Transcendental

Functions
6.2 Logarithmic Functions
RA Idoy
MATH17
• Logarithmic Function with base
b
• Graph of Logarithmic Function
• Natural Logarithmic Function
• Properties of Logarithmic
Functions
• Exponential and Logarithmic
Equations
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Definition:
The logarithmic function with
base b is the inverse of the
exponential function with base
b.


Note:
log if and only if
y
b
y x x b = =
( ) ( )
Dom f Rng f
+
= =
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Examples:
2
3
3 9 log 9 2 = · =
1/2
1/16
1 1 1 1
log
16 4 4 2
| |
= · =
|
\ .
3
2 8 = ·
2
1
5
25
÷
= ·
Logarithmic Function with
base b
More examples:
Find the values of the ff:

Solution:



Therefore,
7
log 49
7
2
log 49
7 49
7 7
y
y
y =
=
=
7
log 49 2 =
Logarithmic Function with
base b
More examples:
Find the values of the ff:

Solution:



Therefore,
5
log 5
5
1/2
log 5
5 5
5 5
y
y
y =
=
=
5
log 5 1/ 2 =
Logarithmic Function with
base b
More examples:
Find the values of the ff:

Solution:



Therefore,
6
1
log
6
6
1
log 1/ 6
6 1/ 6
6 6
y
y
y
÷
=
=
=
6
log 1/ 6 1 = ÷
Logarithmic Function with
base b
More examples:
Find the values of the ff:

Solution:



Therefore,
3
log 81
3
4
log 81
3 81
3 3
y
y
y =
=
=
3
log 81 4 =
Logarithmic Function with
base b
More examples:
Find the values of the ff:

Solution:



Therefore,
10
log 0.001
10
3
log 0.001
10 0.001
10 10
y
y
y
÷
=
=
=
10
log 0.001 3 = ÷
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Other examples:
Solve the given equation for either
x or b.

Solution:

6
log 2 x =
6
2
log 2
6
36
x
x
x
=
=
=
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Other examples:
Solve the given equation for either
x or b.

Solution:

27
log 2 / 3 x =
( )
27
2/3
2
3
log 2 / 3
27
27
9
x
x
x
x
=
=
=
=
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Other examples:
Solve the given equation for either
x or b.

Solution:

log 4 1/ 3
b
=
( )
1/3
3
1/3 3
log 4 1/ 3
4
4
64
b
b
b
b
=
=
=
=
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Other examples:
Solve the given equation for either
x or b.

Solution:

log 81 2
b
= ÷
( )
2
1/2
2 1/2
log 81 2
81
81
1/ 9
b
b
b
b
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
=
=
=
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Recall:


Since the logarithmic function with
base b is the inverse of exponential
function with base b, then
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
f f x x
f f x x
÷
÷
=
=
log
log
b
x
b
x
b x
b x
=
=
Logarithmic Function with
base b
Example:
5
2
log 2 5
÷
= ÷
3
10
log 10 3 =
Graph of Logarithmic
function of base b
Since logarithmic function is
the inverse of exponential
function, then its graph is the
reflection of the latter
function at y=x.
x
y b =
0 b >
log
b
y x =
x
y b =
0 1 b < <
log
b
y x =
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Definition:
The natural logarithmic
function is the inverse of the
natural exponential function.
ln if and only if
y
y x x e = =
( ) ( )
Dom f Rng f
+
= =
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Note:
ln 1 e =
ln x
e x =
ln
x
e x =
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Example 1: Recall the function
obtained from exponential
growth of bacteria culture.


Determine how many minutes
elapse until there are 30,000
bacteria present in the
culture.
( )
0.04
1500
t
f t e =
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Solution:
Let T be the
time elapse
until there are
30,000 bacteria
present

Given:

( )
0.04
1500
T
f T e =
( )
30, 000 f T =
0.04
0.04
0.04
30000 1500
20
ln 20 ln
ln 20 0.04
74.9
T
T
T
e
e
e
T
T
=
=
=
=
=
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Conclusion:
Therefore 74.9 minutes or 1
hr, 14 min and 54 sec elapse
until there are 30,000 bacteria
present.
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Example 2:
If $1000 is deposited into a
savings account that pays an
annual interest rate of 6
percent compounded
continuously, and no
withdrawals or additional
deposits are made, how long
will it take until there is
$1500 on deposit?
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Solution:
Let T years
be the time to
take to
accumulate $1500
Recall:
it
A Pe =
0.06
1500 1000
T
e =
0.06
0.06
0.06
1500 1000
1.5
ln1.5 ln
ln1.5 0.06
6.758
T
T
T
e
e
e
T
T
=
=
=
=
=
Natural Logarithmic
Function
Conclusion:
Therefore it takes 6.758
years or 6 years, 9 months and
3 days for the initial deposit
to accumulate to $1500.
Properties of Logarithmic
Functions
Theorem:
If b>0, b≠1, and u and v are
positive numbers, then
log log log
b b b
uv u v = +
log log log
b b b
u
u v
v
= ÷
Properties of Logarithmic
Functions
Theorem:
If b>0, b≠1, and u and v are
positive numbers, then
log log
n
b b
u n u =
Properties of Logarithmic
Functions
Examples: Express each of the
following in terms of log of x, y
and z, each of which represents a
positive number.
2 3 4
log
b
x y z
2
log
b
x
yz
2
5
3
log
b
xy
z
Properties of Logarithmic
Functions
Examples: Write each of the
following expression as a single
logarithm with a coefficient of 1.
log 2log 3log
b b b
x y z + ÷
( )
1
log 4 log 3 log log
3
b b b b
x y ÷ + ÷
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
Examples: Find the solution set.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3 16
x
=
3 1
5 0.08

=
1
7 3
x x+
=
4
log 19
( )
10
log 3 2 x + =
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
Examples: Find the solution set.

6.
7.
8.
( ) ( )
2 2
log 4 log 3 3 x x + ÷ ÷ =
( )
3 3
log log 2 3 3 x x + ÷ =
3 3 4
x x ÷
÷ =
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
Suppose on January 1, 1988, the
population of a certain city was
800,000. From then until the year
2000 the population is expected
to increase at the rate of 3.5
percent per year. Therefore t
years after January 1, 1988, the
population is expected to be
800,000(1.035)
t
, where 0≤t≤12.
When would you predict the
population will be one million?
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
• We wish to
determine the
value of t







( )
( )
800000 1.035 1000000
1.035 1.25
t
t
=
=
( )
( )
log 1.035 log1.25
log 1.035 log1.25
log1.25
log1.035
6.5
t
t
t
t
=
=
=
=
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
Conclusion:
Therefore, after six and one-
half year, the population will
be one million. This is on July
1, 1994.
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
If $1000 is deposited in a
savings account that pays an
annual interest rate of 6
percent compounded quarterly
and no withdrawals or
additional deposits are made,
how long will it take until
there is $1500 on deposit?
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations







0.06
1500 1000 1
4
n
| |
= +
|
\ .
( )
( )
( )
1.5 1.015
log1.5 log 1.015
log1.5 log 1.015
log1.5
log1.015
27.23
n
n
n
n
n
=
=
=
=
=
1
n
n
i
A P
m
| |
= +
|
\ .
Exponential and
Logarithmic Equations
Conclusion:
Therefore, it will take 28
quarters until there is $1500
on deposit.
Assignment (1/2)
Find the solution set of the
following equations (show
solutions)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2 1 3 1
3 5
x x + ÷
=
( )
1.04 0.932
x
=
8
log 28
( ) ( )
2 2
log 11 log 1 3 x x ÷ = + +
4 4 3
x x ÷
÷ =

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