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DYNAMIC MODELING, DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

M.T.A. Evo1, A.Mpanda 2


1

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, mtevo13@gmail.com 2 cole Superieure dIngenieurs en Electronique et Electrotechnique dmiens , Amiens, France
Close to the generation, to provide power generating with high-quality transmission and reduce the costs of connection. Close to the load centers, to provide flexibility and ancillary services. As a solution for this energy storage problem, wind energy, after appropriate conversion, can be converted and then stored in the form of chemical energy of hydrogen. The conversion is made by the process of electrolysis of water, when, besides releasing heat, water molecules are separated, by the action of electric current, into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The hydrogen then can be stored for later use in fuel cells (which recombine with oxygen from air with hydrogen to generate electricity) of three different forms: compressed and bottled liquefied and stored in bottles or insulated metal absorbed in hydrates. Furthermore, coupling wind turbines with electrolyzers has the potential to provide low-cost, environmentally friendly distributed generation of hydrogen in addition to electricity [1]. So, the stored hydrogen energy can be used by FC power plants during the low wind speed conditions [1]. The principal challenges to improving hydrogen storage technologies relate to increasing their efficiency, size, weight, capacity and, ultimately, their cost. Durability remains an issue, as does the development of unified international codes and safety standards to facilitate safe deployment of commercial technologies. To complement, and thus reduce costs of storing hydrogen, can be used other ways to store energy. As mentioned previously, energy can be stored not only as electricity, but also as mechanical energy. For this, flywheels are used, because with this element, the energy can be stored as rotational kinetic energy. Flywheel storage systems (FESS) are well adapted because they have high dynamics, long lifetime and good efficiency [2]. They constitute short-term storage systems, which are generally sufficient to improve the quality power. In case of fixed speed generator, the FESS must be connected on the AC grid. This energy storage system can mainly reduce the power variations due to the wind speed fluctuations. When the wind generator is coupled to a diesel generator in an isolated area, the energy storage system allows to reduce the fuel consumption and to increase the lifetime of the diesel engine [2]. Without the Flywheel, the FC system must supply all power demand, increasing the size and cost of the FC power plant. The work in question, seeks to model and simulate an isolated system of power generation.

Abstract Not only for environmental reason, or the likely shortage of so-called fossil fuels, drawing energy from renewable sources is a challenge that is present and necessary for the world today. The idea of decentralizing energy production makes easy the distribution to the consumer. Increasingly new technologies are discovered to enable the utilization of these countless sources. In this context, we develop a work that aims to model and through simulations, evaluate the operation of a hybrid system that uses the wind energy as primary source. Thus, by using the software MATLAB / Simulink, each element that composes the system is modeled by the equations that describe it. It is proposed a dynamic system composed of a wind turbine and a set of fuel cell to supplement power generation. Tanks of hydrogen with a flywheel are used to store energy in periods of low load to enable the use of this energy when the primary source is not enough. For this, the work shows the design of some electronic devices that perform control of the flow of energy to the load. Keywords: Wind power, Fuel cell, Hydrogen tanks, and Flywheel. 1. INTRODUCTION A change of global scenery for using energy from renewable sources is inevitable. Renewable energy systems allow use of various types of sustainable resources (wind, water, sunshine,etc), reducing environmental impacts, increasing the supply of secure energy, and generate thousands of jobs in the long term. The wind energy is one of the renewable sources that have been explored more deeply, expanding its technologies and consequently, the opportunities in the use of that resource. However, due to seasonality in this type of generation, fluctuations in load curve, and even technical limitations, along with wind generation, become essential store the energy. Thus, it is possible obtain a better use of these renewables energy, and so minimize the "wasted" energy. We can divide the forms of energy storage into two groups: mechanical and electrical. The difference between them is that in the first, are used forces of mechanical nature to accomplish the storage. And the second, is used the surplus electricity generated to drive the storage mechanisms. The energy storage can be found at various locations within the grid, depending on the role as:

The system basically consists of a wind generator, as the main generator, a fuel cell system and an energy storage system consisting of a hydrogen tank and a flywheel. From the results obtained by simulation will be possible to conduct a study on the importance of the storage system before the changes in resources, that is, an analysis will be conducted on the influence of random variation of wind speed and, as the proposed solution storage can allow the proper functioning of the entire system. 2. DEVELOPED SYSTEM In this section will be doing a study of each part of the whole system. The system consists of a wind turbine coupled in an induction generator, a double bridge rectifier with PI controlling firing angle, a fuel cell, composed with a water electrolyze and hydrogen storage tank, coupled in a dc/dc buck converter, a flywheel coupled in an induction generator for storage energy in form of energy kinetic, two dc/ac IGBT inverters and a three-windings coupling transformer located at the load side. The system is show in the figure (2.1).

The relation of Cp, and is is given by [1]:


( ) ( ) ( )

Where,
( ) ( ) ( )

The expression of the mechanical power is given by [3, 4, 5]: ( ) (2.3)

Taking into account the transient rotor, the equations of a cage induction machine are as follows: (2.4) (2.5)
( ( ) )

(2.6) (2.7)

Where, (2.8) (2.9)

Figure 2.1 Block diagram of the system 2.1. Wind turbine and induction generator The wind turbine is modeled from the variation of the output power mechanical with the wind speed. And the induction generator is modeled from dynamics equations where is adopted the reference normed Park (outward currents positive and direct axis taken 90 ahead of the quadrature axis) working in a flow oriented to axis d (vds = 0). The parameters used in the mathematical modeling are as follows. Cp(,) A vwind vds, ids, Ed vqs, iqs, Eq Rs, Rr Ls, Lr Lm ws wr Tm, Te Performance coefficient of the turbine Air density [kg/m3] Turbine swept area [m2] Wind speed [m/s] Tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind speed Blade pitch angle [] Direct components of Park (stator voltage [V], current [A] and the EFM [V]) Quadrature components of Park Equivalents resistances of stator/rotor [] Equivalents inductances of stator/rotor [H] Magnetizing inductance [H] Electrical frequency, Rotor speed [rad/s] Mechanical and electrical torque [N.m]

Equations (2.4) to (2.7) are of a cage induction generator. For close the loop, must be added the equation of the moving masses given below:
( )

(2.10)

The simulink model of the wind turbine coupled to induction generator is shown in figure (2.2).

Figure 2.2 Simulink model of wind turbine and IM.

2.2. Fuel Cell A fuel cell can be defined as a device electrochemical that transforms the chemical energy into electrical energy (and some heat) since there is a fuel and oxidizer supplied to him. The fuel is hydrogen or a compound that has in its constitution and the oxidant is oxygen. The operating principle of a fuel cell is shown in the diagram below.

act ohmic B, C Rint pO2 , pH2O Uf Van

Activation over voltage [V] Ohmic over voltage [V] Constants to simulate the activation over voltage in the FC system [A-1] and [V] FC internal resistance [] Oxygen and water partial pressure [atm] Reactant utilization Anode volume [m3]

The relationship between the molar flow of any gas (hydrogen) through the valve and its partial pressure inside the channel can be expressed as [6]: (2.14)

The relationship among the hydrogen input flow and the hydrogen output flow can be expressed as [6]: ( Figure 2.3 - Diagram of a fuel cell The flow rate of reacted hydrogen is given by [6]: The oxidation of hydrogen and the reduction of oxygen are described in the equations below: (2.11)

(2.15)

(2.16) Using equations (2.14) to (2.16) and applying Laplaces transform its possible calculate the hydrogen partial pressure [6]:

(2.12) Resulting in a global reaction:

(2.13)

(2.17)

A fuel cell consists of a series association of cells fuel unit. Due to the fact of each individual cell produces only approximately 0.6 V. Thus, it's possible obtain a fuel cell with the voltage value required for an application. For increase the current of a fuel cell, its needed an association in parallel of cells unit. A Fuel Cell model can be built using the relationship between output voltage and partial pressure of hydrogen, oxygen and water. The parameters used in the mathematical modeling are as follows. qH2in p H2 Kan M H2 K H2 R qH2out qH2r N0 IFC F Kr H2 E Hydrogen input flow [kmol (s)-1] Hydrogen partial pressure [atm] Anode valve constant [(kmol.kg) (atm.s)-1] Molar mass of hydrogen [kg (kmol)-1] Hydrogen valve molar constant [kmol (atm.s)-1] Universal gas constant [(1 atm) (kmol.K)-1] Hydrogen output flow [kmol (s)-1] Hydrogen flow that reacts [kmol (s)-1] Number of series fuel cells in stack Fuel Cell system current [A] Faradays constant [C (kmol)-1] Modeling constant [kmol (s.A)-1] Hydrogen time constant [s] Nernst instantaneous voltage [V]

Where, (2.18) In the same way, the water partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure can be obtained. Assuming constant temperature and oxygen concentration, the FC output voltage may be expressed as [6]: (2.19) Where, ( ) (2.20) (2.21) [ [

]]

(2.22)

The Simulink model of the dynamic model of Fuel Cell system is shown in figure (2.4).

Figure 2.4 - Dynamic model of the Fuel Cell system. For operating the FC in different levels of output power, is necessary to vary the flow of input hydrogen. The amount of hydrogen available is given by [6]: (2.23) So, its possible control the amount of hydrogen taking a feedback of the demand current. The power demand requirement of the FC is translated into a current demand input by dividing with the stack output voltage: (2.24) A block diagram of the control system of hydrogen input for the fuel cell is shown in figure (2.5).

Figure 2.6 - Main hydrogen pathways: the long term perspective One way to obtain hydrogen is by electrolysis of water. On this way, the hydrogen can be obtained cleanly, i.e. with a minimal environmental impact, due to the fact that the hydrogen is met from renewable energy sources, and so, has fewer air pollution impacts than fossil-fuel source of hydrogen. The high price to obtain hydrogen may be the most aggravating factor in its adoption as fuel. The global equation for the water electrolysis is shown below:
() ( ) ( )

(2.25)

The parameters used in the mathematical modeling of the electrolyser are as follows. nH2 nF nC ie F Hydrogen production rate Faraday efficiency Number of electrolyzer cells in series Electrolyzer current [A] Faraday constant [C (kmol)-1]

Figure 2Error! No text of specified style in document..5 Fuel Cell control system architecture 2.3. Producing hydrogen Hydrogen can be obtained from several different sources. These sources can be separated into two categories: fossil resources (natural gas and coal) and renewable resources (biomass and water). To produce hydrogen, various kinds of technology are available, and use of many different processes such as chemical, biological, electrolytic, proteolytic chemical and thermal. However, the production of hydrogen on a large scale is a long term process as shown in figure (2.6).

According to Faradays law, hydrogen production rate of an electrolyzer cell is directly proportional to the electrical current in the equivalent electrolyzer circuit [6]. (2.26) Where,
( )

(2.27)

The Simulink model of the dynamic model of the Electrolyzer system is shown in figure (2.7).

Figure 2.7 Electrolyzer Simulink model

2.4. Hydrogen storage The hydrogen has a low volume density of energy. That is, the hydrogen has a small amount of energy for a given volume. Thus, it becomes necessary to store large quantities of hydrogen, which is still a source of great challenges. The hydrogen can be stored in liquid, solid or gaseous state. However, it is known that one gram of hydrogen gas occupies 11 liters at atmospheric pressure. Thus, to become viable, it is necessary to keep the gas in pressure vessels and thus maintain the pressure in the gas hundreds of times greater than atmospheric. In liquid form, hydrogen can be stored at extremely low temperatures. The hydrogen storage tank was modeled to only count the amount of stored hydrogen versus time. That is, the tank modeled just shows how much hydrogen is being produced but not used by the fuel cell. Figure (2.8) shows the block diagram representing the tank.

Figure 2Error! No text of specified style in document..9 Basic layout of a flywheel energy storage system The flywheel has a high efficiency, approximately 90%, and a high power density too. It has a short recharge time and the state of charge can easily be measured since it is related to the rotational speed [8]. Furthermore, also presents a low environmental cost, since it does not use fuel. It has a great useful life that is almost independent of the depth of the charge and discharge cycle. Flywheels have a low maintenance costs and, unlike battery storage systems, flywheels can operate equally well on shallow and deep discharges [8]. On the other hand, the flywheel has high initials costs and little resistance to mechanical shock. The parameters used in the mathematical modeling of the Flywheel are as follows. EK I w m r T EC C Vf, Vi, VC IC Kinetic energy of the rotor [J] Moment of inertia of the rotor [kg.m2] Angular velocity [rad (s)-1] Mass [kg] Radius of the disc [m] Mechanical torque [N.m] Capacitor stored energy Capacitance [F] Final, initial and instantaneous voltage of the capacitor Current through a capacitor

Figure 2.8 - Block diagram representing the dynamic of the tank 2.5. Flywheel In a traditional manner, flywheel is a mechanical device that has a high moment of inertia used to store rotational energy. They can tolerate sudden changes in angular velocity, thus they are used to regulate rotation of the shaft when a fluctuating torque is exerted. Therefore, for this kind of application, flywheels were constructed like a wheel or a disk with a fixed axis, so that rotation is only in one axis. Due to the fact with the huge advances in electronic devices for power systems, now, flywheels are part of ingenious constructions, which are capable of transferring the energy to and from the flywheel. This is accomplished with an electrical machine that is used for energy conversion, and can function either as a motor or generator depending on the load angle (phase angle). When acting as motor, electric energy supplied to the stator winding is converted to torque and applied to the rotor, causing it to spin faster and gain kinetic energy. In generator mode kinetic energy stored in the rotor applies a torque, which is converted to electric energy. So, it can be used in power plants or electric power industrial plants, being used to store energy "left over", ie, out of peak hours, to be used later and can be used to store energy for hybrid cars too. Figure (2.9) shows the basic layout of a flywheel energy storage system [7].

The energy is stored as kinetic energy of the rotor, given by equation below [9]: (2.28) Where, (2.29) As can be seen in equation (2.28) and (2.29), the kinetic energy stored is proportional to the mass and the square of the radius and velocity of the flywheel. So, the most efficient way to increase the stored energy is to speed up the flywheel. The mechanical torque in a flywheel can be described by: (2.30)

A flywheel can be modeled as a capacitor charging with a DC current. The stored energy and current through a capacitor can be described by: ( ) (2.31) (2.32) Comparing equations (2.28) and (2.30) with equations (2.31) and (2.32) it is noticed that the flywheel is described by the same dynamic charging / discharging of a capacitor. With the torque represented by the current of the capacitor, the moment of inertia represented like a capacitance C, and the angular velocity as a voltage. While the inverter is the generator coupled to the flywheel. 3. POWER CONTROLLING The control of the energy generated is done to explore the full potential of the available wind. To achieve this purpose, the system is designed to work as follows: when the wind is sufficient to generate an energy that is capable of supplying the load and the electrolyzer, then the wind turbine feeds the electrolyzer and the load. So, the electrolyzer can continues to produce hydrogen. In a second situation, if the wind speed is insufficient to allow the turbine to generate energy and meet the demand of the load, the hydrogen tank feeds the fuel cell, which starts to generate power as well, and help the system meet all the energy demanded. On the other hand, if the fuel cell reaches a maximum energy that it can deliver, the excess of energy is supplied by the flywheel. To achieve the proposed control, the power control system is based on two buses of constant tension in addition to a double bridge rectifier with PI controlling firing angle, a dc/dc buck converter, two dc/ac IGBT inverters and a threewindings coupling transformer. 3.1. Double bridge rectifier Due to variations in wind speed, the voltage generated also undergoes variations in both amplitude and frequency. To avoid these fluctuations on the load, the voltage at the output of the generator is rectified, creating a dc bus fixed. The dc voltage, it is then converted into alternating voltage through an inverter. As the eletrolyzer works with DC fed, the rectifier is also warranted, since this way is possible to control the level of dc bus voltage and prevent fluctuations on the entrance of eletrolyzer, which reduces losses in the production of hydrogen and obtains an end product more pure. It was used of a 12-pulse rectifier to eliminate harmonics and be able the utilization of a 12-synchronized PWM pulse generator to control the output voltage by tuning the firing angle. To control the angle, it is measured the error between the output voltage and reference. Then, this error is applied to a PI controller.

Figure (3.1) shows Simulink model of the dynamic model of the rectifier

Figure 3.1 Rectifier Simulink model

3.2. Flywheel As mentioned previously, to store energy through a flywheel, an electric machine is necessary to make the conversion of energy. However, as the electric machine coupled to the flywheel is represented by the capacitor connected to a DC bus, it is necessary, for the simulating, that the control strategy be different from that presented when a machine performs the conversion of electrical energy, as happens in real systems. The flywheel energy storage system has three modes of operation: Charge mode Stand-by mode Discharge mode In the first case, the capacitor is charged when the energy demanded by the load is small, and so, the fuel cell system generates up to load limit, and the excess power is used to charge the capacitor until its rated voltage. At this moment, the energy is stored and the system is on the standby mode. However, when the energy required from the fuel cell is greater than the nominal, the capacitor discharges to meet the extra energy demanded. If considered a flywheel, the dynamic of charging/discharging is almost the same. The control of energy flow is done by means of two diodes and two keys. During the low power demand the energy is transferred to accelerating the flywheel until its rated speed. In this mode, energy is stored in the flywheel in the form of kinetic energy. Power is transported over the D1 diode and the flywheel is charged over the S1 switch that is closed. The flywheel does not provide any power since the S2 switch is open. However, when there is a peak demand, the flywheel provides torque to the machine and slows down. The machine acts as a generator providing the energy needed to meet demand. The flywheel is discharged over the S2 switch and D2 diode to satisfy the excess load demand while the S 1 switch is open. Figure (3.2) shows Simulink model of the dynamic model of the Flywheel.

The frequency of the sawtooth, establishes the switching frequency. This frequency is kept constant in a PWM control and is chosen to be in a few kilohertz range. When the amplified error signal, which varies very slowly with time relative to the switching frequency, is greater than the sawtooth waveform, the switch control signal becomes high, causing the switch to turn on. Otherwise, the switch is off. So when the circuit output voltage changes, vcontrol also changes causing the comparator threshold to change. Consequently, the output pulse width also changes. This duty cycle change then moves the output voltage to reduce to error signal to zero, thus completing the control loop. In terms of vcontrol and the peak of the sawtooth waveform Vst, in figure (3.3), the switch duty ratio can be expressed as [10]: Figure 3.2 Rectifier Simulink model (3.1) 3.3. Boost converter 3.4. Inverter From the model constructed for fuel cell, it can be noted that as the load increases, there is a decrease in output voltage of the cell. Thus, it is necessary add a boost converter DC / DC, to keep fixed the bus voltage. Figure (3.3) shows the Simulink model of the circuit of a boost converter. To meet the load, it is necessary to transform the voltages on the buses fixed in three-phase AC voltages. This conversion is done with IGBT PWM inverters as shown in figure (3.5). Since these inverters have the same fixed dc inputs, both are controlled to produce three-phase ac output voltage with the same specifications (such as amplitude and frequency) using an appropriate PWM generator, which provides gate signals for the inverter elements.

Figure 3.3 Boost Simulink model To achieve the control, a differential amplifier is used to sense the difference between an ideal voltage (the reference voltage) and the actual output voltage, to establish a small error signal (vcontrol). The PWM switching at a constant switching frequency is generated by comparing a signal-level control voltage vcontrol with a repetitive waveform as shown in figure (3.4) [10].

Figure 3.5 Inverter Simulink model In PWM inverters, the amplitude of the output ac voltage Vl-l is a function of the dc input voltage VDC and modulation index m. The line-to-line output voltage of such an inverter can be expressed as [1]:

(3.2)

Where,

(3.3) Figure 3.4 - PWM Comparator Signals

Being, Vm the amplitude of the modulating wave and Vc the carrier amplitude. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The whole system shown in figure (2.1) was built and simulated using the software MATLAB / Simulink. The calculation of the parameters, as well as all modeling of each system component was performed using the equations discussed in previous chapters. And finally, measurements were made in the main points of the system that will be discussed below. 4.1. Load profile At first, figure (4.1) shows the load profile that the system must feed. It is observed that the load varies in a non-periodic and therefore it is necessary that the generation mechanisms be able to respond to load change.
1.4 1.3 1.2 x 10
5

Figure 4.2 - Graph of Cp x Looking at figure (4.2) it is noted that if the angle of inclination of the blades is steeper than 30 , the value of Cp is too small and, consequently, the mechanical power extracted from wind turbine is small too. Therefore, the best value for Cp is about 0.45, with equal to 0 and of 6.7. Using equation (2.3), curves were constructed to observe the relationship between the power extracted from the turbine, the speed of rotation of the blades and wind speed. These curves are shown in figure (4.3). In this figure, it is clear that for each different wind speed, there is a rotational speed of greater efficiency. This is a disadvantage of fixed speed turbine, therefore any changing in wind speed the turbine does not work on its point of maximum efficiency.

Load

Load Power [W]

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

Figure 4.1 - Load profile 4.1. Wind turbine and induction generator The chosen turbine has a diameter of 24m. As previously stated, the mechanical power extracted from wind turbine depends on the extraction coefficient noted Cp(,), which is calculated by equation (2.1). The parameters used in this equation are shown in Table (1). Table 1 - Parameters of Cp equation Parameter Value
c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 0.22 116 0.4 5 -12.5 0

Figure 2.3 - Wind power x Turbine speed Table (2) shows the parameters of the induction machine coupled to wind turbine. This machine, since the turbine speed is fixe, has the rotor a cage. Table 2 - Parameters of the induction machine

Parameter
Nominal Power [kVA] Voltage (line-line) [V] Frequency [Hz] Nominal speed [rpm] Stator resistance [] Stator inductance [H] Rotor resistance [] Rotor inductance [H] Mutual inductance [H] Inertia [kg/m2] Poles

Value
160 400 50 1487 0.01379 0.000152 0.007728 0.000152 0.00769 2.9 2

To find the optimal value of Cp, curves were constructed ranging from 0 to 12 and from 0 to 30. Figure (4.2) shows the curves obtained.

To observe the operation of the system when subjected to variations in wind speed, the signal shown in figure (4.4) is applied to the input of the wind turbine.
Wind Speed 10 9.5

control system Integral gain of PI voltage control system Reference voltage [V] 0.01 400

8.5

7.5

The output voltage of the rectifier is shown in figure (4.6). It has a ripple of approximately 3%. As previously mentioned, decrease the fluctuation in the DC bus, reduce losses in the production of hydrogen and allows get an end product more pure.
Rectifier output voltage 700 600

Wind Speed [m/s]

6.5 0

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

500

Voltage [V]

Figure 4.4 - Wind speed The dynamics of the turbine / machine takes about 15 seconds to reach steady state. Then, it was simulated a time interval of 55 seconds, and so the system can be seen in a window of 40 seconds in a permanent state. From the wind profile shown in figure (4.4), the power output of the generator coupled to the turbine is shown in figure (4.5).
x 10 10 9 8 7
4

400

300

200

100

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

Figure 4.6 - DC bus As shown in equation (2.30), hydrogen production is directly proportional to the input current of the electrolyzer. The number of moles produced per second is shown in figure (4.7). The production of hydrogen keeps approximately constant, since the wind turbine can supply the rated power of 18kW at all the time.
1.4 x 10
-3

Wind Power

Wind Power [W]

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 15 20 25 30 35 Time [s] 40 45 50 55

Electrolyzer output

1.2

Produced Hydrogen [kmols/s]

Figure 4.5 - Wind power* Looking at the picture above it is noted that from the time 31 the energy supplied by the generator decreases due to the decrease in wind speed. 4.3. Electrolyzer The tension generated by the generator coupled to the wind turbine is rectified through the double bridge rectifier. The parameters of the rectifier are given in table (3). Table 3 - Double bridge rectifier parameters Parameter Value
Snubber resistance of one thyristor [k] Snubber capacitance of one thyristor [F] Internal resistance of one thyristor [m] Pulse width of synchronized 12-pulse generator [] Filter capacitance [mF] Filter inductance [mH] Proportional gain of PI voltage 2 0.1 1 80 80 25 0.001

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

Figure 4.7 - Produced Hydrogen 4.4. Fuel cell and hydrogen tank All parameters used to model the fuel cell are shown in Table (4). The minimum power extracted from the FC is approximately 2 kW [1]. Therefore, this system is always able to supply larger quantities of energy in a short period of time.

Parameter
Activation voltage constant (B) [A ] Activation voltage constant (C) [V] Conversion factor (CV) Faradays constant (F) [Ckmol-1] Hydrogen time constant (H2 ) [s] Hydrogen valve constant (KH2 ) [kmol(s.atm)-1] Hydrogenoxygen flow ratio (rHO) Kr constant [kmol(s.A)-1] No load voltage (E0) [V] Number of cells (N0) Oxygen time constant (O2 ) [s] Oxygen valve constant, (kO2 ) [kmol(s.atm)-1] FC internal resistance (Rint) [] FC absolute temperature (T) [K] Universal gas constant (R) [J(kmol.K)-1] Utilization factor (U) Water time constant (H2O) [s] Water valve constant (KH2O) [kmol(s.atm)-1]
-1

Value
Consumed Hydrogen [kmols/s]

x 10

-4

Consumed Hydrogen

0.04777 0.0136 2 96484600 3.37 4.22 x 10-5 1.168 1.8449 x 10-6 0.6 670 6.74 2.11 x 10-5 0.00303 343 8314.47 0.8 18.418 7.716 x 10-6

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

15

20

25

30

35 40 Time [s]

45

50

55

Figure 4.9 - Consumed Hydrogen The amount of hydrogen delivered to the tank over time is shown in figure (4.10).
x 10 9 8 7
-4

Stored Hydrogen

Stored Hydrogen [kmols/s]

6 5 4 3 2

The energy supplied by the fuel cell depends on the demand of the load. Figure (4.8) shows the profile of the power extracted from the FC. From the second 25, the energy supplied by wind is not enough to feed the load. Consequently, the difference between the demand of the load and power generated by turbine is supplied by FC system.
x 10 4.5 4
4

1 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time [s] 45 50 55

Figure 4.10 - Hydrogen delivered to storage tank The output voltage of the fuel cell is shown in figure (4.11). When, the power extracted from the cell increases, and therefore its current, the output voltage decreases.
Fuel Cell output voltage 390

Fuel Cell output power

380
3.5

Fuel Cell Power [W]

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 15

Fuel Cell output Voltage [V]


20 25 30 35 Time [s] 40 45 50 55

370

360

350

340

330 15 20 25 30 35 Time [s] 40 45 50 55

Figure 4.8 - Fuel cell Power In the intervals between 34 to 38 and 44 to 49 seconds, there are two peaks in load demand. The power of fuel cell is constant at its maximum value of approximately 45kW. So, at these points, the load is greater than the sums of the energy supplied by wind turbine and fuel cells. Therefore, the energy stored in the flywheel is provided to feed the load. The hydrogen consumed is proportional to current of the fuel cell, as shown in equation (2.26). Consequently, the demanded amount of hydrogen follows the same pattern of the energy supplied by fuel cells. That is, an increase in energy supplied also rises the amount of hydrogen consumed. Figure (4.9) shows the amount of hydrogen, in kmols / s, over time.

Figure 4.11 - Fuel cell voltage The output voltage of the fuel cell is stabilized at 400 V through the boost converter. The parameters of this converter are shown in the table (5). Table 4 - Boost parameters Parameter Value
Inductance [H] Capacitance [mF] Semiconductor Type Rated switching frequency [Hz] Proportional gain of PI voltage control system Integral gain of PI voltage control system Reference voltage [V] 500 2.7 MOSFET 2000 0.001 0.01 400

Figure (4.12) shows the output of the boost.


Boost output voltage 1200 1000

Table 5 - Inverter parameters Parameter


Snubber capacitance [F] Snubber resistance [k] Semiconductor Type Internal resistance [m] Carrier frequency [kHz] Modulation index

Value
0.1 2

Boost output Voltage [V]

800

600

IGBT-DIODE 1 5 0.98 50 100 70

400

200

Frequency output voltage [Hz]


-200 0 10 20 30 Time [s] 40 50 60

Filter inductance [mH] Filter Capacitance [F]

Figure 4.12 - Boost output voltage 4.5. Flywheel As previously mentioned, in the intervals between 34 to 38 and 44 to 49 seconds the load peak is supplied by the flywheel. Figure (4.13) shows the energy delivered by the flywheel. In these moments, it provides a torque to the induction machine that works as a generator. Thus, the flywheel loses speed as shown in figure (4.14).
5 4.5 4 x 10
4

Figure (4.15) shows the output voltage (line to ground) of the inverter.
AC voltage 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 33.65 33.66 33.67 33.68 33.69 Time [s] 33.7 33.71 33.72

Flywheel output Power

Flywheel output Power [W]

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Voltage [V]

Figure 4.15 - AC voltage According to equation (4.1), with an input voltage of 400V DC, and in an index value of 0.98, the line voltage is approximately 240V. Finally, after all the mechanisms working simultaneously, the energy delivered to the load is shown in figure (4.16).
x 10
5

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

Figure 4.13 - Flywheel power


Flywheel output Speed 1487

Power delivered by the system

1.4 1.3

1486

Power delivered by the system [W]

1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7

Flywheel output Speed [rpm]

1485

1484

1483

1482

1481

0.6 15

20

25

30

1480 0

35 Time [s]

40

45

50

55

10

20

30 Time [s]

40

50

60

Figure 4.16 - Power of the system hybrid In order to make comparison, Figure (4.17) shows the load profile and the profile of power delivered to the load.

Figure 4.14 - Flywheel speed The flywheel is required to supply 47kW during 5 seconds. Therefore, it is necessary an inertia of at least 20 kg.m2. 4.6. Power delivered to load The DCs voltages are converted into AC through inverters. Table (6) shows all the parameters of the inverters.

x 10 1.4 1.3

Perfomance of System Power delivered by the system Load profile

Perfomance of System [W]

1.2 1.1 1 0.9

0.8 0.7 20 25 30 35 Time [s] 40 45 50 55

Figure 4.17 - System power Observing figure (4.17), it is shown that there is little difference between energy demand and energy delivered to the load. This difference can be taken into account the approximations used, delayed response of the controllers, variations of time constants, and others. 5. PROPOSALS AND CONCLUSION A model of a hybrid system composed of a wind turbine, fuel cell and a flywheel as storage form was developed and tested in order to validate its use. The work shows that even with the dependence on wind speed, using a hybrid system, the wind turbine becomes a powerful means of generation. The results indicate that the energy storage is a key to those new sources of renewable energy can be leveraged. The storage of energy as chemical and mechanical (kinetic) proved to be a solution to the problem of variation in wind speed. An ultracapacitor is an alternative to the use of flywheels. Therefore, energy is stored directly in electrical form and it is not necessary to convert it, as in the case of the flywheel. As discussed earlier, one of the main difficulties in using the fuel cell is the acquisition and storage of hydrogen. The hydrogen must be kept at high pressures and low temperatures so it can be stored in quantities that can be utilized. To that end, several technologies have been developed with the purpose of bringing this facility up to a competitive market price. An alternative to better understand the problem of hydrogen storage tank would be a model that takes into account its internal pressure as a function of the flow of hydrogen. Due to the dynamic model presented to the turbine, the response time of the simulation showed that long. The turbine / generator took about 15 seconds to reach the steady state. The long simulation time created difficulties in obtaining and analyzing the results. An alternative to better use the potential of wind is the replacement of fixed speed generator for a variable speed. As shown in figure (4.3), if the system works with a variable speed generator, it is possible to extract energy from the

wind with maximum efficiency all the time. That is, varying the speed of the generator, for each value of wind speed, that allows the turbine to provide maximum power possible to be extracted from the wind. Thus it is possible to reduce the size of the fuel cell. Finally, although there is little difference between the load profile and the energy delivered, the response of the hybrid system has proved satisfactory. Figure (4.17) shows that the simulated system can be used as a stand-alone system to supply loads away from the grid. However, it is necessary a more in-depth about the transmission and distribution systems, as well as a more concrete analysis of several other components such as pumps, valves and motors. 6. REFERENCES
1. O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglu, M.S. Alam, Dynamic modeling, design and simulation of a wind/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor-based hybrid power generation system, Journal of Power Sources, 161 (2006), pp.707-722 2. L. Leclercq, C. Saudemont, B. Robyns, G. Cimuca, M.M. Radulescu, Flywheel energy storage system to improve the integration of wind generator into a network, Electromotion, 10 (2003), pp. 641-646. 3. MATLAB SimPowerSystems for Use with Simulink Users Guide, Version 4.1.1, http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/pdfdoc/phys mod/powersys/powersys.pdf. 4. S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, JohnWiley & Sons Ltd, New York, (1998). 5. E. Muljadi, C.P. Butterfield, Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation, IEEE Trans.Industry Appl., 37/1 (2001), pp. 240-246. 6. M. Uzunoglu , M.S. Alam, Dynamic modeling, design and simulation of a PEM fuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for vehicular applications, Energy Conversion and Management, 48 (2007), pp. 1544-1553 7. B. Bolund, H. Bernhoff, M. Leijon, Flywheel energy and power storage systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11 (2007), pp. 235258. 8. N. Hamsic, A. Schmelter, A. Mohd, E. Ortjohann, E. Schultze, A. Tuckey, J. Zimmermann, Increasing Renewable Energy Penetration in Isolated Grids Using a Flywheel Energy Storage System, POWERENG (2007). 9. S. Satish, Modeling and Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System for Voltage Sag Correction, A Thesis presented in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science With a Major in Electrical Engineering, College of Graduate Studies University of Idaho, (2003). 10. M . S. Rahman, Buck Converter Design Issues, Master thesis in Electronic Devices, Linkping Institute of Technology, (2007)