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Tech (NTC) Roll No- 19 Assignment – Broadband and Multimedia Technology
xDSL Introduction •xDSL is the term for the Broadband Access technologies based on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology –“x” signifies that there are various flavors of DSL •Provides always-on, high-speed data services over existing copper wires to residences & businesses –POTS service and DSL coexist on same copper line •Lower rate xDSL (up to 1.5 Mbps) is gaining popularity in the residential market; will get faster and cheaper •High performance xDSL (up to 52 Mbps) targets business and high-end users Benefits & Applications Benefits •High-speed data service–DSL typically >10x faster than 56-kbps analog modem •Always on connection–No need to “dial-up” •Uses existing copper wires–Co-exists w/ POTS service •Reasonably priced today and getting cheaper Applications •High speed Internet access •Multimedia, Long distance learning, gaming •Video on Demand •VPN •VoDSL
Lite or DSL Lite •Expedites and reduces cost of deployment process by moving the splitting process from the CP to the CO •Splitter-less nature slows the bit rate considerably xDSL 15 –Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL) •Detects highest possible line rate & adjusts accordingly –Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL) •Used to get high speed over short local loops •Typically used in conjunction with Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) •Still in development phase Symmetric xDSL •“Symmetric” => downstream & upstream rates are equal –Suitable for office type apps like Video conferencing •Types of symmetric xDSL –Symmetric DSL (SDSL) •Based on HDSL but single pair •Spectral compatibility an issue (crosstalk& interference) –High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) •The first of the symmetric DSL technologies •Uses multiple wire pairs (2 or 3) to achieve high bit rates –HDSL 2 •Single-pair version of HDSL •More standards driven to improve interoperability and spectrallycompatible with other loop services (ISDN.a. a. T1. G.Asymmetric xDSL •“Asymmetric” => faster downstream rate vs. HDSL) •also takes into consideration diminishing amount of copper pairs .k. MP3 downloading. upstream –Suitable for applications such as web-browsing. Video on demand (VoD) •Types of asymmetric DSL –Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) •The original and most popular •Other asymmetric DSL technologies derived from ADSL –Universal ADSL (UDSL).
okay to pass through repeaters &DLCs •Always-on. and transmit data over data network . flat rate billing. but more generalized •Business class DSL for transporting T1/E1. and IP –ISDN DSL (ISDL) •DSL over ISDN.–Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) •Similar to HDSL 2. ISDN. ATM.
Rate adaptation was included to allow the 2 modems on an ADSL link to adjust their rates according to the line conditions. This was achieved using a guard band to separate the voice-band & broadband frequencies. Basic Components of ADSL: • • Basic components: DSL Modem & a splitter Splitter separates the ADSL traffic from regular POTS traffic.ADSL: • Motivating factor for the development of ADSL was the desire of telephone carriers to compete with cable service providers in the delivery of VoD services. • • • A distinguishing feature of ADSL is its ability to transport POTS along with broadband services. • • VoD service was out of reach for many consmers due to equipment & operational cost. Downstream rate higher than the upstream rate. . The asymmetric data streaming profile of the uADSL technology matched the data flow profile of web browsing.
An alternative is to use a combination of fiber cables feeding neighborhood optical network units (ONUs) & leverage the existing copper loops to home or business. . maximum speed. • VDSL: • • Fiber all the way to the home (FTTH) is still prohibitively expensive. • Technicians on both ends of the connection had to fix the speed of the link to match the conditions that existed on the line at the time of the installation. multiple ATU-Cs are aggregated into a single box called as DSLAM. or DSL access multiplexer. splitter splits the single pair into two pairs: one to voice switch & other to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-Central) • RDSL: In the CO. DMT modulation techniques are rate adaptive in nature. RADSL theoretically has an additional feature which is not in modern ADSL.• On customer premises. so modern DSL modems inherently have the capability. & distances supported are same as ADSL. splitter takes a single copper loop & splits into 2 pairs: one to telephone handset & second to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-remote) • On CO side. Capability to adapt changing line conditions on the fly for both the upstream & downstream channels. • • • Any variation in line conditions after installations was not addressed. RADSL & current ADSL technology automatically adapt to changing line conditions each time the link becomes active. Earlier versions of ADSL were needed to be balanced to the conditions of the line. The architecture of RADSL.
Developed by Bellcore in the late 1980s. HDSL operates at symmetric speeds of 1. the same as T1/E1.048 Mbps. T1/E1 Transmission Systems: • • T1/E1 operates over telephone wires but the loop had to be conditioned and loading coils & bridged taps had to be removed. • HDSL: • • • • • Upstream rates range from 1. • ONU serves as a central distribution point where the fiber from the local distribution terminates & many VDSL copper loops aggregate. The first version was placed into service in 1992.544 Mbps & 2. VDSL is asymmetric with downstream speeds that range from 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps across copper loops ranging from 1000 feet to 4000 feet. • The DSL forum refers to this arrangement as fiber to the neighborhood (FTTN) & extends the concept to include fiber to the basement (FTTB) for high rise buildings with vertical drops & fiber to the curb (FTTC) for short drops. was intended to be an economical solution to growing demand for T1 carriers. The line had to be spliced & repeaters inserted. • • VDSL is full-service access network that addresses a full range of services from POTS & ISDN to linking high-speed LANs.5 to 6 Mbps. remaining loop to the local served by fiber. at every 3000-6000 feet .• VDSL depends on very short runs over copper loops of up to 6000 feet in order to maximize the available frequency range of the wire. High Bit-Rate DSL. Is becoming preferred option over T1/E1 service. was the first DSL technology put into the operation.
called as “repeaterless or nonrepeatered” T1/E1 replacement technology. requiring a special power supply at the central office. so had to be separated into separate binder groups. The resistance in the loop wasted a lot of power being sent to repeater. A comparison of T1/E1 HDSL . Repeaters were normally line-powered from the CO. • • • • A customer premises location 18. HDSL as a Solution to T1/E1 Service: • Elimination of midspan repeater. In spite of its challenges.• The power levels required for T1/E1 service created crosstalk for other services.000 feet away from the CO would require atleast 6 repeaters for a T1/E1 line. T1/E1 service was popular for digital access to the PSTN.
Traditional ISDN requires a connection to a voice switch in the CO. entire ISDL is provided by the DSL equipment hence called as “BRI without the switch” or “switchless BRI Some versions of ISDL allow full use of 144 Kbps BW while others allow only 2B operation or 128 Kbps. Symmetric DSL or single-line DSL uses a single pair. SDSL fits in where customers require higher data speeds but not a full T1 service. SDSL uses a single transceiver & a single copper pair to fractional T1 services. Instead of using 2 transceivers & 2 copper pairs. each capable of carrying voice & data in both directions. Using multiple copper pairs to provide residential digital services is not the ideal solution to Service Provider. A variation on ISDL exists that is based on the PRI ISDN model . uses 2B+D.4 miles or 5.SDSL: • • • • • IDSL: • • Technology functions the same way as basic rate ISDN. Higher data rates than the 784 Kbps of the original HDSL transceivers are due to advances in technology.4 Km). The D channels carries control signals & customer call data in a packet switched mode & operates at 16 Kbps. • • • • ISDL runs on a single pair of wires at a maximum distance of 18 kft (3. In ISDN 2 B channels are circuit switched. provides a data capacity of 144 Kbps.
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