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MC LC

MC LC...........................................................................................................................1 DANH MC HNH V.......................................................................................................2 THUT NG VIT TT...................................................................................................3 LI NI U.....................................................................................................................4 CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG PON...........................................................5 I.Gii thiu mng quang th ng Passive Optical Network (PON)...................................5 1. Tng quan v cng ngh PON.....................................................................................6 2. c im ca PON.......................................................................................................7 3.Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON ....................................................8 3.1 Si quang v cp quang.........................................................................................8 3.2 B tch / ghp quang.........................................................................................10 3.3. u cui ng quang OLT Optical line terminal...........................................12 3.3.1 Phn li OLT ...................................................................................................12 3.3.2 Phn dch v OLT ...........................................................................................13 3.3.3 Phn chung OLT .............................................................................................14 3.4 . n v mng quang ONU (Optical network unit).............................................14 3.4.1 Phn li ONU ...................................................................................................14 3.4.2. Phn dch v ONU ..........................................................................................15 3.4.3. Phn chung ONU ............................................................................................16 3.5. ODN ..................................................................................................................16 3.6.B chia (Splitter)..................................................................................................17 4.M hnh PON..............................................................................................................18 5. Phn loi PON............................................................................................................20 II.Gigabit PON (GPON)....................................................................................................25 1.H thng GPON..........................................................................................................25 2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON ....................................................................................27 2.1 Chc nng ca GTC............................................................................................27 2.2 Tc bit ca GPON .........................................................................................28 3 Khung truyn dn GPON............................................................................................29 3.1 Cu trc khung hng xung..............................................................................29 ............................................................................................................................33 3.2 Cu trc khung hng ln....................................................................................34 3.3. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON ........................................................38 4. Bo mt .....................................................................................................................39 III.KT LUN...................................................................................................................40

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

DANH MC HNH V

Hnh 1.1 : M hnh mng quang th ng ...............................................................6 Hinh 1.2 : Cu to ca si quang .............................................................................9 Hnh 1.3 : Cu hnh c bn ca cc loi Coupler ..................................................10 Hnh1.4: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler...............................................11 Hnh 1.5 : Cc khi chc nng trong OLT ............................................................13 Hnh 1.6: Cc khi chc nng trong ONU.............................................................15 Hnh 1.7: Cc giao din quang........16 Hnh 1.8: M hnh mng quang th ng PON......................................................19 Hnh 1.9 : Mng quang s dng 1 si quang .........................................................21 Hnh 1..10 : Cu trc ca WDM PON ................................................................23 Hnh 2.1 : Lp con truyn dn hi t......................................................................26 Hnh 2.2 Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON.............................................27 Hnh 2.3 Khung hng xung GTC.......................................................................29 Hnh 2.4 M t chi tit khung hng xung GTC..................................................31 Hnh 2.5 C ch trng thi ng b ONU..............................................................32 Hnh 2.6 Khung hng ln GTC............................................................................34 Hnh 2.7 M t chi tit khung hng ln GTC......................................................35 Hnh 2.8 Cc cell ATM hng ln 36 Hnh 2.9 : Cc khung GEM hng ln ...............................................................37 Hnh 2.10 Bo co DBA hng ln ....................................................................37

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

THUT NG VIT TT
T vit tt PON OLT ONT ONU OND GPON APON BPON EPON WDM FTTH FTTB FTTC CO Ting Anh Passive Optical Network Optical line terminal Optical network terminal Optical network unit Gigabit Passive Optical Network ATM Passive Optical Network Broadband Passive Optical Network Ethernet Passive Optical Network Wavelength Division Multiplexing Fiber to the home Fiber to the building Fiber to the curt Center office Ting Vit Mng quang th ng. Thit b u cui knh Thit b u cui mng n v mng quang Mng quang th ng tc gigabit PON tren nen ATM Mng quang th ng bng thng rng Mng quang th ng chun Ethernet Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng Cp quang ti ta nh cp quang ti khu dn c Vn phng trung tm

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

LI NI U
T xa n nay thng tin lin lc lun ng mt vai tr quan trng trong i sng con ngi. Ngoi vic cung cp cho con ngi cc dch v thit thc, phc v cho nhu cu i sng ca con ngi, thng tin cn c ngha quyt nh n thnh cng ca mt doanh nghip v s pht trin ca con ngi trong tng lai. Trong nhng nm qua, h tng mng Vin thng pht trin nhanh c v cng ngh v cht lng cung cp dch v. Vin thng tri qua mt qu trnh pht trin lu di vi nhiu bc ngot trong pht trin cng ngh v pht trin mng li. Vit Nam cng nh cc nc trn th gii, hin nay c rt nhiu nh khai thc Vin thng khc nhau vi s a dng ca cng ngh v cu hnh mng cng nh cung cp dch v. Ngy nay, cng vi s pht trin chng mt ca khoa hc k thut v ang gt hi c rt nhiu nhng thnh cng rc r th nhng nhu cu v gii tr, hc tp v nm bt thng tin ca con ngi cng ngy mt tng ln. Nm bt c nhng nhu cu y cc nh khai thc Vin thng ang a ra c rt nhiu nhng cng ngh khc nhau nhm p ng nhu cu khch hng v cng ngh PON l mt trong nhng cng ngh ang pht trin ti Vit Nam. Trong bo co thc tp ny em xin trnh by mt cch tng quan v h thng GPON trong cng ngh PON. Do lng kin thc cn hn hp v qu trnh lm cn nhiu sai st nn bo co khng trnh khi nhng sai st nn em knh mong nhn c s ng gp ca thy c v cc bn Em xin chn thnh cm n thy Nguyn Vit Thng ph trng trung tm t vn v u t chuyn giao cng ngh- Vin khoa hc k thut bu in, tn tnh hng dn em hon thnh kha thc tp ny.

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG PON

I.Gii thiu mng quang th ng Passive Optical Network (PON)


PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network hay cn gi l mng quang th ng. Cng ngh mng quang th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh quang truy nhp gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng. Cng ngh PON c bit ti u tin l TPON (Telephony PON) c trin khai vo nhng nm 90, tip nm 1998, mng BPON (Broadband PON) c chun ha da trn nn ATM. Hai nm 2003 v 2004 nh du s ra i ca hai dng cng ngh Ethernet PON (EPON) v Gigabit PON (GPON), c th ni hai cng ngh ny m ra c hi mi cho cc nh cung cp dch v gii quyt hng lot vn truy nhp bng thng rng ti ngi s dng u cui. Thnh vin mi nht trong gia nh PON l WDM PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexer PON). Trong cng ngh PON, tt c thnh phn ch ng gia tng i CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc thit b quang th ng, iu hng cc lu lng trn mng da trn vic phn chia nng lng ti cc im u cui trn ng truyn. V vy m ngi ta gi l cng ngh mng quang th ng (PON).
L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47 5

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

V tr ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l mt dng ca mng truy nhp quang. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng. N c t gn u cui khch hng v trin khai vi s lng ln. Mng truy nhp tn ti nhiu dng khc nhau do nhiu l do khc nhau v PON l mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn bng thng (hng THz). Vic trin khai si quang n tn nh thu bao s l mc ch pht trin trong tng lai. Vi nhng u im vt tri, mng quang th ng PON( Passive Optical Network) l mt s la chn thch hp nht cho mng truy nhp.

1. Tng quan v cng ngh PON


Mng quang th ng PON c trnh by nh Hnh 2.1, s dng phn t chia quang th ng trong phn mng phn b nm gia thit b ng truyn quang Otical Line Terminal (OLT) v thit b kt cui mng quang Optical network Unit (ONU).

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 1.1: M hnh mng quang th ng Trong cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau:
L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47 6

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Passive slitter Feeder Fiber Central office

: B chia th quang th ng : Cp Feeder : Vn phng trung tm

Distribution fiber : Phn phi quang Management system : H thng qun l Passive splitter : B chia th ng Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn b quang (hay cn gi l mng quang ngoi vi), bao gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b tch /ghp quang th ng, cc u ni v cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t tch cc nh OLT v cc ONU u nm u cui ca mng PON. Tn hiu trong PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang hoc c kt hp li v truyn i trn mt si quang thng qua b ghp quang, ph thuc tn hiu i theo hng ln hay xung ca mng quang th ng PON. Mng quang th ng (PON) c xy dng nhm gim s lng cc thit b thu, pht v si quang trong mng thng tin quang FTTH. PON l mt mng im ti a im, mt kin trc PON bao gm mt thit b u cui knh quang c t ti trm trung tm ca nh khai thc dch v v cc b kt cui mng cp quang ONU/ONT (Optical Network Unit/Optical Network Terminator) t ti gn hoc ti nh thu bao. Gia chng l h thng phn phi mng quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network) bao gm cp quang, cc thit b tch ghp th ng.

2. c im ca PON
c trng ca h thng PON l thit b th ng phn phi si quang n tng nh thu bao s dng b chia c th ln ti 1:128. PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet. PON h tr cc dch v thoi, d liu v hnh nh vi tc cao v kh nng cung cp bng thng rng. Trong h thng PON, bng thng c chia s cho nhiu khch hng iu ny s lm gim chi ph cho khch hng s dng. Cng nh kh nng tn dng

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn, TDMA v cung cp bng thng ng gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia OLT v b chia. PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si quang. PON c th h tr m hnh: hnh cy, sao, bus v ring.

3.Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON


3.1 Si quang v cp quang Si quang l mt thnh phn quan trng trong mng, n to s kt ni gia cc thit b. Hai thng s c bn ca si quang l suy hao v tn sc, tuy nhin si quang ng dng trong mng PON th ch cn quan tm n suy hao khng quan tm n tn sc bi khong cch truyn ti a ch l 20 km v tn sc th nh hng khng ng k. Do , ngi ta s dng si quang c suy hao nh, ch yu l s dng si quang theo chun G.652. Trn thc t, khc phc nhc im trong truyn dn thng tin ca cp ng, t lu ngi ta cho ra i cp quang cng vi nhng tnh nng u vit hn. Khng ging nh cp ng truyn tn hiu bng in, cp quang dng nh sng truyn tn hiu i. Chnh v s khc bit , m cp quang t b nhiu, tc cao v c kh nng truyn xa hn. Tuy vy, phi n giai on hin nay th cp quang mi c pht trin bng n, nht l trong lnh vc kt ni lin lc a, kt ni xuyn quc gia. V vic s dng cng ngh truyn dn hin i ny cng ang bt u thay th dn mng cp ng ADSL phc v trc tip n ngi s dng. Cp quang di, mng vi thnh phn ca thy tinh trong sut v bng ng knh ca mt si tc. Chng c sp xp trong b c gi l cp quang v c s dng truyn tn hiu trong khong cch rt xa. Cp quang c cu to gm dy dn trung tm l si thy tinh hoc plastic c tinh ch nhm cho php truyn i ti a cc tn hiu nh sng. Si quang c trng mt lp lt nhm phn chiu tt cc tn hiu. Cp quang gm cc thnh phn c th hin nh hnh 1.2.

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Li: Trung tm phn chiu ca si quang ni nh sng i qua Cladding: Vt cht quang bn ngoi bao bc li m phn x nh sng tr li vo li. Buffer coating: Lp ph do bn ngoi bo v si khng b hng v m t Jacket: Hng trm hay hng ngn si quang c t trong b gi l cp quang. Nhng b ny c bo v bi lp ph bn ngoi ca cp c gi l jacket.

Hnh 1.2: Cu to ca si quang suy hao thp hn cc loi cp ng (tn hiu b mt trong cp quang t hn trong cp ng), nn c th ti cc tn hiu i xa hng ngn km. Dung lng ti ca cp quang cao hn, v si quang mng hn cp ng, nhiu si quang c th c b vo vi ng knh cho hn cp ng. iu ny cho php nhiu knh i qua mt si cp. Cp quang cng s dng in ngun t hn, bi v tn hiu trong cp quang gim t, my pht c th s dng ngun thp hn thay v my pht vi in th cao c dng trong cp ng.

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Cp quang khng chy, v khng c in xuyn qua cp quang, do khng c nguy c ha hn xy ra. Tuy vy, cp quang v cc thit b i km li rt t tin so vi cc loi cp ng 3.2 B tch / ghp quang Mt mng quang th ng s dng mt thit b th ng tch mt tn hiu quang t mt si quang sang mt vi si quang v ngc li. Thit b ny l Coupler quang. n gin, mt Coupler quang gm hai si ni vi nhau. T s tch ca b tch c th c iu khin bng chiu di ca tng ni v v vy n l hng s. Hnh 1.3 a: c chc nng tch 1 tia vo thnh 2 tia u ra, y l Coupler Y. Hnh 1.3b l Coupler ghp cc tn hiu quang ti hai u vo thnh mt tn hiu ti u ra. Hnh 1.3c va ghp va tch quang v gi l Coupler X hoc Coupler phn hng 2x2. Coupler c nhiu hn hai cng vo v nhiu hn hai cng ra gi l Coupler hnh sao. Coupler NxN c to ra t nhiu Couper 2x2 Coupler c c trng bi cc thng s sau: Tn hao tch: Mc nng lng u ra ca Coupler so vi nng lng u vo (db). i vi Coupler 2x2 l tng, gi tr ny l 3dB. Hnh1.3 minh ho hai m hnh 8x8 Coupler da trn 2x2 Coupler. Trong m hnh 4 ngn (hnh a), ch 1/6 nng lng u vo c chia mi u ra. Hnh(b) a ra m hnh hiu qu hn gi l mng lin kt mng a ngn. Trong m hnh ny, mi u ra nhn c 1/8 nng lng u vo.
I1 a) I1 I2 b) I1 I2 L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47 c) 10

O2 O3

O2

O2 O3

Hnh 1.3: Cu hnh c bn cc loi Coupler

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Tn hao chn: Nng lng tn hao do s cha hon ho ca qu trnh x l. Gi tr ny nm trong khong 0,1dB n 1dB. nh hng: Lng nng lng u vo b r r t mt cng u vo n cc cng u vo khc. Coupler l thit b nh hng cao vi thng s nh hng trong khong 40-50dB. Thng thng, cc Coupler c ch to ch c mt cng vo hoc mt b kt hp. Cc Coupler loi ny c s dng tch mt phn nng lng tn hiu, v d vi mc ch nh lng. Cc thit b nh th ny c gi l tap coupler.

a) Coupler 4 ngn 8x8 b) Coupler 3 ngn 8x8 Hnh1.4: Coupler 8x8 c to ra t nhiu coupler
cccocCoupler

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

11

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

3.3. u cui ng quang OLT Optical line terminal OLT cung cp giao din quang v pha mng phi quang ODN v cung cp t nht mt giao din quang trn mng pha mng truy nhp quang. OLT c th c t bn trong tng i hay ti mt trm t xa. S khi chc nng ca OLT c m t Hnh 2.4. OLT c chc nng qun l tt c cc hot ng ca PON. ONU v OLT cung cp cc dch v truyn dn mt cch trong sut gia UNI v SNI thng qua PON. 3.3.1 Phn li OLT Phn li OLT bao gm cc chc nng sau y: Chc nng kt ni cho c s ha cung cp cc kt ni gia phn mng li/metro vi phn mng phi quang ODN. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp kt ni VP gia chc nng cng dch v SPF v giao din ODN. Cc VP khc nhau c gn vo cc dch v khc nhau ti giao din PON. Cc thng tin khc nh bo hiu, OAM c trao i nh cc VC trong VP. Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp vic truyn v ghp cc knh trn mng phi quang ODN. V d nh: d liu i t mng li/metro n mng phi quang ODN th n c nhim v l truyn, cn d liu i t mng phi quang ODN n mng li/metro th n phi c ghp knh trc khi truyn n mng li/metro. Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang kt ni OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU bng vic s dng thit b th ng. N iu khin qu trnh chuyn i quang/in v in/quang. c th thc hin c ch chuyn mch bo v v lm d dng cho vic x l thit b th ng b chia th OLT s c
cc chc nng giao din ODN ging nh phn mng phi quang ODN.

Giao din ODN

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

12

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

u cui ng dy PON x l chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN chn cc t bo ATM vo. 3.3.2 Phn dch v OLT Phn dch v OLT th c chc nng cng dch v. Cc cng dch v s truyn t nht tc ISDN v s c th cu hnh mt s dch v hay c th h tr ng thi hai hay nhiu dch v khc nhau v d nh dch v truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTV- high definition TV), game online, truyn d liu... Bt k khi TU (tributary unit) cng u cung cp hai hay nhiu port c tc 2 Mbps ph thuc vo cch cu hnh trn mi port. Khi TU c nhiu port c th cu hnh mi port mt dch v khc nhau. Chc nng cng dch v SPF ng vai tr giao tip vi node dch v. Chc nng cng dch v thc hin chn t bo ATM vo ti trng SDH ng ln, v tch t bo ATM t ti trng SDH ng xung. Chc nng ny phi c d phng, do chuyn mch bo v l cn thit.

Giao din ODN . . . Giao din ODN

Phn li

Phn dch v SPF

MUX

. . . SPF

. Mng . li .

Cp ngun

OAM

Ngun: Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng NGN

Hnh1.5: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

13

Bo co thc tp tt nghip

GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

3.3.3 Phn chung OLT Phn chung OLT bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng (OAM-Operation, Administration and Maintenance). Chc nng cp ngun chuyn i ngun ngoi thnh ngun mong mun. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi OLT. Trong iu khin ni b, mt giao din c th c cung cp cho mc ch chy th v giao din Q3 cho mng truy nhp n h thng ang hot ng thng qua chc nng sp xp. 3.4 . n v mng quang ONU (Optical network unit) ONU t ti pha khch hng, ONU cung cp cc phng tin cn thit phn phi cc dch v khc nhau c iu khin bi OLT. Mt ONU c th chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung. 3.4.1 Phn li ONU ONU gm giao din ODN, cng ngi dng, chc nng ghp knh/phn knh truyn dn, dch v v khch hng, v cp ngun. a. Giao din ODN Giao din ODN x l cc qu trnh chuyn i quang in. Giao din ODN trch cc t bo ATM t ti trng PON ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM vo ti trng ng ln trn c s ng b t s nh thi khung ng xung. b. Ghp knh Ch cc t bo ATM c hiu lc mi c th i qua b phn ghp knh do nhiu VP c th chia s bng thng ng ln mt cch hiu qu. Phn li ONU bao gm: Chc nng ghp khch hng v dch v c nhim v nu v pha khch hng th d liu s c ghp trc khi truyn n ODN cn nu v pha ODN th cc dch v s tch ra ph hp cho tng user yu cu dch v.

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

14

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp cc chc nng phn phi tn hiu gia ODN v khch hng. Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i quang/in hay in/quang 3.4.2. Phn dch v ONU Phn dch v ONU cung cp cc chc nng cng ca ngi dng. Chc nng cng ca ngi dng cung cp cho cc giao din dch v ca khch hng v b thch nghi ca chng l 64 kbps hay n64 kbps. Chc nng ny c th c cp bi mt khch hng hay mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i tn hiu ty thuc giao din vt l (v d nh rung chung, bo hiu, chuyn i A/D v D/A). Chc nng cng ngi dng UPF tng thch cc yu cu UNI ring bit. OAM c th h tr mt s cc truy nhp v cc UNI khc nhau. Cc UNI ny yu cu cc chc nng ring bit ph thuc vo cc c t giao din c lin quan. Tch cc t bo ATM ng xung v chn cc t bo ATM ng ln.

Phn dch v Khch hng UPF . . . UPF

Phn li . . .ODN MUX Giao din ODN

Cp ngun

Phn chung

OAM

Ngun: Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng NGN

Hnh 1.6: Cc khi chc nng trong ONU

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

15

Bo co thc tp tt nghip

GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

3.4.3. Phn chung ONU Phn chung ONU bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM. Chc nng cp ngun cung cp ngun cho ONU (v d nh chuyn i xoay chiu thnh mt chiu hay ngc li). Ngun c th c cp ti ch hay t xa. Nhiu ONU c th chia s ngun. ONU c th hot ng bng ngun d phng. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi ca ONU. 3.5. ODN ODN cung cp phng tin truyn dn quang cho kt ni vt l gia OLT v ONU. Cc ODN ring l c th c kt hp v m rng nh cc b khuch i quang.ODN bao gm cc thnh phn quang th ng: Cp v si quang n mode, Connector quang, thit b r nhnh quang th ng, b suy hao quang th ng v mi hn. Giao din quang ODN cung cp ng quang gia OLT v ONU, mi ng quang c nh ngha l khong gia cc im tham chiu ti mt ca s bc sng nht nh. Cc giao din quang trong Hnh1.7 l: Oru, Ord Giao din quang ti im tham chiu S/R gia ONU v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng. Olu, Old Giao din quang ti im tham chiu R/S gia OLT v ODN cho ng ln v ng xung tng ng.

L Duy Tng K thut vin thng A K47

16

Bo co thc tp tt nghip

GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

R/S

R/S

ONU1 Oru , Ord . . .


R/S

ODN

OLT

ONUn Oru , Ord

Olu , Old

Hnh 1.7: Cc giao din quang 3.6.B chia (Splitter) B chia/ghp quang th ng (Splitter): Dng chia/ghp th ng tn hiu quang t nh cung cp dch v n khch hng v ngc li gip tn dng hiu qu si quang vt l. Thnh phn c nhc ch yu trong mng PON l b chia. B chia l thit b th ng, cng dng ca n l chia cng sut quang t mt si ra nhiu si khc nhau. T OLT n ONU c th s dng nhiu dng b chia c t b chia l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128. S dng mt b chia c t l chia ln nh 1:32 hay 1:64 hay c th s dng b chia nhiu lp vi lp th nht s dng b chia 1:2 v lp th 2 s dng 2 b chia 1:4. Hu ht h thng PON s dng b chia b chia l 1:16 v 1:32. T l chia trc tip nh hng qu suy hao ca h thng v suy hao truyn dn. T l ca b chia cng cao cng c ngha l cng sut truyn n mi ONU s gim xung do suy hao ca b chia splitter 1:N tnh theo cng thc 10logN (dB), nn nu t l b chia m tng ln gp i th suy hao s tng ln 3 dB. Cho php gn bn trong gi phn phi quang ODF, hay mng xng.

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Bng 1. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia (splitter) tng ng.

S cng 2 4 8 16 32 64

Suy hao splitter(db) 3 6 9 12 15 18

4.M hnh PON


C mt vi m hnh thch hp cho mng truy cp nh m hnh cy, vng hoc bus. Mng quang th ng PON c th trin khai linh ng trong bt k m hnh no nh s dng mt tapcoupler quang 1:2 v b tch quang 1:N Ngoi nhng m hnh trn, PON c th trin khai trong m hnh cy nh l vng i hoc cy i hay cng c th l mt phn ca mng PON c gi l trung k cy. Tt c s truyn dn trong mng PON u c thc hin gia OLT v cc ONU. OLT ti tng i, kt ni truy nhp quang n mng ng trc (c th l mng IP, ATM ). ONU ti u cui ngi s dng (trong gii php FTTH_Fiber To The Home, FTTB_Fiber To The Building) hoc ti Curb trong gii php FTTC_Fiber To The Curb v c kh nng cung cp cc dch v thoi, d liu v video bng rng.

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M hnh cy ( s dng b chia 1:N)

M hnh bus s dng tapcoupler

M hnh vng

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Tu theo im cui ca tuyn cp quang xut pht t tng i m cc mng truy nhp thu bao quang c tn gi khc nhau nh si quang n tn nh FTTH, si quangnkhu dn c FTTC, FTTB.

M hnh cy Hnh 1.8: M hnh mng quang th ng PON

5. Phn loi PON


hng xung (t OLT n ONU), mng PON l mng im-a im. OLT chim ton b bng thng hng xung. Trong hng ln, mng PON l mng a im-im: Nhiu ONU truyn tt c d liu ca n n mt OLT. c tnh hng ca cc b tch ghp th ng l vic truyn thng ca mt ONU s khng c nhn bit bi cc ONU khc. Tuy nhin, cc lung d liu t cc ONU khc nhau c truyn cng mt lc cng c th b xung t. V vy, trong hng ln, PON s s dng mt vi c ch ring bit trong knh trnh xung t d liu v chia s cng bng ti nguyn v dung lng trung k. a. TDM PON Trong TDM PON, vic truyn ng thi t vi ONU s gy ra xung t khi n b kt hp. ngn chn xung t d liu, mi ONU phi truyn trong ca s (khe thi gian) truyn ca n. Mt thun li ln ca TDM PON l tt c cc ONU c th hot ng cng mt bc sng, OLT cng ch cn mt b thu
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n. B thu pht ONU hot ng tc ng truyn, thm ch bng thng c th dng ca ONU thp hn. Tuy nhin, c tnh ny cng cho php TDM PON t hiu qu thay i bng thng c dng cho tng ONU bng cch thay i kch c khe thi gian c n nh hoc thm ch s dng ghp knh thng k tn dng ht bng thng c dng ca mng PON. Trong mng truy cp thu bao, hu ht cc lung lu lng ln v xung khng phi l khch hng n khch hng. V vy, iu ny dng nh l hp l tch knh ln v xung. Mt phng php tch knh n gin c th da trn ghp knh phn chia khng gian m n tch, PON c cung cp theo hng truyn ln xung. tit kim cho si quang v gim chi ph sa cha v bo qun, mt si quang c th c s dng cho truyn theo hai hng. Trong trng hp ny, hai bc sng c dng l: hng ln l 1310nm, hng xung l 1550nm. Dung lng knh mi bc sng c th phn phi linh ng gia cc ONU.

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 1.9: Mng PON s dng mt si quang Cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau: ONU: Offtical Network Unit-n v mng quang Data transmitsion: D liu vo Data Receiver: D liu ra WDM: Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng
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Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian l phng php c u tin hin nay cho vic chia s knh quang trong mng truy cp khi m n cho php mt bc sng n hng ln v b thu pht n OLT lm cho gii php ny c u th hn v chi ph u t.
b. WDM-PON

WDM-PON l mng quang th ng s dng phng thc a ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng thay v theo thi gian nh trong phng thc TDMA. OLT s dng mt bc sng ring r thng tin vi mi ONT theo dng im im. Mi mt ONU c mt b lc quang la chn bc sng tng thch vi n, OLT cng c mt b lc cho mi ONU. Nhiu phng thc khc c tm hiu to ra cc bc sng ONU nh l: S dng cc khi quang c th lp t ti ch la chn cc bc sng ONU, Dng cc laser iu chnh c, v ct ph tn hiu. Cc phng thc th ng m theo OLT cung cp tn hiu sng mang ti cc ONU. S dng tn hiu hng xung iu chnh bc sng u ra ca laser ONU. Cu trc ca WDM-PON c m t nh trong Hnh 2.9. Trong , WDM-PON c th c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau nh l FTTx, cc ng dngcho ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao VDSL v cc im truy nhp v tuyn t xa. Cc b thu WDM-PON s dng k thut lc quang mng ng dn sng. Mt b lc quang ng dn sng c th c t mi trng trong nh hoc ngoi tri. Gii php WDM yu cu mt b thu iu khin c hoc l mt mng b thu OLT nhn cc knh khc nhau. Thm ch nhiu vn kh khn cho cc nh khai thc mng l kim k tng bc sng ca ONU: thay v ch c mt loi ONU, th c nhiu loi ONU da trn cc bc sng Laser ca n. Mi ONU s s dng mt laser hp v rng ph iu khin c cho nn rt t tin. Mc khc, nu mt bc sng b sai lch s gy ra nhiu cho cc ONU khc trong

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mng PON. Vic s dng Laser iu khin c c th khc phc c vn ny nhng qu t cho cng ngh hin ti. Vi nhng kh khn nh vy th WDM khng phi l gii php tt cho mi trng hin nay. u im chnh ca WDM-PON l n kh nng cung cp cc dch v d liu theo cc cu trc khc nhau (DS1/E1/DS3, 10/100/1000Base Ethernet) ty theo yu cu v bng thng ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, nhc im chnh ca WDM-PON l chi ph kh ln cho cc linh kin quang sn xut b lc nhng bc sng khc nhau. WDM-PON cng c trin khai kt hp vi cc giao thc TDMA PON ci thin bng thng truyn tin. WDM-PON c pht trin mnh Hn Quc.

Ngun: Cng ngh v chun ha PON

Hnh 1.10: Cu trc ca WDM-PON Cc thut ng c ch thch trong hnh: CO :Center office : Vn phng trung tm FTTH: Fiber to the home-Cp quang thu bao FTTB : Fiber to the building- Cp quang ti ta nh FTTC : Fiber to the curt- cp quang ti khu dn c VDSL switch: Thit b nh tuyn ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao Wireless Access point : im truy cp Wireless

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c. CDMA-PON Cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA cng c th trin khai trong cc ng dng PON. Cng ging nh WDM-PON, CMDA-PON cho php mi ONU s dng khun dng v tc d liu khc nhau tng ng vi cc nhu cu ca khch hng. CDMA PON cng c th kt hp vi WDM tng dung lng bng thng. CDMA PON truyn ti cc tn hiu khch hng vi nhiu ph tn truyn dn, tri trn cng mt knh thng tin. Cc k hiu t cc tn hiu khc nhau c m ha v nhn dng thng qua b gii m. Phn ln cng ngh ng dng trong TDMA PON tun theo phng thc tri ph chui trc tip. Trong phng thc ny mi k hiu 0, 1 (tng ng vi mi tn hiu) c m ha thnh chui k t di hn v c tc cao hn. Mi ONU s dng tr s chui khc nhau cho k t ca n. khi phc li d liu, OLT chia nh tn hiu quang thu c sau gi ti cc b lc nhiu x tch ly tn hiu ca mi ONU. u im chnh ca CDMA PON l cho php truyn ti lu lng cao v c tnh nng bo mt ni tri so cc chun PON khc. Tuy nhin, mt tr ngi ln trong CDMA-PON l cc b khuch i quang i hi phi c thit k sao cho m bo tng ng vi t s tn hiu/tp m (S/N). Vi h thng CDMA-PON khng c b khuch i quang th ty thuc vo tn hao b sung trong cc b chia, b xoay vng, cc b lc m h s chia OLT/ONU ch l 1:2 hoc 1:8. Trong khi , vi b khuych i quang h s ny c th t 1:32 hoc cao hn. Bn cnh , cc b thu tn hiu trong CDMA-PON l kh phc tp v gi thnh tng i cao. Chnh v nhng nhc im ny nn hin ti CDMA-PON cha ch v tc ca ton mng. Hin ti nhng chuyn mch quang tc cao c gi thnh rt cao ch ph hp cho thit k mng li.
Ngun: Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice, October 2007.

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II.Gigabit PON (GPON)


1.H thng GPON
G-PON l giao thc FSAN TDMA PON th 2 c nh ngha trong chui khuyn ngh G.984 ca ITU-T. G-PON c xy dng trn tri nghim ca B-PON v E-PON. GPON vit tt ca t Gigabit Passive Optical Network. GPON l s pht trin ca APON/BPON n hot ng tc ln ti hng Gbps v c chun ha thnh ITU-T G.984. GPON khng ph thuc vo ATM, GPON s dng lp con truyn dn hi t (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence), khung GTC c th ng gi cc cell ATM. Khng ging nh APON/BPON, khung GTC c th ng gi trc tip cc gi d liu thng qua phng php ng gi GPON (GEMGPON Encapsulation Method). Phn ti khung GTC cha c ATM v GEM. Mc d G-PON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c ch thch nghi ti tin mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet c gi l phng thc ng gi G-PON (G-PON Encapsulation Method GEM). GEM l phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701, ngoi tr vic GEM ti u ha t mo u phc v cho ng dng

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ca PON, cho php sp xp cc d liu Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM. G-PON s dng cu trc khung GTC (G-PON Transmission Conversion) cho c hai hng xung v hng ln. Khung hng xung bt u vi mt t mo u PLOAM, tip sau l vng ti tin GEM hoc cc t bo ATM. PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v sp t bng thng cho ONT/ONU gi d liu trong khung hng ln tip theo. Khung hng ln bao gm cc nhm khung gi t cc ONT. Mi mt nhm c bt u vi t mo u lp vt l m c chc nng tng t trong BPON, nhng cng bao hm tng hp cc yu cu bng thng ca cc ONT. Cc yu cu bng thng chi tit hn c gi i km vi cc nhm hng ln khi c yu cu t OLT. OLT gn cc thi gian cho vic gi d liu hng ln t cho mi ONT/ONU. Ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet bng phng thc GEM (GPON encapsulation method). S dng cu trc khung GTC (GPON tranmission coversion) cho c hai hng ln v xung.

Hnh 2.1: Lp con truyn dn hi t

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2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON
2.1 Chc nng ca GTC Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence) l cung cp ghp knh vn chuyn gia OLT v ONU. Cc chc nng khc bao gm: Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con, cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM, giao din phn phi bng tn ng, sp xp v ng k ONU, sa li (mc nh), mt m lung d liu hng xung (mc nh) v knh thng tin cho giao din qun l v iu khin ONT/ONU.
1

H thng GTC cung cp iu khin a truy nhp cho lu lng hng

ln. Trong khi nim c bn, cc khung hng xung ch th vng c php truyn lu lng ln trong khung hng ln ng b vi khung hng xung.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON), 2005.

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Hnh 2.2 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON c m t Hnh 2.2 OLT gi cc con tr trong khi iu khin vt l PCBd, cc con tr ny ch th thi gian bt u v kt thc m mi container truyn dn (T-CONT) c th dng truyn d liu hng ln. Bng cch ny, ch c mt ONU truy nhp mng ti bt k thi im no khng c s tranh chp trong hot ng bnh thng. Cc con tr c a vo cc khi byte, cho php OLT iu khin mi trng mng vi tc 64 kbps. Tuy nhin, chun cho php nh khai thc dch v thm cc tc ln hn. 2.2 Tc bit ca GPON Khi tc bit tng ln n hng gigabit th cn c b pht cng sut cao v do dn n l cng cn c b thu c nhy cao hn. iu ny c th c khc phc bng cch s dng c ch cn bng cng sut. C ch cn bng cng sut h tr cho vic iu chnh cc mc cng sut ca ONU lm gim vng chnh lch cng sut nhn c OLT. Mt ONU gn OLT th suy hao thp, S khi to nh hn cng sut ONU xa. Bng 2.1: Lit k tc bit trong GPON

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3 Khung truyn dn GPON


3.1 Cu trc khung hng xung Mi khung hng xung GTC di 125 s c tc khung l 1.24416 Gbit/s v 2.48832 Gbit/s, cha khi iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream Physical Control Block) v phn ti c m t hnh 2.3 Header ca khi iu khin vt l bao gm phn c nh v phn c th thay i. Phn c nh cha vng ng b vt l, vng ID v vng PLOAM. Phn c th thay i bao gm chiu di ti hng xung (Plend-Payload length downstream) v b nh bng thng hng ln. Chi tit cc vng c m t Hnh 2.4.

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Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON), 2005.

Hnh 2.3 : Khung hng xung GTC a. Vng ng b vt l Vng ng b vt l c c nh l 4 byte v n bt u mi khi PCBd. ONU s dng phn ny tm v tr bt u khung. ONU thc hin c ch ng b nh hnh 2.5. ONU bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng i. Mi ln n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi tr l 1. Sau , ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi Psync ng, b m s tng thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm kim. Trong trng thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn n trng thi ng b sync. Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n tm ra cu trc khung hng xung v bt u x l thng tin PCBd. Nu ONU pht hin vng Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th l mt khung v tr v trng thi tm kim. b. Vng ID Vng ID c 32 bit trong mt bit dng kim tra li khung FEC hng xung, mt bit dnh v 30 bit ch th cu trc khung ln hn. B m siu khung ny c dng cho h thng m ha d liu ca ngi dng v cng c th c dng cung cp tn hiu tham chiu ng b tc thp. 30 bit ca

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vng ID dng m v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung trc . Bt c khi no b m tng ti gi tr ti a th n s quay v 0 cho khung tip theo. c. Vng qun l, vn hnh v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM Vng PLOAM c 13 byte trong khi iu khin vt l, n cha cc bn tin OAM lp vt l. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM lin quan n cc cnh bo gy ra bi cc s kin c truyn qua cc bn tin trong vng PLOAM 13 byte. Tt c kch hot u lin quan n bn tin c nh x trong vng PLOAM. ONU ID nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s c gn mt s gi l ONU ID. S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253. Lc cha c sp xp vng ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c ONU. 1
2

Bn tin ID ch th loi bn tin. D liu c dng cho phn ti ca bn tin truyn dn hi t GPON GTC. CRC dng kim tra li khung.

d. Vng BIP Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i, u thu cng tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l, sau so snh vi kt qu ca BIP c truyn o s li trn ng link. e. Vng chiu di ti hng xung Vng chiu di ti hng xung (Plend) ch nh chiu di b nh bng thng v phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn. Vng ny c gi 2 ln. Trong 12 bit u biu din chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn s ID phn b c th c gn ch ln ti 4095. Chiu di phn dnh ring cho ATM c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny cho php hng ln 4095 cell ATM trong mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps. 8 bit cui kim tra CRC. u thu ca vng Plend s thc hin pht hin v sa li. f. Vng b nh bng thng

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Vng b nh bng thng l mt mng c cu trc 8 byte. Mi vng trong mng ny biu th phn bng thng cho mt container truyn dn ring. Ton b s vng trong b nh c biu din chiu di ti Plend. Khun dng mi vng c m t Hnh 3.11.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON), 2005.

Hnh 2.4 : M t chi tit khung hng xung GTC Vng phn b ID cha 12 bit ch th CON-T ring m n c gn thi gian lung ln ca mng PON. Tip theo l Vng c cha 12 bit ch th cch phn phi dng (Hnh 2.4 biu din cc chc nng ca 12 bit c) . Tip l Bit 11 gi PLSu (power levelling sequence upstream): nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b. Bit 10 gi PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (forward error correction): nu bit ny c ci t ONU s tnh ton v chn FEC trong lc phn b. Bit 7 v 8 gi bo co bng thng ng DBRu

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(Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream): ph thuc vo ni dung 2 bit ONU s gi DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay khng. V 00: khng gi DBRu, 01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte), 10: gi DBRu mode 1 (3 byte), 11: gi DBRu mode 2 (5 byte) cui cng l Bit 0-6: dnh.

Hnh 2.5 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU Vng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u phn b. Thi gian ny tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. iu ny gii hn kch thc ca khung ln l 65,536 byte. iu ny nh a ch cho tc hng ln ti 2.488 Gbps. Thi gian bt u tr n ni bt u truyn d liu khng bao gm thi gian overhead ca lp vt l. Vng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc phn b. Thi gian ny c tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu cui cng c kt hp vi vic phn b ny. Vng CRC: cu trc phn b c bo v s dng CRC-8. g. Vng ti Vng ti truyn dn hi t c 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn dnh ring cho GEM. Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c a vo vng Plend dnh cho ATM. Do vng ny cng c kch thc l bi s
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53 byte. Cc cell hng xung th c lc ONU da vo ch s nhn dng ng o VPI cha trong mi cell. Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a khung. Kch thc ca phn dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr i khi iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung hng xung c lc ONU da vo 12-bit Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung. 3.2 Cu trc khung hng ln Cu trc khung hng ln c biu din Hnh 2.6. Chiu di khung th ging nh khung hng xung. Mi khung cha mt s truyn dn t mt hay nhiu ONU. B nh bng thng ch nh vic sp xp truyn dn ny. Mi chu k phn phi phi theo s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th truyn mt n bn overhead v d liu ngi dng. Bn loi overhead l: Overhead lp vt l (PLOu- Physical layer overhead). 1 2 3
4

Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAMu-Physical layer San bng cng sut (PLSu- Power levelling sequence upstream). Bo co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream). Hnh 2.7 ch ra chi tit cc overhead. OLT ch th thng qua c trong b

operations, administration and management upstream).

nh bng thng c hay khng thng tin vng PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu c gi trn mi vng phn b. Trng thi ca PLOu th n trong vng sp xp khi phn phi. Quy lut l mi ln mt ONU chuyn qua mi trng mng PON

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GVHD Nguyn Vit Thng

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004.

Hnh 2.6 : Khung hng ln GTC a. Vng overhead lp vt l hng ln Vng overhead lp vt l hng ln gm cc vng l li m u, vng ranh gii v 3 vng d liu tng ng vi ONU. duy tr kt ni vi ONU, OLT s th cp vic truyn ln ca mi ONU trong khong thi gian ti thiu. Khong thi gian ny c xc nh bi cc thng s dch v ca ONU. OLT s nh dng v iu khin li m u v ranh gii trong cc bn tin overhead. Vng BIP c 8 bit. Trc khi ONU-ID c gn, ONU t gi tr khng xc nh l 255 trong vng ny. OLT c th kim tra vng ny xc nhn a ch phn b v truyn ng n ONU. Vng ID cung cp trng thi ONU thi gian thc bo co cho OLT. Khi ONU ch ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang i, OLT s cp mt v tr hng ln cho php ONU gi bn tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s t hn 5 ms. b. Vng vn hnh, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha cc bn tin PLOAM c m t phn PLOAMd.

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Ngun: CEDRIC F. LAM , Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice, October 2007.

Hnh 2.7 : M t chi tit khung hng ln GTC c.Vng san bng cng sut PLSu Trnh t san bng cng sut PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng cho vic o cng sut. Chc nng gip iu chnh mc cng sut ONU. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c. C ch iu khin cng sut th c li trong 2 trng hp l khi to cng sut ban u ca b pht ONU (ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v thay i cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy ra lc hot ng cng nh lc kch hot). PLSu c th c yu cu bt k thi im no. nhiu trng hp, trong lc kch hot, OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b cho php ONU thit lp b pht. Nu ONU khng s dng vng PLSu th ONU s khng kch hot b pht. iu ny lm gim s ng . d. Vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu

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Cu trc DBRu cha thng tin T-CONT. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c. Vng DBA cha trng thi lu lng ca T-CONT. Vng 8, 16 hay 32-bit c dng cho mc ch ny. Vng CRC: cu trc DBRu c bo v s dng CRC-8. u thu ca DBRu s thc hin pht hin v sa li CRC-8. Nu CRC ch th rng li khng th sa c th thng tin trong DBRu s b loi b. e. Phn ti Phn ti a ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM hay bo co DBA. Phn ti ATM hng ln c 53 byte. Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu. OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53 bytes. Nu ti khng 53 bytes th n s n thm cho 53 byte, cc cell ATM hng ln c trnh by nh Hnh 3.15.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004

Hnh 2.8 : Cc cell ATM hng ln Phn ti hng ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM (Hnh 3.16). Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu. Phn ti hng ln DBA cha bo co phn b bng thng ng t ONU nh trong Hnh 3.17. Bo co bng thng ng u tin c xp hng cc byte u tin ti v tr bt u phn b, tt c bo co th lin tip nhau. Nu chiu di phn b khng khp vi ton b chiu di bo co th ONU s b bt phn cui ca bo co hay m thm cc bit 0 phn cui nu khng . Ch rng ONU phi phn hi vic phn b ti DBA thm ch nu mode ny ca DBA khng h tr th n vn duy tr phn ti ny.

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Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004

Hnh 2.9 Cc khung GEM hng ln

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004

Hnh 2.10 : Bo co DBA hng ln 3.3. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON Phng php c bn nht ca phn phi bng thng hng ln l phn b bng nhau gia cc ONU. Phng php ny khng hiu qu. c bit l lu lng gi bi nhu cu bng thng ca cc ONU th t khi bng nhau ti mi thi im. Vic tn dng ton b bng thng c th c thc hin nu bng thng hng ln c phn phi ng ty theo nhu cu ca ONU. Trong khi ITU-T khng quy nh thut ton DBA, G.983.4 quy nh khung v c ch thc hin DBA trong h thng BPON v GPON. G.983.4 quy nh 2 c ch gn bng tn ng nh sau:

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Vi phng php u tin, ONU ng vai tr l b ng, OLT gim st bng thng ca mi ONU c s dng da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung GEM nhn ri m n nhn trong khung GTC hng ln. V l do ny, phng php ny c coi nh l iu chnh cell nhn ri. Phng php ny cn c gi l bo co khng trng thi. C nhiu bng thng hn c gn cho ONU nu vic tn dng bng thng vt qu ngng quy nh. Thun li ca phng php ny l lm n gin ha ONU v trnh vic s dng bng thng hng ln cho vic bo co nhu cu bng thng. Vi phng php th 2, ONU bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy, n c gi l bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi SR (Status Reporting). Ch th nhu cu bng thng trong loi T-CONT c truyn trong vng overhead lp vt l c th hn l vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s dng thng tin bo co trng thi quyt nh phn b bng thng ph hp cho mi v tr ID.

4. Bo mt
Trong h thng PON th hng xung, d liu c truyn broadcast n tt c ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu ngi dng no c nh ph hoi th c th gi ONU ca ngi dng khc truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt PON s ngn chn vic ny. Ging nh cc mng khc, GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic nghe trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem, trong mng PON, bt k ONU no cng khng th thy c lu lng hng ln ca ONU khc. iu ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn mt m hng truyn xung ca d liu. Th 2 l d liu hng ln c th truyn kha mt m. GPON s dng chun mt m AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). l mt khi mt m m n hot ng trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128 bit). c bit ch m c s dng. Khi mt m gi ngu nhin 16 byte c pht ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra d liu mt m OLT. ONU, d liu

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c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt m, vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM c mt m. OLT khi to vic trao i kha bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra kha v pht ngc tr v OLT.

III.KT LUN
Vi nhng u im v tc , bng thng cng nh chi ph trin khai, cng ngh cp quang GPON l s la chn khng th nm ngoi chin lc pht trin ca cc nh khai thc vin thng cho mng truy nhp. Chnh v vy m ti ny i su nghin cu v cu trc, hot ng v cht lng ca mng quang th ng GPON Qua bi bo co ny, em a ra c cc m hnh mng truy nhp quang vi nhng u im vt tri v tc , bng thng cng nh cht lng, ha hn s pht trin vt bc cho mng truy nhp. l cc vn ct li nht khi trin khai mng cp quang thu bao. Tuy nhin, do s hn ch v thi gian, ti liu tham kho cng nh kh nng hiu bit ca bn thn, nhng kt qu t c ch dng li mc l thuyt, cha nghin cu su v thc tin ca PON, em mong mun sau ny mnh c c hi i su vo thc tin hon thnh d nh trong tng lai.

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