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HADI SUSILO ARIFIN

Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)-Indonesia hsarifin@ipb.ac.id

NOBUKAZU NAKAGOSHI
IDEC - Hiroshima University-Japan nobu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Deforestation Rate in Indonesia 3,8 Million ha/year (1 ha/8)


Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Landscape Ecolo

POPULATION OF WORLDS CITIES

Year
Doc. Citra Doc. Citra

1800

1900

1950

2000

2030

3%

14%

30%

47%

60%

Doc. Citra

Doc. Citra Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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Traffics and Air Pollutant Problem Jakarta 2-3 February 2007

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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Open field agriculture

Farm forestry, agroforests

Less trees Less Fields,fallow, patchy: Tree cover: forest mosaic Inte- Deforestation, Reforestation grateIntegrate Segregate More trees

More patchy: Segregate

Fields, Forests & Parks

Courtesy of van Noordwijk Courtesy of van Noordwijk 100% forest Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Four Basic Concepts in LE


Landscape Ecology Function

ECOLOGICAL BALANCING PROCESS


Natural ecosystem Basic ecological balancing process

Structure

Change

C U L T U R E
Courtesy slide from Ong BL Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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MAN / NATURE
Resources
Natural Processes

Pollution

Pollution MAN Built Environment Urban Landscape

Technology

Resources NATURE Plants/Animals Greenery

Courtesy slide from Ong BL

Green City image, which is developed by high biodiversity


Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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THREE STEPS TOWARD GREEN CITY


Promotion of Eco-office (7): Reduction of energy use; Reduction of water use; Reduction of solid wastes; Promotion of recycling; Green procurement; Conserving water and clean air; Appropriate control of chemicals Promotion of Eco-Project (6): Using e-friendly materials; Using e-friendly equipment ; Accelerate use of recycled materials; Green public engineering works; Develop green technology; Promote greening Green City Planning (5): Set green guidelines for public works; Set green guidelines for housing; Enhance public transportat-ion; Capacity building; Apply EMS to the whole city

THE TRIANGLE OF THE FORCES


COMMUNITIES INICIATIVES

URBAN BIODIVERSITY CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY GOVERNMEN T SUPPORTS

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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ARID ARID ARID ARID ARID ARID

MONSOON & TROPICAL ASIA


Courtesy of Nakagoshi

Land area 1.3% of total world land,- Indonesia has 17% of total species in the world more than 38.000 flora species - in the fifth rank in the world with 55 % endemic MEGA BIODIVERSITY

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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MEGA DIVERSITY COUNTRY DATA


(RANK IN THE OVERALL NUMBER OF SPECIES PER GROUP OF ORGANISM) Continent LAC LAC SEA SEA LAC SSA LAC LAC LAC NA SEA SA OCE SEA SSA SSA SEA Country Brazil Colombia Indonesia China Mexico South Africa Venezuela Ecuador Peru USA Papua New Guinea India Australia Malaysia Madagascar Dem. Rep. Congo Philippines Higher plants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Mamals 1 4 2 3 5 14 10 13 9 6 15 8 12 11 17 7 16 Birds 3 1 5 8 10 11 6 4 2 12 13 7 14 15 17 9 16 Reptiles 5 3 4 7 2 9 13 8 12 16 10 6 1 14 11 14 17 Amphibia 2 1 6 5 4 15 9 3 7 12 10 8 11 14 13 16 17
Source: www.conservation.org/web/fiedact/megadiv/tables

Vavilov Centers of Plant Genetic Diversity


Areas of High Crop Diversity and Origins of Food Crops, according to N. Vavilov

Source: N. Vavilov, 1949, Chronica Botanica Vol 13. Waltham, Massachusetts, adapted by Reid, Walter and Kenton Miller, 1989. Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiversity. World Resources Institute, Washington DC. 1. Ethiopia ... barley, coffee, sorghum 2. Mediterranean ... oats, olives, wheat 3. Asia Minor ... barley, lentil, oats, wheat 4. Central Asia ... apple, chickpeas, lentil 5. Indo-Burma ... eggplant, rice, yam 6. Indo-Malaya ... banana, coconut, sugar cane 7. China ... sorghum, millet, soybean 8. Central America ... bean, corn, tomato 9. Peru-Ecuador-Bolivia ... bean, potato, squash 10. Southern Chile ... potato 11. Brazil-Paraguay ... peanut 12. North America ... sunflower 13. West Africa ... millet, sorghum 14. Northern Europe ... oats, rye

Landscape Ecology and http://www.wri.org/sustag/lba-01b.html; Copyright 1997. World Resources Institute Source: Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

PROTECTED FLORA & FAUNA IN INDONESIA


Ministry of Forestry (2007) was declared: Fauna: mammalian (70 species), birds (93 species), reptilian (31 species), fish (9 species), insects (20 species), anthozoa (1 species), dan bivalvia (14 species) Flora : palmae (14 species), rafflessiacea (1 species), orchidaceae (29 species), nephentaceae (1 species), dipterocarpaceae (13 species). Endangered Flora fauna ratified CITES convention and registered 1.053 species flora and 1.384 species fauna into Appendix I and II.

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT
Landscape structure or pattern can be quantified at three levels:

synonymous

BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT & ASSESSMENT

Population level

Genetic diversity

Community level

Species diversity

Landscape level

Habitat diversity
Courtesy of Nakagoshi

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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THE ROLE OF FOREST/GREEN SPACE IN CLIMATE CHANGE


Emission (Source) and Carbon stock (Sink). As a sink, it is depended on the deviation between Carbon absorption from the atmosphere and Carbon stock throgh vegetation growth, forestation and Carbon sequestration As source, it is depended on the emission from plant respiration, harvesting, deforestation, forest fire and other disturbances which influence to biomass and soil.

CARBON STOCK
The vegetation and soils in the earth have stocked ~ 7500 Gton CO2, a double amount of CO2 in the atmospher. The existing Carbon in forest ecosystem ~ 4500 Gton CO2

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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Pencegahan/Pengurangan Emisi

DEFORESTATION EMISSION ~ GREEN HOUSE GASES/GHGS


Deforestation contributes 18% to global Green House Gases (GHGs) ~ 42 Gton CO2e per annum (WRI, 2000). On the other hands, IPCC (2007) notified 17% of otal GHGs global emission came from deforestation. 75% of deforestation was held in developing countries. Deforestation of 8,22 million ha/year by ten developing countries (FAO, 2005) Brazil and Indonesia contribute 3,10 million ha/year and 1,87 million ha/year.

CLIMATE RISK MAPPING

Pencegahan /pengurangan deforestasi dan degradasi hutan

Type of hazards: Drought Flood Dengue Forest fire

Peningkatan kapasitas penyerapan carbon (enhancing sink)

Peningkatan stok carbon

Restorasi hutan

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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CARBON STOCK ESTIMATION INCREASING CARBON STOCK


Mitigation for enhancing sink increasing Carbon sequestration Reforestation as national program: Production Forest Social Forest Community Forest Forest Rehabilitation Movement 1 ~ 100 Million Trees Planting Movement

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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FOREST REHABILITATION AND REFORESTATION MOVEMENT 2006-2008


No Project Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Planting Area (ha) antara 2006-2008 20006 2007 2008 Land Rehabilitation 545.868,00 GERHAN 48.525,00 339.446,00 78.421,00 Social Forest 596,00 Community Forest APSI GPTPP HMPI-BMN Total 248.133,00 843.122,00 52.214,43 8.200.63 399.861,06 3.095,76 60.832,56 142.349,32
Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

BIODIVERSITY IN THE CITY LEVEL

Source: Ditjen Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Perhutanan Sosial (2009)

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Study Sites in Jakarta


No. Study Sites 1 Taman Monas 2 Taman Gunung Agung 3 Taman Surupati 4 Complex Senayan 5 Taman Langsat 6 Taman Cisanggiri 7 Taman Seno 8 Taman Kodok 9 Taman Jalambar Hadiah 10 Srengseng 11 Hutan Kota

Jakarta, Capital of Indonesia

COURTESY SLIDE OF PROF NOBUKAZU NAKAGOSHI

Courtesy slide from Nakagoshi N.

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Parks in Jakarta

The most frequent species of road tress in Jakarta and their origin
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Species Swietenea macrophylla Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Mimusops elengi L. Polyalthya fragrans Cerbera manghas L. Ficus benjamina Diallium indum Ryostonia regia Polyaltya longifolia Bauhinia purpurea Canarium indicum L. Tamarindus indica L. Khaya senegalensis Ficus lyrata Wareb. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.)Merr.). Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. Cocos nucifera L. Areca catechu L. Mangifera indica L. Origin Latin America Indonesia Indonesia India Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Amerika Latin India Asia Continental Indonesia, New Guinea Tropical Africa, West Asia Africa Africa Thailand, Malay, Indonesia Tropical America Pantropical India Indonesia India Burma Remark Exotic Native Native Exotic Native Native Native Exotic Exotic Exotic Native Exotic Exotic Exotic Native Exotic Native Native Exotic

Improvement of Ecosystem Function

COURTESY SLIDE OF PROF NOBUKAZU NAKAGOSHI

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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DIVERSITY OF LANDUSES IN STUDY SITES OF CILIWUNG WATERSHED, JAKARTA-BOGOR-PUNCAK BIOREGION N

Green Networks in Bogor and Its Vicinity

Cibinong Urban Forest

LIPI Ecopark Sentul City & Pancar Mount Gede Mount

Puncak BBG FORDA Litbang Hutan Safari Park Pangrango Mount

IPB Forest

Cilember Forest Salak Endah Salak Mount

Halimun Mount Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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BOGOR & BBG

Oriolus chinensis Pyvnnotus aurigaster

Land use diversity ~ bio-diversity


Ptilinopus melanospila

Copsychus saularis Orthotomus sepium

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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URBAN DIVERSITY IN SENTUL CITY

Reinventing Sentul City, 4 pillars, new development concept

The development of a city needs to focus on the harmony of nature, to have a conception of nature so it can minimize the negative side effect caused by the actual building of its developments.

With its potential by being on the touristic belt Jakarta-Puncak. Sentul City, supported by its nature profile and a prime accessibility, will be an international level tourism destination.

Sentul City strives to be a complete education place. Not only for formal education, but also for non-formal education where the public can benefit from. Offering education facilities ranging from Play group to College is one of the main purposes.

Cultural and art aspects is also one of the focal point in a development of a city. The completion of Sentul International Convention Center and Taman Budaya Edutainment Center is an important milestone in the development of Sentul City.

Courtesy of Utama

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Courtesy of Utama

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IPB Sentul City Cooperation

Preservations, Life style

To strengthen the Eco City and Education City pillars, on July 21st, 2009, Sentul City have signed an MOU with IPB to cooperate in 4 (four) fields, i.e.: 1. Development of Eco City Concept 2. Developing Green Implementation in Buildings 3. Developing Environment Management Method. 4. Developing IPB Education Facility in Sentul City

Courtesy of Utama

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Courtesy of Utama

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The Largest Street Garden Map

Plants placement & species ~ BIODIVERSITY

Courtesy of Utama

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Courtesy of Utama

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Housing Development with Green Spirit

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATORY
The movement of biodiversity conservation and green city needs community participation. International Association for Public Participation (IAPP), the approach to community through activities: inform, consult, involve, collaborate and empower. Sustainable community development should be economically productive, environmentally sound, socially just, culturally vibrant, politically participatory.

Courtesy of Utama

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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COMMUNITY PARTICIPATORY

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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Mean size and mean diversity characteristics of 115 PEKARANGAN in six study sites with different urbanisation level in Cianjur and Bogor, West Java.
Village urbanisation level HG Total plant No. of No. of total No. of size spp. no. per ornament plant ornamental 2) (m HG al spp. individuals individuals/ /HG per 100 m2 100 m2 36 (682) 49 (3279) 32 (785) 20 (253) 34 (1863) 37 (1678) 14 25 14 11 24 26 63 72 107 58 280 240 29 40 59 34 233 201
Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

Rural

(N = 30) 530

Intermediate 1 (N = 21) 380 Intermediate 2 (N = 10) 190 Intermediate 3 (N = 20) 130 Urban 1 Urban 2 (N = 10) (N = 24) 70 90

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CONCLUSIONS
Urban open space is potential landscape for biodiversity conservation, which is supported by good ecological network. Native or indigenous species are encouraged for urban greening programs in order to hold ex-situ species conservation. As an original habitat, it is then suitable for native species. Good greenspace management contributes to reducing emissions.

Green Environment

Landscape Ecology and Urban Biodiversity in tropical Countries

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THANK YOU
E-mail: hsarifin@ipb.ac.ad Website: http://www.hsarifin.com