1 CHAPTER ONE SOUPS AND SAUCES (CONTINENTAL) Soup is a one-dish item that can sometimes serve as a complete

meal. Soups are tasty and nutritious. They can be served alone or accompanied by croutons, buttered toasts, dinner rolls or plain bread triangles and crackers. There are different types of soups: a) Clear soups made from thin stocks. b) Creamed soups-made from basic stocks and thickened with milk, flour or starch, with other ingredients added. c) Pureed soups-thickened by puree of ingredients, usually by first boiling them, then blending them and filtering the mixture to gain the thickened mixture. In preparing soups, follow these suggestions; 1. Use acceptable stock from meats or fish. Dehydrate stocks such as chicken seasoning cubes, maggi cubes and dadawa cubes can be used as alternatives. One maggi or chicken seasoning cube added to 250m1 of water equals 250rnl of beef or chicken stock. 2. All food items such as meats and vegetables added must be in bite sizes. 3. Excessive heat can cause cream soups to curdle, therefore use moderate heat. 4. Avoid excessive use of spices and seasoning. Sauces are forms of liquid or semi-liquid soup preparations that are served with another food item. They are used to assist in presenting the food item and to complete the use of that food. Unlike soups, sauces cannot be served alone. Sauces can be used a) As background for food items e.g. tomato sauce, b) As a binding agent to hold foods together (e.g mayonnaise) c) As a topping on another food (e.g. custard sauce for cake and puddings and ketchup for meats). Sauces need: a) Stock, as the basic ingredient; b) Seasonings to provide the major taste c) Colour agent which must come from the stock and d) The thickening agent which may be eggs, flour or starch egg yolks provide good colour as well. In preparation of sauces, the fat is first melted, the flour is stirred into it, then the stock is poured into it and the mixture is cooked (simmered) In some gravies and sauces ,the starch or flour is first mixed with cold water before putting the fat and other ingredients. It is important not to overcook the flour fat mixture, but allow enough time for even distribution. MINCED BEEF SOUP 300 grams minced beef 1 litre of water 2 medium of tomatoes (chopped) 2 stalks celery (sliced) 1 tsp pepper (ground) ½ tsp thyme 3 carrots (diced) ¼ of small head cabbage (cutup) 2 large potatoes (diced) 1 medium onion (sliced) salt to taste 1 seasoning cube

Method 1. Clean and prepare all the vegetables as indicated. 2. Put the minced beef in a sauce pan and cook for about 10 minutes. Add water and salt to taste. 3. Boil for 5 more minutes. 4. Add the remaining ingredients except tomatoes and cook for another 15 minutes. 5. Add the tomatoes and simmer slowly for 10 minutes more. 6. Serve hot with crackers or toasted bread as appetizers. Serves 10. Note: Flake fish (cooked) can be used in place of minced beef and other flavorings can be added.

2 FRENCH ONION SOUP (APPETIZER) 60g margarine ¼ tsp curry 40g onions, peeled and thinly sliced ½ tsp thyme (3-4 medium Onions) Salt and white pepper to taste 3 tbsp flour ½ tsp sugar (optional) 1 liter beef stock 2 slices of bread (for toasting) Method 1. Melt the margarine in a large saucepan over a moderate heat. 2. Stir in the onions and add the sugar. Cook uncovered, stirring constantly till the onions are light brown. 3. Sprinkle flour over the onions and cook for 2-3 minutes. 4. Pour on the stock and stir to blend the flour. 5. Add the remaining ingredients and cook over low heat. Simmer the sauce with pot covered for about 1015 minutes. 6. Cut the bread slices into cubes and toast in preheated oven or grill to make croutons. 7. Spoon the soup into soup bowls and top with the toasted bread serve hot. FRESH PRAWN SOUP (APPETIZER) 45g/3tbsp margarine 1 onion, finely chopped 1 sweet red pepper (seeded and chopped) 2 sticks celery-finely chopped 1 seasoning cube 2 garlic clove, grated Salt and pepper to taste 1.5 litre fish stock ½ tsp thyme ½ tsp crushed bay leaf 225g raw peeled prawns and boiled 3 tbsp flour 2 spring onions chopped

Method 1. Melt the margarine and add the onion, pepper, celery, green onion and garlic. Cook gently to soften. 2. Stir in the flour and cook over gentle heat for 2-3 minutes, stirring occasionally. 3. Pour in the stock gradually, stirring well. 4. Add the thyme, bay leaf and any other remaining ingredient. Add the prawns and cook for about 2 minutes. 5. Reduce heat and allow to simmer for about 5 minutes until thickened. Remove from heat and remove the bay leaf. 6. Top with chopped green onions before serving in soup bowls. Serve with buttered toasts. PRAWN/SHRIMPS COCKTAIL 1 cup (400g) cooked prawns / shrimps 3 stalks celery, diced 4-5 tbsp mayonnaise ¼ tsp salt lettuce leaves ½ chopped green pepper 2tbsp ketchup 1 tbsp lemon juice

METHOD 1. Put the cooked prawns on a board and cut in to pieces. Place the prawn chunks in a mixing bowl, add the mayonnaise, celery, green pepper, salt and lemon juice. Mix with a fork. 2. Toss together and serve salad on lettuce leaves placed in cocktail glasses or salad bowls. Drop ketchup over top to garnish the salad. Chill before serving as appetizer LIVER/KIDNEY SOUP 250g kidney 200g liver 1 bay leaf 2 tbsp margarine

3 2 large potatoes 1 litre of water 1 large onion 1 chicken seasoning cube 3 medium carrots salt and pepper to taste. Method 1. Prepare the first five ingredients by cleaning, washing and cutting them into cubes or dices. 2. Place them in a baking dish, then add salt, pepper and remaining ingredients. Cover the dish. 3. Place in the oven and bake for about 1 hour until the ingredients are tender. 4. Remove bay leaf and serve hot. Boiling method may be used. Makes 5-6 servings STEAK SOUP 400 grams steak, cooked and cut 1 small onion, finely chopped 2 tsp. parsley leaves, finely chopped ½ tsp. thyme 200g peas 1 Chicken seasoning cube ¼ tbsp margarine

½ teaps. nutmeg 1 litre boiling water 2 tbsp flour 2sliced celery stalks Pepper and salt taste 1 bay leaf

Method 1. Placed steak chunks in a large pot with onion, herbs and seasonings. 2. Pour water or stock over them and add cook for 15 minutes. 3. Melt margarine in a saucepan and add flour and a little liquid from meat to the fat and stir until smooth. 4. Add the flour-fat mixture to the soup, stirring constantly until slightly thickened. Stir in the peas. Simmer for 5minutes. 5. Serve into soup plates and garnish with tomato slices. Serves as appetizer for 4-6 guests. STEAK/CHICKEN SOUP 250g cooked beef/chicken (deboned) 4 potatoes 2 carrots ½ tsp curry 1 bay leaf 500m1 water/stock 1 litre margarine/oil salt and pepper to taste 1 medium onion 1 seasoning cube

Method 1. Cut the beef/chicken into 72-inch cubes or cutlets 2. Cut the onions, carrots and potatoes into ½ inch cubes. 3. Place all the ingredients in a saucepan and add the water. 4. Season the entire mixtures with the salt and pepper. 5. Cook mixture for about 30-40minutes till meat and vegetables are tender. 6. Remove the bay leaf and stir gently to thicken the sauce. Serve hot as appetizer. BROWN ONION SOUP I large onion (sliced) 1 ½ tbsp. flour 2 tbsp margarine 1 litre of beef stock 500g cooked beef cubes

1 tsp. fresh garlic (minced) pinch of curry salt and white pepper to taste 1 seasoning cube

Method 1. Melt half of the fat over low heat and fry onion slices until light brown. Remove onion and set aside. 2. Melt the remaining margarine and add the flour.

Separate the deboned fish into chunks of about 1 inch sizes. Stir frequently. Melt the margarine or heat vegetable oil. 2. Cook and stir the mixture until thick and well blended.in 1 inch cubes 1 bay leaf. Simmer for 5 minutes and serve hot with toasted bread triangles. chopped 2 lives beef stock 2 fresh tomatoes. garlic and any other seasoning. Stir gently and cook for another 3 minutes. Cook for 10 minutes and serve hot with toasted bread as appetizer. 4. pepper . carrots and bay leaf. fat and stock in a saucepan. Method 1. chopped 1 bay leaf 1 tsp chopped garlic grated cheese 1 stalk celery (chopped) salt to taste . Stir in onion and the flour. Add the beef cubes. Stir in the fried onion slices. Makes 5. Gradually add beef stock. Make .in 1 inch cubes 1 tbsp chopped parsley or celery 2 tbsp margarine or vegetable oil 4 potatoes. Add the potatoes. Add the fish and the remaining ingredients. 4. pinch thyme and curry Method 1. Cook over medium heat.6 servings. 2. Put flour and margarine in a saucepan and mix together. 2 tables. salt . and stir in the thyme and curry. salt. 4. Add the cooked chicken and stock gradually while stirring. Stir in the cooked peas 4.4 3. MIXED VEGETABLE SOUP (APPETIZER) 1 large onion. 2. Stir together milk and flour. Serve hot with buttered yeast rolls or bread slices. CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP 1 table spoon dry milk 1 tbsp salt 1 can tomato juice ½ tsp pepper 1 ½ tbsp margarine 1 tsp soy sauce 1 ½ tbsp flour 500m1 beef stock ½ seasoning cube. Serves 6-8. Remove from heat and serve into soup bowls accompanied with buttered toasts. pepper soy sauce and seasoning cube. CHICKEN SOUP 2 tbsp margarine 500g cooked chicken in strips or chunks. chopped onion 1 litre chicken stock salt and pepper to taste.6 servings. Add the salt. tomato juice. and allow soup to simmer for 10 minutes. Garnish with chopped parsley or cucumber dices. 5. cooked and deboned 750 fish stock 1 large onion.in 1 inch cubes 4 carrots. Salt and pepper 1 50m1 milk (diluted) 100g cooked peas Method 1. Stir in the fish stock and cover pot to allow potatoes be cooked about 10 minutes. CREAMY FISH SOUP 1 medium scale fish. pepper. 3. 3. 3. 1 tbsp flour.

pepper. 5. Remove bay leaf. Pour in the stock gradually. Melt margarine and blend in flour. vinegar and salt 3. 3. green onion and garlic. bringing up to a boil and stirring constantly for 3 minutes until thickened. Add milk and seasonings. 2. Add the thyme. 2. Combine all ingredients in a saucepan. chicken or over plain boiled rice. Slice cucumber thinly. Melt the margarine and add the onion. Sprinkle with the minced parsley and the olive oil mixture over the vegetables. Simmer. stirring well. 4. 2. Serve as sauce for shrimps and fish fingers or fish balls. 6. Serve with braised beef. YELLOW SAUCE 1 tbsp flour 4 tbsp melted margarine 1 tsp salt ½ tsp pepper 150m1 milk 2 eggs (beaten) 1 seasoning cube . red wine. stirring constantly until thickened. WHITE SAUCE (MILK GRAVY) 1 tbsp margarine 250m1 diluted milk 1 ¼ tbsp flour salt and white pepper to taste ½ tsp lemon juice/vinegar Method 1. Top with the chopped green onions or cucumber as garnishing before serving in soup bowls. stirring occasionally. Chill before serving. Mix together the olive oil. Stir in the flour and cook over gently heat for 2-3 minutes. bay leaf and any other remaining ingredients. Simmer for 2 minutes.5 250g kidney beans 250g peas/green beans 3 tsp white pepper 2 cups cabbage (chopped) Method 1. 2. 3. PARSLEY TOMATOES APPETIZER 5 medium tomatoes 3 tbsp olive oil 1 cucumber 3tbsp red wine vinegar 1 tbsp minced parsley ¼ tsp salt Method 1. mixing well. Cook gently to soften. celery. Reduce heat and allow to simmer for about 15 minutes until thickened. Add the prawns and cook for about 2 minutes. Wash and cut the ripe firm tomatoes in to 4 segments in each. CURRY SAUCE 500mI chicken or beef stock 2 tsp dried onion flakes 2 tbsp curry powder 1 ½ tsp margarine 200g peas (optional) 2 tsp grated ginger 2 tsp flour/corn flour salt to taste 1 chicken seasoning cube Method 1. Place cucumber slices in a flat dish and arrange the tomato segment in between the cucumber arrangement.

Add the mustard. 3. 6. cover again and cook for about 2 minutes. Place in a bowl and add onion. 2. potatoes and chili pepper. Add the puree tomato sauce and salt. mushrooms. Serve 6-8 persons LEEKAND POTATO SOUP 30g margarine 2 large potatoes 4 medium sized leeks salt to taste 1 onion pepper to taste 1. add potatoes. COOKED SALAD CREAM 1 tsp dry mustard l50ml milk 3 tsp sugar 4 tbsp white vinegar pinch black/white pepper 3 tbsp melted margarine 1 tsp salt 1 tbsp flour 1 or 2 eggs Method 1. 3. Add milk and bring to boil. SEA FOOD SOUP 300g large shrimps 300g oysters 300g clams 1 or 2 medium fresh pepper (chopped) 1 cooked fish (flaked) 1 can mushroom (sliced) 3 large tomato (cubed) 300g crab meat ½ tsp curry 1 medium onion ½ tsp thyme 1 tsp white pepper 1 can tomatoes puree/sauce 500m1 water 2 tbsp vegetable oil Method 1. Stir in the vinegar and cook for about 2 minutes. oysters. 3. Beat eggs and milk. pepper and diced tomatoes. Add the cleaned shell fish (shrimps. thyme and curry. 4. 4. Add the leeks. onion and stock. dice onion. Mix flour and melted margarine. Additional water can be added if needed. Simmer for 10 minutes and serve hot over boiled rice. Clean and cut fish into bit size. white pepper and salt. . chilli pepper and seasonings. Melt fat. 3 Stir in beaten eggs.6 Method 1. celery. 4. 2. Add seasonings until smooth. Cook for 20 minutes. Simmer for 5 minute 5. stirring constantly until smooth. yam or potatoes. crab). 1-Teat the vegetable oil in a saucepan and pour in the water. 2. Cover pan and cook for 6 minutes till potatoes are cooked. clams. Serve over vegetable salads. Gradually add egg mixture to flour mixture over low heat while stirring. 5. 2.2 litres chicken stock ½ tsp nutmeg 1 stalk celery or parsley ½ tsp curry 1 fresh chili pepper 1seasoning cube 1 tbsp milk Method 1. Chop the celery and slice the white part of leeks. Add the fish mixture. Serve on fried fish or roasted chicken. Remove from heat and cool. Clean vegetables. stirring constantly. Stir well. Gradually and the rest of melted fat. Mix flour and half of the fat in a saucepan.

Serve hot with crackers as an appetizer. They are usually used a accompaniments or toppings to carbohydrate food forms. onion. 8. 2. remove the bones or debone the chicken Cuts. plantain. 2. Simmer for 3 minutes to improve taste. to thicken and to stabilize the soup products. various optional ingredients are use a to thicken the soup.7 4. turning the soup gently. Thicken the soup with the flour mixture and cook till onion. 9. apon (agbono). groundnut-oil. Various types of local spices and condiments re usually added to soups to enhance flavour. CHICKEN CORN SOUP ¼ chicken cut-up 1 1/2 litre water 1 large onion 2 diced hard cooked eggs 1 cob fresh corn/1 can processed corn 1 celery stalk ¼ tsp curry ¼ tsp ½ tsp grated garlic and ginger 1 tbsp flour ½ tsp white pepper salt to taste Method 1. green pepper and chopped fresh tomatoes. The list includes assorted edible seeds such as melon. seasoning cube and add pepper to taste. Gradually add water and vinegar to the flour mixture and stir into the ground beef mixture. they are highly valued aspects of meals. Most soups and sauces are normally composed of assorted variety of ingredients that are rich in proteins. groundnuts. 3. cotton as well as yam. Most of the soups and sauces don’t need garnishing because of their colourful natures. Make a batter with some of the broth. Although they do not make complete meals. spinach. rice or macaroni. cocoyam. Stir in the tomato paste. Palm-oil. corn and celery are cooked. 6. Simmer for 5 minutes. soyabean and melon-oil are the popular types of fats used in the preparation of the soups and sauces. vitamins and minerals. Apply heat and cook until beef is cooked (about 10 minutes). 7. Serve hot over plain boiled spaghetti. stews and sauces are similar to continental types. Serve 6-8. Thin soups such as pepper soups can be served alone as appetizers. cornstarch and cassava starch pastes. Season with salt. They may be light or thickened. Stir in the corn and eggs. the . 5. Put minced beef. NIGERIAN SOUP AND SAUCES Nigeria soups. 7. 4. waterleaf. Wash and cook the chicken with the water to cover it in the pot for about 20 minutes. 5. Mix together flour and vegetable oil and set aside. Also. discard the bones and return to the stock. 6. garlic and ginger in a saucepan. SPAGHETTI SAUCE 400 ground beef 2 tbsp vegetable oil 1 small onion 2 fresh garlic grated ½ large grated ginger 2 large fresh tomatoes (cubed) 1 tbsp flour 300ml water 1 tsp sugar 1 tbsp vinegar 1 green pepper (chopped) 1 can tomato paste pepper and salt to taste 1 seasoning cube Method 1. Vegetables like bitter leaf. and pumpkin leaves are generously used in either fresh or dry forms. 3. Add diced onion. 4. celery and spices. salt and flour. Cut the fleshly parts into small slices. Remove from heat and stir in milk before serving as appetizer. When cooked.

Serve hot in soup bowls as appetizer. Prepare stockfish and smoked fish and boil till tender. seasoning cube. 4. Remove from heat and serve hot with pounded yam balls. ground salt to taste 1 tsp ground locust bean ½ sachet seasoning mix . 5. 2. The soup becomes thicker. Add pepper. BITTER LEAF SOUP 450g lean beef. Pound the thickener (cocoyam/yam) into 2 balls. melon and apon soup preparations. Note: Goat meat offals or cut-up hen can be used in place of beef offals. Put in a pot with half of the water and ½ tsp salt and cook till tooth-done. 5. lime leaf and lemon may be left out to make thin soup while other local spices may be included if desired. add to the boiling mixture and cover pot. Wash and cut the meat into bit-sized chunks. Add the beef stock. Cover and leaves to boil for 5 minutes. Stir well and allow the soup to simmer for about 10 minutes more. Place over heat and toast the melon seeds until they are lightly browned. BEEF OFFAL (PEPPER SOUP) 1 medium sized beef/kidney 1 small lime leaf (fresh) 250 tongue/ heart 4 lemon grass leaf 3 tbsp melon seeds (optional) salt to taste 300g cleaned tripe (shaki) 1 seasoning cube 250g liver 1 ½ litre water 1 tsp ground dried pepper Pinch tsp potash (optional) 2 seeds African nutmeg (crushed) 1 pod of enge or uda (seeds removed and crushed) Method 1. 7. washed and lemon grass leaves and lime leaf. 4. pepper and locust bean. 3. Mix well. Simmer for about 5 minutes. Dissolve this mixture with a little liquid from meat stock and stir into the soup. 3. Combine the remaining water. Season with salt to taste. Some of the soups and sauces are available in convenience forms. WATER LEAF SOUP 600g beef (cut-up and cooked) 300m1 palm oil 1 ½ tsp ground pepper 4 fresh tomatoes (ground) 1 medium onion. 6. Examples are ready to use pepper soup. palm oil and cooked beef. 8. Now add the crayfish. Continue to cook. The recipes presented are simple enough for anyone to prepare.8 abundance of meats. They are available on supermarket shelves. 6. cooked I small stock fish 300g smoked fish 250g washed bitter leaf 1 wrap locust bean 4 tbsp ground crayfish 250m palm oil salt and pepper to taste 2 pieces cooked cocoyam/yam 500ml water/stock 1 seasoning tube Method 1. Lemon grass. Stir in the bitter leaf and leave to simmer for 5 minutes for tastes to blend. Now place the melon seeds in a dry frying pan. salt and potash. Grind melon seeds and spices to a smooth paste. fish and vegetables used. 2.

Add remaining ingredients except salt and vegetable. Wash the water leaf very well and chop into small bits.9 4 cups picked water leaf ½ cup ground melon 250m1 cup water dry fish. Stir-inn beef and fry together for about 5 minutes. Boiled chicken in place of beef. heat the oil to when it starts smoking and fry onion and grated okro in the oil for 5 minutes. 2.fish mixture. . Remove from heat and serve over hot boiled rice. Cook gently under low heat. Fry for two minutes and pour okro mixture into the boiling meat. Wash and blend the tomatoes. 4. BEEF/FRESH FISH TOMATO SAUCE (STEW) 400g Cooked beef ½ tsp thyme 1 (8z) tin tomato Paste 1 tsp curry 4 large tomatoes 1 beef seasoning cube 3 large flesh peppers 200ml beef broth/water 1 large Onion salt to taste. Add seasoning. 3. 5. Add all the ground ingredients except the melon. 7. 3. Cover pot and cook for 2 minutes 7. 6. . sprinkle with salt and mix gently but thoroughly. 8. Stir well into the oil and meat: Add 1 cup of water and stir in the melon. stirring occasionally to prevent burning.Wash and grate okro. unti1 taste is well blended. BEEF AND FISH OKRO SOUP 250 Cooked beef. Serves 6.Stir in the tomato and pepper.Clean and remove bones from dry fish and add to the boiling meat and liquid. Mix well. Add the paste and keep cooking the sauce at medium heat till it is almost dehydrated and starts forming small lumps. pepper and tomato and set aside. 5. yam or plain boiled beans. 2.In another sauce pan. Cook uncovered over low heat for 2 minutes or till the soup is heated through.Serve hot in large soup bowls to be eaten with pounded yam or garri balls. Simmer for 10 minutes stirring occasionally. pepper and salt to the soup and simmer gently until cooked. Serve with pounded yam or amala balls. pepper and half of the onion. 3. chop onion. Stir in the ground ingredients and allow the sauce to cook for about 5 minutes. bee broth or water in a pot and heat at simmering temperature. Stir in the fish and continue cooking. 6. Stir well and add the beef broth salt and other seasoning. 300m1 vegetable oil Method 1. 4. 8.Combine cooked beef lumps. cleaned 2 tbsp ground crayfish Method 1. Heat palm oil and fry the beef cutlets lightly. Add the sliced onion pieces and fry till lightly brown. Pour vegetable oil in a sauce pot and beat the oil to slight smoking level. 4. cut up ½ medium dried-fish 20 medium-sized fresh okro pods 2 large fresh pepper 1 ½ large fresh tomatoes (optional) 1 Seasoning cube 4 tbsp ground crayfish 250 palm oil 1 small onion 40ml of beef/broth water small bunch of pumpkin leaf Method 1.place vegetable at the top of the soup. 2.

Wash and chop the vegetables and onion set aside. Set aside. Add the chicken broth and bring to full boiling.Wash okro fruits thoroughly and grate coarsely. 2. 5. without overcooking. Steam for about 5minutes. 6. Stir in all the chopped vegetables one after the other and cover the pot to steam for 3-5 minutes. 6. periwinkles cooked beef. Serve hot with pounded Yam. Place palm oil in a sauce pot. Cut up older chicken into serving sizes. 3. Remove from heat without over cooling vegetables. heat slightly to almost smoking point. Fufu orAmala balls. eliminate the use of fresh tomato.10 Note: To improve the drawing consistency. prawns and cooked beef and place in a sauce pot with the beef stock. cleaned fish and fermented melon and the seasoning cube. wash place in a pot. FISH/CHICKEN PLAIN MELON SOUP WITH OKRO ½ cut-up older chicken (hen) 10 large dry prawns (ekpa) Medium dry fish 1 seasoning cube 1 ½ cup of melon seeds (ground) pinch of potash ½ wrap fermented melon (ogiri) (opt) salt to taste 2 tbsp ground crayfish 5 medium okro pods (optional) chopped. 2. Add the shrimps. shrimps or periwinkle (optional) Method 1. Add the cooked chicken. season with salt and cook in 200ml water until cooked.Stir in the grated okro and keep the soup boiling uncovered. stirring once. 7. 4. Blend the pepper and tomatoes. Stir in the chopped vegetables and cook for about 2-3 minutes. cleaned and boneless dry fish. Season with salt.Remove from heat and serve with hot Amala. . 4. In another 200m1 of water in a separate pot. pounded yam or cassava meal. Method 1. washed prawns.Wash the leafy vegetables thoroughly and slice/chop finely . ground pepper and tomato mixture stirring well to prevent burning. 4. Crush in the seasoning cube. 2. HERB OKRO SOUP 20 medium okro fruit (fresh) 4-6 tbsp palm oil 2 tsp ground pepper 4 tbsp ground crayfish 1 medium dry fish 1 bunch pumpkin leaf 1 bunch black pepper leaf (Fresh Ozizza) 1 seasoning cube 200g cooked beef litre beef stock salt to taste dry prawns. 3. 3. Fry the chopped onion. Add beef broth (100ml) and cover to simmer.Prepare the dry fish. grounded pepper and salt and stir briefly. dissolve the ground melon and pepper.Add the seasoning cube.Add the palm oil and apply heat to cook for 5 minutes. 5. MIXED VEGETABLE SOUP 200g cooked beef and broth 1 medium dry fish 1 bunch of pumpkin leaf 1 bunch spinach greens 2 bunches water leaf 1 medium onion 6 fresh scent pepper 1 seasoning cube ½ litre palm oil ground dry crayfish salt to taste periwinkles (optional) dry shrimps/prawns 4 medium fresh tomato Method 1. Semovita.

Remove cooked yam pieces and reserve t liquid. Add the onion and fry till lightly brown. Mix the ground melon see and locust bean with half of the hot beef broth to a thick paste and Set aside. 4. Spread between two slices of bread and cut into triangles of each sandwich. 5. Stir in the remaining water/beef broth. Garnish with tomato wedges and serve as appetizers. Sprinkle salt over the soup and add pinch potash.Roast the dry fish lightly and put them hot into the sauce to absorb it. Stir occasionally to prevent burning. Debone and clean the fish. corn meal balls or garri balls. beef and bitter leaf. 7. stir occasionally. 3. Pour palm oil into sauce pot and heat till it begins to smoke.Using the pestle. Mix well with pestle till oil is mixed in the sauce. BREAD AND SHRIMPS APPETIZER 250g cooked shrimps 2-3 tbsp mayonnaise ½ cucumber 6-8 slices whole wheat/plain bread 2 tsp chopped colon Method 1. tin melon seed ground small washed bitter leaf 1 small marg. 7. Mix well and bring soup to boil again cooking for 10 minutes. 2. Mix well and cover and bring to boil. mixing well. if desired. Serve warm as soup with pounded yam baits. mix well and cook for 5 minutes with pot covered. Stir in the tomato mixture and steam till almost the dehydrate. 4. stirring constantly. 3. Blend the tomatoes and peppers. Add the dissolved melon. 2. BEEF MELON AND VEGETABLE SOUP 400gs cooked beef 1 small bunch chopped spinach or pumpkin leaves 1 medium smoked fish ½ small tomato tin 1 small mar. 4. Add salt to taste. Cook till the melon-tomato mixture sets and forms small lumps or curdles. l. 2.Gradually pour some quantity of the liquid into the thick sauce i’ the mortar Mix thoroughly with the pestle.Put pepper and crayfish into a wooden mortar. Stir occasionally. Season with salt to taste. 3. except bread in a bowl.11 5. Chop the cook shrimps and combine all the ingredients. 8.Add potash and palm oil. Add okro if desired and simmer for 5 minutes till soup is slightly thickened. allowing it to bubble for 10 minutes. Wash and chop the cucumber and set aside. addthepumpkn1eagtth and boil again for 5 minutes 9. Pound till smooth. 6.Boil the yam in enough water to cover the yam pieces. Dry fish and may be used instead of chicken. Serves . The thin soup without okro is good for dieters and adequate for convalescents. Serve 6-8 DRY FISH PALM OIL SAUCE (Uncooked Method) 12 pieces of a small tuber yam 150m1 tin palm oil Water for boiling yam 3-4 tbsp crayfish 1 tsp ground pepper ½ tsp potash 4 small sized dry fish salt to taste Method 1. 6. Tin beef broth salt to taste 4-5 large tomatoes 1 seasoning cube 1 large onion-chopped 3 tbsp ground crayfish 4 large fresh peppers 1 small marg. squeeze the fish gently to soften them. . 6. Do the top of the sauce with palm oil. Serve warm as soup with pounded ripe plantain and starch or garri balls. 5. dry fish. Tin palm oil Method 1. Serve over the boiled yam or unripe plantain. Spinach greens may be used in place of okro.

FRUITS AND. or desserts dishes. Add the chopped onion. When you cook these items. potatoes or plantain. ensure that you use little amount of water and that you don’t over cook them. Cook gently for about 5 minutes till fat is absorbed and vegetables are cooked. Salads are nUttOiili1C they provide rich sources of vitamins (A& C) iron. g)Ensure that the prepare salads are adequately chilled or refrigerated before served. inedible skins. c)Ensure that there is variety in colour texture and taste of items or ingredients. f)Add salad cream to vegetable salad just before serving. The following is a brief note on salads.12 CHAPTER TWO VEGETABLES. 3. peppers. clean and crisp. Set aside. garnishes and dressings or creams which act as seasonings. 2. Excessive heat destroys some of the nutrients in fruits and vegetable and softens them. a)Ensure that the salads ingredients are fresh. They are good sources of vitamins and minerals as well as rouphages. all seeds. well. always chose fresh vegetables and fruits instead of canned or frozen ones in order to obtain the true flavor. eggs or fish. Top with fried or poached egg. uniform in colour. tender or crisp. The cooking methods for fruits and vegetables should be selected to enhance maximum retention of nutrients. All fruit salads should be chilled before they are served SAUTE VEGETABLES 500g green leafy vegetable (Spinach) 1 medium onion 200g flaked fish 1 green pepper 100g fresh prawns (cleaned and cooked) 2fresh scent pepper 4 firm tomatoes 25g margarine/I 14 tbsp vegetable oil salt to taste.Avoid mushy products . Also choose fruit and vegetable that are firm. b)Cut the items in bite sizes or as indicated in the recipe . 5. They are often used as light and refreshing appetizers or desserts. Freshly picked vegetables such as leaf vegetables will cook for a shorter period than vegetables such as legumes and root vegetables. stems and the like must be removed to make eating easy. They may serve as main. side. It is cooled and poured over the prepared fruits. Almost in all cases Salads are served with some kind of dressing or cream. All salads have the main ingredients. VEGETABLE SALADS Salads are dishes containing vegetables or combinations of fruits and or vegetables which can be improved with protein items such as meat. Wash and slice the leafy vegetable. In preparing salads. Place a frying pan over heat and melt the margarine.shaped and without cuts. The colour is also affected by excessive heat. tomatoes.SALADS Vegetables and fruits are important to meals. yam. follow these guidelines. When buying vegetables. Salads may be served as a separate course. Serve hot as an accompaniment to plain boiled rice. as an appetizer or an accompaniment to main dish. Wash and rewash vegetables properly before using. prawns and the flaked fish. fresh. . tomatoes and peppers very well and chop them. Method 1. Vegetables and fruits are prominent components of salads. Blanching and steaming of vegetables can help to retain flavour colour and food value. Syrup can be added to fruit salads. and rouphages. d)Proper hygiene must be maintained when preparing salads in order to avoid contamination by harmful bacteria. or blemishes. FRUIT SALADS Fruit salads are more delicate and lighter than vegetable salads. 4. flavours and optimum palatability. The syrup is made by heating 75 grams sugar in 250ml water with lime or lemon juice until the mixtures changes to light brown. In preparing the fruits. Use tools to wash and arrange the items and keep salad well garnished. Wash onion. e)Vinegar or salted water must be used to wash and rinse the vegetables and fruits to destroy any available bacterium that can cause food poisoning. texture and colour and nutrient. Cook for 1 minute and stir in the leafy vegetables.

Sprinkle salt on the potato strips and fry in deep fat fryer. 4. 5. CRISPY POTATO CHIPS 2 medium Irish potatoes per person Salt and white pepper ice water vegetable oil for frying Method 1.Cut the beef into chunks of I-inch cubes. Remove. Wash in salted water and leave to drain. 4. (If fresh) and set aside.fry for 5-6 minutes and serve as side dish with potatoes or cereals (rice. Alternatively. Serve as appetizer or snack. Hear the oil in a frying pan and combine all the ingredients in the oil. carrots and peas. When slightly brown. 3. 2. Steam the shredded cabbage for 2 minutes.Add the seasonings and toss very well. . if desired and top with ketch-up. remove from oil and drain. Drain thoroughly.Place in a grilling dish and cook over medium heat for about 30 minutes. 3. STEAMED CABBAGE (side dish) 1 small head of white cabbage 3 tbsp margarine 1 tsp salt to taste 1 onion sliced. dry thoroughly.Peel and cut potatoes into 1. Serve as side dish with rice or potatoes.13 BEEF-VEGETABLE KEBABS 250 cooked beef 1-2 potatoes 4 small onions 1 seasoning cube 3 carrots ½ tsp curry and white pepper 1 green pepper ½ tsp thyme. 2. Cut them into medium size strips or slices. 2. noodles etc) with grilled or fried chicken/beef. 6. Method 1. kitchen wonder can be used to cut potatoes. MIXED VEGETABLE SIDE DISH 250g sliced carrots 2 stalks celery (sliced) 250g sliced green beans 100g sweet corn ½ tsp curry ¼ small cabbage salt and pepper to taste ½ tsp soy sauce 1 sliced onion 2 tbsp vegetable oil Method 1. 4. Soak the potatoes in ice water for about 30 minutes or 1 hour. 2. Wash and slice cabbage. ginger etc 12 small sized tomatoes 4 wooden skewers/toothpicks Method 1. 3. 3. Place beside the meat dish. Alternate chunks of meat and vegetable on skewers. toss and mix completely. Wash onions and cut each into 4 parts. sprinkle some pepper on them. Stir. . This can also be baked in the oven by placing in a well-grease aluminum foil which is wrapped securely. onion. Add the salt. 4-6 GARDEN EGG SAUCE . Deseed the green pepper and cut into 1-inchsquares.inch cubes and place in ice water to prevent disco10uration. Parboil the green beans.Combine the beef chunks and the vegetables including the drained potatoes in a bowl. 5. Place in a fry pan. Wash and peel potatoes. dot with margarine and stir fry for about 3 minutes. Toss well while cooking over medium heat.Cut carrots into I-inch segments.

Serve hot with tomato sauce as a side dish or accompaniment for boiled or Jollof rice. Clean and parboil the fresh prawns shrimps if available. Set aside. Wash. Season with the salt and pepper and mix lightly. 2. potatoes or plantain. and the scent peppers. sliced. 5. 2. Heat the oil in a frying pan and proceed to frying the onions. 3. onion. Method 1. boiled or fried yam or plantain. juice. 2.14 3 medium fresh garden eggs 1 medium onion 4-6 medium tomatoes 150m1 vegetable or palm oil 4 fresh pepper salt to taste Method 1. Sprinkle the vegetables with lemon juice mixture and chill before serving. 4. Remove from heat and serve with fried or boiled yam. Cover and cook for 3 minutes till fat is absorbed. sliced sliced lettuce leaves 4tbsp mayonnaise 2 hard cooked eggs. pepper and prawns. Season with a little salt. Wash and cut tomatoes into segments. Cut into thin slices an set aside. TOMATO-AVOCADO SALAD 2 avocado pears 2 ½ tbsp lemon juice 2medjum tomatoes ½ tbsp salt Lettuce or cabbage leaves ½ tbsp vinegar 1 tbsp sugar 3 tbsp vegetable oil. tomatoes and9epper to half-cooked. Add flaked fish if desired. EGGNOG SALAD 1 egg 1 cup flaked coconut . Sprinkle them with lemon juice. salt and vinegar. melt the margarine and add the vegetables. Method 1. pepper and onions. Server 4. Chop the shrimps in to pieces. Place the tomatoes on t h e lettuce leaves in between the avocados. 3. Garnish with the egg slices and chill before serving SAUTE SPINACH GREENS 500g greens (spinach or fluted pumpkin) 1 medium onion Margarine or vegetable oil 2-3 fresh scent peppers (optional) salt to taste 1 green scent pepper 100g fresh prawns Method 1. 4. Cook for 5minutes longer for taste to blend. 3. Add the sliced garden egg and season with salt. lemon. cut each avocados into six segments and peel the skin. 2. onions. SHRIMP-EGG SALAD (Appetizer) 100 cooked shrimps salt to taste 1 tbsp lemon juice ½ tsp ground pepper 3 stalks celery. Wash and slice the lettuce or cabbage leaves. Add the celery and mayonnaise. Wash and peel garden eggs. Now slice the tomatoes. Stir gently and heat through for 1 minute longer. Combine sugar. Arrange the cut avocados on a flat dish lined with the lettuce or cabbage slices. Wash and slice green leafy vegetables. Place the salad on a flat dish lined with sliced lettuce leaves. 3. In a frying pan. oil.

Chill in freezer until firm. orange. 5. 4. Combine the rest of ingredients and pour into small cups and chill. Bring water to boil and add salt. 3. Do not over cook. pepper and salt. Blanch. pawpaw) ¼ tsp nutmeg. Leave to boil for another 10 minutes 4. 3. Tie the lemon grass to make a bunch. green pepper and onion. GOAT MEAT AND YAM CASSEROLE 600g cooked goat meat (deboned) (cutlets) ½ medium tuber yam 2 stalks lemon grass leaf 4 scent leaves 2 tbsp ground crayfish 2 tsp ground African nutmeg 2 crushed and seeded enge pods 1 seasoning cube salt and pepper to taste water for boiling yam Method 1. Serve as a side ‘dish with jollof rice or top over stew. Stir well and cover.shredded 1 tspsa1t 600g shredded. carrots. Wash and chop leaf vegetables. Serve hot in plain form or topped with palm oil drops. 2. watermelon. spices. heat the vegetable oil and fry fry onion and pepper slices. Method 1. Chill before serving. With boiled unripe plantain (5-6 fingers) may be used in place of yam. Makes 6 servings. 3. In a medium pan. 2. When half-cooked. Soften g e 1 a tin in the orange juice and melt over hot water. add the cooked goat meat (cut-up) to the yam and continue boiling for another 15 minutes till yam is cooked and meat is tender. 2. Add the prepared herbs. In a large bowl. scent leaves. Add the blanched green leaves and toss as you fry. Stir well again. STIR-FRIED GREENS 1 medium bunch spinach leaves ½ tsp salt ¼ cup water 2 tbsp vegetable oil 1 medium onion/sliced 1 fresh pepper-chopped/sliced Method 1. combine cabbages. 50g shopped green pepper Method 1. Peel Yam. remove the lemon grass bunch and any other edible spices/herbs. Pour over vegetables and mix well. Makes 6-7 servings. Put enough water to cover the yam and put to boiling. wash and place the yam pieces in a saucepan. Set aside. VEGETABLE RELISHES 1 celery stalk in strip 3 carrots in strip 2 tbsp mayonnaise ¼ tsb salt . Green cabbage 2 tbsp white vinegar 200g shredded red cabbage 3 tbsp granulated sugar. egg and sugar) ingredients. 2. crayfish. chopped leaves and set aside. Mix the eggnog (milk. 3. tangerines. Serve as dessert. RED AND GREEN COLESLAW 4 carrots. Combine the remaining ingredients mixing well.15 250m1 milk 1 cup orange juice 1 tbsp sugar or honey sachet of plain gelatin 1 cup mixed fruits(pineapple.

peas and baked beans. Drain the green peas and baked beans and 5. pepper and cooked cauliflower. Prepare the vegetables (the first five ingredients). 3. Arrange the prepared vegetables around the bowl. Chill well in the refrigerator and serve with salad cream. Mix all the remaining ingredients in a bowl and place in the c of a flat dish or tray. 7. sliced diagonally 2 hardboiled eggs 1 green chill pepper. Garnish with egg white slices around the dish and the yolks as topping on the cauliflower. arrange the vegetables on a flat dish in diagonal or circular arrangement. Chill before serving as appetizers CRUNCHY CAULIFLOWER 1 large head cauliflower 1 onion. Wash and slice cabbage and lettuce thinly. 3. Stir-fry for3 minutes and serve hot. Set aside to drain. Remove the large outer green leaves. Melt the margarine in the small frying pan and add the onion. 4. 6. Now toss and mix all the vegetables in a salad bowl or arrange them in layers. Garnish the top with egg slices. Season with salt if necessary. Makes 8 servings. 2. The mi serves as a dip for the vegetable. Note: Carrots can be sliced or grated in long strips and used in the raw state instead of dicing and blanching. chopped Salt to taste Method 1. Alternatively. Wash cauliflowers well and place in salt water. 2. MIXED VEGETABLE SALAD 4 medium carrots (diced/grated) 1 small can peas 1 small sized cabbage 1 head lettuce 100g sweet corn 3 firm tomatoes (diced) 1 can baked beans 1 small cucumber-sliced 2 hard cooked eggs-sliced 1 onion sliced and blanched. SALAD CREAM II 4 tbsp evaporated milk 2-4 tbsp vegetable oil 2 eggs yolks 1 ½ tsp sugar 1 tsp mustard ½ tsp salt 2 tbsp white vinegar/lemon juice ½ tsp white pepper 2 tsp boiling water . Wash again with vinegar and salt solution.16 1 cauliflower in chunks ½ graded onion 3 large firm tomatoes in sections 2 tbsp milk 2 cucumbers in slices Method 1. Stir in the carrot slices. 1 medium beet root diced blanched ½ green pepper diced salad dressing/cream/mayonnaise Method 1. Cook for about 5-6 minutes and drain off the water. vegetables wash in salted water or vinegar solution. leaving the pale green leaves. 3. Peel and dice carrot and cook in boiled water for 5minutes. Drain off the water and cool. with lettuce leaves as under liners. 4. 2. sliced 4 tbsp margarine 2 carrots. Trim off the hard stem and cut cauliflower well small chunks. Peel and slice cucumber thinly.

17 Method 1. 2. 4. Wash and chop celery or spring onion. 2. vinegar. Make 8 servings. POTATO SALAD 4 large potatoes. Slice the remaining cucumber and to serve. 3. chopped 1 small onion chopped ½ tsp white/black pepper 4 tbsp mayonnaise or salad cream . Line a flat dish with the lettuce or cabbage leaves and serve the salad on the leaves. 5. Chill and serve with salad cream or mayonnaise. Continue whisking till mixture is thick. take another egg yolk with ½ tsp water and add to mixture and whisk well. 2. salt. Garnish with cucumber slices. grated long ½ of one beet root (diced) 3 tbsp shredded coconut ½ small onion 50g cashew nuts (optional) 2 firm ripe tomatoes salad cream to taste 1 green or red apple Method 1. Remove the hard brown back of the coconut and shred or grate as well. Place yolks. If mixture is too thick. 5. Chill and top with mayonnaise before serving. whisking continuously.cooked and diced 2 stalks spring onion/celery-chopped ½ tsp salt 3 hard boiled eggs. Mix all ingredients together. Top with mayonnaise. Wash cucumbers. Now shred the cucumbers. Set aside. CUCUMBERAND COCONUT SALAD 3 medium cucumbers 2-3 carrots 1 small coconut Lettuce leaves/cabbage 100g roasted peanuts (pealed) Mayonnaise Method 1. Sanitize vegetable very well to destroy harmful micro organisms. Slice the lettuce or cabbage leaves and set aside. Add the boiling water and milk after whisking well. Put all ingredients except mayonnaise in a salad bowl or arrant vegetables by alternating them and having the salad well garnished. Prepare cabbage and shred finely. Pour oil gradually. add a little milk or vinegar to thicken. Reserve one for slicing. 3. Crush the peanuts and combine all the ingredients. Chop onion. 2. CABBAGE SALAD ½ small firm white cabbage I stalk celery or spring onion 2 large carrots. Toss gently and set aside. 3. slit and remove the seeds. sugar and mustard in a bowl and whisk well. CARROT-CUCUMMBER SALAD 3 large carrots (shredded) 2 large cucumbers. 6. cashew nuts and apple with skin 4. pepper. Put in salad bowl and garnish with wedges of tomatoes. Peel and grate the carrot in long pieces and combine all the shredded vegetables in a bowl. peeled and diced 4 tbsp shredded coconut 1 tbsp sugar salt to taste 2 tbsp mayonnaise Method 1. 4.

celery and sweet corn. Squeeze out the juice from one lime and pour over sliced bananas to prevent browning. 2. excepts salad cream. Now fry the onion in small fat or oil until golden brown and add to the salad. Allow syrup to cool. 6. Cook the sugar in the pineapple juice or water until it dissolves. Spread the egg salad over the lettuce leaves and garnish with the remaining eggs (cut in segments) or seeded tomatoes. In a large. green pepper. Garnish with few shredded carrots or sweet red pepper. Makes 6 servings PLAIN EGG SALAD 4 hard boiled eggs (diced) 1 stalk celery-finely chopped 2 tbsp mayonnaise/salad cream ½ green pepper-finely chopped 1 small onion-chopped (optional) ½ tsp white pepper Method Place the diced eggs. 1. Toss them lightly together and season with salt and white pepper. chopped celery. 3. 6. 3. Add the cream or mayonnaise and toss lightly. The leafy end serves as cover for the larger part of the pineapple. . Refrigerate before serving into cocktail glasses. 2. 3. Prepare the other fruits by slicing bananas and chopping others. 3. making sure that the eggs dc not scatter much. Prepare the other vegetables and combine the diced eggs shrimps. 4. 4. Line a flat dish with the lettuce leaves. Add the salt and mayonnaise or cream. Serves a starter on appetizer or a snack with crackers/toasted bread. Chop the shrimps and dice only 2 cooked eggs. SWEET CORNAND EGG SALAD 4 hard cooked eggs 2 bunches lettuce leaves sliced 1/2 green pepper-chopped 5 large fresh shrimps cooked 2 tbsp mayonnaise pinch salt and white pepper 1 tbsp lime/Lemon juice 2 stalks celery-diced 200g sweet corn Method 1. 5. Serve chilled. 5. Cut across the pineapple to the leafy end smaller than the other part. Chill and top with mayonnaise before serving FRUIT BASKET / SURPRISE 4 firm bananas-sliced 4 orange-peeled and chopped 1 medium pineapple ½ watermelon 2 firm ripe mangoes or pawpaw 4 tbsp sugar ½ cup raisins (optional) 1 cup pineapple juice/water 2 limes Method 1.18 Method 1. Combine all the fruits in a bowl and set aside. Add the syrup to fruits and mix up gently. 4. green pepper and white pepper in bowl. combine all ingredients. 2. Use sharp knife to scoop out the inside of the pineapple and reserve the shell. 5. Gently toss the ingredients together.

Add the mayonnaise and serve. shredded coconut 4 tbsp honey 2 tbsp lemon juice ¼ chopped pineapple 100g currants/raisins 1 tsp all spice ½ tsp vanilla and nutmeg 3 seedless oranges (peeled and diced) Method 1. watermelon and pineapple in a mixing bowl. cover bowl and chill in the refrigerator. pile high the shell. 4. 3. using the fruits that have been washed. drain the cabbage and other vegetables thoroughly. After 301 minutes. Now shred the green pepper. BAKED SPICED FRUITS 250g chopped pineapples 250g apple or mangoes 250g seedless orange sections 2 tbsp sugar 1/8 tsp salt a pinch nutmeg Method 1. Add orange juice and honey. Using the kitchen wonder. 3. cover with the leafy end and chill. 5. sugar and pepper. 2. Also’ clean the carrots and onion. coconut. 8. currants. Filltl4e pineapple shell with the mixed fruits. SUGAR SYRUP FOR FRUIT SALAD 100g sugar 250ml water Method 1. Reserve mayonnaise to time of serving. shred cabbage and put in a bowl containing ice water and the vinegar or lemon juice. Cover and chill for at least 1 hour and serve in dessert cups or cocktail bowls as dessert. Mix up thoroughly. peeled and chopped. Serves 8-10.19 7. Decorate with lime slices. CRISPY COLESLAW 450g fresh white cabbage 1 green pepper ¼ green pepper 2 large carrots 1 litre ice water 1 tbsp sugar 2 tbsp white vinegar 3 mayonnaise pinch salt and white pepper Method 1. chop onion and grate the carrots add these to the cabbage in the bowl of salted ice water. Combine all the ingredients. all spice and nutmeg over the fruit mixture and toss well. SPICED FRUIT SALAD ¼ water fl’1eOfl (diced) 250m1 orange juice 50e. Leave it to cool and pour over a bowl of fruit salad. Wash and cut the green pepper to remove core and seeds. Sprinkle vanilla. 6. Wash cabbage very well. Boil for another 5 minutes till syrup thickens. 2. Season with salt. . Combine oranges. lemon Juice. 2. Place water and sugar in a sauce pot and heat till sugar is dissolved. Makes 8-10 servings. Toss them well in a salad bowl.

Add potash if desired. cover the pot and bring to boil. 2. . Bake over medium heat in the oven for 30 minutes. 3. Sieve all the dry ingredients as well. 2. Now clean fish chop onion and leafy vegetables and set aside. Grape fruit can be used in place of orange. 4. Tin large chunks of dry fish salt to taste water salt to taste 3-4 tbsp crushed crayfish 1 medium onion Method 1. Wash and parboil beans till half cooked. 4. Serve as appetizer for breakfast or dessert. Cooked for 1 minutes longer and s e r v e warm as a packed meal or main dish. 4. stirring gently to distribute the ingredients well. pour the palm oil over all the yam surface. Cover pot and boil for about 10 minutes till liquid become a thick sauce and yam cuts have absorbed some oil. 2. Taste for salt and pepper. Place yams in a saucepot and fill with enough water to cover the yams. 2 yolks from hard boiled eggs. tin beans (uncooked) 2 marg. 2 tbsp vegetable oil 2tbsp white vinegar/lemon juice 3. 5. wash and cut yam into 2 inch squares. 6. mixing well. With a little water left in the cooked beans-maize. Makes 4 servings. Whisk very well. dry mustard 4. Serves 4. 3. Stir well. 4. 4 tbsp evaporated milk ½ tsp salt 2. Mix well and serve as topping or sauce for vegetable salads. Tin shelled fresh maize 3. Press the egg yolks through a sieve to smooth. SALAD CREAM (MAYONNAISE) 1. 1 ½ tsp sugar ½ tsp white pepper Method 1. 3. When yam is almost cooked. Stir very well to mix up the ingredients. Peel. cover pot and boil for 5 minutes. 7. Combine all the sieved ingredients in a bowl and add milk gradually. Serves 4-6. Add maize to the beans and cook both until soft. Mix well and place in a greased baking dish. Sort and wash the maize. 3. Simmer for 5 minute e s more. Add the leafy vegetable and stir well. crayfish and onion. sprinkle the ground dry pepper and add the fish. Keep chilled.20 2. Cook for about 25 minutes or till yam cuts are cooked. and blend in the vegetable oil.peppers (chopped) I large onion (sliced) 2 medium tomatoes (chopped) 2 tbsp crushed crayfish 1 milk tin dry prawns 2 marg. Sprinkle a little salt over the yams. Add the vinegar gradually too. Add the palm oil and the other ingredients. BEANS AND MAIZE POTTAGE 1 ½ marg. YAM AND VEGETABLE POTTAGE ½ tuber of medium soft white yam 1 medium dry fish/cooked beef 10 stalks of pumpkin/green vegetable 1 ½ tsp ground pepper 200m1 of palm oil Method 1. Serve warm as a main dish.

Oil for deep frying 4 fresh pepper 2 table sp. Stir well with the wooden spoon and heat the oil in a deep frying pan. Now dip each slice into the beans paste mixture and coat the Potato slice generously. 4. Beat till mixture is light and fluffy. 2. Add little water. Add the pepper. each of half inch thickness. pepper and salt to bean paste and beat well. Fry in the hot oil until golden brown on both sides. 3. BEAN PASTE POTATOES 2 medium sweet potatoes 2 cups bean paste 1 ½ tsp ground pepper veg. oil for deep frying 1 ½ tomato tin water salt to taste. Method 1. Heat the oil for frying. Beaten eggs or ground crayfish may be added to improve nutrient content and flavour. 3. Use medium dessert spoon to drop the mixture in balls into the oil. 2. Dry shrimps can be inserted into balls when being dropped in oil as a form of garnishing.Blend in the crayfish and salt. Adding the water gradually. Continue the beating of paste to retain air till all the frying is completed. 5. Method 1. 300ml warm water. 1. 6. grind into a very smooth thick paste and put in a clean bowl. Drain the sweet potato slices thoroughly. Test oil for moderate frying temperature using drop of water. Makes 15-20 small balls. Fry until golden brown on all sides turning frequently. Makes 5-6 servings.21 BEAN BALLS (AKARA OR FRIED BEAN CAKE) 2 cups of white beans salt to taste 1 large onion 100ml warm water 1 tsp ground dry pepper vegetable oil for deep frying 2 chopped fresh pepper Method 1. salt and chopped onion. STEAMFD BEAN PASTE (MOI-MOI) 2 Cups beans veg. Put in a bowl of cool water. adding the oil gradually. 2. Prepare the bean paste as for Akara balls. Serve hot with pap as breakfast dish.Sort and dehaul beans and grind together with fresh peppers and onion. 5. Wash. Taste for salt and season . Sort and dehaul the beans.Put in a bowl and beat or stir vigorously. Stir in the warm water gradually and the flaked fish. Serve hot as snacks. peel and cut potatoes into about 8 slice. 4. Ground crayfish 1fledium onion 2 hard boiled eggs chopped or sliced 200ml vegetable/palm oil 2 ½ tablesp flaked fish Salt to taste 2 deseeded fresh tatashe peppers 1 bunch of wrapping leaves or steaming cups. cream or beat the beam paste vigorously enough to incorporate air into it. 6.

Serve as side dish for stewed beans or rice dishes. Slices may be lengthwise or crosswise. FRIED RIPE PLANTAIN SLICES 2 large ripe plantains 1 ½ tsp. 4.Place the pot and pour in boiled water through side of the pot to the level of the packings. 2. Sprinkle salt all over and toss well.22 well. Serve as snack. Add sliced onion and crayfish. Scoop into colander for oil to drain off. Fold and leaves properly before arranging in the pot. Heat the vegetable oil and fry till crisp. 2. Boil for about 40 minutes or until soft cooked. 2. 5. Leave to simmer till beans is well cooked but not broken. boiled unripe plantain or fried ripe plantain. Wash and peel the plantains. Serve as side dish to plain boiled rice.Put water to boil in a steaming pot and place deep pot packed with few sticks or plantain leaves to keep moi-moi from direct heat. PLAIN BOILED BEANS 1 cup beans Pinch potash 4 cups water pinch salt Method 1. 3. Slice them diagonally in ¼ inch thickens to a bowl. Stir to thicken. onion (as desired) 1 cup palm oil or groundnut oil cooked meat/dry fish Method Boil beans and meat together. Using a knife or a portable slicer. ground pepper. Cover and cook to bind the ingredients. Make 12-14 cups or wrappings. yam. BEEF STEW 2cupsbeans Enough water to cook beans Salt to taste Crayfish. Heat oil in a frying pan to moderate temperature and fry the plantain slices till lightly brown on all sides. Salt palm oil/vegetable oil for frying Method 1. Stir well and season with salt to taste. 4.Steam 35minutes. 6. Serves 4 CRISPY FRIED UNRIPE PLANTAIN SLICES 2 medium unripe plantain ½ tsp. Wash and peel plantains. Note: Tomato paste may be added to improve colour. salt Vegetable oil for frying Method 1. Sprinkle salt all over the slices and set aside for 5 minutes 3. serve warm with pap for breakfast as side dish with jollof rice. Add Potash to soften the water and facilitate the cooking.Stir the mixture well again and scoop one or two spoonfuls into greased aluminum cups or wrapping leaves. Sort beans. Add salt to taste. Remove and drain. Serve with tomato sauce (stew) and plain boiled rice. 4. 4. wash and begin cooking in the plain water. y potatoes. DRY CORN AND BEAN STEW . Corned beef may be used in place of sliced eggs. Cook for 20 minutes and stir in the oil and ground pepper. 3. cut plantain about 1/8 inch thickness. Make 5 servings. plantain or fried potatoes and plantain.

clam. salt and crayfish. There are certain organs and glands of the animals called variety meats that are used as delicacies in meals. potassium. intestines. CHICKEN NUGGETS 450g cooked chicken (minced) 4 slices of bread (crust removed) 1 tbsp margarine 1 tbsp flour . palatable and digestible. Beef is the most important meat used and the muscle fibres are the most desirable parts. inc1udiig fish. Excessive heat can easily make fish t i and dry. frying and braising are three general. All meats including poultry must be well cooked but over cooking and excessive heat makes them tough and dry. Other methods include broiling or grilling and stewing. Frequently turn and brush with fat. Serve 8-10. Serve and garnish with sliced green pepper and fried fresh prawns. They also supply iron. Meats. Thread the cooked gizzards on small skewers or toothpicks with the onion chunks place in between the gizzards (3 gizzards pieces to 2 onion chunks). FISH AND EGGS Meat is generally the main item of a meal and is obtained from a variety of animals. pepper. Brush with melted margarine and grill or bake over medium heat for 10-15 minutes. brains. Add the beans to the boiling corm.cooked. to destroy bacteria and to improve its appearance. tail. vitamin A and I. 3. pepper and curry. Leave to cook until soft. sodium and magnesium. the type of feed and the amount of muscle greatly influence the quality of the meat when cooked. chopped Smoked fish (deboned) 100ml palm oil salt to taste 1 tbsp ground crayfish ½ green pepper for garnishing Method 1. Examples are liver. They are good sources of such vitamins as the B complex group. Add fish if available and cook for another 3 minutes. kidneys. The shell fish include shrimps. CHICKEN GIZZARD KEBABS 450gs chicken gizzards 2 onions-cut in chunks 1 tsp curry Salt and pepper 2 tbsp melted margarine 5 wooden or metal shewers Method Clean and wash the gizzards and cut in halves. heart. Season with salt. Clean and put the dry corn in salted boiling water and cook till half. 4. Roasting. Fish is also complete protein and is available in two major forms: fin fish and shell fish. Cook until the both oil and the liquid are well blended. add the palm oil. Parboil them for about 10 minutes. Cooked beef chunks can be used instead of gizzard. phosphorus. Whole chicken and turkey should be stuffed before cooking. marrows etc. Sort and clean beans. poultry and eggs are complete proteins. methods of cooking meats. tongue. crabs etc. When cooked. CHAPTER THREE MEAT. tripe (shaki). The age of animal. 2. 5.23 1 ½ cup dry corn 1 tsp pepper Enough water for boiling 1 medium onion. Fish can be prepared by any of the above mentioned methods and should not be overcooked. All meats should be well-cooked to make them tender. stirring frequently.

CURRIED MACARONI Braised beef (cooked) 4 tbsp vegetable oil. stirring constantly. Remove from heat an allow to cool completely.24 1 40m1 milk 1 chilli pepper. heat vegetable oil. Coat the egg washed balls with the remaining breadcrumbs and fry in deep frying pan. Serve hot with braised rice. Use a fork to turn the balls in the beaten egg or use pastry brush to coat with egg. Melt the margarine in a flying pan and remove from heat. 5. Season with salt to taste. Stir in the chicken/beef broth and bring to boil Place cooked macaroni in the pot and stir in the braised beef/chicken. In another saucepan. 34 onion and 1 fresh tomato to the cut-up beef. Note: The same method for braised beef can be used but add sliced (3) red pepper. Cook until golden brand on all sides. Cover and cook for about 6-10 minutes. Method 1. melted margarine and seasoning cube in a small bowl and set aside. onion and parsley. SHRIMP KEBABS 300g large fresh shrimps salt and pepper to taste . finely chopped 1 tbsp chopped parsley Pinch salt 2 eggs Vegetable oil for deep frying Method Toast the bread and crush into breadcrumbs. Drain and serve with ketchup as appetizer. Wash and allow cut-up chicken to drain off water. Remove from heat when macaroni is tender. Add the chilli pepper. Cook under low heat for about I V2 hours till cooked and lightly brown. 3. onion slices celery and seasonings for2 minutes. Season the chicken well and place in a sauce pot with 1 cup of water. Prepare braised beefy chicken and set aside. With hands well flowered shape the cooled mixture into balls. 6. chopped 1 spring onion. Return to heat and bring to boil. Stir in the drained peas and serve hot garnished with parsley leaves. BRAISED CURRIED CHICKEN/TURKEY 2 thighs of chicken/turkey wing (cut up) 3 tsp curry 3 tbsp margarine/vegetable oil 1 seasoning Method Stir and mix up curry powder. place macaroni and cook as directed on package drain off. Stir in the chicken and breadcrumbs into the white sauce (milk and flour mixture). 2. Steam under low heat for 1 ‘/2 hours till browned. 4. Stir in the flour and add the milk. In a saucepan. 2 small onions sliced 1 stalk celery chopped 1 tsp salt 2 litres beef broth 1 package elbow macaroni 1 can green pees 1 tsp dried bay leaf crushed 2-3 curry powder 2 seasoning cubes or sachet mix. Combine part of the breadcrumbs with the minced chicken and set aside.

When cooked brush with curry sauce and serve hot as appetizer or finger foods. and devein. 2. SHRIMPS IN BATTER 1kg fresh shrimps (large size) (about 15-20 shrimps) ½ tsp curry ¼ tsp salt oil for deep frying Method 1. removing the shells but leaving the details in place. 2. Brush oil on kebab. Combine the shrimps and all other ingredients in a large bowl. sausage or ground beef and margarine in a saucepan. Devin (remove the vein that contain sand) and wash well. Grill over medium heat for 15-20 minutes or fry in hot deep fat. Shape into balls that look like the size of large walnuts. leaving the tail in place. grill over medium flame for 45minutes it can also be fried in deep fat. Bake or grill toothpicks into meat balls. Add salt. Serve with white or yellow sauce as appetizer or without sauce as cocktail-item. SAVOURY MEATBALLS 1kg ground beef 2 tbsp dried onion flakes 1-2 eggs 1 green pepper diced salt and pepper to taste ¼ tsp thyme maggi or soy sauce l tbsp bread crumbs Method Combine all the ingredient in a bowl and mix up thoroughly. Toss gently and alternatively arrange shrimp. 5. 3. pepper and chopped garlic and cook for another 2 minutes longer. Serve 8. green pepper. 4. Cook for 5-6 minutes. 6. BEEF ROLLUPS 250grams ground beef or sausage 2tablesp. Place them in greased roasting or grilling pan. following the directions below BATTER 150g flour ½ or 1 egg 50m1 milk 1 ½ tsp baking powder pinch salt pepper (optional) . Makes 8-10 serving. Chopped onion 1 teasp margarine lean beef l teasp chopped garlic salt and pepper to taste 8-10 thin slices of liver \soft Method 1. Serve as appetizer or snacks for cock tail party. Set aside for the seasoned shrimps to absorb flavours while batter is being prepared. Remove shell from shrimps. Roll up the liver or beef slices as for sausage rolls and secure with tooth picks.25 2 large green pepper (cut in squares) 3 large firm tomato (in squares) 2 onion (cut in squares) 3 tbsp vegetable oil curry and thyme (optional) Method Clean shrimps. Spread the ground beef/sausage mixture over lightly salted thin beef or liver slices. Wash well and season with curry and salt. Combine onions. onions and tomatoes on short skewers.

Fry until golden brown. Place the egg coated pieces of fish into the bag and shake well to coat each piece of fish. well beaten Method 1. Drain off fat and serve with ketchup as appetizer BUTTERFLY SHRIMPS ½ kg large fresh shrimps 65g flour 1 tbsp corn starch Vegetable oil for deep frying. Make a batter with the flour. removing all bones. CRISPY BAKED CHICKEN l25grams bread crumbs / crack 1/4 tsp salt . Toss onions. FISH IN BATTER (FRIED FISH) 6 fish fillet (makarel) 225g flour 2 eggs ½ tsp white/black pepper Oil for flying 1 ½ tsp baking powder Method Rinse the fish and keep to dry. 2. ½ tsp baking powder 1-2 tbsp water 1 egg. Serve hot with ketchup or yellow sauce. Separate the egg whites and yolks. 3. Combine all ingredients except egg. Oil for deep frying 2 eggs 2tsp soy sauce/ ½ seasoning cube ½ tsp curry salt and white pepper Method 1. 3. remove shell and devein. 2. Heat oil for frying in a large frying pan (about 2 inch deep) When oil is hot. FISH PUFFS 600g cooked fish 30g flour (2thsp) 1 medium onion chopped 1 green pepper chopped Veg. 3. Drop spoonfuls into baking dish or fry in hot fat until crisp. Add the seasonings and flour and beat well until mixture is creamy 4. 5. Insert toothpicks into balls and serve as cocktail dish. beaten egg yolk and flaked fish. Split shrimps down the back to about /2 inch to the tail. except the tail. Flake the cooked fish very well. Beat the eggs ma large bowl and add the fish one at a time turning well. puffed and lightly browned. Mix flour and seasonings in a large plastic bag. 2. Clean shrimps. Flatten to give the butterfly shape. 5. 4. corm starch. Beat egg whites until foamy and stiff and fold in the fish mixtures.. Now dip each prepared shrimp into the batter and coat the shrimp generously. Serve with sauce as an appetizer.26 Method 1. Dip each shrimp into the pre-heated oil and cook until golden brown. add the remaining water. Makes 20 balls. Beat the egg and gradually mix up with flour. Drain the fried fish and serve garnished with celery leaves or parsley leaves. salt and baking powder in a bowl and gradually adding the beaten egg in l tbsp water if batter is stiff. 6. add the flour coated pieces of fish and fry until dry. Put immediately into hot fat.

Remove immediately from hea and set aside. Serve as snack. 4. Clean the chicken very well and allow to drain. Rub the margarine mixture over chicken parts. Mix margarine. sliced 70 grams currants 1 tsp curry 1 large onion. Grill over medium heat for ½ hours. SPICED CHICKEN 1 medium chicken 2 large onions sliced 2 small fresh pepper chopped l tsp thyme . Combine breadcrumbs or crushed cracker crumbs and other ingredients except the margarine. chopped 2 whole tomatoes 25ograms cabbage. 6. Mix ¼ tsp salt. maggi and curry in a bowl. Grease a baking dish/pan. Wash again and set aside to drain off water (parboil if broiler is not used). salt cabbage and the seasonings. 3. Place n pre-heated oven for 5 minutes or microwave oven for 5 minutes. CHICKEN/FISH FIESTA 500g broiler chicken/flaked cooked fish l25grams flour sifted 200ml vegetable oil 1 green pepper. Drain off oil from the pan and stir-fry the onion. diced tomatoes. Deseed the tomatoes and dice them. 2. GRILLED CURRIED CHICKEN 50 g margarine melted 1 clove garlic. Serve 4-6. sliced 1 tsp grated garlic ½ tsp white pepper ½ tsp salt mixed fruit ½ tsp thyme 2 eggs Method 1. Pour the egg-vegetable mixture over the chicken and top with the remaining fried chicken pieces and currants. 3. 4. Turning chicken frequently. Remove from heat and set 1. Serve with rice dishes. 2. Place some fried chicken pieces in a greased baking pan or dish. Grease a baking dishes or tray and place the coated chicken pieces in the lightly grease dish or pan. Beat the eggs and mix beaten eggs with the vegetable mixture and some currants. Alternatively. Add garlic and ginger.27 ¼ tsp white pepper ¼ tsp curry 1 whole chicken (broiler) 1 seasoning cube 60 grams (4tbsp) melted margarine Method 1. pepper and flour together. Now cut the flesh into small strips or chunks. 6. 2. Cook and debone. chicken cut ups tan be seasoned and parboiled before grilling. Bake for 50-55 minutes. 5. minced ginger 1 ½ tsp curry powder l tsp salt 1 medium chicken-broiler 1 seasoning cube Method 1. aside. salt. Heat the vegetable oil in a pan and cook the coated chicken in the hot oil till it is brown. coat the dry chicken pieces first in m e It e d margarine. 4. stirring frequently. Coat the chicken pieces with the flour mixture. Melt the margarine. Wash and cut up chicken in to serving pieces or portions. Cut chicken into pieces. 3. then roll the chicken pieces in the bread crumbs mixture. green paper. basting with the curry and margarine mixture.

salt and pepper. Mix the melted margarine. Prepare raw chicken by cutting into serving sizes or pieces. Turn and baste the chicken frequently. 1 tsp all spice (optional) l tsp curry Method 1. 2. CRISP FRIED CHICKEN (IN BATTER) 1 medium chicken 150g flour 1 tsp baking powder 1 tsp salt 8tbsp milk 1 large egg-well beaten seasoning as desired (curry. cut chicken thoroughly and set aside for liquid to drain off (10 minutes). 4. Rub some into the cavity of the chicken. placing the skin up side down. 7. 3. Stuff the cavity with the stuffing mixture. Wash chicken and allow the chicken to drain off water. Parboil chicken and leave to cool if necessary. Fry in deep until golden brown but not completely cooked. Combine spices in small mortar and pound. Prepare the other ingredients. 6. Toss with fat from chicken and the remaining ground spices. Baste frequently with melted margarine. Put in a greased baking dish and roast in oven for about 1½ to hours. 5. Before serving. remove tooth picks and strings. tie the wings against the back. CRISP FRIED FISH 8-10 market fish fillet 150grams salt and pepper seasoned flour . Mix the remaining ingredients for batter. 3. 6. 4. 7. looping the string. Serve with rice and potato dishes. Wash. Remove and arrange into baking trays and roast in oven at 3500 for 25-35 minutes. parboil chicken for 15 minutes or until half cooked.28 5 cloves garlic minced 1 tsp ginger minced Chicken seasoning cubes ½ tsp salt 3 large tomatoes sliced. ginger) Method 1. 2. 4. Put chicken parts in to a pot and some of the prepared spice. STUFFED ROAST CHICKEN (a) I whole chicken (broiler) (b) Stuffing Salt and pepper 1 onion sliced thinly or chapped 1 tsp margarine 1 tbsp melted margarine 4 tbsp hard cooked rice or bread crumb salt and white pepper Pinch of thyme and curry. Combine all the stuffing ingredients. Remove from top cooker and arrange chicken in a greased baking tray. Rub the melted margarine mixture and curry over the outer surface of the chicken. Cross the legs and tic them together with a string. and dry. Secure cavity tightly with toothpick or tie legs with a string. and mix thoroughly and stir fry for 2 minutes. 5. 1 stalk chopped celery Method 1. 2. Roast for 1 hour. 3. Wash up chicken thoroughly. thyme. Season the chicken and dip in batter. Garnish with tomato and onion slices arranged at the sides of the dish.

1 egg(beaten) ½ tsp thyme ½ seasoning cube ½ tbsp crushed cracker/bread crumbs ½ green pepper-diced Method 1. Heat the vegetable oil in a large frying pan and fry the fillets on both sides until golden brown. Remove from heat when brown. 1 onion. 5. Garnish with tomato wedges and serve with potatoes chips. Grill over medium direct heat in oven for 1 ½ hours. Now dip each filler into the beaten egg to coat or use a pastry brush to brush the egg onto the fillets. 3. sliced Salt and seasoning cube Pinch thyme 1 tbsp margarine 1small pepper. B) SPAGHETTI SAUCE 3 tbsp vegetable oil 1 small onion ½ tsp ginger (grated) 1 tsp garlic (grated) 4 firm tomato-cubed 1 tbsp flour Method 300m1 water/broth 1 tsp sugar (optional) 1 tbsp vinegar ½ green pepper 1 small can tomato paste pepper and salt to taste . Baste the fish with melted margarine and seasonings. slightly beaten 1 sachet fish seasoning 4 tbsp Dry breadcrumbs Vegetable oil for frying Chopped parsley leaves for garnishing Method 1. Dredge the fillet lightly with the seasoned flour. Cut slits on the sides of the fish. Slice fish open and wash fish thoroughly and dry. 2.29 1 egg. Combine the seasoned flour and fish seasoning. Secure the cavity with toothpick. Serve with rice pilaf. 3. Combine all the ingredients for stuffing and toss them lightly over heat for 2 minutes. white pepper. Combine all the ingredients in a bowl. chopped Method 1. GRILLED STUFFED FISH 1 whole fish with back bone and gills removed 2 tbsp melted margarine Salt. Cook for about 3minutes on each side and drain before serving. FISH BALLS IN SPAGHETTI SAUCE a) FISH BALLS 500g minced beef or cooked flaked fish 2 tbsp dried onion. 2. mix up thoroughly and shape into balls looking like large walnuts. curry thyme. ketchup and mixed vegetable side dish. mixing well. Fill the cavity of the fish with stuffing. Pour vegetable oil over them in a grilling dish and grill over direct heater or bake in the oven. Baste fish frequently and turn over to prevent sticking. 4. 2. chopped 1 stalk celery. seasoning cube. 4. Remove any small bones from the fillet. Coat the egg-washed fillets into the seasoned flour again.

and ½ tsp fish seasoning. Apply heat and cook briefly. oil and onion in a sauce pot. 2. CELERY STUFFED FISH 1 whole frozen cracker 1 fresh pepper. Serve with ketchup as filling for sandwich. Remove from heat after 2 minutes. Use as stuffing for the cavity of the fish.30 1. FRENCH FRIED EGGS 3 eggs Salt and pepper vegetable oil for deep frying Method 1. Place in a frying pan and steam for 2-3 minutes. chopped 2-1 stales celery. FRIED FISH PATI1ES 500g cooked flaked fish 2 tbsp corn starch 1 small onion-finely chopped salt to taste 1 tbsp grated carrot ½ tsp curry 1 tsp grated fresh ginger 2 tbsp vegetable oil 1 egg white Method 1. Add 2 tbsp water. combine 1 tbsp melted margarine hard boiled rice. Mix the fish together with onion. salt. 2. Method 1. 4. Lace with toot picks to secure the fish cavity. Fill the cavity of the fish with the prepared stuffing. ginger. thyme. stirring well. ½ seasoning cube and pepper. Clean fish thoroughly. Drain well and serve onto a flat dish. Place in a baking tray d grill or barbecue over direct heat for about ½ hour. cornstarch. Serve over the grilled fish balls on cooked spaghetti. In a bowl. chopped pepper and celery. 6. Turn down the heat and cover the frying pan and cook for5 minutes. 3. Mix the flour and water in a bowl and set aside. Shape each egg with the frying spoon so as to enclose the yn1k in crisply fried white. fresh chopped tomatoes and the paste. Brown on both sides. Now allow patties to be properly cooked. Serve with grilled sausage and toast for breakfast. Add the sugar and season with salt. Now mix remaining margarine. 3. curry and egg white. Cook for 3 minutes. BEEF GOULASH 1 kg tender beef (steak) 1 tsp grated garlic . Sprinkle salt and pepper at the top. Garish with the tomato slices or chopped parsley. Put the garlic ginger. 3. Heat oil in a deep frying pan and carefully break the eggs n e by one into the fairly deep hot oil. chopped ½ tsp thyme 1 tsp fish seasoning 4 tbsp margarine (melted) 4tbsp bread crumbs or hard boiled rice. 3. 5. 4. Baste fish again with remaining melted margarine. ½ tsp seasoning onion. Make diagonal slits on each side of the fish and brush the margarine and seasoning mixture all over the cavity and external surfaces of the fish. Shape into small patties and fly in preheated vegetable oil. chopped ½ tsp curry ½ onion. Turn occasionally prevent sticking. split through to remove the backbone and intestines plus gills. Add the green pepper. curry. Debone cooked fish completely and flake very well 2. carrot. Wash very well and leave to dry (drain off water) 2. Gradually add the vinegar to flour mixture and stir into the pot of sauce.

tender. 3.Heat the margarine in another pan and fry grated onion and green pepper lightly. Turn frequently to prevent bursting or burning. Serves 10-15. 2. Remove the bay leaf and serve over noodles (indomie. Simmer for 2-3 minutes. 90g sliced green beans cooked 60g peas cooked oil for frying Method 1.Serve over the fish fingers or balls as appetizer. Grill or bake at moderate heart till done (about 15 minutes). then turn down the heat very low and let the mixture simmer for about 1 hour or until meat is fork. Stir well to get the beef and onion mixture to be evenly distributed. Heat. pealed and diced 1 small onion. Transfer these into another stock pot and add the remaining ingredients. 5. Add blended fish mixture. Insert tooth picks in each round and arrange them attractively in a patter. parsley. flour. When cooked. cut each sausages into four or five rounds each. 4. about 2 tbsp of the oil for frying and fry the beef until they arc browned on all sides. Serve as hors d’oeuvres.End flaked end rice combined the egg chopped onion. Set aside. and salt. cubed 2tsp curry paste salt and pepper to taste 3 fresh scent peppers. Add the onions and garlic and brown them lightly. Bring to boil. mixing well. wash well and cook in the margarine in heavy sauce pot till brown. slightly beaten 4 tbsp fish stock or water 1 tablsp chopped onion ½ medium gated onion ltbsp chopped parsley 2 tbsp / ¼ of green pepper chopped 1 tbsp flour ½ tsp hot pepper and grated ginger ½ can tomato puree salt to taste Veg oil for frying Method 1. the fish stock and pepper. cooked and flaked ½ tsp salt 150g cooked rice 2 tbsp fish stock or water 1 egg. chopped 15g/1 tbsp flour/corn starch 450ml beef stock Cooked beef/ chicken. spaghetti). FISH-RICE FINGERS IN TOMATO SAUCE l50g fish. grated ginger. Set aside. sliced. Dot with Ketchup if desired. 2. 4.31 2 large onions 2 tbsp margarine 1 bay leaf salt and pepper to taste 2 tbsp tomato paste 250m1 beef stock or water Method 1. Cut beef into 1 inch cubes. SAUSAGE ROUNDS 1 packet of beef sausages (10 pieces) Ketch-up Method Put sausage in a baking or grilling dish. 4. .Form or mold in to small fingers or small balls and fry in hot oil until golden brown. 3. Add tomato puree. BEEF -VEGETABLE CURRY SAUCE 15g or 3 tsp margarine 1 carrot.

cook until thick. Using the seasoned flour. coat the cooled chicken pieces lightly.Heat the oil in a large frying pan and when hot add the margarine. Now add the fried beef. Top each with ketchup as sauce. wash and drain. peppers and curry leaf. Toss very well and steam for about 30 minutes or marinate for about 1 hour. curry pepper and I seasoning cube. GRILLED CHICKEN/TURKEY 2 chicken/turkey breasts ½ tsp hot red pepper 3 tbsp vegetable oil 1 tsp grated garlic I tsp white pepper 1 tsp grated ginger 2 tsp chicken seasoning 1 tsp curry 1 small onion.Prepare the onions. tomatoes. Chop the shrimps into cubes. Cook slowly to soften. Flake excess flour off. thinly sliced 6 tbsp vegetable oil 1 sweet red pepper. stirring constantly to prevent burning. 3. Place tomato and remaining ingredients except oil and salt in a food processor and blend well. Cut chicken into serving sizes and place in a sauce pan.32 2.Add the garlic. Set aside. 2. 4. diced . except the lettuce leaves. Remove from heat and leave to cool. Push to one side of the pan. basting frequently. salt and oil.5kg broiler chicken 4 tomatoes. thinly sliced 5 tbsp margarine 1 fresh scent pepper. Add salt and steam for 10 minutes. Coo k until tomatoes are softened. Sprinkle on the flour and cook till the margarine and onion are golden brown. Put the chicken pieces in a pot and pour the blended ingredients over the chicken. Garnish with onion rings and tomato wedges. Method 1. 5. Add the chicken pieces and fry over moderate heat till brown. seeded and diced 200g flour for dredging 1 green pepper. Set aside. Make small nests of lettuce in cocktail glass or salad bowl and scoop the shrimp cocktail onto each. 2. grated 1 large tomato Salt Method Cut chicken into 6 serving pieces.Mix flour with salt and pepper. 3. salt. finely chopped 1 tsp thyme I tsp grated garlic 100ml chicken or beef stock I tsp grated ginger salt to taste. Garnish with chopped parsley. Place chicken in a grill pan including the marinade and cook chicken for about 10 minutes on each side. TOMATO AND PEPPER FRIED CHICKEN 1. Melt the margarine in a medium saucepan and add the onion and carrots. cooked peas and beans and cook the sauce for 2 minutes. chopped 1 small onion. 5. in a bowl. CURRIED PORK STEW 500g lean pork (in 2inch cubes) 4 large tomatoes. 6. Add the beef stock. 3. Grill each side till golden brown. Serve over plain boiled rice or noodles. Combine all the ingredients. Set a side. Stir in l tsp ketchup and mix well. 4.Remove chicken and sauce into a serving dish and sprinkle with chopped curry leaf to garnish as accomplishment to curried rice or potato chips. onion tomatoes and the other ingredients. SHRIMPS COCKTAIL Lettuce leaves (one per person) 1 cup dressed and cooked shrimps 4 tbsp chopped celery 2tbsp mayonnaise ½ tsp lemon juice 1 tsp ketchup pinch hot red pepper Method 1. Add the seasonings.

Heat the oil in a frying pan and brown and pork in two batches. Garnish with avocado dices tossed over the stew. poached. chopped shrimps/scrambled egg and mayonnaise in a bowled. pepper and salt together. Stirring in beef stock/water and vinegar and add bay leaf.When meat is completely cooked. Cook for 1 minute longer. diced. To provide protein in meals To thicken sauces To garnish prepared foods To serve as raising agents for sponge cakes To glaze pastry Eggs can be fried. Allow to set briefly and then/stir slowly with fork to let the egg turn into large pieces or lumps.Spread between two slices of bread and top each with two tomato slices to obtain 4 sandwiches in all. Heat the margarine and pour into mixture. milk. Serve as the protein dish with buttered bread. curry tomatoes and paste. 2.2tbsp vegetable oil 1 large onion (in 2 inch pieces) 1 large green pepper (in 2 inch cubes) 1 ½ tsp curry powder 1 ½ tsp grated ginger 1 bay leaf 33 3 tbsp tomato paste/puree 140m1 beef stock 1 tbsp vinegar salt and pepper to taste 1 seasoning cube 1 avocado pear.Combine the onion cucumber. covered. 3. SHRIMP-SCRAMBLED EGG TOAST SANDWICH 150g cooked shrimps 2 tbsp chopped onion 6 tbsp chopped cucumber 4 tbsp mayonnaise 2 tomatoes sliced into 6 2 eggs (scrambled) Method 1. Serve with cucumber salad in addition. 2. scrambled. Chopped onion and green pepper can be added. .Cut pork into cubes. Mix well. 4. Cook slowly for about 20-30 minutes. EGGS Eggs are used. remove the bay leaf and add green pepper.Add more oil if necessary and onion.Cover each sandwich and toast in the oven or a sandwich bread toaster.Remove from heat and serve with plain boiled rice and sweet corn. Gently beat eggs. Serve as a breakfast dish. Season to taste.Bring the mixture to boil and add fried port. Method 1. Remove to a plate. 4. Cut into bread triangles for appetizers/snack or serve as sandwich for breakfast dish. 2. 3. 5. using a wooden spoon. supper and deserts. They are served in a variety of dishes that may be used for lunch. Remove and place a plate. SCRAMBLED EGGS 2 eggs 2 table sp milk/water 1 ½ tabsp margarine Pinch of salt METHOD 1. prepared as omelettes and mainly served as breakfast and snack dishes. 3. wash and leave to drain. Melt margarine in a small frying pan.

SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH FISH
1 tbsp melted margarine 1 cup flaked cooked fish (tuna or sardine) 6 eggs, beaten 1 tbsp water Salt and pepper to taste 1 ½ green pepper, (chopped) 1 small onion, chopped 2 tbsp margarine 6 slices bread (toasted) 6 grilled sausages

34

Method
1.Heat margarine in a frying pan. Drain the fish, bread into small pieces and sauté in the margarine. Beat eggs very well, and add the onion and green pepper to the fish. 2.Add the 2 tbsp margarine and four beaten eggs over fish and stir slowly with wooden spoon or fork. When eggs are cooked, removed from heat. 3.Serve with buttered toasted bread with grilled sausage by scrambled eggs. FOLDED OMELETS 2 eggs Pinch of salt. 2 tbsp. Margarine/.veg. Oil

Method 1.Beat eggs and use a non-sticky fly pan or heat small margarine in frying pan. 2.Pour 1/3 of beaten eggs into center of frying pan and let spread to bottom of pan. Do not stir. 3.Let the underside get slightly brown then flip over for the other side to get brown. 4.Place flat on plate and fill with mixture of fried onion tomato and corned beef like pancakes. 5.Roll up the omelettes like crepes and garnish with tomato slice. 6.Serve with bread in a breakfast dish. Makes 3 omelette. Omelettes can be filled with jam or fried mixed vegetables. CORNED BEEF AND TOMATO OMELETTE 3 tbsp corned beef ½ green pepper, seeded and diced ½ a medium onion 2 fresh scent peppers, diced parsley to garish 3 tbsp margarine 1-2 tomato, seeded and diced 3 eggs, beaten Salt to taste Method 1. Portion the ingredients into three parts-one for each egg. Heat a medium/small frying pan and melt the margarine for portion. 2. Add a portion of the onion and green pepper and cook briefly to soften. 3. Mix the tomato and corned beef with one beaten egg, salt and scent pepper. 4. Pour into the pan with the onion and green pepper and stir gentle to mix all the ingredients. 5. Cook until the egg is set lightly brown use flat spoon to remove from heat. Repeat the same method of the remaining two eggs and other ingredients. 6. Garnish with parsley leaves or tomato wedges. FRIED EGGS 1 egg per person 2 tbsp margarine Method 1. Melt a little fat in a frying pan. 2. Break each washed egg directly into a saucer and slid into the slightly heated fat. This is carefully done for yoke to remain intact. 3. Season with salt or pepper sprinkle on the egg and cook gently without stirring until lightly set. Do not turn the egg. 4. Remove from -heat and serve half-cooked on a plate or flat dish. Garnish with fried tomato slices and serve as breakfast or topping on rice dishes.

35
BRAISED BEEF 400g steak beef I medium onion 2 tbsp parsley chopped ½ tsp salt ½ tsp pepper 1 seasoning cube 500ml water 3 tbsp vegetable oil ½ tsp thyme ½ tsp curry ½ tsp grated ginger

Method 1. Cut up the beef, wash properly and set aside. 2. Mix the beef, onion and the other ingredients in a bowl. 3. Heat oil in a sauce pot over medium heat. 4. Spread beef mixture all over the bottom of the pot. 5. 5 Cook until beef is brown. Turning frequently with wooden spatula for about 10-15 minutes. 6. Reduce heat, stir in the water Cover the pot and cook until beef is tender and water is almost absorbed. Serve with herb rice or oven jollof rice. CHICKEN AND RICE WITH CURRY SAUCE ½ Cut-up broiler chicken 100g flour 2 tbsp soy sauce/maggi/meat seasoning 1 cup cooked peas 2 tsp grated ginger 3 cups cooked rice ½ tsp pepper curry sauce 1 avocado pear (for garnishing) Method 1. Cut the boiler into serving pieces. Mix the meat seasoning or soy sauce, ginger and pepper into chicken. 2. Steam chicken for about 15 minutes, turning occasionally for seasoning to be absorbed. 3. Remove from heat, refrigerate to cook for about 1 hour, (marinating). 4. Heat the oil in a fry pan. Remove the chicken, reserving the marinade (extracts from the streamed chicken). Cook chicken in the hot oil till brown. 5. Mix the cooked rice, peas and the reserved marinade. Cover and cook for 5 minutes: Serve With curry sauce over chick en. Garnish rice with avocado pear slices. POACHED EGGS 4 fresh eggs 1 firm tomato ¼ tsp salt 1 tbsp white vinegar

Method 1. Boil water to a simmering temperature in a shallow frying pan. 2. Wash eggs very well and keep aside. 3. Add the white vinegar to the boiling to make the white more tender and prevent it from spreading when the egg is place in the simmering water. 4. Now carefully break the eggs one by one into a sauce and into the simmering water in separate position. 5. Simmer for approximately 2-3 minutes until lightly set. 6. Remove carefully from water using a perforated spoon sections for water to drain off. Sprinkle the salt on the poached eggs and garnish with tomato for water to drain off. Chapter Four CEREALS Cereals are basically important far their fibre, protein, B-vitamins, calories and iron content. They are a major source of protein in vegetarian diets. A significant component of cereal is starch. This accounts for the swelling that make place in cereal when these’ are cooked. Various types of cereals are available for use in meal preparation and they vary in their characteristics, taste, cooking times and yield. Maize, wheat oats and ride, are among the most commonly eaten cereals. Maize is world’s third most important cereal and popularly known as com. It is available in fresh or dried forms. It can be prepared as main dishes snacks or side dishes. Maize can be obtained in processed or ready to cook form. When using corn or maize, ensure that they are well shelled from the cob and that the kernels are bright

36
and plumpy Com starch is available for use to thicken sauces and breakfast meals. Rice is available in regular and parboil forms. It is basically carbohydrate but has little protein and contains some amount of thiamine and mineral. It is the worlds second most important grain. Rice, like other cereals, increase about three times in volume during cooking because it has the ability to absorb moisture. In cooking rice one measure of regular rice requires about two and half measures of liquid. The parboiled variety requires more while the pre cooked type requires less liquid. The long grains are less likely to sick together during cooking than the short. A small amount of oil ( ½ teasp oil to 3 cup of rice) added to the cooking water will prevent the rice from sticking, foaming and boiling over. Rice may be cooked in the oven or on surface cooker. Wheat is a major grain from which flour, breakfast cereals and pasta products are produced. Cereals and pasta products (Macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles) are processed and enriched and made ready-to- eat or partially cooked. MACARONI WITH CHILI 300g ground beef 1 large onion 1 large green pepper, chopped 4 fresh tomatoes chopped ½ can kidney beans 4 fresh chili pepper sliced 1 tsp grated garlic 2-3 stalks celery or leeks 2 seasoning cubes 1 small can tomato puree 1 pack uncooked elbow macaroni 2-4 tsp groundred pepper ¼ tsp paprika 1 tsp salt 6 tbsp vegetable oil 1 tsp grated ginger ½ tsp curry

Method 1. Cook macaroni, drain and set aside. Heat the oil in a sauce pan and stir beef and onion. Cook until beef and onion are brown. 2. Stir in tomatoes, beans and with the liquid and the remaining ingredients. Heat to boiling and reduce heat. 3. Stir in the cooked macaroni, cover the pot and simmer. Stir constantly till macaroni is tender about 5-10 minutes. Serve hot. FRIED RICE 2 cups uncooked long grain rice 2 cups chicken broth/stock 2 cups water. 4 tbsp. Marg./veg. Oil 2 tsp. salt 2 tsp. soy sauce 3 gloves garlic- minced 2 tsp. chopped ginger 3 large carrots-diced ½ can cooked peas 1 large onion, sliced or chopped 4 green pepper-chopped 1 tsp. curly 1 tsp. thyme 2 seasoning cubes 200g liver-cooked, diced and fried 2 stalks celery

Assorted vegetable-diced and parboiled carrots, sliced cabbage, chopped green beans, sliced green tomatoes, chopped red pepper. Shrimps cleaned and parboiled. Method 1. Put the washed rice into a saucepan. 2. Add chicken broth, minced garlic, ginger and seasoning cube and let it be cooked but not soft or sticky. 3. When cooked, remove from heat and set aside. In a large, frying pan, put margarine or oil and onion slices and green pepper. Cook these lightly. Add cabbage, cooked peas and carrots, celery and remaining salt. Stir fry for 5 minutes. 4. Add the diced and fried liver, shrimps and rice alternately. 5. Add the soy sauce a little at a time, stirring constantly. 6. Stir fry for 5-6 minutes till all soy sauce is well distributed. 7. Rice should have pleasing colour with assorted vegetables. Keep in warm oven uncovered if not served immediately. Serve with spiced or curried thicken. Makes 6 servings.

chilli pepper. 4./veg. 2. Chop the spring onion. seasoning. celery. 4. Oil 2 stalk sleeks / Ginger and garlic (I tsp each) 2 tbsp curry leaf ½ bay leaf I seasoning cube I large onion sliced I tsp curry ½ can peas 4 small fresh pepper Method 1. Pour the water over the rice and season with white pepper. Season with curry salt and pepper and mix together. Sort. green beans arid carrots lightly 5. flake for 20 minutes and serve warm with curry sauce. Serves 8-10. 3. Wash rice and place in a sauce pot. Heat the 3 tbsp vegetable oil and stir-fry the onion slices celery. OVEN FRIED RICE 3 cups uncooked long grain rice 6 cups of chicken broth/water I large onion sliced 15 medium chunks for liver (cooked) 1 ½ tsp white pepper 2 large carrots 1 large green peppers 2 stems spring onion 1 stem celery 1 tsp soy sauce I tsp curry ¼ cap or lean peas 2 ripe but firm tomatoes salt to taste 3 tbsp soy or veg. 5. Add the beef stock. Fry the liver chunks lightly and set aside. sliced. Makes 8 servings. wash and cook rice with the chicken broth or water for about 30 minutes. heat the remaining oil and fry the onion. Method 1. soy sauce. 3. peas and carrots. Toss the rice and vegetable well and simmer for 3 minutes. Chop tomatoes into large cubes. Add the cooked rice. 6. celery. 2. Leave it to-drain and dry a little bit. CURRIED RICE 2 cups uncooked rice 5 cups water 2 tsp curry 1 small can peas/cut green beans 2 chicken seasoning cube 2 carrots shredded/diced 4 tbsp vegetable oil/margarine ½ tsp white pepper salt to taste 1 medium chopped onion 1 tsp chopped garlic 4 red chill peppers.37 SPICY RICE PILAF 2 cups long grain rice (uncooked) 2 cups chicken/beef stock 2 cups water 4-5 tbsp. . Marg. Crush the seasoning cubes and add to the rice. Sort and wash rice. In a large frying pan. put oil or margarine and onion slices and fry lightly (5 minutes). Oil oil for flying liver Method 1. 4. Add the rice and fry (3 minutes) with the onion until the raw rice is lightly golden brown in colour. Put the rice meal in a baking dish and the fried liver chunks on lop. 5. Remove front heat immediately and pour the vegetables over the cooked rice. Serve warm with braised beef and suitable sauce. salt to taste and cook on top of cooker or oven till rice is cooked. mushrooms and carrots. salt. Slice the onion and cut green pepper in long strips. In a fry pan. 6. curry and garlic. peas and fresh curry leaf and pepper) and heat for 2 minutes. Stir in one tbsp of the vegetable oil each for salt and proceed to cook for about 20 minutes. tomatoes and spring onion. 2. Stir into the cooked rice. Stir in vegetables (leeks. Pour into a sauce pan or baking dish. green pepper. This may be served immediately with grilled fish and white sauce. Rice should be firm and non-sticky when cooked. 3.

Toss the vegetables in the pan continuously. 3. stir in any 6. Bring to boil and add the rice and the seasonings. wash rice and set aside to drain. 5. Serves 8-10. Set aside. Serve with fried fish or beef and steamed leafy vegetable as a side dish. Slice the onion and chop the remaining tomato and pepper. macaroni noodles etc) 5 tbsp vegetable oil 2 garlic clove (grated) 4 green peppers. 4. 3. Cook the noodles in boiling salted water for about 4-5 minutes. Leave to drain dry. Stir well. Steam for 10 minutes. 6. Cook the rice in the fat ova. 7. Steam for about 20 minutes till liquid is almost absorbed. Boil water and place the vegetable in the salted water. Serve immediately with grilled beef. 5. stirfrying for about 5 minutes without browning. Stir in the tomato paste and cook till sauce is almost dehydrated. 2. Heat the oil or margarine in a saucepan raid add the washed rice. 4. Blanch for 2 minutes and drain from the hot water. ORIENTAL NOODLES 225g noodles (spaghetti. Moi-rnoi and fried ripe plantain chips can he used as side dishes as well. Add the beef stock or brown seasoning cube. Drain well and rinse under hot water to remove starch. Combine the soy sauce. diagonally sliced 4 tbsp soy sauce 2tsp curry 225g sliced cabbage sliced salt to taste 2 stalks leeks/celery flesh prawns (optional) 1 onion. curry. Toss in 1 tbsp of the oil to prevent sticking. 4. Wash rice and let it drain of 2. Heat a frying pan and add the vegetable. As the rice is getting tender without being soft. sliced METHOD 1. 6. Mix well and add margarine when almost cooked. JOLLOF RICE 3 cups uncooked rice 4 large fresh tomatoes 3 medium fresh hot peppers ½ tsp top ginger ½ tsp chopped garlic ½ tsp thyme 1 large onion 3 tbsp margarine 150ml vegetable oil 6 cups beef broth/water 2 seasoning cubes ½ tsp curry salt to taste Method 1. remaining spices and the chopped veg and peas 7. 5. 2. Sort. Pour in the beef/broth water. Toss in the cooked noodles and heat through. Stir in sliced tomatoes. salt and white pepper. Cover the pot and steam for about 2 minutes. Remove from heat an serve hot garnished with tomato wedges or egg slices.medium heat. pepper and onion rings. cover the pan and cook gently for about 25-30 minutes on surface cooker or oven without stirring. Reserve one tomato and one pepper and grind the remaining ones. .38 BRAISED RICE 3 cups uncooked rice 6 cups chicken stock or beef 1 large onion-chopped 1 green pepper-seeded and chopped 2 tsp white pepper Salt to taste 2 stalks leeks 100g cooked kidney beans 1 seasoning cube 3 carrots-diced or grated 2 tsp grated ginger 2 tsp grated garlic 1 tsp curry 1 can green peas 6 tbsp vegetable oil or margarine Method 1. peeled and sliced 4 red chiIli pepper. Heat the vegetable oil in a sauceboat and fry part of the slice onion and ground ingredients lightly. 3. thinly sliced 4 carrots. curry and salt and cook for 2 minutes.

CURRIED BEEF AND RICE CASSEROLE 3 cups uncooked long grain rice 1 medium onion 1 instant chicken seasoning cube 3 tbsp vegetable oil 2 medium stalks celery (diagonally sliced) 1 tbsp margarine (chopped) 2 tbsp soy sauce 2 cups cut-up cooked beef (l inch pieces) 6 cup boiling water 1 medium green pepper 2 carrots (diced) salt to taste l00g cooked peas 1 medium sweet red pepper Method 1. Stir in the tomato paste and cook for 5 minutes stirring frequently. salt and pinch white pepper. curry leaf. Cover the pan and cook gently for about 25 minutes without stirring. spring onion etc) I tsp dried and crushed bay leaf 2 stalks of leeks 1 cup beef or chicken stock 2 stalks celery 2 Chicken seasoned cubes 2 tbsp margarine 4 medium green chilli pepper sliced 1 large spring onion 4 tbsp vegetable oil Method 1. 5. ground fresh tomato and pepper to make a sauce. . add the water. chicken cube. 4. Wash rice in cook water and leave to drain. Stir in water.39 HERB RICE PILAF 3 cups long grain rice 1 tsp grated garlic 6 cups boiling water 1 tsp grated ginger Pinch salt/or to taste ½ tsp curry Chopped fresh herbs (parsley. fried beef carrots. Pour into a baking dish. 6. then reduce heat and simmer for 20 minutes. 5. 5. curry. 3. seasoning cube. nutmeg etc). 2. bay leaf. When the rice is light brown. When melted. leeks. Stir in the rice and heat to boiling. 3. cover and cook in the oven. 4. add the washed rice over medium heat. Remove from heat and set aside. Wash rice and set aside. margarine and seasonings (ginger. 2. Cover and leave to steam about 3 minutes and serve garnished with eggs and braised beef or grilled fish. green spring onion. chicken stock. until rice is tender and liquid is absorbed (add small amount of water if necessary to make rice well cooked. Heat to boiling. till rice is getting tender. Place vegetable oil in a saucepan and fry the onion. Stir in the green and red pepper. salt. 7. Now add the water. margarine and onion into the remaining oil over medium heat until rice is lightly brown. Serve garnished with green and sweet red pepper. celery and cook covered for 5 minutes. soy sauce and salt to taste. Stir in the rice. stirring constantly. 3. SPANISH (OVEN JOLLOF) RICE 3 cups uncooked regular rice 1 medium onion (sliced) 6 cups water 3 cubes chicken seasoning cube I tsp curry powder ½ tsp ground ginger 1 tin tomato paste 1 green pepper chopped 1 tsp salt 1 tsp ground nutmeg 3 tbsp vegetable oil 1 tbsp margarine 4 fresh tomatoes 4 fresh red/chilli peppers 2 stalk celery chopped Method 1. until the rice is getting tender. Add finely chopped herbs (parsley onion. and green chili pepper. 2. Heat the foil in saucepan and add the margarine. Stirring gently. Cook and stir the beef in the vegetable oil until golden brown. 4. 6.

chop the fresh pepper and onion and clean the shrimps. Method 1. green pepper and celery. Blend well for mixture to mix well. Place corn pepper. Discard the chaff and pour the coconut milk into a pot. Fry until slightly brown. Wash rice in hot water to remove some starch. Continue stirring for the corn to he properly popped and cooked. ground pepper pinch salt 1 tbsp sugar 4 tbsp palm oil Vegetable oil for frying Method 1. Put oil in a pot and place the corn in the pot 2. Roil the shrimps in a little bit of water. Season with salt and seasoning cube. Cook the palm fruits until they are soft. Ground corn into fine crumbs. 3. seasoning cube and Onion. POPPING CORN 6 tbsp popcorn Salt 3 tsp vegetable oil Sugar (optional) Method 1. 2. Stir in the peas. salt and water in a boil. Makes 10 Servings. sugar. 4. mold mixture into small balls and drop into hot oil. 5. Remove from heat and serve hot. Put into a pot and heat to boiling. 3. stirring until the corn starts cracking and bring about the white fluffy part. Cook over a medium heat. broth of the shrimps and arrange the shrimps over the thick top of the rice. Put in a bowl and add all the water. Using a fine sieve. 4. Top with sardines or fried fish/liver/prawns and garnish with tomato slices. 4. Season with about 1 teaspoon salt and add the dry or chopped fresh pepper. FRIED CORN CAKES 2 cups dry corn 200m1 water ½ tsp. Meanwhile. Wash rice and add to the boiling milk. Serves 10. PALM JUICE (BANGA) RICE 800g or ¼ basket palm fruits 3 cups of short grain rice 10 cups water 1 seasoning cube 15 large fresh shrimps/prawns 1 ½ ground pepper/2 fresh pepper salt to taste 1 medium onion Method 1. Stir uniformly into the rice. Heat oil. 3. Heat the milk and bring to boil. Stir in the chopped fresh pepper. Serve hot on a flat dish. Wash and grate coconut into fine flakes. Remove from heat. COCONUT RICE 1 ½ large coconut flesh 3 cups short grain rice (uncooked) 8 cups of water 3 large fresh red peppers (chopped) 1 tin sardine/fried fish 1 seasoning cube salt to taste 10 large prawns-fried Method 1. Blend in the palm oil. wash the rice. Pound in a mortar and use the water to get juice from the fruits. 2. . Mix well and continue cooking for about 45 minutes or until rice is soft and uniformly moistened 6. 4. 6. Simmer for 10 minutes and serve hot. Remove from oil. 7.40 6. sprinkle immediately with sugar or salt and leave to cool. filter and squeeze out all the liquid from the grated coconut mixture. 5. drain and serve with coconut as snack. Add rice to the boiling liquid. 2. 3. Cover pot and cook for about 45 minutes or until rice is soft and moist.

melon-vegetable. 5. DOUGHNUT AND SANDWICHES . Heat vegetable oil to faint smoking point. 3. Meanwhile. Noted: 1 tablespoon sugar may be added to sweeten the fritters. Serve onto a flat dish and top with curried pork stew or tomato and pepper fried chicken sauce. Wash and clean liver. Add 2 tablespoons palm oil and mix well until the oil binds the corn mixture. Sprinkle a little water over the foo-foo and cover the pot for 2 minutes to allow the foo-foo to be thoroughly cooked. Combine all the ingredients except palm oil in a mortar or place in a blender and grind coarsely. fluffing up to loosen the rice grains. Chapter Five BREAD. Boil the 6 cups of water. clop onions. Heat the water to boiling in a pot. 2. Shell the corn and wash well. 4. Drain and serve with coconut as snacks. Mix part of the water and 250g of the plantain flour to form a paste in a bowl. Stir very well all over and turn into a dish.41 2. 6. seasonings and chopped vegetables. 4. add the grated liver. Cook and leave to cool. leeks and green pepper 5. Heat the oil in a large frying pan. 7. Cook rice with stock and salt to taste. PLANTAIN FLOUR FOO-FOO (AMALA) 500g plantain flour 750rnl water Method 1. 3. margarine and chopped parsley. Stir in the cooked rice. 6. Continue to stir vigorously until the foo-foo is thick and begins to leave the sides of the pot. agbono or mixed vegetable soup. Stir the corn well and drop mixture in small spoonfuls into the deep hot fat fry till golden brown. 3. celery. 3. added salt and sprinkle the clean rice in the boiling water. stirring gently. Stir in the cooked sweet corn. Cover pot and boil until cooked hut grain are separate. Serve warm with ewedu. LIVER RICE PILAF 3 cups uncooked rice 6 cups (1 ½ litre) beef stock 6 tbsp vegetable oil Salt and white pepper 1 seasoning cube 1 kg beef/chicken liver 1 stalk leeks 1 stalk celery 1 green pepper 2 medium onions 2tbsp grated garlic METHOD 1. Remove any fat from liver and chop or grate into small bits. Remove rice from heat if tender but not soft. Cook over medium heat for 5minutcs. Note: Prepare corn foo-foo. 4. Season to taste of necessary and heat through for about 3 minutes. 4. Chop the peppers and onion and set aside. Stir in the remaining plantain flour a little at a time for the foo-foo to be evenly mixed. Use a wooden spoon to stir in the plantain flour mixture into remaining boiling. Serve hot with spicy fried chicken and cucumber salad as a main dish. 2. rice and yam flour foo-foo as in plantain. Stir very well to avoid lumping in the foo-foo. 2. 5. Keep stirring for 2 minutes. FRESH CORN FRITTERS 3 fresh corn cobs 1 onion Vegetable oil for deep frying salt to taste 2 fresh peppers 2 tbsp palm oil Method 1.

while low temperature retards the fermentation process. Shape into loaves and place in well greased pans. Cover and put in a warm place for hour. Knead the dough. 3. yeast. Soften the yeast in lukewarm water. When dissolving yeast ensure that lukewarm water is used. 4. Bread is completely baked when it has gain the light brown colour and has shrunk from the side of the pan. Sugar is used to sweeten bread and to aid the process of fermentation. PLAIN BREAD 500g flour 2 ½ tsp thy yeast 250ml lukewarm water 60g (4 tablespoon) margarine/Oil 100g (5-6 tbsp) sugar ½tsp salt METHOD 1. sugar and salt in warm water. More yeast is often used but they require the same fermentation or proofing process. 3. sugar and fat. The dough can be baked or fried. 2. Salt can be added to yeast bread to contribute to flavour and aid elasticity and firming of the dough. eggs and milk than the plain bread. sugar and fat are mixed and allowed to ferment. water or other moisture. it should be sealed first to prevent the enzymes in it from reducing the fermentation process. fat and dissolved yeast. Knead again on floured board until smooth and elastic. Gradually add the flour to make a stiff dough. Weigh and measure all the ingredients set aside. After 1 hour shape into a round loaf and place in well greased pans. moist and tender in texture. Stir or knead every fifteen minutes. Doughnuts and bread rolls are sweet doughs that contain yeast and are richer in sugar. Allow to m for 10 minutes. Nutmeg and other flavoring can be added to bread to improve flavor. 5. yeast. Reserve 2 tbsp flour for kneading. aid fermentation and contribute to the colour. the yeast will be destroyed. Then the mixture is combined with the remainder of the ingredients and second fermentation is allowed. remove from pan unto wire racks to cool. Therefore some quantity of granulated sugar should be added to yeast when dissolving yeast. 5. blend remaining sugar. Combine margarine. fat. Add dissolved yeast to flour and mix the mixture to a soft dough. Cover with a slightly wet towel in a warm place. Bake until golden brown. roast bread should be soft. Dissolve yeast. Milk is used in some bread mixture in lace of water to increase the nutritive value. With the sponge method. When baked. In a large bowl. 6.42 Bread are loaves made of soft doughy that are leavened with yeast. Knead lightly and keep covered for 10-15 minutes. Kneading is important for the yeast to be distributed and allow the development of carbon dioxide for adequate fermentation. Yeast bread may be mixed in one of the basic ways: The straight dough method entails all the ingredients are mixed at one time and the sponge method consists of two mixing and two fermentation processes. 7. Doughnuts and rolls should have good shape and colour and the texture must be smooth and light. 2. They are made from flour. Method 1. Yeast is the raising agent and it grows best in lukewarm water. If the temperature of the water is too high. Proof for another 15 minutes. Let rise till dough is well risen above the pan edges (double or three time size). salt. milk and flour in a bowl. The dough should be allowed to proof for at least 1 hour or until the until dough is double or triple its original size. Bread loaves are baked in high temperature (about -4500 degrees) and may be painted or glazed with egg wash or milk immediately before baking. Fat is used to soften and lubricate the dough. Makes 4 loaves. Bake in pre-heated oven for 40 minutes. part of the flour. Dry milk is more often used. add half of the sugar and cover for about 10 minutes till the yeast is dissolved and starts rising in bubbles. WHOLE WHEAT BREAD 500grams whole wheat flour 2 ½ tsp yeast 1 tbsp sugar 2 tbsp (30 grams) margarine ½ tsp salt 250m1 warm water . 4. A variety of fillings can be used. If liquid milk is to be used.

6. 2. Mix and knead thoroughly till smooth and non-sticky to the hands 6. soften than that of plain bread. fat and whole meal flour in a bowl and set aside. Shape into balls. 6. 2. Place a warm place to rise till double in size (5045 minutes). Note: Whole wheat bread is usually heavy. 5. Place the bowl of dough in a warm place to rise for about 30 minutes. Pre-heat oven and bake for 30-40 minutes after reducing the heat. Cover and let rise for about 20 minutes. YEAST DOUGHNUT 300 grams flour 4-6 tbsp sugar . Cover and let rise (5minutes) 3. 2. Dissolve the yeast and sugar in the warm water. 5. 4. Mix thoroughly with a wooden spoon to obtain a soft dough. 3. Brush top lightly with egg wash and bake at 3000 or gas mark 3. 4. Grease a medium-sized cake pan and fill the dough into the pan. 7. Mix well without kneading. Gradually stir in the yeast mixture into the whole meal and fat mixture. Leave to proof in a warm place for another 20-30 minutes. Knead again slightly on a floured board and place in a greased bread loaf pan with cover or shape into balls in any baking pan. Add flour. 7. Add yeast (now in bubbles ) and beaten eggs to the mixture. Mix the flour and the rest ingredients.for 15-20 minutes. Cover and let it rise for about 5 minutes. Place each in well greased queen’s cake pans. salt.43 Method 1. Dissolve yeast in lukewarm water. Makes 15 rolls. Cover and proof it a warm place until double in size. 4. Combine salt. Bake in a moderately pre-heated oven for 30-40 minutes. BREAD ROLLS (DINNER ROLLS) 700gs flour 3 ½ tsp dry yeast 1½ tspsalt 50-l00gs sugar 2 beaten eggs 200gs margarine 300m1 warm water or milk ½ tsp nutmeg Method 1. Turn out on lightly floured surface knead and shape dough into inches wide squares of about 2 inch thickness. Sieve the flour and salt into a bowl and rub in the fat. LEMON BREAD (COFFEE/TEA CAKE) 3 tbsp margarine 1 tsp baking powder ½ tsp salt 125m1 milk 50gs sugar 1 ½ tsp lemon juice 2 eggs grated rind of 1 lemon 300gs flour ½ tsp nutmeg YEAST DOUGH CAKE 450gs flour 1 tbsp grated lemon and l00gs margarine orange rind l00gs sugar ½ tsp grated nutmeg 2 eggs pinch of salt 2 tsp dry yeast 75-80m1 warm milk 50gs currants. reserving 4 tbsp. nutmeg currants and milk together. A mixed whole meal bread can be made to be lighter by using half plain flour and half whole wheat flour. Method 1. 3. Dissolve the yeast and sugar with the warm milk. Add the dissolved yeast and I mix in the beaten egg. Mix sugar. punch down. 8. Process whole wheat grains into flour or purchase whole w heat flour. 8. Place in a greased bowl and grease top of dough. 5.

Add the melted margarine. Sieve the flour. Add the dissolved yeast and gradually mix in flour into a smooth dough. Make a well in the centre of the flour mixture and pour in the fermented yeast and remaining warm water. Knead lightly. Roll doughnuts in a tray containing sugar. Sift the &y ingredients together and add to egg mixture. Let dough rise for another 40 minutes or till double in size. add sugar and mix thoroughly. 8. ensuring that the heat is not too high or too low. (See pp). 5. 2. 3. 5. Serve as snack or tea dainty. Roll out to floured board 1 or inch thickness. cover and allow to prove until double in size. 4. 2. 2. Deep fry the doughnuts till golden brown and drain off fat. Slightly beat eggs in mixing bowl. 3. Press a floured thumb into each doughnut and add a little jam. Heat the vegetable oil in a deep frying pot to a moderate temperature. Place them on a well-floured tray. Using a round cutter. Turn dough into a flavored board and knead briefly. Beat dough with the hand and knead thoroughly till dough is smooth and moderately soft. 4. JAM FILLED DOUGHNUTS Basic doughnut recipe fruit jam (pineapple. salt and nutmeg. Combine milk and flour. 4. to the mixture add to mixture. 5. Ad vanilla and mix well. roll ot dough to Y2 inch thickness and cut out round shapes. Leave in a warm place to prove until they are well risen (double in size) 6. sugar. Add one tbsp sugar to facilitate fermentation of the yeast. . BAKING POWDER DOUGHNUT 1egg 50 grams granulated sugar 75 grams melted margarine 2 ½ tsp baking powder 300 grams sifted flour 1 tsp vanilla 75ml milk/water ½ tsp salt 50g sifted flour (for rolling) 1 ½ tbsp powdered milk Method 1. Then place dough in heated deep oil and fry until golden brown. Take the basic doughnut recipe.44 1 ½ tsp dry yeast 3 tbsp margarine 1 egg 3-4 tbsp dry milk 85m1 warm water ½ tsp nutmeg vegetable oil for deep frying Method 1. 4. Place them on a greased tray and cover with thin polythene. Tack each firmly with lightly wet fingers. Gather mixture lightly and set aside for 1 0 minutes. Divide the dough into round doughnut shapes without hole al the centre. 2. ECONOMY YEAST DOUGHNUT 500g flour 2 ½ tsp dry yeast 50g margarine 250m1 warm water 1 tsp salt 1 tsp nutmeg 100g sugar oil for deep frying Method 1. In a bowl mix margarine and the remaining warm water. prepare the dough according to the instructions for preparation. about 1 tsp in each hole. 1-leat vegetable oil to faint smoking and fry doughnuts a few at a time until that are golden brown and ate well cooked. Add milk and mux. 9. 1 . 7. Mold back each carefully to seal the hole. Drain off an roll them in sugar if desired. 3. 3. Roll the cooked doughnut on granulated or icing sugar. 6. Place in a warm place to rise till double in size. Cut with doughnut cutter that has a hole at the centre and place in a greased tray to proof. . salt and nutmeg into a bowl and rub in the margarine. Dissolve the yeast in half of the warm water. Add beaten eggs. Ferment yeast in half of the warm water. strawberry etc) vegetable oil for deep frying Method 1..

corned beef. 8. 4. Avoid making very large sizes. They may be filled or spread with a variety of items such as meat. Add the dissolved yeast. Place in a greased pan proof till double in size and brush with egg wash before placing in preheated oven to bake for 20-30 minutes. In using fillings. sardines. ensure that proper temperature is maintained in order to protect the food from becoming contaminated. Mix all the siffed dry ingredients together in a small bowl. Fry in hot deep fat until golden brown on both sides. When sandwich is planned for lunch. Spread on crackers or toasted bread triangles. ketchup or mustard cream). 4. Makes 20 doughnuts. SANDWICHES Sandwiches are meals that arc made of regular or special bread. Also do not use filling that can soak the bread. 6. c) Method of preparation: 13e careful in handling the items by maintaining proper sanitation.45 5. jam. Handle gently. Drain off fat and roll in granulated sugar or top with favorite icing. When dough is ready for proofing. 7. smooth and pliable dough. jams and other spreads. b) The filling can be made from meat. Add some currants/fruits if available before folding into crescent shapes. Keep them covered and use as tea sandwich. Dissolve yeast in half of the warm water. Rub in the margarine. the bread cam be sliced before or cut after filling if necessary. 3. Vegetables like lettuce tomato and onion slices may be added. Combine sardine and blend with remaining ingredients to desired consistency. roll out into ¼ inch thickness. Mix thoroughly into a soft. boiled or fried egg. There are four basic considerations in making sandwiches: a) The Bread: This is the most important item used and can be from any type of bread. BEEF BURGER 400 grams minced beef 4 large firm tomatoes (sliced) ½ medium chopped onion 2 tsp salt Pinch curry and thyme (optional) 1 tsp melted margarine 8 dinner rolls (small round bread) mayonnaise 2 eggs 4 tbsp bread crumbs . with or without sauce such as (salad cream. Cut into 4-6 inches of the base of the triangle to form a crescent. 3. closed or multi-layered. fish. 5. Roll out on floured board to inch thickness and cut with doughnut cutter. 2. Drain and mash sardines. Corned beef or chopped egg can be used as alternative. Sandwiches may be served hot or cold. d) A garnish should be added to a sandwich when it is ready to be served. Knead to elastic-like texture. it should be attractively arranged. Day old bread is usually preferable. salad and various types of food. 6. 2. SARDINE CANAPE 1 can of sardine 1 ½ tsp grated onion 10 slices of buttered bread triangles 90 grams or 6 tbsp margarine pinch ground ginger Method 1. CROISSANTS 500g flour 2 ½ tsp yeast 2 tbsp sugar 2 small eggs 1-2 sachet powdered milk 100ml warm water 100g soft margarine Method 1. Party or tea sandwiches should be in small triangular sizes. especially when some items have to be chopped or mixed up. egg and almost the remaining water or as needed to obtain correct consistency of dough.

Regular bread slices can also be used. 5. Brush the meat patties with melted margarine and grill over direct heat or barbecue for 10. In choosing mixing method. 4. sugar. Cooked on both sides. The muffin method involves all the dry ingredients being sifted together and the margarine is melted. sides of pan when baked. type offat and amount of time available. The flour mixture and milk are added to the cream mixture and set aside. the melted margarine. 2. Split the oblong rolls in half and spread margarine on the sliced surfaces. It must not be heavy. 3. Spread the fish mixture over one of the buttered surfaces and top with two slices of tomato.. In a separate bowl. Beaten eggs. All ingredients must be at room temperature when mixing cakes. 4. 2. The egg whites are the whisked to become stiff and foamy and the flour mixture is folded into the stiff egg white. large cakes must be level at the top. the cake will be hard when baked. 6. but egg yolk and fat are not included. In order to produce good quality cakes. Club sandwiches are made by slicing the rolls into three portions having two layers of filling. Chapter Six CAKES. beaten eggs and milk are beaten together to blend thoroughly. the equipment available. eggs and raising agent. marble cake and coffee cake. 2. chopped ½ tsp pepper Salt to taste 3 tbsp mayonnaise 6-8 rolls (small oblong bread) margarine Method 1. even in colour and firm. without cracks or large holes: The centre should not fall in but the cakes should shrink lightly from . This mixture is gradually poured into the flour ingredient and all are beaten together with electric mixer or manually with wooden spoon till the mixture is smooth. Don’t over mix the mixture after flour has been added or else the batter will be rubbery. Put in the oven to bake for 10. Combine all ingredients except mayonnaise and the bread. The mixture is well beaten till light and foamy after which the dry ingredients (flour. cakes. Combine all ingredients except bread in a bowl.46 Method 1. Queen cake and ginger bread can be made in this way. The pan must not be filled more than half for two-thirds with the batter. All other ingredients which includes eggs and milk are added and beaten thoroughly till beaten thoroughly ill smooth. Pure sponge cake uses only egg whites. Mix well and shape the beef mixture into patties (round shape of same diameters as the bread ½ inch thickness) 3. BAKED FISH SANDWICH (Oblong Rolls) 300 grams cooked fish ¼ green pepper chopped ½ onion. In addition.15minutes. baking powder and salt) are folded into the creamed mixture. consider the quality and type of cake as indicated by the recipe. sticky or crumbly.15 minutes. Also. The eggs are separated and only yolks are beaten into fat mixture. The creaming method usually produces better quality. The cake must be baked in a well greased pan for easy removal when baked. top with tomato slice and cover the sliced tomato with the other vegetables and the top layer of the bread. Pastry-blend or rubbing in method involves blending of fat and flour together. Onion slices and lettuce loaf can be added to improve eating and nutrient quality. fruit upside down or carrot cake. BATTERS AND PASTRIES cakes are batter products of flour mixtures that contain fat. spread ½ teaspoon mayonnaise on the meat. A good quality cake must be light. An examples of this type is chiffon or feather cake. Toss well. The quality of cakes is very important. The creaming method involves the creaming of fat and sugar with electric mixer or wooden spoon till the mixture is light and fluffy. milk and vanilla are gradually poured into the creamed mixture. Conventional sponge method in which the fat and half the sugar being creamed first. There are four basic method of mixing cakes 1. Examples are queen cakes. Small cakes like queen cake . Examples are shortened cake. Remove from heat and slice the rolls into two. sugar and flour in addition to flavorings. Fill the bread with the grilled meat. adequate size of pan and baking temperature. it is essential recipes and use proper ingredients appropriate method of mixing.

2. sugar and vanilla together with electric mixer or wooden spatula. Note: 1 ½ tsp vanilla. Make 12 small cakes. Top with currants if desired and hake in moderately heated oven for 20-30 minutes. 4. 6. Gradually pour beaten eggs into the creamed mixture. Add the lemon juice and the milk gradually as the constituency becomes stiff. beaten well in each addition. Cream margarine. Add the washed eggs. Nutmeg (grated) 3 tsp baking powder 4 egg. When baked remove from heat and place on cooling racks. Sponge cakes must be light with firm spongy texture that springs back when pressure is applied. salt and nutmeg. 3. alternating them. . QUEEN CAKES (CREAMING METHOD) 300 grams sifted flour 80ml milk 1 50 grams margarine 1tsp. sieve two times. until well mixed Add baking powder and nutmeg into flour. Add vanilla and cream well. Sprinkle lemon rind over remaining flour.IN. When the knife comes out clean. baking powder. Bake in pre-heated oven of 325 (gas mark 2) for about 20 minutes. salt and nutmeg into a bowl.47 should have good shapes and rounded but slightly peaked tops. Sieve ‘flour with baking powder. QUEEN CAKES (RUBBING . Rub in the fat and sugar into the sifted flour ingredients with finger tips until the mixture looks like bread crumbs. Stir in lemon rind and mix well. Spoon mixtures into well greased queen cake pans or paper cups. 3. one at a time. well beaten 1 tsp vanilla 1 tbsp lemon/lime juice Method 1. it means the cake is baked. Finally fold in the last portion of the flour mixture and remaining milk. Add ½ of the flour into the eggs mixture and fold and in the flour mixture. Now add a half of the milk and a second of the flour. Always use a skewer or knife to check if cake is well baked by piercing the knife through the cake. Grease cup cake pans and fill the pans. 5. lime/lemon rind 150 grams sugar ¼ tsp. 7. and beat with wooden spoon. Note: currants can be added to the flour before folding in or top of the queen cake as decoration before baking. Sift the flour. Fold in well 5. Cream margarine and sugar thoroughly until fluffy: 3. 4. 2 tbsp desiccated coconut or currants can be added when mixing. 8. MARBLE CAKE 400 grams sifted flour 4 tsp baking powder 200 grams margarine 200 grams sugar Drops pink colouring 1 ½ tsp vanilla ½ tsp nutmeg 7-8 eggs 100ml-l50ml milk 1 tsp chocolate/cocoa powder or 2 tbsp browning Method 1. Beat egg and stir into the flour ingredients.METHOD) 250 grams flour 75ml diluted milk 100g sugar 2 ½ tsp baking powder 3 eggs ¼ tsp salt 125 grams margarine/oil ½ tsp nutmeg 1 tsp lemon juice 1 ½ tsp lemon rind Method 1. Cream well until the mixture is light and fluffy to a dropping consistency. Having all ingredients at room temperature. 2. 2.

Stir the mixture into the boiling water. Batter may also be scooped in spoonful while alternating the colours till all the batter is put into the pan. Put water in a small pot to boil. Sift flour. custard powder and nutmeg. blend eggs. Serves 12. brown and pink) in 3 bowls. one at a time. 5. Grease a medium square or round pan and lightly sprinkle flour over the grease pan. Bake in 350°f in a pre-heated oven for 45 minutes. 3. Sift cocoa powder into one portion and the pink colouring in another portion. Spread the brown mixture at the bottom of the pan. Mix well and share batter into three equal separate portions in 3 bowls 5. 2. 4. beat well after each addition of egg white. vanilla and currants alternately. Cream sugar. Pour into a greased square pan and bake in pre-heated oven for 55 minutes. Add dry ingredients. FEATHER CAKE 250 grams sifted flour ½ tsp salt 120 grams sugar 4 egg whites 3 tsp baking flour 125 grams margarine 1 tsp vanilla 100ml milk 2 ½ tsp cream of tartar Method 1. When baked. baking powder cream of tartar and salt three times. 6. Baking powder l tsp baking soda 120m1 diluted milk . VANILLA SAUCE 250rnl boiling water 60 grams sugar 2 tbsp corn starch powder 2 tbsp margarine ½ tsp nutmeg 1 tsp vanilla Method 1. Using a whisk or mixer. Blend in colours very well without over mixing batters. invert on a cooling rack can iced or served with vanilla sauce. 2. peeled and mashed 2 large eggs 1 teasp. Bake in pre-heated oven for 40 minutes. Add vanilla mix well and serve as a warm sauce over cakes and puddings. baking powder and all spice together. Top the brown with the pink as second layer. 6. Fold in the sifted dry ingredients alternately with milk. Pour the cream coloured hatter that on the pink layer and spread the batter from the centre to sides of the pan. 3. Sift flour. sugar and vegetable oil. Cream margarine and sugar thoroughly. The batter is now in three colours (cream. Stir in flour mixture. grated carrot and toasted coconut. margarine. Pour into a well greased square or round pan. alternating with milk. 4. salt. Slowly add vanilla and egg whites. 2. 3. BANANA COCONUT CAKE 100grams dedicated coconut 200grams flour sifted 100grams margarine 100grams sugar 2 large bananas. Using an electric mixer or whisk. 7. 6. COCONUT/CARROT AND RAISIN CAKE 3 beaten eggs 1 ½ tsp all spice 175 grams sugar 300 grams grated carrots 100 grams raisin/currants 200ml vegetable/soft margarine 360 grams flour l tsp salt 2 tsp vanilla 3 tsp baking powder 150 grams toasted coconut Method 1.48 4. Serve 10. Mix the batter thoroughly.

Pour into a greased brunet pan or hollow pan. 2. made by heating 50 grams granulated sugar till it is brown (dark brown) and then 100ml boiled water is gradually stirred into it to lighten the thickness. 5. Mix thoroughly until foamy. 3. RICH CHOCOLATE FRUIT CAKE 10 eggs 1 tsp vanilla 500 grams sifted flour 2 tbsp brandy flavoring/150ml brandy 2 ½ tsp baking powder 150 grams mixed fruits 300 grams soft margarine 300 grams brown sugar 90 grams (6 tbsp browning/caramel) 1 tsp all spice 1 tsp vanilla 150 grams raisin/currants 1 tsp lemon juice 1 tsp strawberry flavoring 1 ½ tsp rind of one lemon 1 tsp almond flavor Method 1. Fold in the flour mixture into the margarine-sugar mixture. Add the flavorings. 2. Method 1. Bake at medium heat until cake is cooked (45-50minutes). sugar and vanilla until light and fluffy. Melt the margarine and ensure that all the ingredients are held at room temperature. Remove from heat. 2. This can be used in place of browning. Sieve out fruits and toss in little flour. 6.49 For the topping 25g (2 ½ tbsp) margarine 2 tbsp honey 120g shredded fresh coconut. Add caramel or browning to sugar mixture. Beat eggs and add to margarine and sugar mixture. Bake in per-heated oven of 3500f (gas mark 2) for 50minutes or until baked. Mix the remaining milk and mashed banana in a bowl and gradually combine the banana mixture with the flour mixture. lemon rinds and remaining brandy. place margarine. Sift together the flour. and leave to cool slightly. Prepare desiccate coconut by toasting freshly grated coconut in the oven or over grill for 5 minutes. 7. Gradually fold in the flour mixture and floured mixed fruits. 4.) ¼ tsp all spice 200ml prepared caramel 1 ½ tsp baking soda 180m1 evaporated milk left added for 10 minutes with 10ml lemon juice Method 1. GINGER BREAD 200 grams flour 60 grams (4 tbsp) margarine 1 ½ tsp ground ginger ¼ tsp salt ½ tsp cinnamon (opt. honey and grated coconut in a sauce pan and cook for about 5 minutes. Soak fruits in brandy. Place on a wire rack to cool completely when fully baked. SOYA BEAN AND WHEAT FLOUR BREAD 300grams white flour 300grams soya bean flour 400m1 warm water or milk ltbsp margarine . Pour batter into well greased and floured pan. Place margarine and sugar in a mixing bowl and cream until smooth and fluffy. Spoon topping over the whole top of the cake. Place all the ingredients in a mixing bowl and the mixture i s well beaten with electric or wooden spoon until smooth and creamy. Place cake batter in a greased square pan and bake in the preheated oven for 40 minutes. 5. To make the topping. then stir in the toasted coconut. Note: Caramels. Cream margarine. 4. allspice and baking powder. Preheat the oven 4. Beak in the eggs one at a time. baking powder and soda. nutmeg. 3. Sift together the flour. 3. using half of the milk.

When double in size. Makes 2 loaves. Add the margarine. Add the white flour to the soya bean dough to obtain a stiff consistency for kneading. Beat well until the mixture is well blended. 2. Stir and remove from heat when it starts bubbling to top level of the sauce pan. Put the oatmeal in a large bowl. Boil sugar and water quickly without stirring until golden b r o w n and glossy. . 4. Fold in the dry ingredients alternately with the milk. When adequately risen again. 6. 7. Mix the soya bean flour. Prepare a soft dough by using the dissolved yeast to mix the soya bean ingredients. 2. Knead very well and cover in a warm place for dough to rise until double in size (about 35 minutes) 5. Set aside until lukewarm. add half o f t h e flour and mix until smooth. 2tbsp sugar (reserve 2tbsp) and the salt. Remove from pan and insert on cooling rack. Mix dough thoroughly until it stops sticking to the hands. 2. 5. 6. Set aside and leave to cool completely before using for cake or caramel custard. Place on a board and knead until firm and glossy. Cover and set aside for 5minutes. 3. margarine salt and the remaining sugar in a bowl. CARAMEL 100g sugar 200m1 cold water Method 1. Pour cake batter over the pineapple as a second layer. 4. sugar and vanilla and cream well. Method 1. Add the remaining flour. Mix again and knead a second time. Serve with vanilla sauce as a dessert/sweet. FRUIT UPSIDE DOWN CAKE 300 gram chopped pineapple 300 grams sifed flour 150 grams sugar 1 50 grams margarine 3 tsp baking powder ½ tsp salt 200m1 milk 1 tsp vanilla ½ tsp nutmeg 4-6 eggs. bake in pre-heated oven at 4000 f for 10 minutes first. Bake at 350f for 50 minutes or until cake is golden brown. 5. Sprinkle the yeast into the 125m1 lukewarm water and stir in the remaining 2tbsp sugar until dissolved. OATMEAL BREAD 100grams uncooked quick oatmeal 125ml boiling water 60grams (4 tbsp) sugar 1tsp salt l25ml lukewarm water 250m1 warm milk 600grams sifted flour 60grams margarine 3 ½ tsp dry yeast Method 1. little at a time. The pineapple should be evenly distributed all over the bottom. 3. Reduce heat to 350°f and bake for 4Ominutes. Shape into loafs and place in a warm place to rise until double in size. Combine margarine. Generously grease a medium square pan and fill the bottom of the pan with pineapple chunks. Stir the dissolved yeast into the oatmeal mixture. Cover with a damp cloth or towel and let rise for 1 ½ hours under warm condition. Add one egg at a time and beat thoroughly. 4. reserving some for kneading. Shape in to two loaves and place in a greased bread pan. 2. Dissolve yeast in warm water with l tbsp sugar. 3. Note: Soya bean bread produces a heavy dough and requires more kneading man the regular plain white bread. bake in a pre-heated oven for 30 minutes. 3.50 2-4 tbsp sugar 3 tsp dry yeast ½ tsp salt Method 1. stir in the warm milk and boiling waters.

ORANGE RUM CAKE 350 g sifted flour 1 ¼ tsp salt 1 ¼ tsp grated dry ginger 150g margarine 3 egg whites. 2. Mix the brown sugar and margarine till soft. beating very well. Grease a medium. Stir in the orange rind. pour the boiling water over the oatmeal and mix thoroughly. Store in air tight containers for later use when cold. Fold in the flour ingredients. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 350° for about 45 minutes. COFFEE CAKE 200g margarine ¼ tsp salt 200g sugar 200g mixed fruits/currants 200m1 caramel 1 tsp cinnamon/coffee 300g flour ½ tsp nutmeg 3 tsp baking powder 1 tsp vanilla 2 tsp strawberry flavor cashew nuts 4 tbsp (optional) 6eggs Method 1. 2. Add the egg yolks one at a time. OATMEAL CAKE 100g oatmeal (quick cooking oatmeal) 1 60grarns brown sugar 1 tsp baking soda ½ tsp salt 100grams mixed fruits or currants. 2. Now sift the baking soda. 1 tsp baking powder 200m1 cup boiling water 250 grams sifted flour lisp cinnamon Method 1.seized cake pan and pour in the oatmeal cake and bake in a pre-heated oven for 45minutes. 6. Mix the orange juice with the rum together 4. Mix together and add the currants to mixed fruits. Beat egg white again. . Cream margarine and sugar till light and fluffy. Add the dry ingredients and run mixture alternately into the creamed margarine and sugar mixture with the orange juice mixture. Break and grate off or scrape away the brown surface of the coconut flesh. 5. Sift together the first 5 ingredients twice 2. Add the caramel. 4. Prepare caramel and set aside to cool. 4. Bake till dry but not coloured. Gradually beat in tile beaten eggs. Fold in the egg whites into the flour mixture (batter) and pour into the greased 1 0 inch pan. Occasionally. Cover and set aside for 20 minutes. stir to prevent burning or uneven browning. 3. 3. cinnamon and salt into the sifted flour.51 DESICCATED COCONUT 1 coconut Method 1. beaten stiff 60m1 rum ½ tsp almond extract/Cloves 4 tbsp caramel. 1 ¼ tsp baking powder 1 ¼ tsp baking soda 150g sugar 3 egg yolks 180 ml orange juice ¼ tsp vanilla 2 tsp grated orange rind Method 1. Gradually blend in the softened oatmeal. Grate the coconut and spread out on a baking tray and put in a preheated oven. Decorate for anniversary ceremony when cool. Beat eggs till thick and mix in to the sugar and fat mixture. Cream margarine and sugar until light and fluffy. vanilla and almond extract. Toss together and set aside. . 3. beating well.

sugar. PLAIN BREAKFAST PANCAKES 10 tbspflour ¼ egg 2 tsp sugar 125ml milk ¼ tsp salt 1 tbsp vegetable 1 ½ tsp baking powder Method 1. rise to the top and become popped. Pour ¼ of the batter into the centre of the pan over medium heat until bubbles form. 4. 2. . Sift the flour. 6. beat the mixture lightly for about 3 minutes. Heat a heavy frying pan (small sized) on top cooker and grease the bottom lightly with a teaspoon of vegetable oil. 8. 9. Bake in the pre-heated oven for about 45 minutes. 7. Beat the batter until it is smooth. Drain out oil and serve as snack. Cover and set aside for about 10 minutes. Stir in the nuts and mixed fruits. RICH BUNS 250g flour(sifted) egg 60 grams/4 tbsp margarine 50g sugar Vegetable oil for deep frying 100-125ml water 2 tbsp milk ½ tsp salt 2 tsp baking powder 3 tsp corned beef (optional) Method 1. Yields 1 serving of4 pancakes. Using a wooden spoon. remaining sugar and salt in a bowl. 5. Allow to cool and cut into squares to serve as finger food. test for doneness and remove from heat. Add ¼ tsp of the corned beef to the batter in the spoon and drop the batter as ball into the deep frying pan oil. 3. At this time the underside of the pancake is golden brown. Mix the sifted flour. milk and vegetable oil. When brown. Beat and drop the batter in balls from oiled Spoon into the hot oil. 2. salt and baking powder till the mixture becomes crumbs. flour. Fry until golden brown on all sides. Add scrambled eggs or sausage as breakfast dish. salt and baking powder. Fry until the mixture is light brown and remove with a straining spoon. Mix the flour. Make a well at the centre of the flour mixture and add one beaten egg at a time. Sift sugar. 3. 4. PUFF-PUFF 300 grams sifted flour ½ tsp salt 45 grams/3 tbsp sugar Vegetable oil for deep frying 1 tbsp margarine/oil 1 ½ tsp yeast 250rnl water lukewarm Method 1. Serve with honey or pancake syrup. 5.52 5. Stir in the fermented yeast with a Spoon and beat the mixture lightly. Cover and allow to ferment till it bubbles (1 5 minutes). fat. Dissolve half of the sugar in the yeast. Heat vegetable oil. Stir in the dry ingredients into the milk egg-mixture. Alternately mold batter in balls and drop in the heated oil. Heat the oil for frying and use oiled spooned to scoop the mixture. Lightly grease medium-sized baking pan and pour the batter into the pan. 5. margarine. 3. 2. Cover bowl with a damp towel and place till it doubles it original size or leave in the refrigerator over night. 6. 4. Stir in the milk and mix thorough. salt and baking powder combine then in small portions with the fat mixture by folding in and alternatively adding the spices and flavoring. In a separate bowl beat the egg. 7. Flip the pancake cover to brown the other side. Pre-heat the oven. Serve as a snacks.

Cookies is another favorite snack made from soft dough. It produced less flaky and tender crusts and it is often used for commercial productions. Cut the top with a fork and the beaten egg. 6. salt and water. For best result. board and dough when rolling. The softer doughs may be dropped on baking trays for baking. Cover the pie shells and seal properly. 7. Roll out to ¼ inch thickness on floured board and cut into shapes. After mixing. eggs and milk. always set aside some flour that will be needed to sprinkle on. 8. The dough is rolled into ¼ inch thickness and cut into desired sizes and shapes. They should be removed from the trays immediately they are baked. SAUSAGE ROLL AND FISH PIES) i) Short-Crust Margarine Pastry (ii) Oil Pastry 300 grams flour (sifted) 300 grams flour (sifted) Pinch salt 2 tsp baking powder 150 grams margarine 150m1 vegetable oil 100ml cold water 50m1 cold water 1 egg for glazing 1 egg for glazing Pinch salt ii) Margarine-Oil Pastry 300g flour ½ tsp salt 60g margarine 60m1 vegetable oil 60ml water (iv) Suet Pastry (Economy) 300g flour 3 tsp baking powder 100g margarine/oil 75m1 water ¼ tsp salt Method 1. Pastry is made by cutting fat into the flour and salt until the mixture becomes like bread crumbs. The pies are arranged in well greased baking trays and placed in pre-heated ovens. Cookies should neither be too hard. sugar. Over mixing will result in toughness of cookies. Toss flour and salt together. When baked. fat. rising agents and flavorings. It produces very tender and flaky crusts. nor too soft or crumbly. Sprinkle with enough cold water to moisten. The flour must be of good quality in order to produce firm products. . The dough is gathered to form a ball and rolled on a flat surface. The salt contributes to flavor and the fat gives tenderness. chilled and cut into desired shapes with biscuit cutter. Cold water is added gradually to the mixture and it is combined together. The tops at the top of each pie with fork or knife to permit steam to escape during baking. The pies must be sufficiently filled. Gather into a ball and set aside for 15-30 minutes. Bake in pre-heated oven for 30-40 minutes. 5. Cuts should be made at the top of each pie with fork or knife to permit steam to escape during baking. Alternatively. the dough is lolled. tender and golden brown in colour. The water is used to bind the ingredients. pastries should be flaky. The surfaces may be smooth or rough. 3. Makes 8 pies. When mixing and rolling. the pastry dough should not be over stretched when rolling and cutting. (3) The suet pastry has less amount of fat and one-third fat to flour quantity is used. (2) Flaky pastry has ratio of two-thirds fat to the flour. They are (1) short crust pastry which has half fat to the flour measurement It is fairly flaky and crumbles easily. pies may also be fried in deep fat. and cold water is desirable. care must be taken to avoid kneading and over stretching of the pastry for handling can cause the pie crusts to shrink and become tough when baked. Cookies can be mixed by creaming method or pastry method. The tops are also lightly brushed with beaten egg or milk for browning as a form of garnishing. 2. It is made with flour. well folded and sealed together to prevent leakages. Before mixing the ingredient for pastry. fat. Plain pastry may be classified according to the ratio of fat to flour. After mixing. Prepare the filling and set aside to cool.53 PASTRIES AND COOKIES Pies are made from plain pastry which is a stiff dough made from flour. BASIC PASTRY (FOR MEAT. Machine is also used for mixing of pastry in order to have cumulated quantity of fats well distributed in the flour and incorporate sufficient air into the dough and improve tenderness. Fill with meat. Add the fat and mix until mixture looks like fine bread crumbs. 4. Pie filling must be made earlier and cooled before filling the pie shells. the dough nay be left for about 15 minutes for flour to be well hydrated and for easier handling. fish or sausage fillings.

chopped and boil 2 ½ margarine or vegetable oil Method 1. 3. folding in and stirring well un flour is well absorbed. 5. See diagram for rolling out cutting guidelines. Brush milk or egg wash on top and bake in pre-heated 3500f heated oven for 30-40 minutes. 4. 3. Sprinkle flour into the mixture. Use fork to cut the top of the rolls and place in greased pan. Fry for 2 seconds and then add minced beef or fish flakes. 2. roll out the dough into Y2 inch thickness in rectangular shape. Using the rolling pin. 4. 6.54 MEAT PIE/FISH PIE FILLING 50 grams minced beef/flaked cooked fish 2 tsp flour ¼ tsp salt 100ml beef broth 4 potatoes diced and boiled 1 tsp curry 1 tsp thyme 4 tbsp peas 1 carrot. Spread the corned beef evenly over the surface of the flat dough as for sausage roll. Stir-fry for 2 minutes and remove from heat. Remove 2-3 tbsp of flour mixture for rolling out. which now gives 4 sausage rolls. Cook for 8 minutes until beef is cooked. melt margarine or heat oil and add onion. Add carrots. Using a spoon. 4. Roll up the remaining pastry. Add baking powder. 5. Prepare the margarine or oil pastry. Make a well in the centre of the mixture and add water gradually to form a past. 9. Handle dough as little as possible and place balts on a floured board. peas. 7. Place the rolls on a greased baking sheet or tray and glaze the tops with beaten eggs. 5. Seal the edges and use a knife and cut into 2 ½ to 3 inches sizes. Rub in the fat into the flour. Add the beef broth. CORNED BEEF ROLLS 300g flour 100ml cold water 150g margarine 1 small can corned beef Pinch salt 1 beaten egg for glazing Method 1. 6. In a bowl cut in the margarine and rub in to have flour crumbs. 2. SAUSAGE ROLL 250 grams beef sausage ½ tsp curry or nutmeg Basic pastry recipe 1 egg (beaten) for glazing Method 1. 8. CHIN CHIN 300 grams sifted flour 75g margarine 1 egg ½ tsp salt Vegetable oil for frying 45g (4 tbsp) sugar ½ tsp baking powder pinch nutmeg 2-3 tbsp cold water 1 ½ tbsp powdered milk Method 1. Fold over the rolled pastry from the long side until the rectangle makes 3-4 folding. Roll dough on lightly floured board to a 4 by 12 inches in rectangle of ½ inch long thickness. Mix the sausage and curry or nutmeg. . Bake in preheated oven for about 40 minutes or till light brown. spread the mixed sausage on the surface of the rectangle. 3. nutmeg and sa1t Toss together until mixture forms crumbs. water and the seasonings stir well to mix up ingredients. Roll over in two or three folding. Gather the mixture in small balls without kneading. Sift flour and salt 2. In a saucepan. Rub the sausage generously along the centre of pastry.

7. Serve wit groundnuts as snack. pressing together to form a whole egg again. salt ingredients thoroughly. Use paste (flattened) to cover each filled egg coated first in flour pinch the joining edges for proper sealing of the paste. Add 1 tbsp margarine and 1 tbsp milk to the egg yolk and mix well. Heat oil in deep fryer and fry the rolled up egg till golden brown. Cover each half. Do no knead pastry. FISH ROLL a) Fish filling 250g flaked cooked fish ½ tsp flour ½ tsp curry ½ tsp salt 2 tbsp water ½ chopped onion 2 tsp vegetable oil Method 1. Make a thick paste with flour remaining margarine.55 2. Allow chin-chin pieces to drain off oil after frying. Now roll out on floured board into 1 ¼ or ½ inch thickness and cu into cubes or dices. pepper. 3. Place the yolk in a bowl with the minced fish. Cut into 3 inch long rolls and place in a greased baking tray Glaze the top with beaten egg and put in the oven to bake for about 40 minutes. Cut into rectangular shapes and fill them with the cooked fish filling. flour board with reserved mixture. 6. 3. Heat the vegetable oil and onion in a frying pan for 2seconds. Gather the mixture into a ball and roll into ½ inch thickness on a board. cut length wise through the middle and scoop out the yolks. 3. Spread the filling all over the dough surface and roll the rectangular pastry in two or three folds. Drain and serve hot. EGG ROLL 4 eggs (hard boiled) 200g sifted flour 50g fat 2 tsp baking powder ½ tsp salt ½ tsp sugar 60m1 cold water oil for deep frying . Stir well and sprinkle in the flour to bind the ingredients. 2. Split into 2 sections again and garnish with cucumber slice to serve. 2. Sieve the baking powder. Cut in margarine into the flour and gradually sprinkle water into the flour and mixture to moisten. 6. 3. Note: Corned beef or sardines can be used as alternatives. salt. Divide the yolk mixture into 4 equal portions and fill 3 each egg (half of white) with the yolk mixture. Peel the boiled eggs. b) Pie shell (pastry) 300g flour ½ tsp salt 100g fat ½ tsp baking powder 60-80ml cold water 1 egg for glazing Method 1. Stir-fry for 2 minutes and remove from heat to cook while pastry is prepared. curry. 2. If heat is too low or much quantity is fried at time. the chin-chin will soak the oil and will no be crisp. pepper. Add the flaked fish. seasoning and water. STUFFED EGG ROLL 4 large eggs (hardboiled) 2 tbsp minced cooked fish ½ tsp curry 3 tbsp milk 6 tbsp margarine (90g) ½ tsp ground pepper 200g plain sifted flour ½ tsp soy or maggi sauce pinch salt and pepper ½ tsp baking powder Method 1. Pre-heat oil and fry until light brown. flour and salt into a bowl. milk. Gather dough into balls and leave for 10-15 minutes for flour absorb liquid well. 4. 6. 5. Seal the edge of the last fold with little water. 5. 5. Add cold water and bind together. 4. 4.

5. Reserving one table spoon of flour. Bake in a pre-heated oven until golden brown and firm. Cut the margarine into the flour ingredients. Add cold water to make the dough. Sieve flour. Make a well in the centre. The water should not be too hot the bowl should not touch the water to prevent the eggs from curding. 5. 8. Peel hard-boiled eggs and set aside. Now roll up quite firmly and leave the roll wrapped up in the sugared paper for about 10 minutes to keep the roll in food shape. 5.80m1 water ½ tsp baking powder Beans. Sieve baking powder into the sieved flour and sieve the sugar separately. When baked. Cut into smaller rolls. share the dough in to 6 portions and flatten each portion to ¼ inch thickness. FRIED PIES 300g flour ½ tsp salt 100g margarine 50. 4. Use a pastry cutter to cut pie shapes. Serve as snacks. Coat the remaining eggs. 4. Damp the rim or edge of the pie shell with water and seal the rim of the pie firmly 6.56 Method 1. Now whisk. sugar. with a portion of dough. 7. Taking one at a time. Fill each pie shell with the prepared filling. 2. salt and baking powder into a bowl 2. Gather the soft dough in a ball. After 5 minutes of whisking. 9. Now sprinkle the remaining flour and continue to fold in until flour is completely absorbed. SCOTCH EGGS 4 hard boiled eggs 4 tbsp bread crumbs 200g beef sausage ½ tsp curry 2 tbsp sifted flour . Put the mixture in to the greased pan over the paper and spread evenly. SWISS ROLL 100 grams sifted flour 3 eggs ½ tsp baking powder 2-3 tbsp warm jam 100grams sugar l tbsp warm water ½ tsp vanilla essence Method 1. Now coat the shelled egg with remaining flour and wrap each egg. add the sugar lightly and continue to whisk until the egg mixture has doubled into size and become thick and creamy. 7. heat until the coating is golden brown on all sides. 4. Break the eggs into a mixing bowl and place the bowl over a pan of hot water. Fry pies in heated vegetable oil till golden brown. 8. vegetable oil for frying . Heat oil for deep frying and cook the eggs under moderate. 3. sugar and salt together 3. Roll out pastry about ¼ inch (1/2 cm) thick. Now spread the warm jam all over the surface of the rectangular-shaped cake. Grease a swiss cake pan and line with a greased paper. add the water gradually to make a fi r m paste while handling the mixture as little and lightly as possible. Gradually fold in the vanilla and warm water. Remove sugared paper and cool the roll on a cake rack. 3. turn out the cake on a sugared paper and remove the baking paper carefully. mix flour. Fold in lightly with a metal spoon. 6. 2. Rub in the margarine for the flour mixture to form crumbs. 6. Remove the beaten egg from the top of the hot water and sprinkle half of the flour over the egg mixture. fold the dough like a skin over the egg and seal edges very well with the egg fully enclosed and the egg shapes still maintained. drain serve as snack or cocktail. without stretching. fish or meat filling (already prepared) 1 ½ tsp sugar Vegetable oil for deep frying Method 1.

Cool and decorate with coloured icing sugar pipings. Put on baking trays and bake for 6-10 minutes or until edges just begin to brown. Roll the coated eggs first in flour and dip into the egg wash. Mix sausage with curry. Make 20. mixing thorough. Stir in beaten egg and water/milk. 5. Cover with bread crumbs and coat them lightly. 3. Peel the boiled eggs and lightly four them gently. Stir in sifted flour. Sifted dry ingredients and cut in the margarine into flour and spices. 4. Mold the eggs properly to maintain egg shape. Shape with assorted biscuit cutters. Makes cookies. 2. Bake in 4000f oven (mark 3) for 7-8 minutes until lightly browned around the edges. sugar. Remove. Roll out dough on a floured surface and use cookies cui to cut into shapes of ½ inch thickness. cut in longitudinal sizes. lemon and coconut chill dough in cellophane for 30 minutes. 3. Place in greased baking trays and bake for 10-15 minutes. 6. Add flour. 6. Mix properly and chill1 hour. 4. Serve as cocktail tea items. drain and when cool. SPICED COOKIES 350g sifted flour ½ tsp nutmeg 1 egg lightly beaten Pinch salt l00g sugar 150g margarine 2 tbsp cold water/margarine ½ tsp dry ginger Method 1. Cream butter and sugar until fluffy And egg and beat well 2. 3. SANDWICH COOKIES 180g margarine 120g light brown sugar 1 egg yolk 1 tsp vanilla 240g flour . 7. mixing well. Makes 24. RICH BUTTER COOKIES 300g sifted flour 150g margarine 1egg 80g sugar ½ tsp lemon juice ½ tsp vanilla 100g flaked coconut 1 tsp baking powder Method 1. 4. Heat vegetable oil in a deep fryingpotandfryforabout6 minutes till sausage is cooked through and coating is brown. Roll into inch thickness on lightly floured boards. cover the eggs generously with the sausage. baking powder and salt. Cut into shapes with biscuit cutter. Chill until dough is easy to handle (about 30 minutes) 4. Using both hands. 2. a small at a time. 8.57 Beaten egg Method 1. 7. 5. SUGAR COOKIES 350gsifted flour ½ tsp nutmeg 1 egg lightly beaten ¼ tsp salt 100g sugar 150g margarine 2 tbsp cold water/milk 3 tsp baking powder Method 1. Roll dough into V2 inch thickness. Mix together margarine. eggs and flavourings. 2. 3. Blend in vanilla.

However. Chapter Seven BEVERAGES AND DESSERTS A beverage is any kind of drink that is prepared for human consumption. minerals and vitamins. Remove from heat and cool on wire racks. Beverages may come from mostly animals or fruits and vegetables. ensure that you use appropriate’ utensils like jugs. Fruits and vegetable juices are good source of vitamins and some minerals and are obtained from squeezing the fruits. fat. Put 2 or 3 cookies together with the vanilla filling in between them. When preparing beverages. They are later mixed with water or other beverage and served chilled. Make 3 dozens. mineral water. Refreshers: Fruit drinks and soft drinks. beat until blended. Beat in egg and vanilla. 6. They are grouped as follows: 1. 2. beating until light and fluffy. 2.58 Method 1. Allow them to cool thoroughly before removing them from the baking tray. Stimulants: Coffee. Maintenance of proper hygiene is important when handling the ingredients. sugar and vanilla. Add sugar alternately with egg white. 8. ensure that good quality fresh fruits are used. coffee. Milk contains protein. 3. Energizers: Malted and vegetable drinks. Health Promoters: Fruit and vegetable juices Beverages may serve as appetizers in meals. tea and cocoa are popular in meals. fruits juices. Soft drinks. Use filling for sandwiching sponge cakes as well. 5. egg hot drinks. add flour and mix well. 3. egg drinks. stimulating drinks between meals. fresh fruits drinks. lemon grass and scent leaf tea. When fruits juices are mixed with water (1 to 3 parts water) and sweetened with sugar or honey. COCONUT BALLS 125g margarine 1 tsp vanilla 130g sifted flour 60g sifted sugar ½ tbsp water 200g shredded coconut Method 1. Squashes are boiled concentrates of juices to which small proportion of sugar has been added. 4. Sedatives: Alcoholic drinks. Also. 6. the beverage is known as fruit drink. 2. Stir in the water. malted and vegetable juices. Bake for 8-10 minutes. 3. 7. Cream margarine. flask and teapots. VANILLA FILLING 65gmargarifle 140g icing sugar 1 egg white ½ tsp Food colour (pink or yellow) Method 1. Stir in the coconut and mould into I inch balls. Blend vanilla and desired food colouring. 4. tea. Form 2 rolls each of 7 inches long and 1 ½ inches wide which look like sausage roll. 2. as accompaniments to meal or the final course of a meal. Makes 2 ½ -3 dozens. 4. Nourishers: Milk shakes. Now prepare the vanilla filling that will be used to sandwich two or three cookies together. fruit and milk drinks are more nutritious. 3. beer etc. Shred coconut and set aside. Place the balls apart in an ungreased baking tray or sheet. Gradually add flour. Chill for ease in handling. 5. Cream margarine and sugar. Peel or scrape off the brown back of the coconut flesh. 5. Nutritious drinks provide specific nutrients to help fight illness. Now cut into ‘/2 inch sizes (thickness of slice) and place in lightly oiled baking pan. cocoa. boast the body’s energy and vitality and ensure a healthy lifestyle. 6. . Bake in slow oven for about 20 minutes or until firm to touch.

Blender can be used to crush the pulp before sieving. Boil the water and leave to cool. Pour over the juice in a jar. 2. Orange and pineapple juices maybe added. 2. 2. Cool and add to fruit drinks. Using a sharp knife. discarding the seeds. reserving the shell. Leave to cook and chill before serving. . 4. WATER MELON DRINK 1 small watermelon fruit 1 lemon/lime Syrup and water to taste 500m1 boiled water Method 1. WATERMELON BASKET ½ water melon ½ medium pineapple 250m1 orange juice 23 bananas 1 red apple 1 lemon Method 1. trim the edge for the watermelon shell by cutting a saw tooth edge. 3. PAWPAW DRINK ½ ripe pawpaw 1 tsp lemon/lime juice 500m1 boiled water Syrup and water to taste (250ml water boiled with 75g sugar) Method 1. Syrup (For Fruity Drinks) 75g sugar 250m1 water Method 1. Add syrup to taste and the lemon juice. Slice the bananas and dice the pineapple. Remove seeds. Make ½ inch water melon cubes from the scooped watermelon. 3. Combine these in a bowl to prevent browning of the bananas. Wash and cut fruit into halves. 2. Wash fruit and cut into sections. Wash. Scoop out the melon fruit. scoop out the pulp and squeeze out juice through a sieve. Sweeten with syrup 3. Boil for another five minutes for4fie syrup to thicken slightly. Fill the shell with fruit salad and decorate with quartered lemon Seal the top of the watermelon basket with clean film or foil paper and chill before serving.59 GRAPE FRUIT DRINK 2 ripe grape fruits 500ml water Syrup to taste Method 1. peel pawpaw and remove the seeds. Place the sugar and water in a saucepan and heat till all sugar are dissolved. Squeeze out the juice. 3. Note: Syrup for flavoring fruit drinks should be prepared before hand and allowed to cool before addition to drinks. Stir in the orange juice. Chili before serving.

Serve chilled in glasses and garnish with lemon/lime slices. Garnish side of glass with cucumber/lemon slices. Method 1. peel and remove the hard core at the middle. Add the pure water and strain into a glass jug.60 2. 2. 2. Boil the 3 litres of water and pour over the washed zobo. Mash the pawpaw or pulp in a blender. 6. BEETROOT AND CARROT DRINK 1 raw beetroot 2 medium carrots 1 apple (red or green) 500m1 pure water Method 1. but do not peel beet root. CHAPMAN’S DRINK 250ml orange juice 1 tbsp bitters ltsp sugar syrup (optional) Juice of 1-2 lemons 300m1 bitter lemon 2 cucumber or lemon slices. Serve chilled. Scrub pineapple. remove immediately from the water and place them in a sauce pot. Sweeten with syrup and add the lemon juice. Add previously boiled water to mashed pawpaw and strain into a glass jug. Add ice blocks to serve immediately. 5. Serve chilled in tall glasses with a sprig of lime leaf as garnishing. ORANGE AND MILK PUNCH 500m1 (2 cups) orange juice 1 tbsp sugar/honey 500ml diluted evaporated milk 1 tsp milk flavour . 4. Keep the zobo boiling for about 30 minutes till the colour is fully absorbed into the liquid. Stir in the pineapple juice and sugar to taste. 5. Mix well and pour in to cocktail glasses. 3. PINEAPPLE DRINK 4 slices or small ripe pineapple 1 lime/lemon juice 700ml boiled water 1 tsp crushed ginger syrup to taste Method 1. 3. Cut into small chunks and put in a bowl. Add the pure water to filter and obtain the juice. stir in the ginger or cloves and set aside for few minutes. Use a blender or juicing machine to blend the fruits. Remove from heat. 2. ZOBO DRINK 200g zobo flower (1/4 basket) 3 litres of water 3 tsp crushed ginger 500m1 pineapple/orange juice sugar to taste 3 tsp crushed cloves Method 1. 4. Wash lemon(s) and squeeze out the juice. The fleshy part of pineapple is cut and served as a dessert or refreshments. Cut beetroot in to small pieces as well as the apple. scrape and grate carrots. Cover and keep drink until cold. Sort the dried zobo flower to remove all dirt in it. 7. Add the bitter lemon last. Wash. 4. Wash them in clean water. Filter very well and discard the chaff. Stir in ginger. Put chucks of pineapple in a bowl and use a crusher/blender to squeeze out the juice. 3. Alternatively. Add lime and syrup. Sweeten with syrup or honey if desired. 2. Pour into jugs and chill before serving. Combine all the ingredients in a jug except the cucumbers7 lemon slices and the bitter lemon soft drink. Wash. the thoroughly washed pineapple peels can be boiled in 700m1 water strained into jugs and chilled before serving. Leave to cool completely.

6. Chill the orange juice and the wine. SOUR SOP DRINK 1 medium ripe sour sop 1 litre of previously boiled water syrup to taste ½ tsp nutmeg/vanilla Method 1. sweeten to taste with the sugar or honey. Add milk flavour 2. After heating cool and chill drink till service time. Add the bitters and ginger ale. Garnish with orange slices serve in tall glasses. Place in a bowl and add a little water to the fleshy part. Pour mixture into an air-tight plastic bowl and cover well. Note: Pineapple or grape fruit juices may be used or added. 2. Wash and peel bananas/plantains. Pour the fruit juices and tea over a large block of ice in a punch bowl. add sugar or syrup (if necessary) and boil for 20 minutes. The mixture now becomes a fairly thick liquid with some foamy substance and plantain pieces at the top. 5. 4.61 Method 1. Chill till serving. 6. Mix all the ingredients in a punch bowl. Chill and serve garnished with lemon slices. 4 lemon slices 2 tbsp sugar syrup . Avoid use of aluminum utensils. M ix in remaining water and strain the liquid into a glass jar. Serve immediately in wine glasses garnish with lemon slices. Filter the mixture through a fine sieve into another plastic or glass bowl. Mash but do not blend the plantain pieces and add the water. Crush it and pass through a sieve to extract the juice. 5. Serve in tall glasses garnished with few pawpaw chunks. APPLE AND WINE DRINK 2 apples 1 lemon 75ml brandy 200m1 ginger ale. 3. Store in a plastic container in a cool place for about 24-48 h o u r s (overnight). 2. Pour liquid into a pot. 2. Slice into bits and put in a bowl. 3. Wash fruit very well. CHAMPAGNE AND ORANGE JUICE COCKTAIL DRINK 500m1 champagne 1 tbsp honey 500m1 orange juice 4 lemon slices Method 1. Add syrup and nutmeg/vanilla. 3. chilled. PLANTAIN DRINK 2 ripe plantains/ripe bananas syrup to taste (optional) 1 ½ litre boiled cooled water Method 1. TEA PUNCH 250m1 apple juice 1 litre orange juice 500m1 brewed tea 2 tbsp bitters (optional) 1 bottle ginger ale (fanta ginger) 2 tsp ground cloves Orange slices to garnish Method 1. 2. Remove the flesh of the sour sop and discard the seeds. 4. Mix the orange juice and milk together.

CARROT MANGO DRINK 3 medium carrots (peeled and grated) 1 ripe mango . 2. Serve chilled. Stir in the syrup and strain. 4. BREAKFAST DELIGHT DRINK 1 tin evaporated milk (diluted) 400ml orange/pineapple juice 3 eggs Syrup to taste Method 1. Stir well and add the wine or ginger ale. 3. Serve chilled with lemon slice topping as garnishing. Peel the lemon and out the pit including the seeds. Wash and break eggs into saucer. Pour into glasses. Dissolved sugar in water. Push the lemon pieces and apple sections through a juice extractor/blender. Stir in the brandy. 3. 3. Stir in the remaining orange juice. one at a time. Wash lemons. Dust with nutmeg as garnishing. Cover the jug and allow the lemonade to cool. Mix well after each addition. Decorate with slices of lemon and top the drink with ginger ale or fanta soft drink. Note: Oranges. Combine the juice in a bowl. Add eggs to mixture. MIXED FRUIT DRINK (PUNCH) 500ml orange juice 500mlpineapplejuice 100ml lemon juice 1 bottle non-alcoholic fruit wine or 2bottlesgingerale 1 litre of chilled pure water 200m1 grape juice 100g sugar Method 1. 2. Add the lemon rind pour the water into the jar. Add ice cubes and lime/lemon slices and serve chilled. strained juice and sugar syrup. Wash and cut apples into sections. 2. tangerines.62 Method 1. Add sugar if desired. lime or grapefruit can be used in place of lemon or in addition to lemon. 2. Add the syrup to the juices 4. Squeeze the juices from the lemons into a jug. Mix all ingredients either by whisking or mixing in a blender. Chill the brandy. Strain the juice into a jug. LEMONADE 3 large lemons (ripe) Syrup to taste l000ml previously boiled water Method 1. 2. Half a teaspoon of brandy flavor can be used in place of pure brandy. Serve into four glasses and add ice cubes. ENERGY EGGNOG 1 egg 1 can of diluted evaporated milk 1 tbsp brandy (optional) 2tbsp honey 150m1 orange juice Method 1. 3. Blend half of the orange juice and milk in a blender until smooth. Cut into halves and trim off few thin slices o f t h e rind from half of a lemon. Cut into pieces.

creamy and double in size is obtained. Add the remaining water to the crushed mango and filter out the liquid. Place in a bowl and mash very well. Whisk eggs. floured baking pan. Cream eggs and sugar. Add margarine and nix well 2. Fold in the melted margarine or vegetable oil gently. 3. peel and chop mango flesh. PINEAPPLE COCONUT DRINK 500m1 pineapple juice chilled 80m1 dark run or ½ tsp run flavouring 500m1 hot water 1 tsp vanilla extract 100g sugar ½ tsp ground cloves 1 pack cream of coconut Method 1. Wash. SUGAR PASTRY 200g sugar 100g margarine 2-3 tbsp water 1 egg 50g sugar ¼ tsp salt Method 1. Cover and set aside. Allow to rest in a cool place before using for jam tarts. 4. Therefore. Remove from heat and whisk until cold and thick. 7. making sure that it is not stretched 4. 3. beans pie or fish pie. Add three quarters of the water to the carrots and strain out the liquid into a bowl. Most light desserts are usually served chilled. DESSERTS/SWEETS Desserts are light food items that are used to add final touch to meals. stirring well till dissolved 2. Fold in sifted flour and baking powder very gently 6. 2. Mix carefully until slightly smooth Handle pastry gently. Bake in a moderately hot oven for about 30 minutes ECONOMY VANILLA ICE CREAM 500ml evaporated milk 2 eggs . 5. Continue until smooth mixture that light. Stir in the run or run flavouring. Sieve flour and salt gradually incorporate into the egg and sugar mixture. 4. 6. 3. Melt margarine and leave to cool. In preparing and serving desserts. appropriate cooling temperature is important for maximum enjoyment of such dishes. 5. Leave to cool 3. They are usually served as the third courses in meals (fruits pies. Add the pineapple juice and pour into a jug chill and serve garnished with cucumber slices and pineapple chunks threaded on cocktail skewers placed on glass of the drink. Beat in the vanilla and lemon extract. CHIFFON CAKE 4 eggs 100g sugar 100gflour 1 tsp baking powder 50g margarine/3 ½ tbsp vegetable oil ½ tsp cream of tartar 1 tsp vanilla extract/lemon extract Method 1. cakes an puddings) and light dessert dishes (ices and fruits). Dilute cream of coconut in the 500m1 hot water in a bowl Add sugar. Cut up carrots and blend to a smooth pulp.63 Sugar to taste 800m1 water Method 1. They increase the enjoyment of meals. vegetable tarts. Mix the carrot and mango drink in a jug and sweeten with honey or sugar. Place in a greased. it is important to maintain good hygiene in order to prevent contamination of the products and prevent excessive changes in temperature This is very important in serving milk and fruit salad desserts. Serve chilled in glasses with ice cubes. 2. cloves and vanilla Mix thoroughly. sugar and cream of tartar in a bowl over a pan of hot water.

3. 3. Add the cooked cornstarch and mix well. stirring constantly as the mixture boils. milk. Makes 6-8 servings. 4. Place the milk mixture over water simmering in the pan. Gradually add the vanilla or banana flavor essence. Beat eggs slightly. salt and milk. sugar and egg yolk together. nutmeg and salt. Cover mixture and freeze for another 5 -10 minutes while beating egg whites and remaining sugar to stiffness. Prepare cornstarch with little boiled water. Serve in cups. Freeze for 30 minutes until mushy. Dissolve gelatine in 2 tbsp water and stir into milk mixture. 2. Add vanilla and chill before serving 8-10 servings. add sugar. Beat egg yolk and blend 25g of sugar. Cook water in a pan and leave to simmer. Pour into greased baking pan. Heat the mixture to hotness. 5. 4. make it thick and set aside. vanilla. Note: Caramel may be poured into pan or individual queen cake pans before the custard (milk and egg mixture) is poured on it to bake. Beat the milk mixture until thick and stiff enough to form peaks. Cook for 2 minutes longer and remove from heat. fruit chunks or jam. Get the egg-milk mixture from freezer and beat till smooth and creamy. Remove from heat and leave to cool. 4. stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Freeze in covered plastic container until it is firm (4hrs). BAKED CUSTARD 4 eggs 1 tin evaporated milk diluted With 2 parts water 1 tsp vanilla/nutmeg Pinch of salt 2 tbsp sugar Method 1. Do not allow to boil. Vanilla/nutmeg Method 1. Heat remaining milk for 2 minutes and pour over blended custard powder or cornstarch mixture. Add vanilla and pour into a shallow pan. Heat milk to lukewarmness. Mix cornstarch or custard and a little milk. stirring until it thickens.64 2 tbsp sugar 1 tsp vanilla/banana essence 15g gelatine 2 tbsp water Method 1. 3. . beating only the milk. Fold the egg whites into the egg yolk and milk mixture. Return to sauce pan and cook over medium heat. 2. mixture. CORNSTARCH CUSTARD 60g (4 ½ tbsp) sugar 270m1 milk 40-50g (3 ½ tables) custard powder or plain cornstarch. Beat reserved egg whites to stiffness and fold into the cooled milk. Cover in a plastic bowl and leave to set in the freezer (about 6 hours).serve topped with cornflakes. FRENCH ICE CREAM 100g sugar 3 egg whites Pinch salt 250m1 evaporated milk\ 3 egg yolks 1 ½ ml vanilla(1 ½ teaspoon) 2 tbsp cornstarch Method 1. Separate eggs . Serve as dessert. 5. 2. and bake for 25 minutes. 2. 6. 3.

Remove from the hot water bowl and leave to cool. Use as spread for bread and filling for doughnuts. Pour lemon juice over banana and diced apples to prevent browning of the surface immediately after slicing. CRUNCHY FRUIT SALAD 1 apple diced 1 banana sliced 1 large orange in fleshy sections ¼ watermelon deseeded and diced 50 grams raising! mixed fruits 4 tbsp shredded coconut ½ cup orange juice 3 tbsp honey 2 tbsp lemon juice Method 1. except shredded coconut. Combine all the fruits in a bowl. Cover bowl and place mixture in the freezer Leave to chill for about 40 minutes until the mixture is fairly set 6. Combine all the above ingredients in plastic bowl and mix well. Top with coconut pieces. Cover and chill for at least 3 hours. PARTY VANILLA ICE CREAM 500m1 evaporated milk 1 tbsp gelatin (15 gram) 1 tbsp vanilla /banana flavour ½ cup corn flakes (crushed) 2 eggs 2 tbsp sugar 5 tbsp water ¼ cup coconut flakes Method 1. 2. Take back to freezer and leave for about 3-4 hours to allow the ice cream to be fully set. Heat 250ml milk diluted with 3tbsp water to warmness. 2. Add the remaining sugar and lime juice. Juice from pawpaw can also be added. 3. While still hot. Cool and bottle. 3. and cut into triangles or squares MANGO FLUFF 3 ripe mangoes 1 sachet gelatin ½ tsp. Scoop into cocktail glasses and garnish with a slice of lemon. pour dissolved gelanne over cooled mixture Add the remaining evaporated milk and beat till fully blended. Beat eggs. Freeze until mushy. Mix orange juice and honey and pour over the fruits. Colour is golden brown. FRUIT JAM 40grams chopped pineapple (2 mgt) 250m1 water 1 tbsp lime juice 300grams (1 mgt) sugar Method 1. (not hard frozen) stirring once. Dissolve gelatine in the remaining 2tbsp4water over low heat. lemon juice 1 tin evaporated milk 60 grams icing sugar 6 tsp. 2. 4. 3.65 FRUIT FREEZE 2 teaspoon lemon/lime juice 250m1 orange juice 1 tsp vanilla 250 ml pineapple juice 250m1 mango juice Method 1. Serve decorated with corn flakes. vanilla . Toss gently again before serving into cocktail glasses or salad cups. 4. 4. 5. Keep refrigerated. Bring out and beat well again till mixture is fluffy Mix cornflakes and coconut flakes and line the bottom of a square dish Pour ice cream over coconut and com flakes. Pour warm milk over egg mixture. Toss gent1y using a wooded spoon. stirring occasionally. Cook until set but not sticky (about 35 minutes). 3. 2. Place the bowl of milk -egg mixture over another bowl of hot water (not directly inside hot water) and whisk the mixture till it thickens. Cook half of the sugar and water with the pineapple chunks until the fruit is soft. sugar and vanilla/banana flavour together.

When the pudding are cooked. add the gelatin mixture and beat well. 7. 6. Scoop gently into desert cups and top with the mango chunks. Cover and freezer till set. vanilla. Whisk gelatin till fluffy. 3. Dissolve gelatin and chill till firm. Preserve 3 tbsp of chopped mango for topping and mash the remaining by masher or use blender. lemon juice. Mix gently. Beat milk until thick. 5. 2. Bake in a preheated oven for 30. Gradually add the gelatin mixture. Cut the bread into pieces and soak in the milk dissolved in half the (75g) sugar. 3. Dissolve gelatin in 1 Y2 cups (360m1) hot water chill the gelatin until thick. Whisk the chilled milk and sugar. Chill milk for about 3 hours. ginger and remaining sugar 75g over a boiling water till melted. Sour sop juice (undiluted) may be used. Place the dishes/cups in a roasting pan and pour enough hot water halfway up the sides of the pans. Add lemon juice and sugar. Press the juice through a sieve into a bowl and reserve the juice.40 minutes. Grease 8 baking cups (moi moi cups) and fill each with equal amount of the pudding mixture. LEMON FLUFF 1 tin evaporated milk 1 package lemon flavored gelatin 2 ½ cups (200g) corn flakes 60m1 lemon juice 100g sugar Method 1. 2. 6. Peel and chop the mango flesh.66 Method 1. combine100g of margarine. Sprinkle ½ of the corn flakes into a round or square pans. 6. BREAD PUDDING ½ loaf of bread (day old) 570m1 milk (diluted) 3 eggs (beaten) 100g mixed fruits/currants 1 tsp vanilla essence SAUCE Pinch ( ½ tsp ) ground ginger 120g margarine 1 50g sugar 1 egg 4 tbsp lemon juice 1 tsp nutmeg Method 1. 5. Add the beaten 1 egg and whisk till thick. m. 4. beat gelatin until fluffy. 4. Chill the milk for 3 hours 2. 5. Beat eggs and add the flavourings. When set. SPECIAL PUDDING 125grams margarine 1 egg ¼ tsp salt ½ tsp all spice/cinnamon 120 grams sugar 130 grams sifted flour 1 tsp baking powder/soda 100g currants/raising(optional) . Add the mango juice. 4. Allow to cool Place sauce on plate and serve the pudding on top. When the bread is softened. Pour the mixture over the crumbs and cover the top with the other ½ of the corn flakes crushed into crumbs. . add the eggs. 3. Chill in the freezer for some 4 hours before serving into cocktail or dessert glasses! cups as a dessert or refreshment. mixed fruits ginger and nutmeg. vanilla and lemon.

Remove syrup from heat and cool. Heat the cold water and sugar in a pan till the sugar dissolve 2. Pour into the pan with the melted margarine.67 Method 1. Makes 10 serving. Pour the mixture into the greased pans and bake in pre-heated over for about 30 minutes or until set. In a bowl. 6. Wash peel and chop pawpaw 4. 5. Blend in the milk gradually 2. pudding may be streamed on top of the cooker. egg and milk. Melt margarine in a square or round cake pan 2. Cream margarine and sugar till fluffy. mix flour. Alternatively. and all spices in a separate bowl. sugar. nutmeg and baking powder Stir in the milk until smooth 3. 4. When set remove from heat and place upside down in dessert bowls to serve. Remove from freezer and whisk the mixture return to the freezer and freeze till ice is semi-solid Scope into dessert bowls and serve cold. COCONUT DELIGHT 100g sugar 70g sifted flour ¾ tsp baking powder 80g shredded coconut/cashew 250m1 diluted milk a pinch of salt ½ tsp vanilla 50g margarine (melted) Method 1. 5. 4. Spoon the fruit chunks evenly over the batter. Make 6 servings. diced ¼ watermelon diced A 100g sugar 1 can evaporated milk 2 slices pawpaw. 6. orange and mango ½ tsp nutmeg Method 1. Sieve well Add the raisins. Bake in 350 of pre-heated oven for 45 minutes 6. Spoon into well-greased custard queen cake cups ¾ fullness. flour. baking powder/soda. salt and baking powder together. Add vanilla. Mix salt. PAW PAW ICE DESSERT 225 grams sugar 600 grams ripe pawpaw 250m1 orange/pineapple juice 1 large lemon juice 50m1 cold water Method 1. Mash the pawpaw chunks to smooth paste Add to the orange juice and sugar mixture. flour. Arrange the filled cups in a around pan and add ½ inch level of water to the baking pans. 4. FRUITED ICE MILK 1 firm mango. Add the sugar. Serve into dessert plates and top with ice cream or vanilla sauce. 3. Grease generously two shallow round pans. Bake pudding over medium heat till it is set (about 20mmutes). Add flour ingredients to the creamed margarine mixture and blend well. Add the remaining ingredient and mix together. FRUIT COCKTAIL DESSERT 125 grams margarine 130 grams flour 100 grams sugar 180ml diluted milk 100 grams each chopped 2 tsp baking powder Pineapple. Sieve all into a plastic bowl and place in the freezer for 1-2 hours until mixture is mushy or fairly set. Pour into a bowl and stir in the orange/pineapple and lemon juice 3. 3. 5. diced 100g raisins . 2.

Cover the bowl and return to freezer and freeze till firm. 4.68 Method 1. Fold the fruits into the whisked milk in the bowl. Remove from freezer and whisk very well Add the sugar and whisk again 3. . Pour evaporated milk in a plastic bowl Place in the freezer till ice form around the side of the bowl 2. Serve in cocktail glasses.

decorating bags. if frozen. 8. Sprinkle about 1 tbsp flour on all the greased surfaces of the pan and shake off excess flour to prevent cake from sticking to the pan after baking. marking rings and cutters (plastic or metal). Rolling Pin: Wooden pan with non-absorbed surfaces for rolling out sugar paste and Fondant icings for decoration. When baked. scale and other measuring tools. 4. Cake Board: Necessary for placing the cake. 7. It is available in plastic or foil scaled thick papers. Piping Set: Plastic or metal piping tubes or bags with nozzles to fit used in making various decorative design on the coated cake. wooden spoon. spatulas or palette knife. The bottom may be lined with wax paper after greasing instead of flouring for easier removal of baked cake. 6. Spread the batter evenly to the sides of the pan. 2. aluminum foil wrap. The type of ingredients used and mixing technique. Pre-heat the oven to temperature (gas mark 3) specified by recipe. Success in cake icing depends on three major factors: 1. 6. electric mixer. Complete mixing of cake ingredients and pour butter into the greased and floured cake pan. Smoothers: These are smooth surface plastics used for giving smooth finishes to the sides and tops of the cake coated with Fondant or sugar paste icing. coffee. Skill in application of creative knowledge in designing special decorations. egg beater. The right equipment 2. 2. The cake may be iced in about one and half hours after baking or it may be frozen up for up to three months in heavily wrapped foil before icing. The main purpose of icing cakes is to enhance the beauty. place the cooling rack over the top of the pan and urn both pan and cake over. cake pans. remove cake from oven and let cool in the pan on a cake rack for 10 minutes. Place the cake in the pre-heated oven and bake according to temperature specified. 2. Place cake on the middle rack of the oven about and leave for 35-45 minutes until cake is tested with a skewer for doneness. richness. 7. eggs. Pastry Brush: Used in brushing off loose crumbs from the caked cake before application of icing. Set aside. For the decoration: Decorating syringes or tubes (plastic or metal). The following are some specialized pieces of cake decorating equipment: 1. sieve etc. Palette Knife: Stainless steel flat knife without shape edges which are used for spreading icing on cake surfaces. DECORATING EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS The appropriate tools make it possible to create pleasing and stunning decoration as your skills develop. Consider method of mixing. rolling boards and pins. Start by deciding on the type of cake desired. cake boards. mixing bowls and spoon. Icing also contributes to the taste of the baked product and prevents loss of moisture. decorating rule or comb. Pastry Cloth/Rolling Pin Cloth (2 pieces) Canvas Cloth or smooth polythene which promotes even rolling without sticking when working with sugar paste or fondant icing. design rollers. Creaming gives better result. For cake baking: Cake recipe. It should have soft natural brittles that should leave no marks when brushing. . 8. Different shapes are available according to cake pan sharp. nozzles. Place the cooled cake in a cake board for the icing. 3. electric mixer. 4. 3. cooling racks. Always defrost the cake completely before icing. Scrapers: These are serrated edge triangular metal or plastic tools used for giving patterned surface to the sides and tops of cakes usually coated with royal or butter cream icing. aesthetic value and quality of cakes. icing colour kits. The only special tools needed are as follows: 1. (marble. 5. zigzag ruler/comb etc. carrot cake. wooden spoon. 3. Lift the pan off carefully and let the cake cool completely for at least one hour. For the icing: Icing sugar. 3. Nozzles are available in different shapes and sizes. rich cake etc) and obtaining the ingredients specified by the recipe. ingredients. Cream the cake and mix to recipe directions. margarine. Cake Baking Information 1. Another important benefit of cake icing is that it serves as a means of developing ones creative skills and resourcefulness that brings about special feeling of satisfaction. plastic or metal turntable.69 Chapter Eight CAKE ICING Cake icing is a method of using very smooth sugar mixtures to add finishes and decoration to baked cakes. 5. To remove cake from the pan.

2. Measuring Tools: Items for measurement with easy-to-read measurements for both liquid and thy measurements. glass or stainless steel bowls that are easy to hold and is provide good support. Cutters: These are available in different shapes and sizes. Use thin icing made by adding a little ½ tbsp egg white to 5 tbsp icing in a separate bowl and spread lightly all over the surface of the cake. Brush off cake crumbs and position the cake properly on the cake board. Add remaining sugar to make icing stiff if necessary. Egg Separator: Plastic or aluminum tool which is efficient in quick separation the white and yolk portions of eggs in preparation of royal and sugar paste icing. Re-beat the icing mixture and spread generously over the cake surface. making sure none of the egg yolks get into the white and beat gently to stiffness. allow coatings to get dried and use stiffer consistency for piping desired decoration on the cake. Apply sugar syrup or jam all over the surfaces of the cake. Remove about 4 tbsp of the icing in another bowl and spread all over the cake surfaces as first coating over the cake. 6. syrup/jam for cake icing to stick well to the cake. Add more sugar to make icing stiff if necessary. 3. Gradually add the remaining milk and beat till the mixture is smooth and fluffy in consistency.70 9. 5. 10. Spread the icing as second coating on the cake by following the steps for icing described in this chapter. 9. vanilla and half of the milk in a mixing bowl. 8. In a mixing bowl. Set aside for it to dry in order to prevent the cake crumbs from appearing when the second coating is applied. gradually stir in sifted 900g icing sugar arid egg white. 12. 15. These include cups. Follow the icing tips presented in this book. Separate egg white from the egg. Reserve the remaining sugar. It Is usually expensive but use full for perfect finish. 4. 6. Cream with wooden spoon or electric mixer. Continue beating till the mixture is stiff but is of spreading consistency. BUTTER CREAM ICING 1kg icing sugar (sifted) 2 tsp vanilla essence 75ml tbsp milk (diluted) colouring One 8 inch diameter baked cake Jam or sugar syrup 1 tbsp lemon juice 250g soft butter or margarine/solid shortening Method 1. Cover and set aside for about 30 minutes. using palette knife or spatulas. For icing. Add the glycerin and lemon juice. Use a pastry brush to remove loose crumbs from the cake. Icing can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days or even 3 weeks in air tight container. 2. Icing/Turntable: Metal or plastic cake stand that revolves ort urns particularly in icing or piping the sides of around cake with royal or buttercream icing. SUGGESTED ICING RECIPES ROYAL ICING 1kg (2 packs) icing sugar 1 ½ tbsp glycerin 2-3 drops of lemon juice 2 ½ (egg whites) few drops of colouring one 8 inch diameter baked cake Jam or sugar syrup Method 1. Place the cake on a cake board. 5. Icing can be used for piping and more 2tsp milk can be added to stiff icing to thin the icing. Stainless Steel/Sifter: This should be well designed to provide fast and Efficient sifting. Mix Bowls: Plastic. 7. Stainless Steel Whisks: Long egg whisks with solid handles provide good control and makes whisking easy. 11. The cake with sugar. sifted icing sugar. spoons. Place margarine. SUGAR PASTE ICING 1kg icing sugar (sifted) 3 ½ tbsp liquid glucose (warmed) Colouring Jam or syrup 2-2 ½ medium egg white 2 tbsp glycerin corn flour . 4. Sift the icing sugar. jugs and scale. They are useful in making decoration and flowers using sugar paste fondant icings and mexican or petal paste. Beat well with a mixer or wooden spoon. 3. 7. 14. 13.

Keep fondant covered with a damp cloth to prevent a hard surface from forming. 10. Place the ball of icing on the floured board smooth of surface and knead continually mixture is soft and pliable. 2. using cake smoother. 3. 4. use a pastry cloth to roll out icing for smooth finish. lift the fondant and dust more corn starch powder to the fondant to prevent it ‘from sticking to board surface. Method 1. Pour the lukewarm gelatin mixture and gum into well of icing sugar and stir well with a wooden spoon. add the liquid glucose and water. 7. Decorate with piping softer icing or cut out flowers and designs. 3. Gently lift the fondant over the rolling pin and place over the jam coated cake. Gather the sugar and gelatin mixture into a firm ball. Combine gelatin. use a textured rolling pin to roll over the coated cake to give the design on the pin. 9. 3. Add the beaten egg white. 7. Coat cake surfaces with j am or syrup. and water (a drop at a time) and if it is too soft. Let mixture stand and cool to lukewarm. Attentively. Roll out the icing on a sugar or corn flour dusted board as a flat sheet. Sprinkle extra sugar or corn flour on a rolling board and gather the mixture into a ball.71 Method 1. 4. 6. When ready to use. 6. Use cutters to make plaits. bring out from freezer. Mix in more sugar. Stir in the shortening and while shortening is not completed melting. 2. add more icing sugar. Place the mixture over low heat and heat until dissolved. For decorative rolling. allow it to defrost and knead again until soft and pliable. using a wooden spoon until mixture is fully mixed up. ROLLED FONDANT ICING 1kg sifted icing sugar ½ sachet gelatin 30m1 cold water (2 tbsp) 60g liquid glucose (4 tbsp) I egg white 2tsp gum tragacanth 1 ½ tbsp shortening 200g cornstarch (for rolling) drop of food colouring as desired jam or sugar syrup. Now place half of the sifted icing sugar in a bowl and make a well. glycerin and cold water in saucepan and stir well until thick. lift the flat icing sheet with spatulas and cover the syrup or jam coated cake. a little at a time until the icing sugar are added. Knead well. 5. Always use fondant icing immediately or store in airtight containers in the refrigerator/freeze for several days before using. Attaching ornaments and sugar beads if desired. Mix icing sugar and gum together. liquid glucose. MEXICAN (PETAL) PASTE 1 kg king sugar (sifted) 1 ½ tsp gum tragacanth 4 tbsp liquid glucose 2 eggs whites! 8Oml water Cornstarch for rolling Method 1. . leaves. Add the sugar and blend them very well. Gently. As you roll. Leave paste in air tight container of room temperature for about & 12 hours before using. Dusting corn starch powder or icing sugar on a flat surface. 11. then place the paste in a plastic bag. pliable and no longer sticks to the hands. 2. Trim excess from the base. . use same method of preparation to apply petal taste icing using these ingredients. 12. 8. into a circle or square that fit the size of the diameter of the cake and double the height of the cake at once. knead the sugar mixture or fondant. using a rolling pin on a clean board. flower or other designs such as board twists. Beat the egg white and glycerin in a bowl till frothy. remove the mixture from heat and add drops of flavour or colouring if desired. 8. Smooth and shape the fondant on the cake. Continue to knead until the ‘fondant is smooth. Press and smoothen icing against all surfaces of the cake with palette knife or smoother. 5. Note: Alternatively. Roll out the fondant in enough portions. If fondant is too stiff.

hold the tube or bag with nozzle pointing down and held perpendicular to the cake surface. To make this easier. Sieve the icing sugar before use for smoothness. Always use small amount of colour since food colours intensify and get sharper when mixed and with time. For royal icing and butter cam icing. (b) Spread across the whole top surface. 3. 4. It involves the use of piping set (decorating bag or syringe). A turntable or a turning cake stand makes it easier particularly for round cakes. a few drops of blue colour or lemon juice can be used to whiten the icing. Boarders of cake need medium of consistency for ease in squeezing out the icing. 4. Use good quality ingredients and avoid icing sugar that is already caked or solidified. Use clean and dry equipment. chilling the cake first is recommended. (c) Pushing the excesses to the sides. Filling the decorating bag/syringe or tube: Use a palette knife/spoon to fill the bag or tube from the pushing end after coupling the desired decorating tip/nozzle. To achieve good decoration. Coat the surfaces of the cake with apricot jam or sugar syrup. (d) Ice evenly all over the top and all the sides till all surfaces are iced. 6. Colour is what gives icing beauty and personality so that the cake boarders. ensuring that the palette knife does not get too close to the cake so that the icing does not catch the crumbs. 5. 1. flowers and shell designs require stiff icing consistency. In the 45° position. 5. pushing the icing towards the opening or nozzle. 2. 3. 2. With one hand. Apply a little pressure to the palette knife and smoothen the top last. flowers and stars stand out in the cake. guide the decorating tip with the other hand. Making ones special design promotes creativity and originality. You can use any cake design book or make your own sketches of the type if arrangement that is needed. 7. Away practice the decoration on another surface before applying directly to icing coated cake. After trimming off invert the cake on a board and use a pastry brush to remove all the loose crumbs. Use toothpick to add paste colour while liquid colouring in added is drops. Using a bread knife. follow these guidelines. 8. Use a mixer to combine the ingredients. Be sure not add much paste or liquid colour but always ensure to mix the colour thoroughly in the icing before adding more. trim off the crown or raised portions of the cake. hold the decorating bag or tube at a slanting angle to the surface but not touching the cake. Flavouring may be added to the icing if necessary 10. Always use enough of any colour because it is difficult to obtain the same icing colour later. . Fill the bag or tube half full of icing. leaves. As a basic rule. Give a smooth finish. Decide on type of decoration to be done on the cake as well. DECORATION TECHNIQUES Decorations are essential in making the cake attractive and unique. Cakes baked the previous day are more easily decorated. Choose desired or appropriate type of icing. 3. Piping is very popular way of decorating.72 GENERAL RULES FOR ICING 1. check the recipe for rolled fondant icing. apply pressure with the other hand that follows next. spread thin icing first on all the surfaces of the syrup-coated cake with a palette knife. Before making decorations. Chilling the cake before it is iced also makes icing easier. 2. sugar paste etc. when planning for the cake. stars. 9. Allow first coat to dry (about 30 minutes or more). Start by leveling the surface to ensure that the top is even and not peaked. Start icing from the top of the cake by: (a) Placing a large amount of icing on the centre of the top (for royal and butter cream icing). Consistency: This is a very important aspect in determining the shape of the piping that should look right and attractive. it is important to have an idea of the cake design and the details you desire. In the 900 angle. When mixing. Freshly baked cakes tend to crumble and flake off their crumbs. The basics of piping on iced cake include the following: 1. Ensure that all necessary tools and equipment arc well assembled in order of use before icing is applie4i 11. CAKE ICING PROCEDURE Icing is best on a cake when the cake has smooth texture and level surfaces. For fondant icing. Positioning of the bag/syringe to pipe: there are two basic ways of positioning the decoration tube-the 90 angle and the 45 angle. This can be done after the cake is completely cool.

Relax and stop the pressure. hold the tube of 900 angle with the surface of the cake. and heavy pressure. This nozzle is used for writing messages. The shapes are usually cut out and left to dry before being pasted on the iced cake. You may first form the letter/words using toothpick or cut-out to mark the positions of the letters or word on the cake surface. DECORATION NOZZLE TYPES There are many popular tips or nozzle of various sizes used for a variety of decorating techniques. To make the above mentioned techniques follows these tips: 1. cut many shapes and place them on a floured surface for them to dry. When dry. Apply pressure and control in piping: The type and size of decoration that is piped depends on the size of opening in the decoration nozzle and the amount of pressure applied. 2.73 4. Apply a little pressure to press out the icing and pull the tip away and the star is formed. zigzag and rosettes or drop flowers. ribbons and live lowers may also be added as decoration. vertical lines and vary lines by moving the nozzle in straight lines. You may also write straight unto he cake surface. use the plain round nozzle used for dots to write. Writing: To print or write words. start another shell on the tail of the previous one. Using cutters for roses. Press out the icing with enough pressure to build the bead of ball as for stars. 5. flowers like small rose and basket weave. 2. Ribbon/Rose nozzle has a tear shaped opening and is used to make ribbons. hold the tube with one hand at 45° angle (slanting) with nozzle above cake surface. Follow these guidelines in making cut-out patterns decoration. lines. They are identified according to the shape of the openings on the nozzles or sizes in an icing set. The most common types are as follows: 1. 4. beads and balls. Control and stop applying pressure when the decoration is created. bows. or b. making dots. Leaf nozzle had side slits and a deep v-opening which is used for making plain and ruffled leaf. With the other hand. Prepare rolled fondant icing and roll out on the flat surface. 3. 4. rope boarders and puffs. 4. Such twists can be used as boarders. attach the cut outs to their position on the cake. Dots/balls: To make dots. Shell: To make shell. To do this hold the decorating tube at 45° angle and push out icing and the letters are formed. stems of flowers. Butter cream or royal icing can be also be used in combination with rolled fondant in decorating the cake. the bigger the opening. Stars: In order to make stars. Ornaments. 2. . 6. c. 3. pulling tip away to form the shell’s tail. Leaf: To make a leaf. use special metal or plastic cutters. 3. As the decorating tube is filled with icing and held in position (900 or 45°angle) on the cake surface: a. 5. using butter cream icing. lift the tip of the nozzle slightly to let icing build up the fan into a full base. hold the plain round tip at 900 angle with the tip slightly touching the surface of the iced caked. For a row of shells. 5. Making Decoration with Cutters To make decorations with rolled fondant or sugar paste icing. Ropes can be made by hand twisting long strips of hand rolled icing of two or three different colours. hold the star nozzle at45° angle with tip of nozzle slightly touching the iced cake surface. Shell nozzle has serrated curved opening which is used for making shells. 1. the larger he decoration. Round nozzle has plain round opening and comes in various sizes. Star nozzle with star-shaped opening is used for making stars. Twist the end of the bag closed. Push in the handle of the tube in order to squeeze out the icing through the nozzles on the cake surface. shells. Zigzag: To make zigzag. stars or other shapes. beads and outline of shapes. letter and numbers. Softer fondant or butter cream icing is used to attach the flower or other designs to the iced cake. Check diagram in the book on directions. use the leaf nozzle and hold the tube a t 4 5 ° angle and follow the same procedure as for making shells. Apply pressure to squeeze the icing as the hand is moved in a side to side motion which forms the zigzags. Pull tip way. Use this nozzle to print horizontal lines.

The Process Approach. O’ Reilly. (1981) Basic Cookery.com Ochonogor. Ilodder and Stonghton Education Ltd. Wiltonn Enterprises.COEWA Publishers.merehurst. Stephenson. (1990) Practical Cookery. Oxford University Press. Hong Kong: Ohenheimer Publishers. G. and Kinton R. Patricia (1984) Family Cookbook.0 (2002) Food Preparation and Service. J.S.74 REFERENCES Ceserain. (1 994) The Complete Cook London. Culpitt. Kemt. Mc Cormick &conpany (1991) Mc Cormick Cook Book. Merehurst (2000) Beginners Guide to Cake Decorating: www. E.Wright. Ferguson.England The Broadwater Press Ltd. Stanley Thomas Publishing Ltd. . E. V..A Beginner’s Guide. (1985) The Students Cookery Book. .T. Ideals Publishing Corporation. Illinois-U. Warn. Wilton Enterprises (1987) Cake Decorating.A. Henson. Tiger Books International. Octopus Books (1976) A-z of Cooking London Evans Brothers Ltd. England. (1990) Creative Cake Decorating Made Easy Heart Fortishire. Wisconsin. Oxford.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful