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Tech (NTC) Roll No- 19 Assignment – Broadband and Multimedia Technology
xDSL Introduction •xDSL is the term for the Broadband Access technologies based on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology –“x” signifies that there are various flavors of DSL •Provides always-on, high-speed data services over existing copper wires to residences & businesses –POTS service and DSL coexist on same copper line •Lower rate xDSL (up to 1.5 Mbps) is gaining popularity in the residential market; will get faster and cheaper •High performance xDSL (up to 52 Mbps) targets business and high-end users Benefits & Applications Benefits •High-speed data service–DSL typically >10x faster than 56-kbps analog modem •Always on connection–No need to “dial-up” •Uses existing copper wires–Co-exists w/ POTS service •Reasonably priced today and getting cheaper Applications •High speed Internet access •Multimedia, Long distance learning, gaming •Video on Demand •VPN •VoDSL
a. G. HDSL) •also takes into consideration diminishing amount of copper pairs . MP3 downloading.k. upstream –Suitable for applications such as web-browsing.Asymmetric xDSL •“Asymmetric” => faster downstream rate vs. T1.Lite or DSL Lite •Expedites and reduces cost of deployment process by moving the splitting process from the CP to the CO •Splitter-less nature slows the bit rate considerably xDSL 15 –Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL) •Detects highest possible line rate & adjusts accordingly –Very High Bit-rate DSL (VDSL) •Used to get high speed over short local loops •Typically used in conjunction with Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) •Still in development phase Symmetric xDSL •“Symmetric” => downstream & upstream rates are equal –Suitable for office type apps like Video conferencing •Types of symmetric xDSL –Symmetric DSL (SDSL) •Based on HDSL but single pair •Spectral compatibility an issue (crosstalk& interference) –High bit-rate DSL (HDSL) •The first of the symmetric DSL technologies •Uses multiple wire pairs (2 or 3) to achieve high bit rates –HDSL 2 •Single-pair version of HDSL •More standards driven to improve interoperability and spectrallycompatible with other loop services (ISDN. Video on demand (VoD) •Types of asymmetric DSL –Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) •The original and most popular •Other asymmetric DSL technologies derived from ADSL –Universal ADSL (UDSL). a.
ISDN. and transmit data over data network . flat rate billing.–Single-pair HDSL (SHDSL) •Similar to HDSL 2. and IP –ISDN DSL (ISDL) •DSL over ISDN. okay to pass through repeaters &DLCs •Always-on. but more generalized •Business class DSL for transporting T1/E1. ATM.
This was achieved using a guard band to separate the voice-band & broadband frequencies. The asymmetric data streaming profile of the uADSL technology matched the data flow profile of web browsing. Basic Components of ADSL: • • Basic components: DSL Modem & a splitter Splitter separates the ADSL traffic from regular POTS traffic. Downstream rate higher than the upstream rate. Rate adaptation was included to allow the 2 modems on an ADSL link to adjust their rates according to the line conditions. . • • • A distinguishing feature of ADSL is its ability to transport POTS along with broadband services.ADSL: • Motivating factor for the development of ADSL was the desire of telephone carriers to compete with cable service providers in the delivery of VoD services. • • VoD service was out of reach for many consmers due to equipment & operational cost.
• On customer premises. The architecture of RADSL. splitter takes a single copper loop & splits into 2 pairs: one to telephone handset & second to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-remote) • On CO side. • Technicians on both ends of the connection had to fix the speed of the link to match the conditions that existed on the line at the time of the installation. Capability to adapt changing line conditions on the fly for both the upstream & downstream channels. or DSL access multiplexer. DMT modulation techniques are rate adaptive in nature. & distances supported are same as ADSL. so modern DSL modems inherently have the capability. • • • Any variation in line conditions after installations was not addressed. splitter splits the single pair into two pairs: one to voice switch & other to DSL modem (ADSL termination unit-Central) • RDSL: In the CO. . maximum speed. An alternative is to use a combination of fiber cables feeding neighborhood optical network units (ONUs) & leverage the existing copper loops to home or business. multiple ATU-Cs are aggregated into a single box called as DSLAM. RADSL theoretically has an additional feature which is not in modern ADSL. • VDSL: • • Fiber all the way to the home (FTTH) is still prohibitively expensive. RADSL & current ADSL technology automatically adapt to changing line conditions each time the link becomes active. Earlier versions of ADSL were needed to be balanced to the conditions of the line.
Is becoming preferred option over T1/E1 service. The first version was placed into service in 1992. VDSL is asymmetric with downstream speeds that range from 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps across copper loops ranging from 1000 feet to 4000 feet. the same as T1/E1. The line had to be spliced & repeaters inserted. • • VDSL is full-service access network that addresses a full range of services from POTS & ISDN to linking high-speed LANs. was the first DSL technology put into the operation. at every 3000-6000 feet . • HDSL: • • • • • Upstream rates range from 1.048 Mbps. High Bit-Rate DSL. T1/E1 Transmission Systems: • • T1/E1 operates over telephone wires but the loop had to be conditioned and loading coils & bridged taps had to be removed. Developed by Bellcore in the late 1980s.• VDSL depends on very short runs over copper loops of up to 6000 feet in order to maximize the available frequency range of the wire.544 Mbps & 2.5 to 6 Mbps. remaining loop to the local served by fiber. was intended to be an economical solution to growing demand for T1 carriers. • ONU serves as a central distribution point where the fiber from the local distribution terminates & many VDSL copper loops aggregate. HDSL operates at symmetric speeds of 1. • The DSL forum refers to this arrangement as fiber to the neighborhood (FTTN) & extends the concept to include fiber to the basement (FTTB) for high rise buildings with vertical drops & fiber to the curb (FTTC) for short drops.
• The power levels required for T1/E1 service created crosstalk for other services. Repeaters were normally line-powered from the CO. In spite of its challenges. The resistance in the loop wasted a lot of power being sent to repeater. HDSL as a Solution to T1/E1 Service: • Elimination of midspan repeater.000 feet away from the CO would require atleast 6 repeaters for a T1/E1 line. requiring a special power supply at the central office. • • • • A customer premises location 18. so had to be separated into separate binder groups. A comparison of T1/E1 HDSL . T1/E1 service was popular for digital access to the PSTN. called as “repeaterless or nonrepeatered” T1/E1 replacement technology.
4 Km). A variation on ISDL exists that is based on the PRI ISDN model . In ISDN 2 B channels are circuit switched.SDSL: • • • • • IDSL: • • Technology functions the same way as basic rate ISDN. each capable of carrying voice & data in both directions. SDSL uses a single transceiver & a single copper pair to fractional T1 services. Instead of using 2 transceivers & 2 copper pairs. Traditional ISDN requires a connection to a voice switch in the CO.4 miles or 5. Higher data rates than the 784 Kbps of the original HDSL transceivers are due to advances in technology. • • • • ISDL runs on a single pair of wires at a maximum distance of 18 kft (3. entire ISDL is provided by the DSL equipment hence called as “BRI without the switch” or “switchless BRI Some versions of ISDL allow full use of 144 Kbps BW while others allow only 2B operation or 128 Kbps. The D channels carries control signals & customer call data in a packet switched mode & operates at 16 Kbps. SDSL fits in where customers require higher data speeds but not a full T1 service. provides a data capacity of 144 Kbps. uses 2B+D. Using multiple copper pairs to provide residential digital services is not the ideal solution to Service Provider. Symmetric DSL or single-line DSL uses a single pair.