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# 1 Formulas and Concepts

## Physics pocket diary of concepts and formulas

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## 2 Formulas and Concepts

Kinematics
Note: - Bold letter are used to denote vector quantity i,j,z are the unit vector along x,y and z axis

## Quick review of Kinematics formulas

S.No.
1

Type of Motion
Motion in one dimension

Formula
r=xi v=(dx/dt)i a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i and a=vdv/dr v=u+at s=ut+1/2at2 v2=u2+2as In integral form r=vdt v=adt r=xi +yj v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j and a=vdv/dr Constant accelerated equation same as above r=xi +yj+zk v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j+(dz/dt)k a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j+(d2x/dt2)k a=vdv/dr Constant accelerated equation same as above x=(v0cos0)t y=(v0sin0)t-gt2/2 vx= v0cos0 and vy= v0sin0t-gt , where 0 is the angle initial velocity makes with the positive x axis. a=v2/R , where a is centripetal acceleration whose direction of is always along radius of the circle towards the centre and a=42R/T2 acceleration in uniform circular motion in terms of time period T

## Motion in three dimension

Projectile Motion

## Concept of relative velocity

For two objects A and B moving with the uniform velocities VA and VB. Relative velocity is defined as VBA=VB-VA where VBA is relative velocity of B relative to A Similarly relative velocity of A relative to B VAB=VA-VB

Special cases: S.No. 1 Case For straight line motion Description If the objects are moving in the same direction, relative velocity can be get by subtracting other. If they are moving in opposite direction ,relative velocity will be get by adding the velocities example like train problems if va=vxai + vyaj vb=vxbi + vybj Relative velocity of B relative to A =vxbi + vybj -(vxai + vyaj) =i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya) va=vxai + vyaj +vzaz vb=vxbi + vybj + vzbz Relative velocity of B relative to A =vxbi + vybj + vzbz -(vxai + vyaj +vzaz) =i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya)+z(vyb-vya)

## Free fall acceleration

S.No. 1 2 3 4 Point Freely falling motion of any body under the effect of gravity is an example of uniformly accelerated motion. Kinematics equation of motion under gravity can be obtained by replacing acceleration 'a' in equations of motion by acceleration due to gravity 'g'. Thus kinematics equations of motion under gravity are v = v0 + gt , x = v0t + ( gt2 ) and v2 = (v0)2 + 2gx Value of g is equal to 9.8 m.s-2.The value of g is taken positive when the body falls vertically downwards and negative when the body is projected up against gravity.

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## 3 Formulas and Concepts

Laws of motion
S.No. 1 2 Term Newton's first law of motion Newton's second law of motion Description 'A body continues to be in state of rest or uniform motion unless it is acted upon by some external force to act otherwise' 'Rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of action of force applied Mathematically, F= dp/dt =ma where, p=mv , momentum of the body a=acceleration Impulse is the product of force and time which is equal to the change in momentum Impulse =Ft =p 'To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction' FAB=-FBA Initial momentum = final momentum m1v1+m2v2=m1v1'+m2v2' For equilibrium of a body F1+F2+F3=0

Impulse

4 5

## Some points to note

S.No. 1 2 3 Point An accelerated frame is called non inertial frame while an non accelerated frame is called inertial frame Newton first law are valid in inertial frame only Apparent weight of a body in the lift Going Upward with acceleration a W=m(g + a) Going Down with acceleration a W=m(g-a) Always draw free body diagram to solve the force related problems

## Friction and Frame of reference

S.No. 1 Term Friction Description Frictional force acts between the bodies whenever there is a relative motion between them. When bodies slip, frictional force is called static frictional force and when the bodies do not slip, it is called kinetic frictional force. When bodies slip over each other f=KN Where N is the normal contact force between the surface and k is the coefficient of kinetic Friction. Direction of frictional force is such that relative slipping is opposed by the friction Frictional force can also act even if there is no relative motion. Such force is called static Frictional force. Maximum Static friction that a body can exert on other body in contact with it is called limiting Friction. fmax=sN Where N is the normal contact force between the surface And s is the coefficient of static Friction fmax is the maximum possible force of static Friction. Note that s > k and Angle of friction tan=s Inertial frame of references is those attached to objects which are at rest or moving at constant Velocity. Newtons law are valid in inertial frame of reference. Example person standing in a train moving at constant velocity. Inertial frame of references is attached to accelerated objects for example: A person standing in a train moving with increasing speed. Newtons law are not valid. To apply Newtons law ,pseudo force has to be introduced in the equation whose value will be F=-ma

## Non Inertial Frame Of reference

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## Work, Energy and Power

S.No. 1 Term Work Description 1. Work done by the force is defined as dot product of force and displacement vector. For constant Force W=F.s where F is the force vector and s is displacement Vector 2. For variable Force dW=F.ds or W=F.ds It is a scalar quantity 1. If the work done by the force in a closed path is zero, then it is called conservative Force 2. If the work done by the force in a closed path is not zero, then it is called non conservative Force 3. Gravitational ,electrical force are Conservative Forces and Non Conservative Forces are frictional forces 1. It is the energy possessed by the body in motion. It is defined as K.E=(1/2)mv2 2. Net work done by the external force is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the system W=Kf-Ki 1. It is the kind of energy possessed due to configuration of the system. It is due to conservative force. It is defined as dU=-F.dr Uf-Ui=-F.dr Where F is the conservative force F=-(U/x)i-(U/y)j-(U/z)k For gravtitional Force 2. Change in Potential Energy =mgh where h is the height between the two points 3. Mechanical Energy is defined as E=K.E+P.E In absence of external forces, internal forces being conservative, total energy of the system remains constant. K.E1+P.E1=K.E2+P.E2 Power is rate of doing work i.e., P=work/Time. Unit of power is Watt. 1W=1Js-1. In terms of force P= F.v and it is a scalar quantity.

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

## Momentum and Collision

S.No. 1 Term Linear Momentum Description The linear momentum p of an object of mass m moving with velocity v is defined as p=mv Impulse of a constant force delivered to an object is equal to the change in momentum of the object Ft = p = mvf - mvi Momentum of system of particles is the vector sum of individual momentum of the particle ptotal=viMi When no net external force acts on an isolated system, the total momentum of the system is constant. This principle is called conservation of momentum. if Fext=0 then viMi=constant Inelastic collision - the momentum of the system is conserved, but kinetic energy is not. Perfectly inelastic collision - the colliding objects stick together. Elastic collision - both the momentum and the kinetic energy of the system are conserved. While colliding if two bodies stick together then speed of the

Conservation of momentum

Collision

Inelastic collision

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## 5 Formulas and Concepts

composite body is

v=

m1 u 1 + m 2 u 2 m1 + m 2

## Elastic collision in one dimension

Kinetic energy of the system after collision is less then that before collison Final velocities of bodies after collision are
2 m2 m m2 v1 = 1 m + m u1 + m + m u 2 1 1 2 2

2 m1 m2 m1 v2 = m + m u1 + m + m u2 1 2 1 2 also u u = v v
1 2 2 1

## Special cases of Elastic Collision

S.No. 1 2 Case m1=m2 When one of the bodies is at rest say u2=0 Description v1=u2 and v2=u1

m m2 v1 = 1 m +m 1 2

and 2 m1 u1 v2 = m + m u1 1 2

3 4 5

When m1=m2 and u2=0 i.e., m2 is at rest When body in motion has negligible mass i.e. m1<<m2 When body at rest has negligible mass i.e. m1>>m2

v 1 = 0 and v2 = u1 v1 = u 1 and v 2 = 0 v1 = u 1
and

v2 = 2 u 2

## Mechanics of system of particles

S.No. 1 2 3 Term Centre of mass position vector of centre of mass In coordinate system Velocity of CM Description It is that point where entire mass of the system is imagined to be concentrated, for consideration of its translational motion. Rcm=riMi/Mi where ri is the coordinate of element i and Mi is mass of element i xcm=xiMi/Mi ycm=yiMi/Mi zcm=ziMi/Mi vCM=viMi/Mi The total momentum of a system of particles is equal the total mass times the velocity of the centre of mass When Newtons second law of motion is applied to the system of particles we find Ftot=MaCM with aCM=d2RCM/dt2 Thus centre of mass of the system moves as if all the mass of the system were concentrated at the centre of mass and external force were applied to that point. P=MvCM which means that total linear momentum of system of particles is equal to the product of the total mass of the system and the velocity of its centre of mass.

Force

## Rigid body dynamics

S.No. 1 Term Angular Displacement Description -When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of rotation perpendicularly -It can be positive (counter clockwise) or negative (clockwise). -Analogous to a component of the displacement vector. -SI unit: radian (rad). Other units: degree, revolution. -Average angular velocity, is equal to /t . Instantaneous Angular Velocity =d/dt -Angular velocity can be positive or negative.

Angular velocity

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## 6 Formulas and Concepts

-It is a vector quantity and direction is perpendicular to the plane of rotation -Angular velocity of a particle is different about different points -Angular velocity of all the particles of a rigid body is same about a point. Average angular acceleration= /t Instantaneous Angular Acceleration =d/dt -The direction of an angular variable vector is along the axis. - positive direction defined by the right hand rule. - Usually we will stay with a fixed axis and thus can work in the scalar form. -angular displacement cannot be added like vectors. Angular velocity and acceleration are vectors =0 + t =0t+1/2t2 .=0.0 + 2 .; Also =d/dt=(d/d) v=Xr Where r is vector joining the location of the particle and point about which angular velocity is being computed a=Xr Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia) about a Fixed Axis For a group of particles, I = mr2 For a continuous body, I = r2dm For a body of uniform density I = r2dV Ixx=Icc+ Md2 Where Icc is the moment of inertia about the centre of mass Ixx+Iyy=Izz It is valid for plane laminas only.

Angular Acceleration

## Relation Between Linear and angular variables Moment of Inertia

8 9

Parallel Axis Therom Perpendicular Axis Therom Torque Rotational Kinetic Energy Rotational Work Done

10 11 12

=rXF also =I where is angular acceleration of the body. KE=(1/2)I2 where is angular acceleration of the body -If a force is acting on a rotating object for a tangential displacement of s = r (with being the angular displacement and r being the radius) and during which the force keeps a tangential direction and a constant magnitude of F, and with a constant perpendicular distance r (the lever arm) to the axis of rotation, then the work done by the force is: W= -W is positive if the torque and are of the same direction, otherwise, it can be negative.

13 14

## Power Angular Momentum

P =dW/dt= L=rXp =rX(mv) =m(rXv) For a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis L=I and dL/dt= if =0 and L is constant For rigid body having both translational motion and rotational motion L=L1+L2 L1 is the angular momentum of Centre mass about an stationary axis L2 is the angular momentum of the rigid body about Centre of mass. If the external torque is zero on the system then Angular momentum remains contants dL/dt=ext if ext=0 then dL/dt=0

15

## Law of Conservation On Angular Momentum

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## 7 Formulas and Concepts

16 17 18 Equilibrium of a rigid body Angular Impulse Pure rolling motion of sphere/cylinder/disc Fnet=0 and ext=0 dt term is called angular impulse. It is basically the change in angular momentum -Relative velocity of the point of contact between the body and platform is zero -Friction is responsible for pure rolling motion -If friction is non dissipative in nature E = (1/2)mvcm2+(1/2)I2+mgh

Gravitation
S.No. 1 Term Newtons Law of gravitation Description
Gm1m2 where G is the universal gravitational constant r2 G=6.67 10-11Nm2Kg-2 F=

2 3

Acceleration due to gravity Gravitational potential energy Gravitational potential Keplers Law of planetary motion

g=GM/R2 where M is the mass of the earth and R is the radius of the earth PE of mass m at point h above surface of earth is GmM PE = ( R + h)

4 5

V =

GM ( R + h)

## Law of orbits Law of areas Law of periods

Escape velocity

Each planet revolves round the sun in an elliptical orbit with sun at one of the foci of elliptical orbit. The straight line joining the sun and the planet sweeps equal area in equal interval of time. The squares of the periods of the planet are proportional to the cubes of their mean distance from sun i.e., T2 R3 Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with which a body must be projected in order that it may escape earths gravitational pull. Its magnitude is ve=(2MG/R) and in terms of g ve=(2gR) Orbital Velocity The velocity which is imparted to an artificial satellite few hundred Km above the earths surface so that it may start orbiting the earth v0=(gR) T=2[(R+h)3/gR2]

Satellites

Periodic Time

Variation of g

## With altitude With depth With latitude

2h g h = g 1 R

d g d = g 1 R

g = g 0.037 cos 2

Elasticity
S.No. 1 2 3 Term Elasticity Stress Strain Description The ability of a body to regain its original shape and size when deforming force is withdrawn Stress=F/A where F is applied force and A is area over which it acts. It is the ratio of the change in size or shape to the original size or shape. Longitudinal strain = l/l volume strain = V/V and shear strain is due to change in shape of the body. Hook's law is the fundamental law of elasticity and is stated as for small deformations stress is proportional to strain".

Hooks Law

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## 8 Formulas and Concepts

Thus, stress proportional to strain or, stress/strain = constant This constant is known as modulus of elasticity of a given material Young's Modulus of Elasticity Y=Fl/Al Bulk Modulus of Elasticity K=-VP/V Modulus of Rigidity =F/A The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called Poissons ratio which is constant for material of that body. =lD/Dl Energy stored per unit volume in a strained wire is E=(stress)x(strain)

## Elastic Modulus Poisson's Ratio Strain energy

6 7

Hydrostatics
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Term Fluid pressure Pascals Law Density Atmospheric pressure Hydrostatic pressure Gauge pressure Archimedes principle Upthrust Boyles law Charles law Description It is force exerted normally on a unit area of surface of fluid P=F/A. Its unit is Pascal 1Pa=1Nm-2. Pressure in a fluid in equilibrium is same everywhere. Density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume. Weight of all the air above the earth causes atmospheric pressure which exerts pressure on the surface of earth. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is P0=1.01x105Pa At depth h below the surface of the fluid is P=gh where is the density of the fluid and g is acceleration due to gravity. P=P0+ gh , pressure at any point in fluid is sum of atmospheric pressure and pressure due to all the fluid above that point. When a solid body is fully or partly immersed in a fluid it experience a buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced by it. It is the weight of the displaced liquid. PV=constant V/T=constant

5 6 7 8 9 10

Hydrodynamics
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Term Streamline flow Turbulent flow Bernoullis principle Continuity of flow Viscosity Description In such a flow of liquid in a tube each particle follows the path of its preceding particle. It is irregular flow which does not obey above condition.

1 2 u + gh = cons tan t 2 A1 v1 = A2 v 2 where A1 and A2 are the area of cross section of tube of p+
variable cross section and v1 and v2 are the velocity of flow of liquids crossing these areas. Viscous force between two layers of fluid of area A and velocity gradient dv/dx is

F = A

6 7

## Stokes law Poiseuillis equation

Viscous force on a spherical body of radius r falling through a liquid of viscosity is F = 6rv where v is the velocity of the sphere. Volume of a liquid flowing per second through a capillary tube of radius r when its end are maintained at a pressure difference P is given by

Q=

Pr 4 8l

## Simple Harmonic Motion

S.No. 1 Term SHM Description In SHM the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from the mean position and opposes its increase. Restoring force is F=-Kx Where K=Force constant , x=displacement of the system from its mean or equilibrium position

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## 9 Formulas and Concepts

Differential Equation of SHM is d2x/dt2 + 2x=0 Solutions of this equation can both be sine or cosine functions .We conveniently choose x=Acos(t+) where A , and all are constants Quantity A is known as amplitude of SHM which is the magnitude of maximum value of displacement on either sides from the equilibrium position Time period (T) of SHM the time during which oscillation repeats itself i.e, repeats its one cycle of motion and it is given by T=2/ where is the angular frequency Frequency of the SHM is the number of the complete oscillation per unit time i.e., frequency is reciprocal of the time period f=1/T. Thus angular frequency =2f Velocity of a system executing SHM as a function of time is v=Asin(t+) Acceleration of particle executing SHM is a=-2Acos(t+). So a=-2x This shows that acceleration is proportional to the displacement but in opposite direction At any time t KE of system in SHM is KE=(1/2)mv2 =(1/2)m2A2sin2(t+) which is a function varying periodically in time PE of system in SHM at any time t is PE=(1/2)Kx2 =(1/2)m2A2cos2(t+) Total Energy in SHM E=KE+PE =(1/2)m2A2 and it remain constant in absence of dissipative forces like frictional forces In this case particle of mass m oscillates under the influence of hooks law restoring force given by F=-Kx where K is the spring constant Angular Frequency =(K/m) Time period T=2(m/K) frequency is =(1/2)(K/m) Time period of both horizontal and vertical oscillation are same but spring constant have different value for horizontal and vertical motion -Motion of simple pendulum oscillating through small angles is a case of SHM with angular frequency given by =(g/L)and Time period T=2(L/g) Where L is the length of the string. -Here we notice that period of oscillation is independent of the mass m of the pendulum - Compound pendulum is a rigid body of any shape,capable of oscillating about the horizontal axis passing through it. -Such a pendulum swinging with small angle executes SHM with the timeperiod T=2(I/mgL) Where I =Moment of inertia of pendulum about the axis of suspension L is the lenght of the pendulum -SHM which continues indefinitely without the loss of the amplitude are called free oscillation or undamped and it is not a real case - In real physical systems energy of the oscillator gradually decreases with time and oscillator will eventually come to rest. This happens because in actual physical systems, friction(or damping ) is always present -The reduction in amplitude or energy of the oscillator is called damping and oscillation are call damped - Oscillations of a system under the influence of an external periodic force are called forced oscillations - If frequency of externally applied driving force is equal to the natural frequency of the oscillator resonance is said to occur

Amplitude

Time period

Frequency

5 6

Velocity Acceleration

Kinetic energy

8 9

10

## Oscillations of a Spring mass system

11

Simple pendulum

12

Compound Pendulum

13

Damped Oscillation

14

## Forced Oscillations and Resonance

Waves
S.No. 1 Term Wave Description -It is a disturbance which travels through the medium due to repeated periodic motion of particles of the medium about their equilibrium position.

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## 10 Formulas and Concepts

-Examples are sound waves travelling through an intervening medium, water waves, light waves etc. Waves requiring material medium for their propagation are MECHANICAL WAVES. These are governed by Newton's law of motion. -Sound waves are mechanical waves in atmosphere between source and the listener and require medium for their propagation. -Those waves which does not require material medium for their propagation are called NON MECHANICAL WAVES. -Examples are waves associated with light or light waves , radio waves, X-rays, micro waves, UV light, visible light and many more. These are such waves where the displacements or oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave. Longitudinal waves are those waves in which displacement or oscillations in medium are parallel to the direction of propagation of wave for example sound waves -At any time t , displacement y of the particle from it's equilibrium position as a function of the coordinate x of the particle is y(x,t)=A sin(t-kx) where, A is the amplitude of the wave k is the wave number is angular frequency of the wave and (t-kx) is the phase. Wavelength and wave number k are related by the relation k=2/ Time period T and frequency f of the wave are related to by /2 = f = 1/T speed of the wave is given by v = /k = /T = f Speed of a transverse wave on a stretched string depends on tension and the linear mass density of the string not on frequency of the wave i.e, v=T/ T=Tension in the string =Linear mass density of the string. Speed of longitudinal waves in a medium is given by v=B/ B=bulk modulus =Density of the medium Speed of longitudinal waves in ideal gas is v=P/ P=Pressure of the gas , =Density of the gas and =Cp/CV

Mechanical waves

4 5

7 8 9 10

11

## Speed of longitudinal waves

12

Principle of superposition

13

Interference of waves

14

Reflection of waves

15

Standing waves

When two or more waves traverse thrugh the same medium,the displacement of any particle of the medium is the sum of the displacement that the individual waves would give it. y=yi(x,t) If two sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude and wavelength travel in the same direction they interfere to produce a resultant sinusoidal wave travelling in that direction with resultant wave given by the relation y(x,t)=[2Amcos(/2)]sin(t-kx+/2)where is the phase difference between two waves. -If =0 then interference would be fully constructive. -If = then waves would be out of phase and there interference would be destructive. When a pulse or travelling wave encounters any boundary it gets reflected. If an incident wave is represented by yi(x,t)=A sin(t-kx)then reflected wave at rigid boundary is yr(x,t)=A sin(t+kx+) =-Asin(t+kx) and for reflections at open boundary reflected wave is given by yr(x,t)=Asin(t+kx) The interference of two identical waves moving in opposite directions produces standing waves. The particle displacement in standing wave is given by y(x,t)=[2Acos(kx)]sin(t) In standing waves amplitude of waves is different at different points i.e., at nodes amplitude is zero and at antinodes amplitude is maximum which is equal to sum of amplitudes of constituting waves.

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## 11 Formulas and Concepts

Normal modes of stretched string Frequency of transverse motion of stretched string of length L fixed at both the ends is given by f=nv/2L where n=1,2,3,4,....... -The set of frequencies given by above relation are called normal modes of oscillation of the system. Mode n=1 is called the fundamental mode with frequency f1=v/2L. Second harmonic is the oscillation mode with n=2 and so on. -Thus the string has infinite number of possible frequency of vibration which are harmonics of fundamental frequency f1 such that fn=nf1 Thus beats arises when two waves having slightly differing frequencies 1 and 2 and comparable amplitude are superposed. -Here interfering waves have slightly differing frequencies 1 and 2 such that |1-2|<<(1+2)/2 The beat frequency is beat= 1 2 -Doppler effect is a change in the observed frequency of the wave when the source S and the observer O move relative to the medium. -There are three different ways where we can analyse this change in frequency. (1) When observer is stationary and source is approaching observer is =0(1+Vs/V) where, vs=velocity of source relative to the medium v=velocity of wave relative to the medium =observed frequency of sound waves in term of source frequency 0=source frequency -Change in frequency when source recedes from stationary observer is =0(1-Vs/V) -Observer at rest measures higher frequency when source approaches it and it measures lower frequency when source reseeds from the observer. (2)Observer is moving with a velocity Vo towards source and the source is at rest is =0(1+Vo/V) (3)Both source and observer are moving then frequency observed by observer is =0(V+Vo)/(V+Vs) and all the symbols have respective meanings as told earlier

16

17

Beats

18

Doppler effect

Thermal expansion
S.No. 1 Term Coefficient of linear expansion Length at temperature t C Coefficient of superficial expansion Area at temperature t0C Coefficient of volume expansion Volume at temperature t0C Coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid
0

Description

2 3 4 5 6 7

=
=

At A0 A0 t

At=A0(1+t)

Vt V0 V0 t

Vt=V0(1+t)

Va V0 V0 t

where

## =coefficient of apparent expansion, r =coefficient of real expansion,

V0=volume at 00C and V= apparent volume at t0C 8 Coefficient of real expansion of a liquid

r =
dt =

Vr V0 where V0 t
1 + t

## Density variation with temperature Pressure coefficient of gas

V0=volume at 00C and Vr= real volume at t0C d 0 where dt=density at temperature t0C , d0= density at 00C.

10

P =

Pt P0 P0 t

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## 12 Formulas and Concepts

11 12 Volume coefficient of gas Ideal gas equation

v =

Vt V 0 V0 t

## Measurement of heat and temperature

S.No. 1 Term Relation between Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin scale of temperature Principle of electrical resistance thermometer Joules mechanical equivalent to heat(J) Heat capacity Specific heat Molar specific heat Description

## C F 32 K 273 = = 100 180 100

Rt=R0(1+t) where Rt is resistance at t0C, R0 is resistance at )0C and is temperature coefficient of resistance. W=JH where value of J is J=4.2J/cal. C=Q/t where Q is the amount of heat absorbed and t is rise in temperature. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1Kg of substance by 10C Molar specific heat of the substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the substance through 10C. CP-Cv=R where R is universal gas constant. Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of substance from the solid to the liquid state without change in temperature. Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of substance from the liquid to the gaseous state without change in temperature. Heat lost=Heat gain

3 4 5 6

7 8

## Latent heat of sublimation

10

Principle of calorimetery

Thermodynamics
S.No. 1 2 Term Thermodynamic state Zeroth law of thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics Work in volume changes Quasi static Processes Isothermal Process Adiabatic Process Isochoric process Isobaric Process Work done in Isothermal process Ideal gas equation for adiabatic process Work done in an Adiabatic process Thermal efficiency of heat engine Description It refers to the state of the system that is completely defined by pressure , volume and temperature of the system. If two systems A and B are separately in equilibrium with the third system C then system A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other Heat energy given to the system is equal to the increase in internal energy of the system and the work done. Q=U+W Heat can not flow from a colder body to a hotter body without some work being done by the external agency. If pressure remains constant while the volume changes, then work is W = P(V2-V1) In Quasi static process deviation of system from it's thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimally small. temperature of the system remains constant throughout the process and thus Q =W no heat enters or leaves a system thus U=U2 - U1= - W volume of the system remain uncharged throughout and U2 - U1 = U =Q This process takes place at constant pressure. W=nRT ln(V2/V1) Where n is number of moles in sample of gas taken PV = K (Constant) Where is the ratio of specific heat (ordinary or molar) at constant pressure and at constant volume = Cp/Cv W = (P1V1-P2V2)/(-1) In and adiabatic process if W>0 i.e., work is done by the gas then T2< T1 . If work is done on the gas (W<0) then T2 > T1 i.e., temperature of gas rises = 1-(Q2/Q1)

3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

14

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## 13 Formulas and Concepts

15 Coefficient of performance of refrigerator Efficiency of carnot engine Carnot Theorem = Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2)

16 17

= Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2) Carnots theorem consists of two parts (i) No engine working between two given temperatures can be more efficent than a reversible Carnot engine working between same source and sink. (ii) All reversible engines working between same source and sink (same limits or temperature) have the same efficiency irrespective the working substance.

Heat transfer
S.No. 1 Term Thermal Conductivity Convection Radiation Stefan Boltzmann law description

H=

2 3 4

## Wein's displacement law Kirchoff's law

and k is the constant called thermal conductivity of material of slab. Convection is transfer of heat by actual motion of matter Radiation process does not need any material medium for heat transfer The rate urad at which an object emits energy via EM radiation depends on objects surface area A and temperature T in kelvin of that area and is given by urad = AT4 Where = 5.670310-8 W/m2K4 is Stefan boltzmann constant and is emissivity of object's surface with value between 0 and 1 mT = b Where b=0.289610-2 mk for black body and is known as Wien's constant Emissive Power It is the energy radiated per unit area per unit solid angle normal to the area. E = u/ [(A) () (t)] where, u is the energy radiated by area A of surface in solid angle in time t. Absorptive is defined as the fraction of the incident radiation that is Power absorbedby the body a(absorptive power) = energy absorbed / energy incident Kirchoff's "It status that at any given temperature the ratio of Law emissive power to the absorptive power is constant for all bodies and this constant is equal to the emissive power of perfect B.B. at the same temperature. E/abody=EB.B For small temperature difference between the body and surrounding rate of cooling is directly proportional to the temperature difference and surface area exposed i.e., dT/dt = - bA (T1 - T2). This is known a Newton's law of cooling

## Kinetic theory of gases

S.No. 1 Term Gas laws Description Boyle's law At constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure. Thus PV = constant Charle's Law When pressure of a gas is constant the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. V/T = Constant Dalton's law of The total pressure of mixture of ideal gases is partial sum of partial pressures of individual gases of pressures which mixture is made of PV = nRT where n is number of moles of gas P = (1/3)vmq2 or PV = (1/3) Nmvmq2 where vmq2 known as mean

2 3

## Ideal gas equation Pressure of gas

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## 14 Formulas and Concepts

4 5 rms speed Law of Equipartition of energy Specific Heat Capacity Specific heat Capacity of Solids Mean free path square speed vrms = (3P/) = (3PV/M) =(3RT/M) each velocity component has, on the average, an associated kinetic energy (1/2)KT Monatomic gases Diatomic gases CV= (3/2)R , CP = 5/2 R and mono = CP/CV= 5/3 CV =(5/2)R , CP=(9/2)R and =CP/CV=9/7

7 8

C=3R this is Dulang and Petit law If v is the distance traversed by molecule in one second then mean free path is given by = total distance traversed in one second /no. of collision suffered by the molecules =v/2vn =1/2n

## Electric Charge, Force and Field

S.No. 1 Term Charge Description Charges are of two types (a) positive charge (b) negative charge like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. 1. Quantisation: - q=ne where n=0,1, 2........ and e is charge of an electron. 2. Additivety: - qnet=q 3. conservation :- total charge of an isolated system is constant The mutual electrostatic force between the charges q1 and q2 separated by a distance r is given by Force on the charge q1 F1=Kq1q2r12/r2 where r12 is the unit vector in the direction from q2 to q1 For more then two charges in the system the force acting on any charges is vector sum of the coulomb force from each of the other charges. This is called principle of superposition for q1,q2,q3......qn charges are present in the system. Force on charge q1 F=Kq1q2r12/r122+Kq1q3r13/r132+Kq1q4r14/r142....Kq1qnr1n/r1n2 Similarly for the other charges... -The region around a particular charge in which its electrical effects can be observed is called the electric field of the charge -Electric field has its own existence and is present even if there is no charge to experience the electric force. E=F/q0 Where F is the electric force experience by the test charge q0 at this point.It is the vector quantity Some point to note on this 1. Electric field lines extend away from the positive charge and towards the negative charges 2. Electric field produces the force so if a charge q is placed in the electric field E the force experience by the charge is F=qE 3 Principle of superposition also applies to electric field so E=E1+E2+E3+E4+...... Electric field intensity due to point charge E=KQr/r2 Where r is the distance from the point charge and r is the unit vector along the direction from source to point. Electric field for the E=KQx/(r2+x2)3/2 Uniformly charged ring Where x is the distance from the centre of the ring. At x=0 E=0 Electric Field due to E= (/20)(1- x/(R2+x2)) uniformly charged disc =Surface charge density of the disc. At x=0 E=/20 Electric Field Intensity due to E=/20 Infinite sheet of the charge Linear charge density =Q/L=dQ/dL Surface charge density =Q/A=dQ/dA

Properties of charge

Coulombs law

Electric field

## Some useful Formula

Charge density

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## 15 Formulas and Concepts

Volume charge density =Q/V=dQ/dV 1. E=0 inside the conductor 2. All charge resides on the outer surface of the conductor 3.Electric at the surface is Perpendicular to the surface d=E.da da is the area vector to the surface and it is taken positive along the outward normal to the surface d=Edacos = E.da Flux in closed surface is equal net charge inside divided by E.da=qin/ a. E is the electric field present due to all charges in the system not just the charge inside b. Flux crossing a closed surface does not depend on the shapes and size of Gaussian surface

10

## Gausss Theorem Some points

11

Electric potential
S.No. 1 Term Electric Potential energy Description U=-W Where U = Change in Potential energy and W= Work done by the electric lines of forces For a system of two particles U(r)=q1q2/4r where r is the separation between the charges. We assume U to be zero at infinity Similarly for a system of n charges U=Sum of potential energy of all the distinct pairs in the system For example for three charges U=(1/4)(q1q2/r12+q2q3/r23+q1q3/r13) =qV where V is the potential there

## Some points about Electric potential

Electric dipole Electric potential due to dipole Electric field due to dipole

Liken Electric field intensity is used to define the electric field; we can also use Electric Potential to define the field. Potential at any point P is equal to the work done per unit test charge by the external agent in moving the test charge from the reference point(without Change in KE) Vp=Wext/q So for a point charge Vp=Q/4r where r is the distance of the point from charge 1. It is scalar quantity 2.Potential at point due to system of charges will be obtained by the summation of potential of each charge at that point V=V1+V2+V3+V4 3.Electric forces are conservative force so work done by the electric force between two point is independent of the path taken 4. V2-V1=- E.dr 5. In Cartesian coordinates system dV=-E.dr dV=-(Exdx+Eydy+Ezdz) So Ex=V/x , Ey=V/y and Ez=V/z Also E=-[(V/x)i+(V/y)j+(V/z)k] 6. Surface where electric potential is same everywhere is call equipotential surface Electric field components parallel to equipotential surface is always zero A combination of two charge +q and -q separated by the distance d p=qd Where d is the vector joining negative to positive charge V=(1/4)(pcos/r2) where r is the distance from the center and is angle made by the line from the axis of dipole E=(1/4)(psin/r3) Er=(1/4)(2pcos/r3) Total E=E2+Er2

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## 16 Formulas and Concepts

=(p/4r3)((3cos2+1)) Torque on dipole=pXE Potential Energy U=-p.E 1. E.dl over closed path is zero 2.Electric potential in the spherical charge conductor is Q/4R where R is the radius of the shell and the potential is same everywhere in the conductor 3. Conductor surface is a equipotential surface

## Few more points

Capacitance
S.No. 1 Term Capacitance C of the capacitor Description C=q/V or q=CV -Unit of capacitance is Farads or CV-1 capacitance of a capacitor is constant and depends on shape, size and separation of the two conductors and also on insulating medium being used for making capacitor. C=(0A)/d where, C= capacitance of capacitor A= area of conducting plate d= distance between plates of the capacitor 0=8.854 10-12 and is known as electric permittivity in vacuum. C=A/d

## Capacitance of parallel plate cap

parallel plate air capacitor in presence of dielectric medium Capacitance of spherical capacitor having radii a, b (b>a) Parallel combination of capacitors Series combination of capacitors Energy stored in capacitor

5 6 7

(a) air as dielectric between them C=(40ab)/(b-a) (b) dielectric with relative permittivity C=(4ab)/(b-a) C=Q/V= C1+C2+C3 , resultant capacitance C is greater then the capacitance of greatest individual one. 1/C=1/C1+1/C2+1/C3, resultant capacitance C is less then the capacitance of smallest individual capacitor. Energy stored in capacitor is E=QV/2 or E=CV2/2 or E=Q2/2C factor 1/2 is due to average potential difference across the capacitor while it is charged.

8 9

F=

## Electric current and D.C. circuits

S.No. 1 Term Electromotive force Description EMF of a cell is the total energy per unit charge when the cell is on an open circuit i.e., when the current through the cell is zero. I=q/t it is the rate of flow of electric charge. Unit of current is ampere. I Where I is the current, n is the number of electrons vd = neA per unit volume and A is the area of cross section of conductor.

2 3

m ne 2

## where m is the mass of electron and

is the

Ohms law

relaxation time V=IR where R is the resistance of the given conductor and unit of resistance is ohm( )

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## 17 Formulas and Concepts

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Electrical resistivity Resistors in series Resistors in parallel Terminal voltage Kirchoffs first law Kirchoffs second law Heating effect of current =RA/l where l is the length of the wire and A is its area of cross-section R=R1+R2+R3+.
1 1 1 1 = + + + ..... R R1 R2 R3

13 14 15

Electrical power Variation of resistance with temperature Variation of resistivity with temperature

It is equal to emf of battery minus potential drop across internal resistance r across the battery. Terminal voltage = E-Ir The algebraic sum of current at any junction in a circuit is zero. The algebraic sum of the products of the current and resistances and the emf in a closed loop is zero. Heat energy delivered by current when it flows through resistance of R ohm for t sec. maintained at potential difference V is H=V2t/R P = VI = I2R = V2/R R=R0(1+(T-T0)) =0(1+(T-T0))

## Magnetic effect of current

S.No. 1 Term Biot-Savart law Description Magnetic fiels dB at any point whose position vector is r wrt 0 I (dl r) current elemant dl is given by

dB =

Magnetic field due to long current carrying conductor Magnetic field at centre of a circular loop Magnetic field at centre of coil of n turns Magnetic field on the axis of a circular loop

B=
B=
B=

0 2I 4r
0 I
2r

r3

0 In
2r

B=

0 Ir 2
2( r + x 2 ) 3 / 2
2

## if there are n turns in the coil then

6 7 8 9

Amperes circuital law Field due to toroidal solenoid Field inside straight solenoid Force on moving charge in magnetic field Force on current carrying conductor in the magnetic field Force between two parallel wires carrying current Torque on a current carrying loop Lorentz force Magnetic dipole moment of bar magnet torque on the bar magnet Potential energy of a magnetic dipole

2( r 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2 B dI = 0 I

B=

0 Inr 2

B = 0 nI
B = 0 nI
and direction of field is parallel to the axis of solenoid

## F = q(v B) Direction of force is perpendicular to both v and B

F = I (l B) where l is the length of the conductor in the
direction of current in it

10

11

F=

0 I1I 2 2R

12

## = (m B) Where m is the magnetic moment of the dipole and

magnitude of magnetic moment is m=NIB where A is the area of the loop and N is the number of turns in the loop. Force on electron moving with velocity v in presence of both uniform electric and magnetic field is F = e( E + v B ) m=q(2a) where q is the pole strength and (2a) is the length of the bar magnet. It is the vector pointing from south to north pole of the magnet.

13 14

15 16

= mB

U=-mBcos

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## 18 Formulas and Concepts

Electromagnetic induction
S.No. 1 2 Term Magnetic flux Faradays law Description

= B A = BA cos
e= d dt

## where is the angle between normal to the plane

of the coil and magnetic field s.I. unit of flux is Weber and for a closely packed coil of N turns

e=

d dt

where e is

3 4

## Lenzs law Inductance L of inductor Self induction

the induced EMF The induced current has such a direction such that magnetic field of the current opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produces current.

L=

## Where N is windings of inductor, I is the current associated

with each winding of inductor. Phenomenon by which an opposing EMF is introduced in the coil because of varying current in coil itself. Self induction EMF is

e = L

di dt

Series RL circuit

Rise of current

i=

e (1 e t / ) R
L

where

L = L/R

is inductive time

constant of the circuit. On removing emf current decays from a value i0 according to equation 7 8 Magnetic energy Density of stored magnetic energy Mutual induction

i = i0 e t /

## Energy stored by inductors magnetic field is U=Li2. u=B2/20

It refers to the phenomenon by which a current I is induced in a coil when current in a neighbouring coil circuit is changed. It is described by

e2 = M

## di di1 and e1 = M 2 where M is the mutual induction for the dt dt

coil arrangement.

Magnetism of matter
S.No. 1 2 3 4 Term Gausss law for magnetic fields Spin magnetic dipole moment Orbital magnetic dipole moment Diamagnetism Description

## = B dA = 0 i.e., net magnetic flux through any closed Gaussian

surface is zero. e where S is spin angular momentum. s = S m e where L is orbital angular momentum

L =

2m

Paramagnetism

6 7

## Ferromagnetism Maxwells extension of amperes law

Diamagnetic materials are those materials which on being placed in magnetic field get feebly magnetised in the direction opposite to the magnetic field. In Paramagnetic materials each atom has permanent magnetic moment but dipole moments are randomly oriented and material as a whole lacks property of magnetism but dipoles can be aligned in the presence of external magnetic field to give net dipole moment and material gets feebly magnetised in the direction of the field. Ferromagnetic materials when placed in external magnetic field gets strongly magnetised in the direction of the magnetic field.

B ds =
0

d dt

Transient Currents
S.No. 1 Term Growth of charge in CR circuit Description

q = q0 (1 e

t CR

## ) and current in CR circuit is i = i0 e CR

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## 19 Formulas and Concepts

2 3 4 5 6 Decay of charge in CR circuit Capacitive time constant Energy stored in inductor Energy stored in capacitor LC oscillations

q = q0 e

t CR

## and current in CR circuit is

i = i0 e

t CR

CR has dimensions of time and is called capacitive time constant for circuit U = 1 (Li 2 ) 2 Where E is the maximum value of potential U = 1 (CE 2 ) = 1 (q 0 E ) 2 2 difference set up across the plates. 1 Frequency of oscillations is

f =

2 LC

Alternating Current
S.No. 1 Term Alternating current Mean value of a.c. RMS value a.c. through resistor a.c. through inductor a.c. through capacitor Inductive reactance Capacitive reactance a.c. through series LR circuit Description It is current whose magnitude changes with time and direction reverses periodically. I=I0sint where I0 is the peak value of a.c. and =2/T is the frequency Im=2I0/ = 0.636I0 Irms=I0/2 Alternating emf is in phase with current Emf leads the current by an phase angle /2 Emf lags behind the current by an phase angle /2 Opposition offered by inductor to the flow of current mathematically,

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

X L = L = 2fL

Opposition offered by capacitor to the flow of current mathematically, 1 1 = XC = C 2fC Emf leads the current by an phase angle impedance of circuit is Z =

given by

tan =

L
R

and

R 2 + ( 2 L2 )

10

## a.c. through series CR circuit

Emf lags behind the current by an phase angle and impedance of circuit is
1 Z = R2 + 2 2 C

given by

1 tan = C R

11

## Emf leads/lags behind the current by an phase angle

given by

L 1C emf leads the current when 1 and lags behind L > tan = R C
when

L <

12 13

1 Z = R 2 + L C

## is called power factor of the circuit.

It is a device used to change low alternating voltage at high current into high voltage at low current and vice-versa. Primary and secondary voltage for a transformer are related as and current through S

VS = VP

## the coils is related as

IS = IP

P S

Electromagnetic waves
S.No. 1 Term Conduction current Description It is the current due to the flow of electrons through the connecting wires in an electric circuit

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## 20 Formulas and Concepts

2 Displacement current It arises due to time rate of change of electric flux in some part d of circuit

ID = 0

dt
d E where IC is the conduction ) dt

## Modified amperes circuital law Maxwells Equations

B.dl =

(IC + I D ) = 0 (IC + 0

current. Gausss law in electrostatics Gausss law in magnetism Faradays law of EM induction Ampere-Maxwells circuital law

E ds =
E dl =

q
0

B ds = 0
d B dt
0

B.dl ==

(I C + 0

d E ) dt

v=

0 0

= 3 10 8 m / s

## Huygens Principle and Interference of Light

S.No. 1 2 Term Wave front Huygens Principle Description It is the locus of points in the medium which at any instant are vibrating in the same phase. 1 Each point on the given primary Wavefront acts as a source of secondary wavelets spreading out disturbance in all direction. 2 The tangential plane to these secondary wavelets constitutes the new wave front It is the phenomenon of non uniform distribution of energy in the medium due to superposition of two light waves. = 2n or x=n where n=0,1,2,3,.

3 4 6 7 8

Interference Condition of maximum intensity Condition of minimum intensity Ratio of maximum and minimum intensity Distance of nth bright fringe from centre of the screen Angular position of nth bright fringe Distance of nth dark fringe from centre of the screen Angular position of nth dark fringe Fringe width

= (2n + 1)
I max (a1 + a 2 ) 2 = I min (a1 a 2 ) 2

yn =

## nD where d is the separation distance between two d

9 10

coherent source of light, D is the distance between screen and slit, is the wavelength of light used. y n n = n = D d

(2n + 1) D yn = 2d
n =
y n (2n + 1) = D 2d

11 12

D d

## Diffraction and polarisation of light

S.No. 1 2 Term Diffraction Single slit diffraction Description It is the phenomenon of bending of light waves round the sharp corners and spreading into the regions of geometrical shadow of the object. Condition for dark fringes is sin = n where n=

1, 2, 3, 4. ,

3 4

## Width of central maximum is Diffraction

a is the width of slit and is angle of diffraction. Condition for bright fringes is (2n + 1) sin = 2a 2D where D is the distance between slit and screen. 0 = a The arrangement of large number of narrow rectangular slits of equal

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## 21 Formulas and Concepts

grating width placed side by side parallel to each other. the condition for maxima in the interference pattern at the angle is dsin =n where n=0,1,2,3,4 For two nearly equal wavelengths 1 and 2 between which a diffraction grating can just barely distinguish resolving power is

R=

2 1
=

7 8 9 10

## Diffraction of XRays by crystals Polarisation Brewsters law Law of Malus

where =(1+2)/2 the condition for constructive interference is 2dsin =n where n=1,2,3,4 It is the phenomenon due to which vibrations of light are restricted in a particular plane. = tan p where is refractive index of medium and p is angle of polarisation.

## I = I 0 cos 2 where I is the intensity of emergent light from analyser, I0

is the intensity of incident plane polarised light and is the angle between planes of transmission of analyser and the polarizer.

## Reflection and Refraction of light

S.No. 1 Term Laws of reflection Description 1. The incident ray, the normal at a point of incidence and reflected ray all lie on the same plane. 2. Angle of incidence is always equal to angle of reflection. f=R/2 both f and R are positive for concave mirror and negative for convex mirror.

2 3 4 5 6

## Relation between f and R Mirror formula Magnification Refraction Laws of refraction

1 1 1 + = u v f
m= I f v = O f

The phenomenon of change in path of light as it goes from one medium to another 1 The incident ray, the normal at a point of incidence and refracted ray all lie on the same plane. 2 The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is constant for any two given media. This is known as Snells law. Mathematically

## sin i = ba where ba is relative refractive index of sin r

medium b w.r.t. medium a. 7 8 Lateral shift Spherical refracting surface Power of spherical refracting surface Lens makers formula

t sin(i r ) d= cos r

1
u

+ +

2
v

= =

R

2
u

1
v

R

P=

2 1
R

10

## 1 1 1 focal length of convex lens is positive and that of = ( 1) f R1 R2

concave lens is negative 11 12 13 14 Lens equation Linear magnification Power of lens For thin lenses placed in contact

1 1 1 + = u v f
I f v = O f
1 1 1 = ( 1) f R1 R2

m=
P=

Focal length

1 1 1 = + f f1 f 2

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## 22 Formulas and Concepts

Power of P=P1+P2 equivalent lens Magnification of m=m1+m2 equivalent lens The inability of lenses of aperture to bring all the rays in wide beam of light falling on it to focus a single point is called spherical aberration.

15

Spherical aberration

## Dual nature of waves and matter

S.No. 1 2 Term Energy of a photon Photoelectric effect Compton effect De Brogli wavelength De Brogli phase velocity Wave formula Description

= h

## where h is the planks constant.

3 4 5 6

h = KE max + where = h 0 is the work function of a metal and 0 is the critical frequency for that metal. = C (1 cos ) where c=h/m0c is Compton wavelength

h mv c2 v

v P = =

x y = A cos 2 t or y = A cos(t kx) where = 2 is angular frequency and k = 2 = is the wave number. vP

7 8 9

## Phase velocity Group velocity Uncertainty principle

k d vg = dk
vP =
It is impossible to know both the exact position and exact momentum of an object at same time. Mathematically , h xp 4 h Et 4

10

## Uncertainty in energy and time

Atomic structure
S.No. 1 Term Velocity of electron in an orbit Description

v=

e 4 0 mr

## Total energy of hydrogen atom

E=
Lyman

e2 8 0 r
1

Atomic spectra

Balmer

1 1 = R 2 2 n 1

where R is Rydberg

constant

Paschen

Brackett

1 1 = R 2 2 n 2 1 1 1 = R 2 2 n 3 1 1 1 = R 2 2 n 4 1

R=1.097x10-7m-1

Pfund

1 1 = R 2 2 n 5 1

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## 23 Formulas and Concepts

4 Orbital electron wavelength according to Bohr atom model Condition for orbital stability Orbital radii in Bohr atom

h e

4 0 r m

5 6

rn =

n 2 h 2 0 me 2

## Atomic nucleus and nuclear energy

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Term Isotopes Isobars Atomic mass unit Nuclear radius Nuclear density Nuclear forces Mass defect Binding energy Binding energy per nucleon Radioactive decay law Half life Average life Description Nuclei having same atomic number but different mass number. Nuclei having different atomic number but same mass number. One atomic mass unit is defined as one twelfth part of the mass of 12C6 atom. Value of a mass unit is 1u=1.66054x10-27Kg=931 MeV R=R0A1/3 Where value of R0 1.2 x 10-15 1.2 fm and is known as nuclear radius parameter The density of nuclear matter is approximately of the order of 1017 Kg/m3 and is very large compared to the density of ordinary matter. It is the force which holds the nucleons together inside the nucleus.
m = Zm p + ( A Z )mn m

## BE = mc2 = Zmp + ( A Z)mn m c2

=BE/A

[[

] ]

e t

T=ln2/ Tav=1/

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