part of the eye is called the iris. It controls light levels inside the eye similar to the aperture on a camera. The round opening in the center of the iris is called the pupil. The iris is embedded with tiny muscles that dilate (widen) and constrict (narrow) the pupil size. Ciliary body- The ciliary body lies just behind the iris. Attached to the ciliary body are tiny fiber "guy wires" called zonules. The crystalline lens is suspended inside the eye by the zonular fibers. Nourishment for the ciliary body comes from blood vessels which also supply the iris.

Eye socket- Eye socket- The orbit or eye socket is a cone-shaped bony cavity that protects the eye. The socket is padded with fatty tissue that allows the eye to move easily. eyelid- Our eyelids protect and lubricate our eyes. Small oil-producing glands line the inner edge of our eyelids. These oils mix with tears when we blink, keeping the eye moist and clean. eye lashes- These specialized hairs protect the eyes from particles that may injure them. They form a screen to keep dust and insects out. Anything touching them triggers the eyelids to blink.

common eye defect


Myopia -Also konwn as 'nearsightedness', a person suffering from this disease is only able to see objects near the eye
clearly. Most of the prople who wear spectalcles are patients of myopia. The disease can be caused due to two reasons. First, the lens might be too thick and fails to focus light rays coming from distant objects onto the retina. Second reason could be a smaller eye ball. Since image is formed behind the retina in the eye of a myopic person, a divergent lens is required to enable him to see distant objects clearly. The power of lens required for a myopic person who can see an object at a maximum distance of x, is given by P = -(1 / x)

Hypermetropia Also konwn as 'hyperopia' or 'farsightedness', a person suffering from this disease is only able to see
objects far from the eye clearly. This disease manily affects old people. It can be due to two reasons. First, the lens is too thin and fails to focus light rays coming from close objects onto the retina. Second reason could be a larger eye ball. Since image is formed in front of the retina in the eye of a hypermetropic person, a convergent lens is required to enable him to see close objects clearly. The power of lens required for a hypermetropic person who can see an object at a minimum distance of y, is given by P = -(1 / y)

Glaucoma It is a symptomatic condition, and can lead to raised intra-ocular pressure, visual field loss, enlargement
of the blind spot and changes in the appearance of the optic nerve head. a lot of damage is done by the time these symptoms are actually noticed by the patient.

Chorioditis Choroiditis is an inflammation of the choroid, which is a vascular rich layer located between the sclera
and the retina.

Astigmatism This defect arises due to the develoment of different curvatures along different planes in the eye lens.
A person suffering from astigmatism cannot see all the directions equally well, but a particular direction in the plane perpendicular to the lign of sight is most visible. There are many ways with which a person can detect this disease, many of which are 'do-it-yourself' technices. A person suffering from this disease wears glasses with different curvatures in different planes, which are known as cylindrical glasses.

Presbypia It is a reduction in the focusing power of the eye with age, and results in a decrease in clarity of vision at
near distances (but does not affect distance vision). When a person can no longer read a newspaper at arm's length, and buys reading spectacles, he can be considered to be presbyopic.

Blindness This refers to the loss of the power of sight. Depending on his reduced power, a person can be calassified as
'stone-blind' or 'gravel-blind' (Shakespearen terms referring to the dergree of blindness). Some of the factors that might lead to blindness are: Physical damage: This includes a direct damage to the retina or the lens, in cases that include accidents involving sharp things, metal instruments etc. that might cause a major rupture. Retinal detachment: This might happen due to the separation of the neural retina from the pigment epithelium, which provides nutrients to the photoreceptors. Due to this loss of nutrients, there is a loss of function in the photoreceptors. Blindness however, is caused in extreme cases only. Minor detachments only cause a blurred vision.

how human eyes works


The eye is a spherical structure about an inch in diameter. It has a clear bulge on the front side, which is the cornea. The wall of the eye beyond the cornea consists of three tissue layers. The outermost layer is the sclera, a tough, protective coating that covers most of the outer surface of the eye that connects to the transparent cornea at the front of the eye. The middle layer is the choroid, a vascular layer that is continuous with the ciliary body and the iris on the front side of the eye. The inner layer is the retina, a light-sensitive tissue that lines the inside back wall of the eye.

how human eye sees


Travel inside the eyes -- our window to the world -- and learn how they allow us to see objects both far and near. In order to see, there must be light. Light reflects off an object and -- if one is looking at the object -- enters the eye. The first thing light touches when entering the eye is a thin veil of tears that coats the front of the eye. Behind this lubricating moisture is the front window of the eye, called the cornea. This clear covering helps to focus the light. On the other side of the cornea is more moisture. This clear, watery fluid is the aqueous humor. It circulates throughout the front part of the eye and keeps a constant pressure within the eye. After light passes through the aqueous humor, it passes through the pupil. This is the central circular opening in the colored part of the eye -- also called the iris. Depending on how much light there is, the iris may contract or dilate, limiting or increasing the amount of light that gets deeper into the eye. The light then goes through the lens. Just like the lens of a camera, the lens of the eye focuses the light. The lens changes shape to focus on light reflecting from near or distant objects. This focused light now beams through the center of the eye. Again the light is bathed in moisture, this time in a clear jelly known as the vitreous. Surrounding the vitreous is the retina.

Light reaches its final destination within the photo receptors of the retina: the retina is the inner lining of the back of the eye. It's like a movie screen or the film of a camera. The focused light is projected onto its flat, smooth surface. However, unlike a movie screen, the retina has many working parts: The Human Eye as Compared to a Camera Do you remember before the days of digital cameras? When we actually had to load a roll of film into a very expensive camera and were allowed to take either 24 or 36 pictures on a single role? Let's compare the basic principles on how that camera worked as compared to how the human eye functions. First a couple similarities; both a camera and our eyes have a lens. Both a camera and our eye have an aperture device. Both receive light and maintain a method of capturing that light. And both have a function to interpret that light into an image. For starters lets look at the lens system. A camera has a lens on the front surface that (on some models) can be interchanged for varying range of focus. Our eyes work on a two lens system. The first lens, the cornea is on the outer surface of the eye and can be compared with a cameras lens. In order to adjust focus on a camera, the lens tele-photos meaning it extends in or out in a dynamic function. In the eye, we have a crystalline lens that also adjusts shape so we can adjust our focus in and out. To adjust light, the camera has aperture settings. While many cameras will do this automatically, true photographers point their camera towards a grey card and get a light reading so they can adjust the aperture setting. Fortunately for us, our eyes adjust aperture automatically. The opening is called the pupil, which is actually just a space. The pupil is not a physical part of the eye, rather a reference name for that round dark area between the iris. The iris is the colored portion of the eye and is responsible for controlling how much light enters the eye. In both a camera and our eyes, the light and image are inverted by the time they reach the receiving mechanism. In a camera, that is the film, while in the eye that is the retina. So here is where things get a little different, on a camera light is allowed through the lens system for a portion of a second so the image can be burned on to the film. The film is then processed and a static image is saved as a negative. When light enters the human eye, it is received by the retina, which is an extension of our brains. Neurons transmit that image to the back portion of the brain in an amazing process and we perceive an image.