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B GIO DC V O TO TP ON BCVT VIT NAM

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG


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NGUYN QUANG HNG




X L ANTEN MNG THEO KHNG GIAN-THI GIAN
TRONG THNG TIN V TUYN DI NG




LUN N TIN S K THUT






H NI - 2006
-i-
B GIO DC V O TO TP ON BCVT VIT NAM

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG
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NGUYN QUANG HNG



X L ANTEN MNG THEO KHNG GIAN-THI GIAN
TRONG THNG TIN V TUYN DI NG

Chuyn Ngnh: Mng v knh thng tin lin lc
M s:2.07.14

LUN N TIN S K THUT


NGI HNG DN KHOA HC:
1. TS. ng nh Lm
2. TS. Chu Ngc Anh



H NI - 2006
-ii-

Li Cam oan

Ti xin cam oan y l cng trnh
nghin cu ca ring ti. Cc s liu, kt
qu nu trong bn lun n l trung thc v
cha tng c ai cng b u v trong
bt k cng trnh no khc.
Tc gi



Nguyn Quang Hng

-iii-

Li Cm n!
Ti xin by t li bit n su sc ti TS. ng nh Lm v TS. Chu
Ngc Anh tn tnh hng dn trong sut qu trnh lm lun n. c bit,
s ch bo tn tnh v s to iu kin thun li trong cc hot ng nghin
cu khoa hc ca TS. ng nh Lm c ngha v cng to ln ti c th
hon thnh c lun n ny. Ti cng xin cm n PGS. TS. Nguyn Minh
Dn v nhng ch dn, nh hng quan trng ngay t khi xy dng cng
nghin cu.
Cc kt qu mang tnh thc tin cao c c l nh s gip to iu
kin nghin cu ti cc phng th nghim Hn Quc ca TS. Phng Vn
Vn, TS. Nguyn Kim Lan, TSKH. Nguyn Ngc San. Ti cng khng th
khng cm n TS. Seung Chan Bang, TS. Byung Han Ryu v cc bn ng
nghip Won Ik Kim, Il Guy Kim ti Phng th nghim thng tin di ng-Vin
nghin cu in t Vin thng Hn Quc (ETRI) v nhng gip qu bu
trong thi gian ti thc tp ti y. Xin cm n Won ok Kwon- ngi bn
lun c cm tnh c bit vi Vit Nam v vn lin tc gi lin lc vi ti
trong my nm qua qua vic cung cp ti liu, trao i nhng thng tin v
nhng pht trin khoa hc cng ngh mi nht trong lnh vc lin quan ti
Vin ETRI.
Cm n TS. Danie van Wyk-i hc Tng hp Nam Phi h tr ti
c th pht trin phn mm m phng h thng W-CDMA t phin bn tun
theo tiu chun c ca ng. Bn cnh , s sn sng trao i, gip ca
GS.TS. Hak Lim Ho- i hc Tng hp Chon-An, Hn Quc cng gip ti
nh hng mt cch r rng hn trong nghin cu.
Cui cng, ti xin cm n b m, tt c gia nh, bn b, ngi thn
trc tip hay gin tip gip , chia s, ng vin ti rt nhiu c th hon
thnh bn lun n ny.
-iv-
Mc Lc
Ch Vit Tt .......................................................................................... vii
Mc lc Hnh v.....................................................................................ix
Mc lc Bng biu................................................................................xii
M u.................................................................................................... 1
Chng 1. Tng quan vn nghin cu ............................................. 4
1.1. S lc v qu trnh pht trin k thut x l tn hiu mng ...... 4
1.1.1. S pht trin ca k thut anten: ...................................................................................4
1.1.2. Tn hiu trong min thi gian, khng gian....................................................................6
1.2. X l khng gian-thi gian trong thng tin di ng ...................... 9
1.2.1. M hnh h thng khng gian-thi gian........................................................................9
1.2.2. Mi trng thng tin di ng ......................................................................................14
1.2.3. M hnh v nh gi knh khng gian-thi gian.........................................................21
1.2.4. u, nhc im ca k thut x l khng gian-thi gian...........................................23
1.3. Phn loi anten ................................................................................ 25
1.4. t vn nghin cu..................................................................... 27
Chng 2. K thut x l i vi anten mng..................................... 31
2.1. K thut phn tp............................................................................ 31
2.1.1. Kt hp t l cc i ....................................................................................................36
2.1.2. Tng ch phn tp ........................................................................................................41
2.1.3. Tng ch anten .............................................................................................................42
2.1.4. nh hng ca tng quan nhnh ..............................................................................43
2.2. K thut to bp sng..................................................................... 47
2.2.1. Chuyn bp sng.........................................................................................................47
2.2.2. To bp sng thch nghi ..............................................................................................50
2.2.3. Cc thut ton thch nghi.............................................................................................55
-v-

2.3. Thut ton to bp thch nghi c h tr ca knh hoa tiu cho
ng ln DS-CDMA................................................................................ 59
2.3.1. Anten thng minh cho DS-CDMA..............................................................................59
2.3.2. M hnh tn hiu ..........................................................................................................61
2.3.3. Kt hp theo khng gian my thu trm gc .............................................................64
2.4. Tng kt chng.............................................................................. 67
Chng 3. Hiu qu v dung lng ca anten thng minh i vi h
thng GSM............................................................................................ 68
3.1. nh gi hiu qu v dung lng khi s dng anten thng minh
chuyn bp sng......................................................................................... 68
3.2. Kt qu tnh s................................................................................. 72
3.2.1. Hiu qu v dung lng vi h thng AMPS ............................................................72
3.2.2. Hiu qu v dung lng i vi h thng GSM........................................................74
3.2.3. xut mu ti s dng tn s cho mng GSM Vit Nam khi s dng anten thng
minh .....................................................................................................................................76
3.3. nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut ti vic ti s dng tn s
........................................................................................................... 77
3.3.1. nh hng ca s che khut .......................................................................................82
3.3.2. Cc vng nhiu............................................................................................................83
3.3.3. nh gi nh hng ca cc ngun nhiu ng knh trong thc t............................85
3.4. Hiu qu v dung lng ca anten chuyn bp sng vi nh
hng ca che khut v pha-inh............................................................ 90
3.5. Tng kt chng.............................................................................. 94
Chng 4. Phi hp k thut to bp v phn tp cho h thng W-
CDMA.................................................................................................... 96
4.1. H thng W-CDMA......................................................................... 96
4.1.1. Cc c tnh ch yu ca W-CDMA...........................................................................97
-vi-

4.1.2. Knh vt l ng ln .................................................................................................98
4.1.3. Knh vt l ng xung..........................................................................................100
4.1.4. Mi trng m phng W-CDMA .............................................................................102
4.2. Phi hp k thut to bp sng v phn tp cho h thng W-
CDMA....................................................................................................... 107
4.2.1. Ch tiu k thut to bp sng...................................................................................107
4.2.2. Ch tiu k thut phn tp thu ...................................................................................112
4.2.3. xut phi hp k thut to bp v phn tp cho h thng W-CDMA.................115
4.3. Kt qu m phng ......................................................................... 117
4.4. o kim h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-CDMA
119
4.4.1. Gii thiu h thng th nghim.................................................................................119
4.4.2. Anten mng thng minh............................................................................................120
4.4.3. Cu hnh h thng v iu kin o............................................................................122
4.4.4. Kt qu o kim trn h thng th nghim...............................................................129
4.5. X l kt qu o kim v so snh vi kt qu m phng .......... 131
4.6. Tng kt chng............................................................................ 133
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN........................................... 134
Kt lun..................................................................................................... 134
Hng pht trin tip theo: .................................................................... 135
Bi bo, Cng trnh cng b.......................................................... 136
Ti liu tham kho.............................................................................. 138
Ting Vit.................................................................................................. 138
Ting Anh ................................................................................................. 139

-vii-
Ch Vit Tt
Ting Anh Ting Vit
ABF
AMPS
AWGN
BER
BLER
BPSK
cdf
CIR

CNR
DIV
DPCH
DPCCH
DPDCH
DS
FDD
GSM

LMS
LOS
MIMO
MRC
pdf
RF
rms

SIR
SIR
target
Adaptive beam-forming
Advanced Mobile Phone System
Additive White Gaussian Noise
Bit Error Rate
Block Error Rate
Binary Phase Shift Keying
Cumulative Distribution Function
Carrier-to-Interference Ratio

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
Diversity
Dedicated Physical Channel
Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Dedicated Physical Data Channel
Direct Sequence
Frequency Division Duplex
Global System for Mobile
Communications
Least Mean Square
Line Of Sight
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
Maximum Ratio Combiner
probability density function
Radio Frequency
Root Mean Square

Signal-to-Interference Ratio
Signal-to-Interference Ratio Target
To bp sng thch nghi
H thng in thoi di ng AMPS
Tp Gauss Trng Cng
T l Li Bt
T l li khi
Kho Chuyn Pha Nh phn
Hm Phn b Tch lu
T s cng sut sng mang trn
nhiu
T s cng sut sng mang trn tp
Phn tp
Knh vt l dnh ring
Knh iu khin vt l dnh ring
Knh d liu vt l dnh ring
Chui tri ph trc tip
Song cng phn tn
H thng thng tin di ng ton cu
GSM
Trung bnh Bnh phng Nh nht
Nhn thng
Nhiu u vo Nhiu u ra
B kt hp T l Cc i
Hm mt xc sut
Cao tn / Tn s v tuyn
Cn Trung bnh Bnh phng (Cn
qun phng)
T s tn hiu trn nhiu
T s tn hiu trn nhiu ch (c
-viii-


SNR
TCP
TDD
TDMA
TDTD
UE
UMTS

W-CDMA

Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Trasmission Control Protocol
Time Division Duplex
Time Division Multiple Access
Time Division Transmit Diversity
User Equipment
Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System
Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access
t trc trong php o)
T s tn hiu trn tp
Giao thc iu khin truyn
Song cng phn thi
a truy nhp phn thi
Phn tp pht theo thi gian
Thit b u cui
H thng thng tin di ng UMTS
3G s dng W-CDMA
CDMA bng rng

-ix-

Mc lc Hnh v

Hnh Trang
Hnh 1.1. Tn hiu trong khng gian
Hnh 1.2. M hnh h thng thng tin vi N phn t pht v M phn t
thu trong mi trng tn x.
Hnh 1.3. Phn loi k thut x l khng gian-thi gian v anten thng
minh
Hnh 1.4. Phn loi anten thng minh
Hnh 2.1. Anten mng phn tp M phn t
Hnh 2.2. Hm phn b tch lu ca
s
so vi
s
/ cho k thut kt hp t
l cc i.
Hnh 2.3. BER so vi = M khi M thay i
Hnh 2.4. Hai phn t vi cc tn hiu tng quan
Hnh 2.5. nh hng ca tng quan nhnh ln phn b cng sut u ra
b kt hp t l cc i phn tp kp.
Hnh 2.6. BER so vi (dB) ca b kt hp t l cc i 2 nhnh c pha-
inh tng quan
Hnh 2.7. Anten mng thch nghi
Hnh 3.1. Mu ti s dng tn s trong thng tin di ng
Hnh 3.2. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
AMPS c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=7.
Hnh 3.3. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
AMPS c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.
Hnh 3.4. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
GSM c bng thng 8 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.
Hnh 3.5. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
GSM c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.
8
11
14
27
34
40
42
45
46
47
53
69
73
74
75
75
-x-

Hnh 3.6. Thay i CIR khi h s ti s dng tn s gim t 4 xung 1
(__: N=4, -x-: N=3, -o-: N=1)
Hnh 3.7. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai
thc GSM c bng thng 8 MHz, h s ti s dng N=3.
Hnh 3.8. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
GSM c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=3.
Hnh 3.9. Vng c nhiu v khng nhiu (a) khng c pha-inh (b) c
pha-inh v che khut.
Hnh 3.10. Xc sut mt lin lc khi c pha-inh v che khut
Hnh 3.11. Ranh gii vng nhiu vi cc xc sut nhiu khc nhau khi c
pha-inh v che khut
Hnh 3.12. Xc sut nhiu ng knh, vi i cho trc, theo Z
d
.
Hnh 3.13. Ch ra mt im ca xc sut rt cui gi vi su ng knh
cho m=1,6 v 12 bp v d =6 v 12 dB.
Hnh 3.14. th biu din Z
d
(hnh tri) v N
e
theo m (hnh phi)
(vi =0,7, n=4,5, P
out
=1%,
d
=6dB, q
d
=22 dB)
Hnh 3.15. Hm hiu sut ph tng i theo s bp sng
(vi =0,7, n=4,5, P
out
=1%,
d
=6dB, q
d
=22 dB)
Hnh 4.1. Cu trc khung ca knh DPDCH/DPCCH ng ln
Hnh 4.2. Cu trc khung ca knh DPCH ng xung
Hnh 4.3. S khi tng th ng ln
Hnh 4.4. S khi tng th ng xung
Hnh 4.5. Giao din chnh ca phn mm m phng
Hnh 4.6. Giao din thit lp cc tham s m phng
Hnh 4.7. Kt qu m phng i vi phn tp M
D
= 4 anten, h thng to
bp M
B
= 4 anten v h thng phi hp c phn tp v to bp mi
trng khng nhn thng
Hnh 4.8. Cu hnh h thng anten thng minh
Hnh 4.9. Anten mng
76
77
77
80
82
84
89
92
92
94
99
102
103
104
105
106
118
120
121
-xi-

Hnh 4.10. H thng anten thng minh th nghim ti Vin Nghin cu
ETRI
Hnh 4.11. Cu hnh h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA s dng
trong o kim
Hnh 4.12. Cc knh ca b to bp sng thch nghi (h tr 3 sc-t x 8
anten)
Hnh 4.13. Mu bp sng c nh ng xung
Hnh 4.14. Dng bp sng ng xung (chuyn mch bp sng) v
ng ln (bp sng thch nghi)
Hnh 4.15. Kt qu o kim SNR trn Testbed theo gi tr SIR
target
t
trc
Hnh 4.16. Kt qu o kim BLER cho ABF 8-anten v DIV 2-anten
Hnh 4.17. T l li bt BER o c vi ABF 8-anten v DIV 2-anten
123
124
125
128
129
130
130
132

-xii-

Mc lc Bng biu

Bng Trang
Bng 4.1. Cc ch tiu k thut chnh ca W-CDMA
Bng 4.2. Cc tham s u vo nh gi ch tiu BER
97
117
-1-
M u
Cc h thng thng tin di ng ang pht trin bng n trn th gii v
c Vit Nam. Trc yu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi s dng dch v
thng tin di ng v cht lng, dung lng v tnh a dng ca dch v v
c bit l cc dch v truyn d liu tc cao v a phng tin, vic
nghin cu, ng dng cc cng ngh v k thut tin tin p ng nhu cu
ny lun l mt i hi cp thit.
Mt trong s cc k thut c th gip ci thin ng k ch tiu v
dng lng ca h thng ang c tp trung nghin cu trn th gii trong
thi gian gn y l k thut x l khng gian-thi gian. K thut ny cho
php s dng ti a hiu qu ph tn cho h thng thng tin v tuyn ni
chung v h thng thng tin di ng t ong ni ring. Nh s dng nhiu
phn t anten, k thut ny cho php ti u ho qu trnh thu hoc pht tn
hiu bng cch x l theo c hai min khng gian v min thi gian ti my
thu pht.[16,17,19, 28, 36]
Vic tip tc nghin cu pht trin k thut ny tin ti c c cc
sn phm hu dng c ch tiu cht lng cao, ng thi ph hp vi kh
nng x l, tnh ton ca cc thit b hin c cng nh ng dng n vo trong
cc h thng thng tin di ng hin c mt cch hiu qu thc s l vn
cp thit. Vic thc hin tt nhng nghin cu ny s mang li hiu qu rt to
ln v dung lng cng nh hin thc ho kh nng truyn d liu tc cao
cho cc h thng thng tin di ng nh GSM hay CDMA hin ti cng nh
cc h thng thng tin di ng th h mi.
Mc tiu ca lun n l nghin cu k thut x l khng-gian thi gian
bng anten thng minh cho thng tin di ng vi cc trng hp c th anten
thng minh cho mng GSM Vit Nam v cc h thng CDMA.
-2-

i tng v phm vi nghin cu ca lun n l tp trung gii quyt
nhng vn sau:
- Nghin cu thut ton to bp thch nghi c phc tp tnh ton thp
nhng tc hi t cao ph hp vi kh nng ca thit b thc t.
- nh gi hiu qu ca vic s dng anten thng minh trong h thng GSM
c tnh n cc iu kin c th ca h thng GSM Vit Nam xut
phng n ng dng, trin khai nhm s dng ti nguyn mt cch hiu
qu, c xem xt, nh gi nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut.
- Nghin cu k thut nng cao ch tiu cho h thng anten thng minh cho
W-CDMA, h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 IMT-2000.
Phng php nghin cu c thc hin l nghin cu l thuyt kt hp
vi m phng bng chng trnh my tnh nh gi kt qu: Vi h thng
GSM, c tnh n cc tham s v iu kin c th ca mng li hin ang
trin khai Vit Nam; Vi xut cho h thng W-CDMA, kt qu o kim
thc hin trn h thng th nghim c s dng nh gi tin cy.
Ni dung lun n bao gm 4 Chng. Sau phn M u, Chng 1 trnh
by tng quan v k thut x l mng theo khng gian-thi gian v t vn
nghin cu. Chng 2 i su vo phn tch cc anten mng nhiu phn t
c s dng trong thng tin di ng vi hai k thut phn tp v to bp.
Chng ny cng xut s dng mt thut ton to bp thch nghi kt
hp c knh hoa tiu v lu lng cho h thng CDMA tri ph trc tip.
Chng 3 nh gi hiu qu ca vic s dng anten thng minh trong cc h
thng thng tin di ng t ong, xut s dng cho h thng GSM Vit
Nam c xem xt n nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut. Trn c s nhn
xt v nhng hn ch ca h thng anten thng minh th nghim cho W-
CDMA, qua phn tch cc c tnh ca k thut phn tp v to bp trong mi
trng pha-inh v nhiu a truy nhp, Chng 4 xut s dng k
-3-

thut phi hp cho chp t c u im ca c hai k thut phn tp v to
bp cho h thng W-CDMA. Kt qu o kim c thc hin trn h thng
anten thng minh th nghim cho W-CDMA ti Vin nghin cu in t
Vin thng Hn Quc (ETRI) nh gi tin cy ca phng n xut.
Cui cng l phn kt lun v hng pht trin tp trung vo nhng kt qu
mi t c ca lun n.

-4-

Chng 1. Tng quan vn nghin cu
1.1. S lc v qu trnh pht trin k thut x l tn hiu mng
1.1.1. S pht trin ca k thut anten:
Sng v tuyn c pht minh ra vo nm 1861 khi Maxell (i hc
Hong Gia Lun n) a ra l thuyt sng in t. Hertz (i hc
Karlsruhe) chng minh s tn ti ca sng ny bng thc nghim vo nm
1887 bng sng ng (tnh). Nm 1890 Branly (Paris) xy dng mt b
nht qun c th pht hin s c mt ca sng in t bng mt ci chai thu
tinh cha kim loi. B nht qun ny sau c tip tc pht trin bi
Lodge (Anh). Ma h 1895, Marconi s dng my pht ca Hertz, b nht
qun ca Lodge v lp thm anten to ra mt my pht v tuyn u tin...
ng dng dn dng u tin ca k thut v tuyn l h thng in thoi
v tuyn 2MHz vo nm 1921 trong ngnh Cnh st. Nhng h thng c
pht trin tip sau : FM (Armstrong-1933); H thng thng tin ca Bell
tn s 150MHz, h thng IMTS s dng FM ca AT&T (1946); Khi nim
celllular (mng thng tin di ng t ong) (Phng th nghim Bell-1947); H
thng AMPS (1970); Vo nhng nm 1990s: cc h thng thng tin i t ong
GSM, IS-136 (TDMA), CDMA IS-95, 3G ra i v pht trin mt cch
mnh m [34,36]. K thut anten c s dng cho cc h thng thng tin v
tuyn cng c s pht trin nh sau:
- 1880- ti nhng nm1890: Hertz, Marconi, Popov thit k c cc
anten c tn s hot ng v bng thng tt hn .
- Nhng nm 1900: anten nh hng c s dng cho php lin lc
qua bin Atlantic
- 1905: s dng nhiu anten cho phn tp thu.
-5-

- Thp k 1920: Dn anten Yagi-Uda c pht minh em li tng ch v
bng thng tt hn.
- Chin tranh th gii th 2: Dn anten c s dng cho raa
- Thp k 1970: ng dng x l tn hiu thch nghi my thu v tuyn
ci thin phn tp thu v trit nhiu bng cc b x l tn hiu s trong
qun s [29]. Vic s dng anten nhiu phn t my thu trong thng tin
v tuyn m ra mt chiu mi trong x l tn hiu (chiu khng gian), cho
php ci thin ch tiu h thng. Tuy nhin, n trc nhng nm 1990,
vn c pht trin ch yu vi anten mng mi ch l k thut x l
ring theo min khng gian (vd: xc nh hng ti) [16].
- Thp k 1990: K thut thu khng gian-thi gian (kt hp c min khng
gian v thi gian) [29, 38]
+ 1996: Anten nhiu phn t c s dng trm gc h tr nhiu
ngi dng trn cng knh
+ 1994: xut k thut tng dung lng knh v tuyn bng cch s
dng anten nhiu phn t c my pht v my thu. tng ny tip
tc c pht trin 1995, 1996, 1998 -> bt u mt cuc cch mng v
l thuyt truyn thng [25, 28].
- T nhng nm 2000: K thut thu-pht khng gian-thi gian c tp trung
nghin cu v pht trin [19, 20]
C th thy rng, k thut x l khng gian-thi gian vi mng (dn)
anten nhiu phn t nhiu cp phc tp khc nhau c ng dng
trong qun s t kh lu, nhng do tnh cht thay i lin tc ca mi trng
truyn sng thng tin di ng trong khi kh nng x l theo thi gian thc ca
my thu pht cn nhiu hn ch m k thut ny mi thc s c nghin cu
ng dng trong cc h thng thng tin di ng trong thi gian gn y [17,
29, 36, 38, 55]. Nh s dng nhiu phn t anten k thut ny cho php ti u
-6-

ho qu trnh thu hoc pht tn hiu bng cch dng c k thut x l tn hiu
theo min khng gian v theo min thi gian ti my thu pht, nh cho
php s dng ti a hiu qu ph tn ca mng thng tin t ong [19].
1.1.2. Tn hiu trong min thi gian, khng gian
1.1.2.1. Biu din tn hiu theo thi gian
Tn hiu thc s(t) c bin i Fourier l S(f). Php bin i Fourier ny
tho mn biu thc i xng sau:
S(f) = S
H
(-f) (1.1)
Nu ni tn hiu l thc, ngha l ta ch xt cc tn s dng. Gi z(t) l
ng bao phc ca tn hiu thc s(t), v Z(f) l bin i Fourier ca z(t)[16].
ng bao phc cho tn s f
c
no (tn s sng mang) c xc nh trong
min Fourier l:
Z(f-f
c
) = 2u(f)S(f) (1.2)
trong hm bc n v c nh ngha l:

<

=
0
0
0
1
) (
f
f
f u
Tn hiu s(t) l thc v c ph bng:
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
c
H
c
f f Z f f Z f S + = (1.3)
Tn hiu thc s(t) c th vit l:
{ }
t f j
c
e t z t s
2
) ( Re ) ( = (1.4)
K hiu phn thc v phn o ca z(t) tng ng l x(t) v y(t),
z(t) = x(t) + jy(t) (1.5)
Kt hp vi phng trnh (1.4) ta c:
s(t) = x(t)cos2f
c
t - y(t)sin2f
c
t (1.6)
1.1.2.2. Biu din tn hiu theo khng gian-thi gian
Tn hiu c thm chiu khng gian (khng gian-thi gian) c biu din
[27, 38]:
-7-

s(t,x,y,z) = s(t,r) (1.7)
trong r biu din 3 bin khng gian (x,y,z)
Trong h to cu:
x = rsincos, y = rsinsin, z = rcos,
r =
2 2 2
z y x + + ,
=cos
-1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 2
y x
x
(1.8)
=cos
-1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
2 2 2
z y x
z









Hnh 1.1. Tn hiu trong khng gian
Vi h c m phn t anten: tn hiu theo khng gian-thi gian c th
vit bng tng cc tnh hiu thnh phn nh sau:
s(t,r)=

=
m
k
k
r t s
1
) , ( (1.9)
1.1.2.3. Cc k thut x l tn hiu
Vi nhng biu din tn hiu nh trnh by trn r rng l ngoi k
thut x l tn hiu theo thi gian kinh in, tn hiu c th c x l theo
chiu khng gian, hoc c khng gian v thi gian. [16]
K thut x l ch theo min khng gian c dng nh gi tn hiu,
v d nh cc p ng my thu v tn s theo khng gian, hng ti (phng
php hp l cc i - ML (1964), phn loi nhiu tn hiu - MUSIC (1980),
x
y
z
r

-8-

nh gi cc tham s tn hiu bng k thut quay bt bin - ESPRIT (1985)),
sc-t ho vng ph trm gc (chia thnh nhiu vng ph c hng ti khc
nhau) [49]. Cc m hnh khng gian c s dng do nhng nguyn nhn
chnh sau:
- Khng bit thng tin v tn hiu pht. M hnh khng gian p dng cho rt
nhiu tn hiu khc nhau v cho php nh gi vt khng gian m thm ch
khng cn bit tnh cht thi gian ca tn hiu pht chng hn nh: chui
hun luyn bit, hng s theo khi, chui m bit... Khi nh gi
c vt khng gian, c th nh gi c tn hiu pht. Tc l, nhiu tn
hiu c th c nh gi v phn bit khi c b tn s my pht v
my thu, m khng cn gii iu ch v ng b. Nu kt hp c mt
m hnh khng gian vi cc c trng thi gian th ta c th ci thin c
vic nh gi knh v vt khng gian ni trn.
- Bng m hnh khng gian, ta c th tnh ton c cc tham s vt l ca
ng truyn. Nhng tham s xc nh c qua ng ln (vd: v tr
ngi s dng) c th c s dng cho ng xung v cc phn khc
ca h thng. V d: ch song cng theo tn s - FDD (ng ln v
ng xung s dng tn s khc nhau), v tr ca my pht l tham s
khng ph thuc vo tn s, nu v tr ny c xc nh nh quan st
ng ln th ng xung c th pht ch theo hng v tr gim
thiu nhiu.
- Phn tch ng truyn: Bng cch s dng cc m hnh khng gian da
trn s liu o kim, ta c th bit thm v mi trng truyn sng v
tuyn s dng cho vic thit k cc h thng v tuyn khc.
Hn ch ca m hnh khng gian trong vic nh gi tn hiu l ch tiu
ca phng php s dng m hnh ny ph thuc hon ton vo chnh xc
ca m hnh, trong khi lun c s chnh lch gia m hnh v h thng thc
-9-

t v anten mng phi c nh c (iu chnh) m hnh khng gian ny
ng vi h thng thc. Nu kt hp c mt m hnh khng gian vi cc
c trng thi gian th vic nh gi knh v vt khng gian c th c ci
thin. K thut x l tn hiu c thc hin theo c min khng gian v thi
gian c gi l x l khng gian-thi gian.
1.2. X l khng gian-thi gian trong thng tin di ng
1.2.1. M hnh h thng khng gian-thi gian
K thut x l khng gian-thi gian cho php s dng ti a hiu qu
ph tn ca mng thng tin t ong. Nh s dng nhiu phn t anten k thut
ny cho php ti u ho qu trnh thu hoc pht tn hiu bng cch dng c k
thut x l tn hiu theo min khng gian v theo min thi gian ti my thu
pht. Cc k thut ph bin bit nh anten d qut (sc-t ho) (x l
khng gian), phn tp (x l khng gian-thi gian) v anten mng to bp
sng (x l khng gian-thi gian) c th c xem nh nhng v d in hnh
ca k thut x l theo khng gian-thi gian. Trong thc t, tt c cc h
thng anten mng c th c xem nh b x l khng gian-thi gian. Cc b
x l khng gian-thi gian tin tin hn bao gm c b tch a ngi s
dng, m ha khng gian-thi gian, s to thnh mt h y v k thut
x l khng gian-thi gian.
n gin ho vic phn tch h thng x l khng gian-thi gian, ta
cn c mt m hnh c bn v h thng thng tin bao gm vic xc nh cc
u vo, u ra v knh ca h thng. H thng x l khng gian-thi gian
tng qut c nhiu phn t anten c s dng ti c my pht v my thu
(m hnh Nhiu u vo-Nhiu u ra: MIMO). M hnh ny c c im l
tn hiu mong mun c nhiu u vo knh thng tin (cc anten pht) cng
nh nhiu u ra (cc anten thu). Mt h thng MIMO c th c xem nh
-10-

h ghp nhiu knh con mt u vo / mt u ra (SISO), dung lng knh
ca h thng MIMO l tng hp dung lng ca cc knh con thnh phn.
Dung lng h thng MIMO b nh hng bi s thay i phn b tng ch
c trng ca cc knh con SISO.
Xt M hnh h thng thng tin vi N anten pht v M anten thu hot
ng ti mt tn s khng la chn, mi trng pha-inh Rayleigh, nh trong
Hnh 1.2.








Hnh 1.2. M hnh h thng thng tin vi N phn t pht v M phn t thu
trong mi trng tn x.

ng bao phc ca vc-t tn hiu pht l
T
N
t s t s t s t )] ( ),..., ( ), ( [ ) (
2 1
= s v
ca tn hiu thu l
T
M
t r t r t r t )] ( ),..., ( ), ( [ ) (
2 1
= r , trong ch s
T
l ton t chuyn
v; Bin thi gian t c gi thit l ri rc; Khng ph thuc vo gi tr N,
tng cng sut my pht l hng s P
t
. Gi s vc-t tn hiu pht bao gm N
thnh phn cng sut bng nhau, c lp thng k sao cho
N t
H
T
N P t t E I s s ) / ( )] ( ) ( [ = , trong I
N
l ma trn n v N N v E
T
(.) l k
vng trn ton b thi gian xt nh hn nhiu ln so vi nghch o ca tc
pha-inh.
1

2

3



N
Tx
1
2
M
Rx
h
11
h
12
h
1M
h
N1
-11-

Gi thit cng sut ca cc phn t pht l bng nhau bi v my pht
khng b nh hng bi cc tnh nng bin i ca knh v tuyn v cc phn
t anten c xem l ging ht nhau; Cng sut trung bnh ti u ra ca mi
phn t l P
r
; Tn hiu nhn c cn bao gm vc-t tp Gauss trng cng
AWGN, v(t), vi cc thnh phn c lp thng k c cng sut l
2
.
T s cng sut sng mang trn tp (CNR) ti mi nhnh l
2
/
r
P = ,
ph thuc vo M. Ma trn p ng xung knh g(t) c M hng v N ct. Bin
i Fourier ca g(t) l G(f). Vi gi thit bng hp, cc phn t ca G(f) l
hng s trn ton bng ang xt, i lng f c th c loi ra. Ngoi tr
g(0), g(t) l ma trn '0'. Ma trn p ng xung knh chun ho l h(t) vi bin
i Fourier l H, vi s chun ho theo H G
t r
P P = sao cho
) ( / ) ( t P P t
t r
h g = . Ch rng t s
t r
P / P l h s suy hao trng do suy hao
ng trong khng gian t do. Ma trn hm truyn ca knh c chun ho
sao cho 1 >= H <
2
mn
, trong du ngoc n l ton t k vng theo thi
gian, t l nghch vi tc pha-inh.
Ma trn H c gi thit l c o ti my thu. Do , trong hu ht
trng hp, my pht khng th bit trc c ma trn knh, tr khi knh v
tuyn c tnh cht thun nghch - cc c tnh ng xung v ng ln l
tng t nhau nh trong trng hp h thng song cng theo thi gian
(TDD), tn s ng ln v ng xung l ging nhau.
H thng MIMO tng qut thng vn cha c s dng trong thc t,
m ngi ta thng xt mt s cu hnh khc s dng mt anten ti my di
ng v nhiu anten ti trm gc. Cc m hnh ny c th c s dng cho
trng hp mt ngi dng hoc nhiu ngi dng. Trm gc c th s dng
k thut to bp hoc phn tp. Ti my pht, d liu ngi dng c th c
m ho s dng k thut m ho khng gian-thi gian, trc khi iu ch v
-12-

c pht qua anten M
T
. Khi xem xt my pht ti u cui di ng, s lung
d liu bng 1, trong s lung d liu c m ho v c ghp vo
anten pht v K l s ngi s dng ti trm gc.
My thu ca ngi s dng th k s phi khi phc c tn hiu gc t
mt hn hp gm: tn hiu mong mun, tp AWGN v nhiu a truy nhp.
Gii php s dng anten nhiu phn t ti c my thu v my pht cho php
khi phc d liu pht tt hn. Hin ti, cc vn nghin cu v x l
my thu hu ht c tp trung vo cc thut ton ti u hoc trong min thi
gian hoc trong min m.
Vic a thm min khng gian vo mng thng tin di ng t ong
thng qua vic s dng h thng anten nhiu phn t to ra nhiu kh nng
mi trong vic pht trin cc thut ton cho my thu. c bit, vic dng
anten nhiu phn t ti c my pht v my thu cho php ci thin qu trnh
tch tn hiu ca ngi s dng. Nh k thut khng gian-thi gian, mc
nhiu a truy nhp v pha-inh ti my thu s c gim xung ng k, do
s lm tng dung lng ca ton h thng.
Nh vy, h thng x l khng gian - thi gian c th ci thin cht
lng knh truyn theo hai cch: cch th nht l s dng phn tp trong h
thng ti thiu nh hng ca pha-inh i vi tn hiu thu c; cch th
hai l lm thay i thch nghi gin phng hng ca h thng anten
gim thiu tng mc nhiu a truy nhp ti my thu. Nng lc x l khng
gian - thi gian da trn k thut to bp sng v phn tp c kt hp trong
vic thit k ton b h thng. Do vy, khi nim x l khng gian - thi gian
c hiu nh sau:
X l khng gian - thi gian l k thut gim thiu pha-inh v nhiu a
truy nhp (MAI) thng qua vic s dng tch hp anten nhiu phn t, k
thut x l tn hiu tin tin, cu trc my thu tin tin v sa li trc.
-13-


Hnh 1.3. Phn loi k thut x l khng gian-thi gian v anten thng minh
Nh vy, cc k thut nh: lc khng gian gim nhiu (gim nhiu
cho h thng thng tin di ng ng xung bng cch tp trung nng
lng pht x in t theo hng mt hoc mt nhm ngi dng, trnh vng
khng c thu bao ang hot ng), thu nhy cao (s dng anten mng
thng minh ng ln tp trung bp sng anten vo mt ngi dng, lm
tng tng ch anten hng c ngi dng v trit tn hiu t thu bao gy
nhiu), a truy nhp theo khng gian l cc dng khc nhau ca x l
khng gian - thi gian. Trong , k thut x l khng gian - thi gian c
s dng theo cc cch khc nhau gim pha-inh v nhiu a truy nhp.
Khi nim Anten thng minh c th c hiu nh sau:
Anten thng minh l s kt hp ca anten vi cc thut ton x l tn
hiu to ra mt h thng anten c cc tnh nng linh hot.
Vi d, cc tnh nng linh hot ny c th l mt gin phng hng c
th thay i theo s chuyn ng ca thu bao.
V c bn, anten thng minh c s dng chia nh hn vng ph
hnh d qut, mi vng ph d qut s c ph sng bng nhiu bp sng k
To bp
X l khng gian-thi gian:
Gim thiu pha-inh v MAI
Anten thng
minh
Cc k thut x
l tn hiu cao cp
Cu trc my
thu cao cp
Sa li
trc (FEC)
Phn tp
Chia sc-t
-14-

tip nhau do anten mng to ra. S bp sng trong mi vng ph d qut ph
thuc vo cu trc anten mng.[19, 28]
Vic tng tnh nh hng ca bp sng c th lm tng dung lng
(thng c p dng trong thnh ph) v m rng vng ph sng (p dng
cho vng nng thn). My u cui di ng c th gim cng sut pht do
tng ch ca anten trm gc ln hn, nh ko di thi gian s dng ca
pin.
Nh vy, ta thy rng mc ch chnh ca k thut khng gian - thi gian
cho h thng thng tin di ng vn l m bo mt mc cht lng nht nh
bng cch tng ti a t l tn hiu trn tp m v nhiu (SINR) cho mi
ngi dng trong h thng. Mt anten mng bao gm M
B
phn t c th to ra
tng ch cng sut gp M
B
ln i vi tp m trng, nhng vic trit nhiu t
nhng ngi dng khc trong mng thng tin di t ong th cn ph thuc vo
dng ca tn hiu nhn c.
1.2.2. Mi trng thng tin di ng
u im m x l khng gian-thi gian c th t c ph thuc vo
nhiu tham s, trong c mt s tham s ph thuc vo mi trng. Do
chng phi c m hnh ho mt cch chnh xc khi phn tch h thng. Hai
tham s nh hng quan trng l: ng truyn sng ca tn hiu, v pha-
inh thi gian. Ngoi ra, cn c mt s tham s v: mi trng tn x v phn
b thu bao theo gc c th tham kho thm trong [36]. Nhng tham s ny
nh hng ln ti ch tiu h thng v cn c c bit ch khi thit k h
thng ti u.
1.2.2.1. ng truyn sng
M hnh ng truyn sng cn tnh n cc nh hng sau:
Suy hao ng truyn;
-15-

S che khut: mi trng tn x c th (vd: cy ci, to nh) trn ng
truyn mt khong cch no s khc nhau i vi cc ng truyn
khc nhau, gy ra nhng sai lch so vi m hnh suy hao ng truyn
chun. Mt s ng truyn sng c suy hao ln, trong khi cc ng
truyn khc b che khut t hn v c cng tn hiu ln hn. Hin
tng ny c gi l che khut hoc pha-inh chm v c thng k pha-
inh log-chun);
S lng thnh phn a ng v phn b cc ng bao ca chng (Do
mi trng tn x cc b xung quanh my di ng v/hoc trm gc quyt
nh);
Pha-inh thi gian (c tnh quan trng trong mi trng v tuyn di
ng);
S tng quan: cc thnh phn a ng c to ra bi mt vng tn x
cc b (nh) c tng quan kh cao - ph thuc ch yu vo cc yu t
lin quan ti phn b khng gian ca cc phn t tn x cc b. Tng
quan l khi nim rt quan trng trong h thng khng gian-thi gian do
n nh hng ti gin phng hng anten trong k thut to bp sng
v ln tng ch phn tp c th t c trong h thng.
Cc c tnh truyn sng trn c nh hng ln n ch tiu ca thut
ton to bp sng c dng. Hu ht cc thut ton to bp sng u d trn
gi thit rng cc tn hiu ti mi phn t ca mng c tng quan ln vi
nhau (
ij
>0,8).
Suy hao ng truyn
Nu khng xc nh c cc c tnh truyn sng ca mt knh v
tuyn, ngi ta thng tnh suy hao tn hiu theo khong cch bng suy hao
-16-

trong mi trng khng gian t do - m hnh coi vng gia anten pht v
anten thu l vng khng c bt k vt hp th hoc phn x nng lng sng
v tuyn no. Trong vng ny, kh quyn c xem nh mi trng khng
hp th v ng nht hon ton. Ngoi ra, tri t c xem nh rt xa so
vi tn hiu truyn sng. Trong m hnh khng gian t do, suy hao ca nng
lng sng v tuyn t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch. Cng sut thu
c biu din theo cng sut pht vi h s suy hao L
s
(R) - c gi l h s
suy hao ng truyn hoc suy hao khng gian t do. Trong cc ng dng
thng tin v tuyn di ng, suy hao ng truyn trung bnh, ) (R L
s
, l mt
hm ph thuc khong cch R gia my di ng v trm gc, tng ng vi
n
l
ln t s R trn khong cch tham chiu r
0
. Tc l:
l
n
s
r
R
R L
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
) (
(1.10)
Khi c hin tng dn sng mnh nh khi tn hiu truyn dc theo cc
ng ph th, th n
l
c th nh hn 2. Khi xut hin cc vt che khut, n
l

s ln hn v nm trong khong gi tr t 2,5 n 5 [36, 51]. Cc o c thc
nghim cho thy rng vi bt k gi tr no ca R, tng suy hao ng L
x
(R)
l mt bin ngu nhin c phn b log-chun xung quanh gi tr trung bnh
ph thuc khong cch ) (R L
s
. Do , suy hao tng L
x
(R) c th c biu
din bi ) (R L
s
cng vi mt bin ngu nhin

X , nh sau (tnh bng dB):


[62]
( ) ( ) ( )

X r R n r L R L
l s x
+ + =
0 10 0
/ log 10 (1.11)
Trong

X l bin ngu nhin Gauss c trung bnh bng khng (tnh bng
dB) v ph thuc vo khong cch v v tr trm gc. Vic chn la gi tr
cho

X thng da trn o c thc t v ph thuc vo loi mi trng


-17-

thng tin t ong: macro- ( ln), micro- ( nh), hoc picro- ( rt nh),
v cc tham s knh khc. Gi tr thng c s dng nm trong khong t
6 n 10 dB.
1.2.2.2. Pha-inh v nh hng n vng ph sng
Pha-inh c th c chia thnh hai loi pha-inh chm v/hoc pha-
inh nhanh (c ti liu dng l pha-inh large-scale, v small-scale). Pha-inh
chm (hay che khut) c suy hao nh c trnh by trong mc 1.2.2.1. Pha-
inh nhanh biu hin hai c tnh l mo tn hiu (tri tr tn hiu) v s bin
i theo thi gian ca knh. Do s chuyn ng gia my pht v my thu,
knh truyn s bin i theo thi gian khi thay i ng truyn sng. Tc
thay i ca cc iu kin truyn sng ny c xem nh tc bin thin
nhanh ca pha-inh. Pha-inh nhanh thng c m t thng k bng phn
b Rayleigh, Rice [64] hoc Nakagami-m [65]. Vic la chn m hnh ph
hp ch yu ph thuc vo mi trng hot ng ca h thng thng tin. Nu
s cc ng phn x a ng ln v khng c thnh phn tn hiu trong
tm nhn thng, ng bao ca tn hiu thu thng c m t thng k bng
hm mt xc sut Rayleigh. Khi c s xut hin ca thnh phn tn hiu
khng pha-inh vi cng mnh, v d nh tn hiu n t ng truyn
trong tm nhn thng, ng bao pha-inh nhanh uc m t bng hm mt
xc sut Rice. Ngoi cc c tnh ton hc c bit ca m hnh pha-inh
Nakagami-m, ngi ta thy rng m hnh ny c th m t chnh xc c tnh
pha-inh ca cc tn hiu a ng v cc qu trnh tn x vt l khc. [66]
Kch thc ca mt trong h thng thng tin di ng t ong c th
c xc nh bng t l phn trm vng nm trong ng trn bn knh R m
trong cng tn hiu thu c t trm gc ln hn mt ngng c th
no . Ta t phn vng c dch v F
u
l vng ny (trong ng trn bn
knh R, cng tn hiu thu c anten my di ng vt qu ngng x
o

-18-

cho trc). Nu
o
x
P l xc sut tn hiu thu c x ln hn x
o
trong mt vng
dA th:

=
R
x u
dA P
R
F
o
0
2
1

(1.12)
Gi s tr trung bnh ca cng tn hiu x ph thuc vo khong cch
r
-n
, trong r l khong cch t my pht v n l h s suy hao ng truyn,
th cng sut tn hiu trung bnh (tnh bng dBm) l:
R
r
n x log 10 =
(1.13)
trong (dBm) l hng s ph thuc vo tng ch, cao anten, cng sut
pht, v bng tn hiu trung bnh thu c ti r=R.
Gi s tn hiu trung bnh cc b (cng tn hiu trung bnh cc b
trn pha-inh Rayleigh) tnh bng dB c biu din bng mt bin ngu
nhin chun x c tr trung bnh x (dB) v lch chun (dB), x l tr trung
bnh theo d on hoc o c. Tn hiu x (dB) khi c pha-inh log-chun
c vit l:
x x x
~
+ = (1.14)
trong x
~
l tr trung bnh bng khng (zero mean) - phng sai n v ca
bin ngu nhin Gauss. Vy, hm mt xc sut ca x l :
2
2
2
) (
2
1
) (


x x
e x p

=
(1.15)
Phng trnh (1.15) cho thy cng sut tn hiu thu c tc thi bin
thin theo khong cch l
n x
r
10 /
~
10

. Qu tch cc im c cng sut tn hiu


bng nhau quanh my pht s khng cn l mt ng trong na m c dng
cng bt thng khi cng tng. iu kin pha-inh log-chun, xc sut
tn hiu thu c x ln hn x
o
l:
-19-

) (r P
o
x
= Xc sut (x x
o
) =

o
x
dx x p ) (
(1.16)
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
2
1
2
1 x x
erf
o
(1.17)
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

2
/ log 10
2
1
2
1 R r n x
erf
o
(1.18)
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

R r n x
Q
o
/ log 10
(1.19)
trong erf(.) l hm li kinh in bit :


=
x
t
dt e x erf
0
2 2
) (

(1.20)
= -erf(-x) (1.21)
v c mi lin quan vi hm Q(.) :

=
x t
t
dt e x Q
2 /
2
2
1
) (

(1.23)
bng biu thc :
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

=
2
2
1
)
2
( 1
2
1
) (
x
erfc
x
erf x Q (1.24)
trong erfc(.) l hm li b.
Ch l Q(-x) = 1 Q(x). Vi cc gi tr agumen ln (3), Hm Q c th
c ly xp x bng bin di ca n [61] :
2 /
2
2
1
1
2
1
~ ) (
x
e
x
x
x Q

|
.
|

\
|

(1.25)
t a = (x
o
-)/ 2 v b = 10nlog(e)/ 2 , ta c

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
R
u
dr
R
r
b a erf r
R
F
0
2
log
1
2
1
(1.26)
-20-


(
(

|
.
|

\
|
(


+ =

b
ab
erf e a erf
b
ab
1
1 ) ( 1
2
1 2
2 1
(1.27)
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

b
ab
Q e a Q
b
ab
1
2 ) 2 (
2
2 1
(1.28)
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

b
ab
Q e R P
b
ab
x
o
1
2 ) (
2
2 1
(1.29)
Xc xut cng tn hiu trn chu vi ca ng trn ln hn x
o
l
) 2 ( )] ( 1 [ 5 , 0 ) ( a Q a erf R P
o
x
= = . Phng trnh cui cho thy r rng l F
u
ln
hn ) (R P
o
x
.
Cho v d, nu tn ti sao cho x = x
o
ti r=R, th a = 0, ) (R P
o
x
= 0,5
v :
)
2
(
2
1 2
1
b
Q e F
b
u
+ =
(1.30)
Vy, nu n=3 v =9 dB, th F
u
=0,71. iu ny c th c gii thch
nh sau: nu mt na s v tr trn chu vi ng trong bn knh R l nm trn
ngng th 71% v tr pha trong ng trn s c mc tn hiu trn mc
ngng .
Kch thc ca c th c xc nh da trn vng/ng bin vng
ph c th, mc ngng, h s suy hao, mc cng sut khong cch ang
xt hoc phn b chn ca phng trnh suy hao ng truyn trung bnh. V
d, t mt vng ng bao cho trc ) (R P
o
x
= ta c :

2 1
2
) ( =
|
.
|

\
|

=
o
x
erf a erf
(1.31)
C th gii phng trnh ny theo a ri , ri da trn mc cng sut theo
khong cch xc nh bn knh .
-21-

1.2.3. M hnh v nh gi knh khng gian-thi gian
Da trn cc m hnh knh thc t ca mt h thng thng tin di ng,
cc c cu x l tn hiu hiu qu c th c s dng ci thin ch tiu h
thng ; vic phn tch h thng mt cch chnh xc cng cho php d on
dung lng v ch tiu h thng. Ni chung, cc m hnh m t tham s nh
cng tn hiu thu, c tnh tr cng sut v ph Doppler rt quan trng
cho vic phn tch h thng dng anten ng hng. Nhng mt tham s rt
quan trng trong cc h thng khng gian-thi gian l hng ti ca tn hiu
thu li khng c trong cc m hnh truyn thng. Da trn cc khi nim c
bn bit v pha-inh, tri Doppler, tng quan, cc m hnh knh mi
c th c xy dng c th cp cc khi nim mi nh tri tr,
HNG TI v hnh dng ca anten mng thch nghi. Nhng cn ch l c
tnh truyn sng ng ln v ng xung c th khc nhau (do s tri gc
khc nhau my di ng v trm gc) - iu ny rt quan trng trong vic
phn tch ch tiu h thng khng gian-thi gian.
1.2.3.1. M hnh knh c bn
Trong mt h thng v tuyn di ng, mt tn hiu c th truyn t my
pht ti my thu qua nhiu ng phn x - hin tng ny c gi l truyn
sng a ng. Hiu ng ny gy ra s thay i v bin , pha v gc ti
ca tn hiu thu c, v c gi l pha-inh a ng.
Gi s rng h thng khng gian-thi gian bao gm K ngi s dng,
mi ngi s dng pht mt tn hiu trn mt knh a ung ri rc c lp
vi ng truyn L ti my thu, mi tn hiu c mt bin , pha v hng
ti ring. Phn b ca cc tham s ny ph thuc vo loi mi trng thng
tin di ng (macro-, micro-, hoc picro-).
Hng ti ph thuc vo ba thnh phn khc nhau l:
-22-

Tn x ti u cui di ng (hin tng nhiu x ny cng thng b nh
hng bi tc di ng);
Tn x ti trm gc;
Cc vt tn x xa. Loi tn x ny c th xut hin trong cc mi trng
thnh th v nng thn do cc vt th c cu trc ln nh ni i, cc to
nh, ... v c nh hng nht nh ti knh thng tin di ng k c khi cc
vt tn x ny xa so vi trm gc v my di ng. Nu cc vt tn x ny
nm trong tm nhn thng i vi c trm gc v my di ng th chng c
th c vai tr ging nh cc vt phn x ri rc hoc vt phn x tp trung
theo nhm. Khi cc vt phn x c nhm li, anten trm gc hoc my
di ng c th xem nh cc thnh phn tn x nh im 1 v im 2 nu
trn.
Ta thy rng, m hnh phn b ca mi trng tn x chim mt vai tr
quan trng trong vic thit k h thng. Nhiu m hnh phn b ca mi
trng tn x khc nhau c xut, vi cc thuc tnh v chnh xc
khc nhau. Chi tit v cc m hnh knh c nhng ng dng khc nhau trong
vic phn tch h s dng anten thng minh c th tm thy trong ti liu [36].
Mt s m hnh c pht trin cho thc t, cn hu ht m hnh khc c
xu hng phc v cho mc ch m phng.
1.2.3.2. nh gi c tnh knh khng gian
Ngi ta thc hin nhiu o c thc nghim nh gi c tnh ca
knh khng gian trong iu kin thc t [36]. Mt s kt qu nh gi ng
ch c tm tt sau y:
- Phn ln nng lng tn hiu tp trung trong mt khong tr nh v trong
phm vi hng ti nh mi trng vng nng thn, ngoi v thm ch
trong nhiu mi trng thnh th.
- Bng cnh s dng anten nh hng, c th gim c s tri tr.
-23-

- Tri gc tng khi cao anten trm gc gim.
- Tri gc tng khi mi trng truyn sng thay i t nng thn sang
thnh th.
- Mng cc phn t anten vi bp sng nh c th cung cp kh chnh xc
thng tin v hng ti ca my di ng ang di chuyn vi tc cao.
- S thay i theo thi gian ca k hiu khng gian c xu hng tng ln
theo tc di chuyn ca my di ng.

Ngi ta cng thc hin php o tm hiu s bin i ca k hiu khng
gian c v thi gian v tn s. Kt qu o cho thy rng khi my di ng v
cc vt xung quanh khng chuyn ng, tn hiu khng gian thay i nh; khi
mi trng v cc vt xung quanh chuyn ng th s thay i ny mc
trung bnh; v khi my di ng di chuyn th s thay i tn hiu khng gian
mc ln nht. Cc kt qu o cng cho thy tn hiu khng gian thay i ng
k khi tn s sng mang thay i. Trong thc t, s thay i bin tng
i ca k hiu khng gian c th ln hn 10dB khi tn s thay i 10MHz.
Do , k hiu khng gian ng ln khng th c p dng trc tip cho
vic to bp sng ng xung trong hu ht cc h thng thng tin di ng
t ong hin nay (thng c khong cch vi chc MHz gia ng ln v
ng xung).
1.2.4. u, nhc im ca k thut x l khng gian-thi gian
K thut khng gian-thi gian c kh nng ci thin ch tiu ca h thng
thng tin di ng bng nhiu cch khc nhau. Cc u im ni bt ca k
thut khng gian-thi gian l:
Dung lng tng (hiu qu ph tn tng) nh tng s ngi s dng tch
cc i vi mt gi tr BER cho trc.
-24-

Gim nhiu ng knh ci thin cht lng dch v v/hoc tng h s
ti s dng tn s.
Gim tri tr v pha-inh. Bng cc k thut to bp sng v phn tp, c
th ci thin t s SINR ca h thng trong mi trng pha-inh. Lin
quan n vn ny l gim nh hng ca tri gc ca tn hiu thu c
do cc vt tn x phn b xung quanh thu bao nh s dng cc bp sng
hp thu tn hiu t thu bao.
Gim xc sut mt lin lc. Bng cch gim nhiu nh k thut khng
gian-thi gian, xc sut mt lin lc c th c gim xung.
Tng hiu qu truyn dn. Do tnh nh hng v tng ch ca h thng
khng gian-thi gian cao, bn knh trm gc c th dc m rng v thu
bao c th ch cn pht cng sut thp hn cho php ko di thi gian s
dng pin.
Gn knh ng. Khi dung lng ca h thng t ong vt qu gi tr gii
hn, c th thc hin vic chia tch to ra cc mi, mi mi s
c phn b mt trm gc cng vi tn s mi, lm cho t l chuyn giao
tng ln. iu ny c th khc phc c bng cc b x l khng gian-
thi gian cho php to ra cc bp sng c lp.
Ci thin chnh xc nh v bng cch s dng anten mng nhiu phn
t.
Gim chi ph, phc tp v cu trc mng. Do khng phi lo ngi v cc
vn nh chuyn giao mm, gn knh ng, to bp sng khng linh
hot.
Tuy nhin, vic s dng anten mng cng c mt s hn ch ng k v
chi ph v phc tp sau:
-25-

Tng cc yu cu v phn cng cng nh phn mm khi tng s lng
phn t anten ca mng.
Trong cc trng hp thc t, ch tiu ca anten mng c th gy ra cc
nh hung bt li bi cc li m hnh knh, li nh chun (calibration),
lch pha v tp m tng quan gia cc phn t anten.
1.3. Phn loi anten
Cc k thut anten thng minh c th c phn thnh ba loi chnh
[37]: To bp sng, phn tp, chia sc-t. Ty theo phng thc thc hin m
cc k thut to bp sng v phn tp c th tip tc c phn loi c th
hn na nh Hnh 1.4.
Mt anten mng thch nghi bao gm mt nhm cc phn t pht x c
phn b theo khng gian, mi phn t tng ng vi bn sao c tng
quan cao ca tn hiu c ch. u ra ca mi phn t c t trng s thch
nghi v kt hp vi cc u ra khc tch ra tn hiu hu ch bng cch xp
chng cc tn hiu thu c.









Hnh 1.4. Phn loi anten thng minh

Anten thng
minh
To bp
sng
Phn tp Chia
sc-t
Thch nghi
Chuyn
bp
Pht

-26-

Cc yu t nh mi trng tn x, phn b ngi dng, mi trng pha-
inh.v.v. ng vai tr quan trng trong vic xc nh ch tiu ca h thng di
ng khng gian-thi gian. Mt h thng thng tin di ng c thit k tt
phi s dng phn truyn dn chung sao cho: tng lu lng thng tin pht
trung bnh cng ln cng tt; xc sut li trung bnh pha ngi dng cng
nh cng tt; v tr trung bnh cng nh cng tt. Tuy nhin khng phi mi
tiu ch ny u c th c tho mn ng thi; mt thit k tt i hi phi
cn i c cc tiu ch ny. V d, k thut to bp sng c th c dng
gim xc sut li ca h thng bng cch gim nhiu CDMA. iu ny
c thc hin bng cch kt hp thng minh cc tn hiu thu c t nhiu
phn t anten trm gc hoc my di ng.
Trong mt h thng thng tin di ng dng anten mng, thnh phn tn
hiu pha-inh nhanh to ra bin v pha ngu nhin cho tn hiu thu c
trn mi phn t anten, lm nhiu lon vc-t quay ca mng. Trong trng
hp pha-inh Rayleigh hoc Nakagami, pha c th l gi tr bt k trong
khong (0, 2], v khng th xc nh c hng ti ca sng nu ch gim
st tn hiu trong mt thi gian ngn.
Tng t, khi nim gin phng hng ca mng da trn gi thit
sng phng ti cc phn t ca mng c bin khng i. Do , trong mi
trng pha-inh, vic thc hin cc b to bp to v trit (null) bp tng
ng v pha ngun tn hiu mong mun v nhiu c th l khng hiu qu.
Khi pha-inh nhanh c tng quan mnh gia cc phn t, n c th c coi
nh mt nhn v hng vi vec-t quay, tc ng u ln cc phn t. Do
c th thc hin vic khi phc li vc-t quay ny. Tuy nhin, s khng c
c tng ch phn tp thu do k thut ny da trn pha-inh khng tng
quan. Chnh v th pht sinh mu thun gia vic trnh lm nhiu bp sng v
mong mun c c phn tp thu.
-27-

T nhng phn tch trn, ta thy rng c th loi b bt c nh
hng ca knh vi thit k my thu tt hn. Tuy nhin, do yu cu hn ch
phc tp my u cui v do c tnh ca ng xung, gii php c
s dng ci thin ng xung s l dng nhiu anten pht trm gc, nh
khng lm tng phc tp ca my u cui.
1.4. t vn nghin cu
Nh s dng nhiu phn t anten, k thut x l khng gian-thi gian
cho php ti u ho qu trnh thu hoc pht tn hiu bng cch x l theo c
hai min khng gian v min thi gian ti my thu pht. Cc k thut ph
bin c bit l s dng anten d qut (sc-t) (x l tn hiu theo khng
gian), phn tp (x l tn hiu theo khng gian-thi gian) v anten mng to
bp sng (x l tn hiu theo khng gian-thi gian) c th c xem nh
nhng v d in hnh ca k thut x l theo khng gian-thi gian.
[16,17,19, 28, 36] Trong thc t, tt c cc h thng anten mng c th c
xem nh b x l khng gian-thi gian. Cc b x l khng gian-thi gian
tin tin hn bao gm c b tch a ngi s dng, v m ha khng gian-
thi gian s to thnh mt h y v k thut x l khng gian-thi gian.
[6, 16, 52]
K thut MIMO tng qut dng nhiu anten c u thu v pht s lm
cho dung lng ca h thng thng tin v tuyn ln hn ng k so vi cc
h thng thng thng. Tuy nhin, vn cn nhiu vn cn nghin cu cn
tip tc pht trin c th p dng k thut ny vo thc t [1, 4, 16, 27].
Lun n nghin cu k thut x l khng gian thi gian bng Anten thng
minh.
Anten thng minh nhiu cp phc tp khc nhau c ng dng
trong qun s t kh lu, nhng mi thc s c nghin cu s dng trong
-28-

cc h thng thng tin di ng trong thi gian gn y [17, 29, 36, 38, 55].
Vic tng tnh nh hng ca bp sng c th lm tng dung lng (thng
c p dng trong thnh ph) v m rng vng ph sng (p dng cho vng
nng thn). Nh s dng nhiu bp sng, anten thng minh gip trit nhiu
tt hn do em li nhng u im sau cho h thng: [4, 17, 21, 22, 37]
- Cho php s dng mu ti s dng tn s cht hn;
- C th ci thin cht lng thng tin thoi trn t nh tng t s C/I;
- C th gim hiu ng a ng, do gim yu cu d tr cng sut.
Vic x l tn hiu trn anten mng c th da trn hai k thut chnh l
phn tp hoc to bp. Vi k thut phn tp, tn hiu cc nhnh anten khc
nhau c gi thit l khng tng quan, ngha l ch tiu h thng cng tt
khi mc tng quan ca tn hiu cc nhnh cng nh. Trong khi , k
thut to bp li da trn gi thit l tn hiu cc nhnh tng quan vi nhau
[1, 25, 34]. Chnh v vy khong cch gia cc phn t trong anten ca h
thng to bp sng nh hn so vi h thng phn tp.
Trn l thuyt, c rt nhiu cc thut ton khc nhau c pht trin
cho anten thng minh trong thng tin di ng [15, 19, 29, 36, 38]. Tuy nhin,
do tnh cht thay i lin tc ca mi trng thng tin di ng, cng nh
nhng hn ch v kh nng x l ca thit b thc t m cc h thng th
nghim u ch s dng cc thut ton kinh in nh trung bnh bnh phng
nh nht, bnh phng nh ti thiu qui [27, 34]... Vi h thng CDMA
tri ph trc tip, lun n xut s dng mt thut ton to bp thc hin
kt hp trn c knh hoa tiu v knh lu lng cho php t c tc hi
t nhanh hn.
Lun n cng nghin cu hiu qu ca vic s dng anten thng minh
i vi cu hnh h thng GSM hin ang c trin khai [4, 5, 7], lm c s
xut s dng mu ti s dng tn s mi khi trin khai anten thng
-29-

minh cho mng GSM Vit Nam v xem xt nh gi nh hng ca pha-
inh v che khut vi trng hp nhiu ng knh trong mng thng tin di
ng t ong thc t.
Phn tch su sc hn na, ta thy rng k thut phn tp thu da trn
vic kt hp cc tn hiu khng tng quan (do pha-inh khng tng quan)
thu c t cc phn t khc nhau ca anten mng, h thng phn tp khng
lm tng ch tiu trong mi trng tp Gauss trng cng - AWGN [16,17].
Khi mc nhiu a truy nhp trong h thng CDMA cao th n l tc nhn
chnh nh hng n ch tiu BER v knh s tin ti xp x knh Gauss nn
hiu qu ca h thng phn tp gim [16, 52, 55]. Trong khi , h thng to
bp (hay thm ch h thng sec-t ho) s lm gim mc nhiu bng cch
loi b nhiu ngi dng khi h thng, lm cho ch tiu BER tt hn [10].
Khi s ngi dng t v knh b pha-inh mnh (nh trng hp truyn sng
iu kin khng nhn thng), h thng to bp khng ci thin c tn hiu
thu do khng b sung c thng tin mi no vo tn hiu thu c, m ch
hn ch c nhiu a truy nhp. Do , h thng to bp khng lm tng ch
tiu nhiu. Tri li, h thng phn tp kt hp c mt s tn hiu b pha-
inh mnh s lm ci thin ch tiu h thng, c bit khi pha-inh c tc
ng mnh hn nh hng ca nhiu a truy nhp.[9]
Mt h thng phi hp c to bp v phn tp s c c u im ca
vic gim nhiu bp sng m vn c c phn tp thu c bit l trong mi
trng pha inh khi tn hiu ti cc phn t anten mng khng bao gi c th
l tng quan hon ton. y cng l mt xut p dng cho WCDMA ca
lun n, kt qu c thc hin bng m phng v so snh vi cc kt qu
o c s dng ring bit k thut phn tp (DIV) hoc to bp trn h
thng th nghim anten thng minh ti Vin Nghin cu in t v Vin
thng Hn Quc (ETRI) nh gi tin cy ca phng n xut.
-30-

Kt qu m phng cho thy rng trong mi trng nhiu ngi dng,
pha-inh mnh, k thut phi hp c to bp v phn tp cho ch tiu tt hn
h thng to bp gi tr Eb/No ln hn 8dB, mc d di gi tr ny ch tiu
ca h thng to bp vn ln hn. Nh vy, c th thy rng k thut phi
hp c lun n xut s c bit c ngha trin khai cc dch v
truyn d liu tc cao, i hi c t s Eb/No ln.
Kt qu o kim trn h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA IMT-
2000 ti Vin nghin cu ETRI [27] cho trng hp anten-DIV v anten-ABF
c s dng nh gi tin cy ca cc kt qu m phng. Ta thy
rng kt qu o ch tiu cho trng hp anten-DIV rt ging vi kt qu m
phng. Cn trng hp anten-ABF ch tiu o c tt hn kt qu m phng
do h thng o kim s dng 8 anten to bp trong khi kt qu m phng
c thc hin cho ch 4 anten. Nh vy, kt qu m phng l ph hp vi
cc kt qu o kim v chng t c tin cy ca phng n xut. Tuy
nhin, p dng vo thc t cn c nhng nghin cu tip theo v cu trc
c th ca anten mng p ng c cho k thut ny.
-31-

Chng 2. K thut x l i vi anten mng
2.1. K thut phn tp
nh hng ca pha-inh a ng trong cc h thng v tuyn c th
c gim bt bng cch s dng phn tp theo khng gian (anten my thu
gm nhiu phn t). Trong mi trng pha-inh, cng sut sng mang cn
phi pht cao hn cng sut trung bnh c th t c mt t l li bt
(BER) mong mun no . Trong mt anten mng, tn hiu thu c bi cc
phn t khc nhau c th c ly trng s ph hp to ra tn hiu kt hp
bin thin chm hn tng tn hiu thnh phn. Anten mng ny s yu cu
cng sut thp hn so vi trng hp ch s dng anten mt phn t, m vn
t c BER mong mun.
h thng phn tp khng gian hot ng mt cch hiu qu, cc tn
hiu thu c t cc nhnh anten khc nhau phi khng hoc t tng quan
vi nhau nu tn hiu mt phn t b pha-inh su th vn c th phc hi
c bng cch thu n phn t anten khc. iu ny c th thc hin c
bng cch chn khong cch gia cc phn t mt cch ph hp.
Khong cch yu cu gia cc phn t anten m bo khng tng
quan (gii tng quan) ph thuc vo vic ni ghp cp gia cc phn t
anten v v tr ca cc vt tn x gy ra truyn dn a ng. V d, khi
khng c nh hng ca vic ni ghp cp th khong cch cn thit gia cc
phn t anten ca my di ng c cc vt tn x ng nht bao quanh phi l
khong /2. Trong khi , khong cch ny phi l 10 hoc ln hn m
bo gi tr gii tng quan tng ng trm gc. iu kin th hai cn
thit cho k thut phn tp l cng tn hiu trung bnh ca cc ng
truyn phn tp phi xp x bng nhau. Nhng nghin cu su v cc k thut
kt hp tuyn tnh c a ra trong [32] v [53]. Mt s pht trin gn
-32-

y ca vic ng dng phn tp anten trong thng tin di ng c phn tch
trong [55].
Trong phn ny, ta s xem xt c s ca cc k thut kt hp phn tp
khng gian. Gi s cc phn t anten c khong cch ph hp sao cho hon
ton khng c tng quan gia cc nhnh khc nhau (mt nhnh c th c
coi l 1 anten), ta hy xem xt kh nng ci thin ca anten mng vi cc k
thut kt hp phn tp khc nhau; Sau mi phn tch n nh hng ca s
tng quan nhnh gy ra do ni ghp gia cc phn t anten hoc tri gc ca
tn hiu n. Ch tiu BER ca cc c cu iu ch c bn vi anten mng
phn tp cng c nh gi.
C 3 cch c bn kt hp tn hiu:
- Chn lc: B chn lc l phng php n gin nht trong cc k thut
phn tp: t mt tp hp M phn t anten, nhnh c t s tn hiu trn
nhiu ln nht c chn ra v kt ni trc tip ti my thu. Nh vy,
anten mng c M cng ln th kh nng c c t l tn hiu trn
nhiu cng ln.
- T l cc i: Phng php kt hp t l cc i tn dng tt nht kh
nng ca cc nhnh phn tp trong h thng. Tt c M nhnh c
nhn trng s vi cc t s tn hiu tc thi trn nhiu tng ng. Sau
tn hiu t cc nhnh c ng pha trc khi ly tng tn hiu sao
cho tt c cc nhnh c gp vo nhau theo pha sao cho tn hiu u
ra c tng ch phn tp ln nht. Tn hiu tng chnh l tn hiu u ra
thu c ca mng. Phng php T l cc i c nhiu u im so
vi phng php phn tp la chn nhng phc tp hn; do phi m
bo tn hiu t cc nhnh l hon ton ng pha vi nhau v cc trng
s phi c cp nht chnh xc.
-33-

- Tng ch u: L mt bin th ca k thut kt hp t l ti a; Trong
trng hp ny tt c cc gi tr tng ch ca cc nhnh u bng nhau
v khng thay i trong qu trnh hot ng. Ging vi trng hp
trc, u ra s l tng ca cc tn hiu ng pha ca tt c cc nhnh.

Hnh 2.1. Anten mng phn tp M phn t
Tn hiu thu c bi cc phn t c kt hp tuyn tnh nh trong
Hnh 2.1. Trng s kt hp c chn l
*
1
w ,
*
2
w ,...
*
M
w , trong k hiu
*

l biu din lin hp phc. K hiu lin hp phc c s dng trong biu
din trng s ch nhm tin li v mt ton hc u ra kt hp c th c
vit gn l w
H
s. Trong phn ny, gi thit rng cc nhnh l khng tng
quan. Tn hiu thu c mi phn t s khng phi l hng s, m dao ng
theo h s pha-inh. H s pha-inh ph thuc vo tc ca my di ng v
tn s tn hiu v tuyn v c chng minh l xp x bng bin i Doppler
cc i. Bin i Doppler cc i f
dM
tng ng vi tn s f
G
(tnh bng GHz)
v vi my di ng di chuyn tc v l:
f
dM
= 1,4815 f
G
v (2.1)
W
1
* W
2
* Wm* WM*

1 2 ... m M Phn t
d S
n
(t)
u ra kt hp U(t)
-34-

Theo c tnh ca knh v tuyn, thi gian nht qun ca knh v tuyn
xp x bng nghch o ca h s pha-inh. Mi trng a ng gia anten
pht v anten thu c coi nh mt b lc tuyn tnh thay i theo thi gian
v mi nhnh M c c trng ho bng mt hm truyn t thng thp
tng ng T
m
(f;t), m = 1,...,M, vi bin s (agumen) t biu din nhng thay
i theo thi gian ca p ng knh v tuyn v bin s f biu din tnh cht
chn tn ca knh. Gi s rng pha-inh mi nhnh phn tp l khng chn
tn (hay pha-inh phng), ta c th biu din hm truyn t bng
T
m
(f;t)=g
m
(t), trong g
m
(t) l mt i lng thng k Gauss phc trung
bnh-bng khng (zero-mean). Nh vy cc tn hiu thu c cc nhnh
phn tp c th c biu din di dng:
s
m
(t)
] ) ( ) ( [ ] ) ( [
2 2 t f j
m
t f j
m
c c
e t u t g e e t r e

= =

(2.2)
trong : f
c
l tn s sng mang danh nh,
u(t) l ng bao phc ca tn hiu pht, v
r
m
(t) l ng bao phc ca tn hiu thu.
Gi s pha-inh l phng cho trng hp truyn dn bng hp, tr xut
hin trong cc thnh phn a ng u nh hn nhiu so vi khong thi
gian ca mt k hiu. V gi s rng khong thi gian ca k hiu T
s
nh hn
nhiu so vi nghch o ca tc pha-inh sao cho mu pha-inh trn l
khng thay i. thun tin, ta chun ho tn hiu pht sao cho cng sut
trung bnh l hng s
1 | ) ( |
1
) | ) ( (|
2 /
2 /
2 2
= =

dt t u
T
t u E
s
s
T
T s
T (2.3)
trong :
E
T
l ton t k vng-thi gian hay trung bnh-theo thi gian.
-35-

ng bao phc ca tp cng trong nhnh my thu th m c gi thit
l
m
(t) vi mt trung bnh trn mi khong thi gian k hiu hoc di hn
bng
mo m m T
P P t u t E = = =
2 2
| ) ( |
2
1
) | ) ( (|
2
1
(2.4)
trong :
- du ngoc nhn biu din trung bnh thng k, v
- gi thit rng mi P
m
u bng P
mo
.
Ta nh ngha t s sng mang-trn-tp (CNR) tc thi (
m
) v trung bnh
(
m
) cho nhnh th m l:

m

moinhanh ptrungbinh congsuatta
moinhanh gbinhcucbo ngmangtrun congsuatso

= (2.5)

mo
m T
P
t r E ) | ) ( |
2
1
(
2
= (2.6)

mo
m
P
t g
2
| ) ( |
2
, (do g
m
(t) hng s trn T
s
) (2.7)

m

moinhanh ptrungbinh congsuatta
kemoinhanh gbinhthong ngmangtrun congsuatso

= (2.8)
=
m

mo
o
P
P

= (2.9)
trong : P
o
l cng sut trung bnh thng k bng |g
m
|
2
/2 trn khong pha-
inh (khong thi gian nht qun).
Ch rng do php chun ho (2.3), ta s dng vng cc b ca
ng bao tn hiu thu c trn mi nhnh l:
2 2 2 2
| ) ( | | ) ( | | ) ( (| ) | ) ( (| t g t u t g E t r E
m m T m T
= (2.10)
Nh vy, |g
m
(t)| c th c coi l ng bao trung bnh cc b ca tn
hiu thu c. Gi s pha-inh l pha-inh Rayleigh, hm mt xc xut
cho ng bao tn hiu thu c l: [27]
-36-

p(|g
m
|) =
o m
P g
o
m
e
P
g
2 / | |
2 | |

(2.11)
v hm ca
m
l
p(|
m
|) =
m
m
e
m

1
(2.12)
Trong phn sau, ta ch tp trung vo phng php kt hp t l cc i
cho ng ln t my di ng n trm gc. Phng php kt hp t l cc
i hay c s dng trong m phng, c ch tiu tt nht, nhng cng phc
tp nht khi thc hin.
2.1.1. Kt hp t l cc i
Trong k thut kt hp t l cc i (MRC), tn hiu cc nhnh c
ly trng s v kt hp sao cho t c CNR tc thi cao nht c th vi cc
k thut kt hp tuyn tnh. S dng phng trnh (2.2), ng bao phc tng
nhnh th m c tp cng
m
(t) c th c vit l
z
m
(t) = g
m
(t)u(t) +
m
(t) (2.13)
Nu tn hiu thu c c ly trng s bng w
m
* th u ra kt hp U(t)
ca mng l:
U(t) = w
H
z = u(t)w
H
g + w
H
, (2.14)
trong :

H
k hiu lin hp Hermitian (lin hp phc, chuyn v),
w = [w
1
,...,w
m
]
T
, = [
1
,...,
m
]
T
, g = [g
1
,...,g
m
]
T
.
Gi s rng mi thnh phn tp l c lp vi nhau, th tng cng sut
tp u ra P
mo
(o/p) l:
P
mo
(o/p)=
2
1
|w
H
|
2
=
m
M
m
m
P w
2
1
| * |

=
(2.15)
Do CNR u ra tc thi l:
-37-

( )

=
=
=
=
N
n
m
m
M
m
m
m
M
m
m
m
H
T
P w
g w
P w
g w t u E
1
2 *
2
1
*
1
2 *
2
| |
2
1
| |
| ) ( |
2
1

(2.16)
Cc trng s ti u c xc nh khi cc bin thin trong lin quan
n phn thc v phc ca w
m
bng khng. Ni cch khc, cc trng s ny
c th thu c bng cch p dng bt ng thc Schwarz vo phng trnh
(2.16). Vit w
m
= + j v tch hon ton theo hai tham s v v t
bng khng ta c:
w
m
* =
m
m
P
g
*
(2.17)
vi ngha l cc tn hiu ny phi c kt hp vi trng s t l thun vi
lin hp phc ca tn hiu cc nhnh v t l nghch vi cng sut tp trn
cc nhnh . Nh vy, cc nhnh c CNR cao s c ly trng s ln hn
cc nhnh c CNR thp. Cng cn ch rng cc tn hiu ly trng s u
cng pha v l cng nht qun. CNR u ra vi cc trng s trn l:

= =
= =

=
=
=
M
m
m
M
m
m
m
P g
P g
P
g
M
m
m m
M
m
m m
1 1
2
/ | * |
/ | |
| |
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2

(2.18)
i lng ny c coi l tng CNR ca tng nhnh. Vic thc hin b
kt hp t l cc i s tn km do cc trng s cn bm c bin v pha ca
p ng knh (g
m
(t)s). Hn na, cn c cc b chuyn pha v b khuych i
tuyn tnh trn mt di dng rng cc tn hiu u vo. Do , k thut kt
hp t l cc i mang tnh l thuyt cao v thng c dng c dng
so snh vi cc ch tiu ca cc k thut kt hp tuyn tnh khc.
Do biu din tng trong (2.18), cc phn b thng k ca CNR u ra
trong trng hp ny c th c d dng rt ra t hm c trng ca n. Mt
-38-

ln na, trng hp m mi nhnh c CNR trung bnh bng nhau li tip tc
c xem xt. Do mi CNR u l i lng dng, vic dng bin i
Laplace xc nh hm c trng s tin hn so vi bin i Fourier. Xt
bin i Laplace F(s)

= = =
M
m
s s mrc
M
s
m m
e e d P e s F
1
0
) ( ) (



S dng hm mt xc sut trong (2.12), ta c

=
+
=
M
m m
s
s F
1
1
1
) (
(2.19)
Nghch o Laplace ca phng trnh trn cho ta hm mt xc sut
) (
mrc
M
p . Vy, hm mt xc sut cho b kt hp t l cc i M-nhnh l:

+

=
+
=
j c
j c
M
m
m
s
mrc
M
ds
s
e
j
p
1
) 1 (
2
1
) (

, c 0
=


/
1
)! 1 (
1

e
M
M
M
,
m
= (2.20)
Hm mt xc sut ny c phn b Erlang [48] do cng M phn b
theo hm m c lp v ging nhau. CNR trung bnh u ra ca b kt hp
l
=
= =
= =
M
m
M
m
n
M
1 1

(2.21)
Hm phn b tch lu (c.d.f) tng ng l


= = < =
/
0
1
0
)! 1 (
1
) ( ) ( ob Pr ) (
s s
dx e x
M
d p P
x M mrc
M s s
mrc
M



=

=

|
.
|

\
|

1
0
/
!
1
1
M
m
m
s
m
e
s

(2.22)
-39-

=

=

|
.
|

\
|

M m
m
s
m
e
s
!
1
/

(2.23)
=
1
/
1
)! 1 (
) (

|
.
|

\
|

M
s
s
mrc
M
M
e
P
s


(2.24)
Hnh 2.2 trnh by hnh v hm phn b tch lu ) (
mrc
M
P ca k thut kt
hp t s cc i vi M l tham s. Ta thy rng 99% d tin cy phn tp t l
cc i tit kim 12dB cng sut vi hai nhnh v tit kim 19 dB vi bn
nhnh. Cng cn ch rng hm mt xc sut b gii hn khi M -> . T
(2.20) v (2.21), d dng thy rng hm mt xc sut tim cn hm delta
vi M ln
) ( ) ( lim ) ( = =
>

mrc
M
m
mrc
P P (2.25)
Tc l, hm mt xc sut ny gim n hm ca tn hiu thu c
trong mi trng khng gian t do khng c pha-inh.
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


P
m
r
c
M
(
g
a
m
a
s
)
10log(gama
s
/I
_
)
M=1
M=2
M=3
M=4

Hnh 2.2. Hm phn b tch lu (c.d.f) ca
s
so vi
s
/ cho k thut
kt hp t l cc i.
-40-

Ch tiu ca mi k thut iu ch s iu kin phn tp c th c
nh gi bng cch xem xt t l li bt (BER) vi khng i v ly trung
bnh kt qu trn hm mt xc sut ca . V d, vi iu ch BPSK nht
qun, BER cho k thut kt hp t l cc i vi gi thit tp ging nhau trn
mi nhnh l:





= =
0
/
1
0
)! 1 (
1
) (
2
1
) (



d e
M
erfc d p P P
M
M
mrc
M BPSK
mrc
BPSK

=
0
1
) (
)! 1 ( 2
1
dx e x x erfc
M
x M

=

=
|
.
|

\
| + +
|
.
|

\
|

M
m
m M
m
m M
M
0
2
1
!
)! 1 (
2
1
)! 1 (
1
(2.26)
~
)! 1 ( !
)! 1 2 (
4
1

|
.
|

\
|
M M
M
M
vi >> 1 (2.27)
trong

+
=
+

=
M 1
(2.28)
Ta thy rng BER gim theo t l 1/
M
vi M v ln. Ti gii hn
khi M ->, BER bng
nh khongphadi
BPSK
mrc
BPSK
P erfc P = = ) (
2
1

(2.29)
Kt qu ny ng nh mong mun v u ra ca b kt hp s tin ti
mt gi tr bn (n nh) khi M ln. Hnh 2.3 trnh by hnh v BER so vi
= M cho BPSK vi M l tham s.
-41-

-10 0 10 20 30
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
-10 0 10 20 30
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


B
E
R
<gama>=(MI
_
) (dB)
khong pha-dinh
M=4
M=2
M=1

Hnh 2.3. BER so vi = M khi M thay i
2.1.2. Tng ch phn tp
Tng ch phn tp ca mt mng M-phn t c xc nh bi phn ci
thin nng lng ng truyn ng vi mt ch tiu k thut nht nh khi s
dng k thut phn tp. Ch tiu k thut ny thng l t l li bt (BER). V
d, trong Hnh 2.3, ta thy rng c BER bng 10
-2
vi BPSK nht qun, t
s tn hiu trn tp (CNR) trung bnh phi l 4,3 dB v 13,8 dB tng ng khi
khng c v c pha-inh Rayleigh. Nh vy, cng sut u ra trung bnh
trong trng hp c Pha-inh Rayleigh phi cao hn 9,5 dB. Vic dng 2
anten (tc l 2 nhnh phn tp) gim yu cu v cng sut xung 8,4 dB, v ta
c th ni rng mng 2 phn t to ra tng ch phn tp l 5,4 dB (=13,8-8,4).
R rng l tng ch phn tp cc i c th t c vi nhiu anten kt hp t
l cc i l 9,5 dB mc BER ny, v gi tr ny s t tim cn vi M ln
nh chng minh trong (2.29). Ta cng thy rng tc tng ca tng ch phn
tp gim khi M tng. Do tng ch phn tp khi M di chuyn t M=10 n
M=20 thp hn nhiu khi M chy t 1 n 2.
-42-

2.1.3. Tng ch anten
Ta cn phn bit r tng ch phn tp vi tng ch anten (c nh ngha
l t s ca t s sng mang-trn-tp u ra ca mng trn t s sng mang-
trn-tp u ra ca mt phn t i vi cc tn hiu u vo c tnh tng
quan cao- v d nh mt sng ti phng). Nh bit vi mt sng ti phng,
p ng cc phn t khc nhau ch khc nhau bi mt h s exp(j), trong
= k
o
dcos ph thuc vo khong cch cc phn t, tn s cao tn, v
gc ti ca sng phng so vi trc ca anten mng. Tn hiu u vo cho tng
ch anten s c gi thit l c dng u(t)
o
P 2 [1, exp(j), exp(j2), ...,
exp(j[M-1])]
T

o
P t u 2 ) (

= , trong P
o
l cng sut trung bnh ca mi
nhnh. Vi k thut kt hp chn lc, ch mt nhnh c kch hot ti mt
thi im, do khng c tng ch anten. trng hp kt hp t l cc i
v kt hp tng ch u cc trng s tng ng s bng hoc l mt phn ca
w=
o
P 2 /P
mo
, trong P
mo
l cng sut tp u vo mi nhnh. Tn hiu
kt hp cng vi in p tp cho mt sng phng ti l:
U(t) = ] ) ( 2 [
2

H H
o
mo
o
t u P
P
P
+ =
H
mo
o
mo
o
P
P
t u
P
MP 2
) (
2
+ (2.30)
Cng sut sng mang trung bnh u ra l E
T
(|[2MP
o
u(t)/P
mo
]
2
|)/2 =
2M
2
(P
o
/P
mo
)
2
, trong khi cng sut tp u ra l P
o
2
/
mo
H H
P =2MP
o
/P
mo
,
gi s tp l khng tng quan cc nhnh v dng ) (
2
t
m
=2
mo
P . CNR u
ra khi bng:
mo
o
P
MP
= (2.31)
T ta thy r rng l tng ch anten mng bng M. Ch rng mc ci
thin CNR trung bnh ca b kt hp t l cc i l nh nhau bt k cc
-43-

nhnh c tng quan vi nhau hay khng. Vn ny s c tip tc cp
chi tit hn phn sau.
Kt qu trn cng c th thu c t l thuyt anten chun. L thuyt
ny d on mc nh hng ca mt anten mng theo di ca n. S
nh hng ca mt mng theo chiu rng, phn b u M phn t ph thuc
vo d/ vi h s M. Vi d = n/2, n l s nguyn, nh hng ca mng
bng M. Vi cc khong cch khc gia cc phn t, nh hng dao ng
quanh M, tin ti tim cn M d/ ln. Vi d = n, trong n l s nguyn,
nh hng b gim mnh do tc ng ca cc bp bn.
2.1.4. nh hng ca tng quan nhnh
Ch tiu k thut phn tp s gim khi cc nhnh khng hon ton bt
tng quan vi nhau - vn ny cng c cp trong [32] hoc [53].
S tng quan nhnh c th b nh hng bi mt s yu t nh s gii-tri
gc ca cc sng ti hay vic ni ghp cp gia cc phn t anten. V d, vi
mt sng ti phng, hai nhnh s lun tng quan vi nhau bt k khong
cch gia chng l bao nhiu.
minh ho nh hng ny, ta xt trng hp hai nhnh dng k thut
kt hp t l cc i, tn hiu Gauss phc cc nhnh l tng quan vi nhau
vi h s tng quan phc l
12
. H s ny xc nh mc tng quan gia
cc tn hiu thu c hai im cch nhau mt khng cch d. Vi sng phng
t mt phng xy, h s tng quan ny c nh ngha l:

cos
12
d jk
o
e

= (2.32)
trong :
- du ngoc nhn biu th trung bnh thng k i vi bin gc .
- d l khong cch tng ng vi khong cch d gia cc phn t trong
Hnh 2.4.
-44-






Hnh 2.4. Hai phn t vi cc tn hiu tng quan

ng bao tng quan gia 2 nhnh l
e
|
12
|
2
. Trong trng hp c
tng quan gia cc nhnh, hm phn b tch lu ca tn hiu kt hp trong
(2.23) s c bin i thnh: [32]
| |
+
+ =
|) | 1 /(
12
|) | 1 /(
12
12
12 12
|) | 1 ( |) | 1 (
| | 2
1
1 ) (

s s
e e P
s
(2.33)
v hm mt xc sut tng ng s tr thnh:
| |
+

=
|) | 1 /( |) | 1 /(
12
12 12
| | 2
1
) (

s s
e e p
(2.34)
CNR trung bnh ca tn hiu kt hp s duy tr = 2 (c lp vi
|
12
|) v c th c kim tra d dng t (2.34). Tuy nhin, phn b ca s
ph thuc vo |
12
| nh thy trong Hnh 2.5. BER cho c cu iu ch c bn
nh BPSK nht qun c th c thc hin nh phn trc v bng

=
0
) ( ) (
2
1
d p erfc P
e

(
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+ =
|) | 1 (
1
1
1
1 |) | 1 (
|) | 1 (
1
1
1
1 |) | 1 (
| | 4
1
12
12
12
12
12

(2.35)

12



d
-45-

-20 -10 0 10
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
-20 -10 0 10
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


P
(

s
)
10log(
s
/I
_
)
|ro12|2 =0.00
|ro12|2=0.50
|ro12|2=0.75
|ro12|2=1.00

Hnh 2.5. nh hng ca tng quan nhnh ln phn b cng sut u ra
b kt hp t l cc i gm 2 nhnh phn tp.
Vi trng hp c bit l tng quan hon ho, tc l
12
=1, biu din
trn c th rt gn tng ng vi trng hp M=1 (ch c 1 nhnh anten). H
s tng quan ph thuc vo phn b ca sng ti theo gc t - ph thuc vo
v tr phn b ca cc vt tn x nm gia anten pht v anten thu. Nu cc
sng ti phn b ng u theo mt phng nm ngang t mi gc, nh i
vi trng hp my thu di ng nm trong mi trng c nhiu vt tn x
xung quanh, th c th p dng m hnh 2D Clarke c in. Ngc li, cc
sng thu c trm gc trn cao s c hng ti nm trong mt gc tng
i hp, v ta cn dng m hnh tn x trn m t trng hp ny. Trong
m hnh tn x trn, cc vt tn x c gi thit l phn b u trong ng
trn bn knh R quanh my di ng. Sng truyn t my di ng n trm gc
c coi nh truyn qua mt cnh tn x ca vt tn x. Do vng tn x l
hu hn, cc sng pht ra t my di ng s ti trm gc trong phm vi mt
gc nh quanh hng t trm gc ti my di ng. Nu khong cch gia
-46-

my di ng v trm gc l D, th tng quan khng gian gia hai phn t vi
m hnh tn x trn l:
D dR k
D dR k J
o
o
/
) / (
2
1
12
= (2.36)
trong : J
n
(
.
) l hm Bessel loi mt bc n.
Gc tri ca sng ti s ph thuc vo kch thc tng i ca R v D.
S dng d/ = 5, ch tiu BER c tnh t (2.35) cho cc gi tr tri gc
khc nhau c trnh by trong Hnh 2.6 theo (tnh bng dB). Vi m
hnh chn, cn trung bnh bnh phng tri gc l 1
o
(xt t trm gc)
lm tng ng bao tng quan ln bng 0,74. R rng l, khi tri gc
tng, tn hiu cc nhnh t tng quan hn v ng BER tin ti ng
phn tp 2-nhnh (
12
=0) l tng. So snh vi Hnh 2.3, ta thy rng khi gi
tr cn trung bnh bnh phng ca tri gc bng 2
o
th hai tn hiu hu nh
khng tng quan vi nhau. gi tr BER=10
-2
, tng ch phn tp cho trng
hp phn tp 2-nhnh gim i khong 5 dB (= 14-9 dB) khi tn hiu thay i
t khng tng quan sang tng quan hon ton.
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


P
e
<
s
>=2I
_
phi rms=0 (ro=1)
phi rms=0.5 (ro=0.93)
phi rms=1 (ro=0.74)
phi rms=1.5 (ro=0.49)
phi rms=2 (ro=0.26)

Hnh 2.6. BER so vi (dB) ca b kt hp t l cc i 2 nhnh c pha-
inh tng quan
-47-

2.2. K thut to bp sng
2.2.1. Chuyn bp sng
Anten chuyn bp sng gm nhiu bp sng k nhau m u ra ca
chng c th thay i chiu ti mt hoc nhiu my thu nht nh. Do ,
mt trong h thng s c chia nh bi mt nhm cc bp sng lin tc.
Anten mng bm pha ng cng c th c coi l mt loi anten chuyn bp
sng, nhng n s dng thm thng tin hng ti t ngi dng mong mun
quay hng cc i bp sng v pha ngi nn c ch tiu tt hn
anten chuyn bp sng thng thng. Cn i vi anten thch nghi, cu trc
bp sng c th bin i thch nghi vi mi trng tn hiu cao tn, nh
hng bp sng ti ngi s dng mong mun, ng thi lm suy gim tng
ch anten hng gy nhiu. Tuy c ch tiu tt hn, nhng anten mng thch
nghi thng phi s dng nhng x l s phc tp nn c chi ph tn km
hn h thng chuyn bp sng.
H thng chuyn bp sng n gin ch bao gm mt mch to bp
sng, mt chuyn mch cao tn c iu khin logic chn bp sng mong
mun. Mi my thu phi c mt c ch la chn bp sng c th chn
c bp sng mong mun da vo cc vector trng s nh. C ch
la chn bp sng hiu qu l kh phc tp v tu thuc vo phng php
truy nhp theo CDMA, TDMA hay FDMA.
Anten chuyn bp sng to ra mt tp hp c nh cc bp sng tng
i hp. u ra cao tn ti cc bp sng ny c th l tn hiu cao tn hoc tn
hiu qua x l bng gc s. Mi vng ph d qut (120
o
) c phc v bi
mt mng cc chn t pht x ni vi nhau qua mch chuyn bp sng. Trong
trng hp l tng, cc bp sng c to ra l c lp vi nhau. S bp
sng c th thay i, v d: su bp sng c rng 20
o
hay bn bp sng c
rng 30
o
cho mi vng ph d qut.
-48-

Vi anten mng tuyn tnh, rng bp sng theo phng nm ngang
c xc nh bi chiu di ca mng v bc sng. chiu thng ng, cc
phn t anten c xp chng ln nhau gim rng bp sng theo chiu
ny. iu cng lm tng tng ch anten v tng ch ny phc thuc vo c
rng bp sng theo chiu nm ngang v thng ng. Tng ch c th tnh
bng:
G = G
d
(,) (2.37)
trong :
l hiu sut anten,
G
d
l tng ch nh hng,
v l rng bp sng tng ng theo phng nm ngang v thng
ng, tnh bng [
o
].
Mch thng dng nht to lp bp sng trong k thut chuyn bp
sng l ma trn Butler [49]. Ma trn to bp sng Butler ca h thng 8 bp
sng lin tip c 8 cng vo v 8 cng ra. y l mt cu trc thun nghch,
mi u c th l c u vo hoc u ra cao tn. Ma trn ny gm 4 b
chuyn i hay b ni ghp cp theo hng v cc b chuyn pha c nh th
ng. S lng mi loi phc thuc vo s bp sng pht ra. V d, vi anten
mng tuyn tnh M phn t, s lng b ni ghp cp l:
c = (M/2) log
2
M (2.38)
trong : M l s bp sng.
S b chuyn pha s nh l:
s = M/2 log
2
(M-1) (2.39)
Khi s cng (bp sng) ln, th gi tr trn l kh ln. Tuy nhin, trong
cc ng dng thng tin di ng t ong, gi tr ny mc c th chp nhn
c.
-49-

Cc mng Butler c th lp ln mi mu bp sng l bi s nhn ca 2: 2,
4, 8, 16, 32 .v.v. S bp sng s bng s phn t ca mng. Cc k thut to
bp sng c th s dng trong cc mng hai chiu bng cch phi hp u ra
cc ct phn t anten thnh cc ma trn, sau phi hp cc u ra ca ma
trn ct ny thnh mt nhm ma trn hng.
gia bng thng ca anten, khi khong cch gia cc phn t anten bng
1/2 di bc sng, v tr ca bp sng tnh bng:
sin = 2k - 1 / M (2.40)
trong : l gc lch, v
k l s bp sng
rng bp sng v khong cch bp sng bin i ngc nhau so vi
tn s, nn c th duy tr mc giao ct khng i gia cc bp sng.
Ngoi x l bng k thut tng t (analog) nh trn, anten chuyn bp
sng cng c th c thc hin bng k thut x l s. Khi , tn hiu cao
tn c bin i xung trung tn, ri xung bng gc. Sau c chuyn
i thnh tn hiu s trong b chuyn i tng t/s (A/D). Tn hiu ny tip
tc c x l my thu s ri chuyn n mch to bp sng s.
Cc h thng anten thng minh chuyn bp sng c u im l n gin
v chi ph khng qu cao, nhng vn c mt s nhc im sau:
- Th nht l khng trnh c nhiu ca cc thnh phn a ng n t
cc hng gn vi hng ca tn hiu mong mun, do h thng da vo
mch to bp sng c nh m thng nhy cm vi tn x gc ca cc
thnh phn a ng hn l cc h thng da vo cc b x l mng thch
nghi.
- Th hai l khng c kh nng li dng c u im ca phn tp a
ng bng cch kt hp cc thnh phn a ng.
-50-

- Th ba l cng sut nhn c t thu bao s b thng ging khi thu bao
di chuyn vng trn quanh trm gc do hin tng v s (scalloping) -
mt ng ng mc ca gin phng hng anten ph thuc hng
ti thay i theo ng knh ca mi bp sng c to ra bi mch to
bp sng; Thng thng cc mch ny to ra cc bp sng an cho nhau,
do cng tn hiu ca thu bao thay i khi thu bao di chuyn t
gia bp sng n bin vng ph ca mt bp sng no .
Mc d c nhng nhc im nh trn song h thng chuyn bp sng
vn c s dng ph bin v cc l do sau:
- C kh nng m rng phm vi ph sng t cc h thng phc tp. Tu
theo mi trng truyn sng, cc h thng chuyn bp sng c th lm
gim tri tr, h tr mi trng thu bao tc cao...
- V vic to bp sng c nh l trng hp n gin nht ca k thut
Anten thng minh nn chi ph thit k v vn s dng cc h thng ny
s thp hn cc k thut phc tp khc.
Kh nng tng dung lng khi s dng anten thng minh chuyn bp
sng trong cc h thng thng tin di ng c nh gi c th trong Chng
3. Vi anten thch nghi, chc chn ch tiu h thng t c cn tt hn na.
2.2.2. To bp sng thch nghi
K thut to bp sng thch nghi cho php hiu chnh mt cch mm do
gin phng hng ca anten mng ti u mt s c tnh ca tn hiu
thu c. Trong qu trnh quay bp sng, bp sng chnh ca mng c th
thay i hng mt cch lin tc hoc theo tng bc nh.
Anten mng s dng k thut to bp sng thch nghi c th loi b tn
hiu gy nhiu c hng ti khc hng tn hiu mong mun. Anten mng a
phn cc cng c th loi b cc tn hiu gy nhiu c cc trng thi phn cc
khc trng thi phn cc ca tn hiu mong mun, ngay c khi chng c cng
-51-

hng ti vi tn hiu mong mun. Nhng kh nng c bit ny c th c
s dng ci thin dung lng ca h thng thng tin v tuyn.
Dng hnh hc ca anten mng v cc yu t khc nh gin phng
hng, hng, phn cc ca cc phn t u c nh hng trc tip n ch
tiu cht lng ca anten mng.
Cc trng s phc ca mi phn t trong anten mng c th c tnh
ton nhm ti u mt s c tnh ca tn hiu thu c. iu ny khng phi
lun lun thc hin c; ngay c vi mt anten mng c mt bp sng nh
hng ti a theo tn hiu mong mun vn c th khng to ra c tn hiu
anten mng u ra ti u. Thng thng, vic ti u anten mng c thc
hin bng cch to ra cc bp c gi tr bng khng (null) theo hng tn hiu
gy nhiu. K thut to bp sng thch nghi l mt php lp xp x ca to
bp sng ti u.
Vi mt anten mng tng qut, tn hiu u ra ca mng y(t) l tng c
trng s ca cc tn hiu nhn c s
i
(t) cc phn t mng c gin
phng hng g
m
(, ) (tng ch) v tp m nhit n(t) t cc my thu ni vi
cc phn t (Hnh 2.7). Trong trng hp chng ta ang xt, s
1
(t) l tn hiu
mong mun, v c L tn hiu khc c xem nh l ngun gy nhiu. Trong
mt h thng thch nghi, trng s w
m
c xc nh theo phng php lp da
trn tn hiu u ra y(t), mt tn hiu tham kho d(t) l tn hiu gn ng ca
tn hiu mong mun, v cc trng s qu kh (c xc nh cc bc lp
trc). Tn hiu tham kho c gi thit l ging ht vi tn hiu mong
mun. Trong thc t gi thit ny c th t c hoc gn ng khi chng ta
s dng mt chui hun luyn hoc chui ng b hoc mt m tri ph
CDMA m c my thu bit trc.
y, ta s xc nh cc thnh phn trng s ti u cho php ti thiu
ho li bnh phng trung bnh (t) gia tn hiu u ra ca anten mng v tn
-52-

hiu tham kho. Tn hiu mong mun s
1
(t), L tn hiu gy nhiu, v tp m
Gauss trng cng c coi l cng mt ngun. Gin phng hng khng
nht thit phi ging nhau i vi mi phn t anten.


Hnh 2.7. Anten mng thch nghi
u ra ca mng c tnh bng:
y(t)=w
H
x(t) (2.41)
trong w
H
l bin i lin hp phc chuyn v ca vect trng s w.
2.2.2.1. Vect p ng ca mng
Vect p ng ca mng i vi mt tn hiu c hng ti l ) , ( v
trng thi phn cc P c th c vit nh sau:
(
(
(
(
(

=
) , , (
:
) , , (
) , , (
) , , (
2
1
2
1
P g e
P g e
P g e
P a
M
j
j
j
M



(2.42)
iu khin
-53-

Trong :
m
l dch pha tng ng vi tr pha khng gian ca mt sng phng ca
tn hiu ti theo hng ) , ( , v
) , , ( P g
m
l h s gin phng hng anten ca phn t th m.
2.2.2.2. Vt khng gian-phn cc
Vt khng gian-phn cc l p ng tng ca mng i vi tn hiu c N
thnh phn a ng v c biu din nh sau:

=
=
N
n
n n n n
P a
1
) , , (
(2.43)
Trong :

n
l bin v pha ca thnh phn th n.

n n n
P , , l gc ti v trng thi phn cc ca thnh phn th n.
2.2.2.3. Ma trn vt khng gian-phn cc
p ng ca mng i vi nhiu tn hiu (trong trng hp mt tn hiu
mong mun v L tn hiu gy nhiu) c th c biu din theo ma trn vt
khng gian-phn cc. Cc ct ca ma trn l cc vt khng gian-phn cc ca
bn thn cc tn hiu. Ma trn c vit nh sau:
| |
| |
i d
L
U U
U
|
... |
1 2 1
=
=
+

(2.44)
Trong :
U
d
l p ng i vi tn hiu mong mun s
1
(t),
U
i
l p ng i vi cc tn hiu gy nhiu.
u ra ca M my thu trc khi thc hin nhn trng s l:
x(t)=U s(t)+n(t) (2.45)
-54-

2.2.2.4. Tn hiu v tp m
Cc tn hiu ti (bt k hng ti v phn cc) c th c vit l:
1 2 +1
( ) =[ ( ), ( ),..., ( )] =[ ( ) | ( )]
T T
L d i
s t s t s t s t s t s t
(2.46)
Trong :
s
d
(t)=s
1
(t) l tn hiu mong mun, v
s
i
(t) l cc tn hiu cn li (tn hiu gy nhiu).
Trong trng hp tt c cc tn hiu c xem nh khng tng quan
vi nhau v c dng s
k
(t)=
k
s u
k
(t)e
jt
trong
k
s l bin ca tn hiu
v u
k
(t) l tn hiu iu ch bng gc chun. Tp m ti M my thu c tnh
bng:
n(t) = [n
1
(t), n
2
(t), ...,n
M
(t)]
T
(2.47)
Tp m ti cc nhnh my thu khc nhau l khng tng quan.
2.2.2.5. Trng s ti u
ti u cc trng s mi phn t, chng ta cn gim thiu li trung
bnh bnh phng gia u ra ca mng v tn hiu chun d(t). Vic ti u
ho SINR s lm cho cc trng s lch i mt i lng nhn v hng so vi
cc trng s trnh by y. X l chnh lch ny nh i vi trng hp cc
phn t ng hng, v nghim ca cc trng s ti u l [78]:
-1
=
opt xx xd
w R r
(2.48)
trong :
) ( ) ( t x t x R
H
xx
= l ma trn hip bin (covariance) ca tn hiu, v
) ( ) (
*
t x t d r
xd
= l ma trn tng quan cho gia d(t) v x(t)
Kt qu ny ging vi biu din cc trng s ti u i vi anten mng
bao gm cc phn t ng hng [78]. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp ny, R
xx
,
r
xd
, v do c w
opt
u ph thuc vo gc ti ca L+1 tn hiu, v gin
phng hng ca cc phn t.
-55-

Nh vy, vn l cn cp nht trng s ti u vi mt thut ton no
c ch tiu tt nhng vn m bo c kh nng thc hin vi thit b thc
t.
2.2.3. Cc thut ton thch nghi
Cc thut ton to bp thch nghi thc hin cc php lp tin ti xp x
cc trng s ti u ni trn. C rt nhiu thut ton nh dng thch nghi
c pht trin. u nhc im ca mt s thut ton c bn hay c s
dng trong k thut to bp sng cho thng tin di ng c tm tt sau y.
2.2.3.1. Trung bnh bnh phng nh nht
Thut ton trung bnh bnh phng nh nht (LMS) s dng phng
php c bc gim dn v tnh ton vect trng s quy s dng phng
trnh:
] [ ] [ ] 1 [ ) (
1
*
1 1
n p n n w n w
LMS p
+ =
(2.49)
trong :
p
l hng s tng ch v iu khin tc thch nghi.
Thut ton LMS yu cu bit trc thng tin v tn hiu mong mun.
iu ny c th thc hin c trong mt h thng s bng cch pht theo
chu k mt chui hun luyn c my thu bit trc, hoc s dng m tri
ph trong trng hp h thng CDMA tri ph trc tip. Thut ton ny hi
t chm nu di vc-t ring ca R
xx
ln.
u im: Lun lun hi t
Nhc im: Yu cu tn hiu tham kho
2.2.3.2. Nghch o ma trn lin hp ly mu trc tip
Cng thc cp nht trng s trong thut ton ny vn l cng thc (2.48),
nhng R
xx
v r
xd
c nh gi t d liu c ly mu trn mt khong
thi gian xc nh. nh gi cc tham s ny l:
-56-

, ) ( ) (

2
1

=
=
N
N i
H
xx
i x i x R
(2.50)

=
=
2
1
) ( ) ( *
N
N i
xd
i x i d r
(2.51)
u im: Lun lun hi t; Tc hi t nhanh hn LMS.
Nhc im: Yu cu tn hiu tham kho; tnh ton phc tp
2.2.3.3. Thut ton bnh phng ti thiu quy
Thut ton bnh phng ti thiu qui (RLS) c lng R
xx
v r
xd
s
dng cc tng trng s nh sau:
(2.52)
v (2.53)
Nghch o ma trn hip bin c th thc hin bng cch quy, v iu
ny dn n phng trnh cp nht trng s:
)] ( ) 1 ( ) ( * )[ ( ) 1 ( ) ( n x n w n d n q n w n w
H
+ = (2.54)
trong :
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( 1
) ( ) 1 (
) (
1 1
1 1
n x n R n x
n x n R
n q
xx
H
xx
+

=

(2.55)
v
)] 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( [
1 1 1 1
=

n R n x n q n R R
xx xx xx
(2.56)
u im: Lun lun hi t; Tc hi t nhanh gp 10 ln so vi LMS
Nhc im: Yu cu nh gi ban u v R
xx
-1
v tn hiu tham kho.
2.2.3.4. Cc thut ton quyt nh trc tip
Trong thut ton quyt nh trc tip, cc trng s c th c cp nht
bng bt k thut ton no trn, nhng tn hiu chun c ly ra t qu
-57-

trnh thc hin gii iu ch tn hiu y(t), tc l khng yu cu thng tin
chun t bn ngoi. Tuy nhin, thut ton ny khng m bo s hi t v y(t)
c th khc d(t).
2.2.3.5. Thut ton hng s theo khi
Thut ton hng s theo khi l thut ton m dc xut bi Goddard,
Treichler v Agee [17]. Thut ton ny khng yu cu bit trc thng tin v
tn hiu mong mun. Thay vo , n tn dng cc thuc tnh bin khng
i hoc gn nh khng i ca hu ht cc khun dng iu ch c s
dng trong thng tin v tuyn. Bng cch xem tn hiu thu c c bin
khng i, thut ton hng s theo khi s khi phc c tn hiu mong
mun. Cng thc cp nht trng s c tnh bng:
w(n+1) = w(n) + x(n)
*
(n) (2.57)
trong :
(n) = [1-|y(n)|
2
]y(n)x(n) (2.58)
Khi thut ton hng s theo khi hi t n s hi t ti nghim ti u,
nhng s hi t ca thut ton ny khng c m bo bi v hm chi ph


khng li v c th c cc gi tr cc tiu sai. Mt vn tim n khc l nu
c nhiu hn mt tn hiu c cng mnh, thut ton c th a ra quyt
nh nhm i vi tn hiu khng mong mun. C th khc phc vn ny
nu c thm thng tin v tn hiu mong mun. Cc bin th hin ti ca thut
ton hng s theo khi s dng cc hm chi ph khc nhau.
Thut ton hng s theo khi trung bnh ti thiu l mt bin th ca
thut ton hng s theo khi s dng php nghch o ma trn trc tip.
Trng s c th c tnh ton nh sau:
-1
=
xx xd
w R r
(2.59)
-58-

Trong R
xx
v r
xd
c m t nh (2.48), ngoi tr vic s dng
c lng khi khng i ca tn hiu mong mun l
| | y
y
d =
.
Cc phin bn nhiu ch ca thut ton hng s theo khi s dng qu
trnh trc giao Graham-Schmidt to ra hai hoc nhiu hn tp cc trng s
trc giao. Thut ton hng s theo khi nhiu ch c th phn tch (phn
bit) s tn hiu bng s phn t ca anten mng. C th s dng trc giao
mm hoc trc giao cng. Vi php trc giao cng, ban du, vi anten mng
N phn t, N vc-t trng s trc giao c s dng. Mi vect trng s c
cp nht c lp vi nhau s dng thut ton hng s theo khi nh trong
(2.57) hoc (2.59). Tt c cc vect tr vect u tin c khi to li nh
k nh sau nhm trnh trng hp c nhiu hn mt vect hi t ti cng
mt gi tr.
(2.60)
u im: Khng yu cu tn hiu tham kho
Nhc im: V mt l thuyt, c th khng hi t.
2.2.3.6. Cc k thut khc
Cc phng php to bp sng thch nghi khc c th k n l k thut
khi phc t tng quan ph (SCORE), l mt thut ton thch nghi m s
dng c tnh n nh theo chu k ca tn hiu. B c lung chui ging
nhau nht cng c th c s dng thc hin to bp sng thch nghi.
Trong cc mng thch nghi theo khng gian, ch mt s phn t c ly
trng s thch nghi. K thut ny c nhiu u im i vi anten mng ln.
Hot ng thch nghi theo khng gian cho php mng loi b c cc tn
hiu nhiu v yu cu mc tnh ton t hn so vi trng hp cp nht tt
c cc trng s phn t.
-59-

2.2.3.7. Nhn xt
Ta thy rng mi thut ton khc u c nhng u nhc im ring. Do
tnh cht thay i lin tc ca mi trng thng tin di ng, cng nh nhng
hn ch v kh nng tnh ton tc thi khi thc hin trong thit b thc t m
cc h thng th nghim u ch s dng cc thut ton kinh in khng i
hi qu trnh tnh ton qu phc tp. i li tc hi t ca thun ton c
th chm hn hoc thm ch khng c m bo nh vi trng hp thut
ton hng s theo khi. Phn sau s xut mt thut ton kt hp tn dng
c knh hoa tiu v knh lu lng gii quyt vn trn m khng lm
tng phc tp tnh ton.
2.3. Thut ton to bp thch nghi c h tr ca knh hoa tiu
cho ng ln DS-CDMA
2.3.1. Anten thng minh cho DS-CDMA
Kh nng thc t ca h thng anten thng minh ph thuc vo vic ng
dng cng ngh v tuyn xc nh bng phn mm s dng cc thut ton
phn tp v to bp thch nghi. H thng v tuyn xc nh bng phn mm
thng thng cho h thng anten thng minh gm c cc b i tn xung-
bin i tn hiu thu c v trung tn. Ti , tn hiu tip tc c ly mu
v s ho bi mt b bin i tng t/s (A/D) tc cao. Phn cn li ca
qu trnh x l c thc hin bi phn mm. Mi phn t ca anten mng M
phn t c b i tn xung v bin i tng t/s ring c ni vi mch
to bp sng. Vic gii iu ch c thc hin bi phn mm v c dng
chung cho tt c cc phn t. Qu trnh to bp sng ny c th c thc
hin bng cch s dng cc khi x l s (DSP) hoc phn cng. Thng
thng, ngi ta s dng cc thut ton thch nghi cp nht cc vc-t
trng s. Cc vc-t trng s thng c tnh ton linh hot s dng hoc
-60-

khng s dng chui hng dn. Cc thut ton ph bin hay c s dng
trong thc t l cc thut ton n gin nh cp phn trc.
Bng cch s dng anten mng thng minh trong h thng CDMA, nhiu
ngi s dng hn c th ng thi dng chung mt bng tn; k thut to
bp sng gip mi ngi s dng c c SINR cao hn. Ngoi cc thut
ton n gin nu trn, nhiu thut ton phc tp khc c xut cho
cc h thng DS-CDMA m bo p ng yu cu dung lng cao.
Phn di y s xut mt thun ton m vn dng cc thut ton
kinh in ni trn khng lm tng phc tp tnh ton, nhng c s kt
hp thm ca knh hoa tiu t c ch tiu tt hn. Vi mt h thng
DS-CDMA 3G c th, ta thy rng ng ln ca h thng l nht qun [3].
tch tn hiu nht qun, phi c mt knh hoa tiu ng ln. Do ,
phn ny s xut s dng mt thut ton to bp thch nghi cho ng ln
DS-CDMA nht qun. Thut ton ny khc cc thut ton khc ch c s
h tr thm ca knh hoa tiu.
Ta xt ng ln ca mt h thng DS-CDMA gm c knh hoa tiu v
knh lu lng v s dng tch nht qun trm gc bng anten nhiu phn
t. b mo bin v pha ca tn hiu thu khi i qua cc knh truyn sng
v tuyn, mt tn hiu hoa tiu bit trc s c s dng my thu. Hai
phng php pht tn hiu hoa tiu hay c s dng l: k hiu hoa tiu
hoc knh hoa tiu.
Phng php h tr knh hoa tiu c s dng phc hi mo pha v
bin . Vi knh hoa tiu, nhiu k thut to bp da trn thut ton trung
bnh bnh phng nh nht (LMS), bnh phng ti thiu qui c th c
s dng. Trong xut y, c knh hoa tiu v knh lu lng c s
dng cho k thut to bp sng. Ngoi thut ton LMS cp nht cc trng
s ca b to bp sng cho knh hoa tiu, thut ton hng s theo khi cng
-61-

c s dng tn dng thng tin trn knh lu lng. Nh php cp nht
kt hp ny, tc hi t ca b to bp thch nghi s nhanh hn.
2.3.2. M hnh tn hiu
2.3.2.1. Knh ng ln DS-CDMA nht qun
Xt knh ng ln trong h thng DS-CDMA. Gi s rng c K ngi
s dng trong h thng, mi ngi s dng c t nht hai knh truyn: mt
knh lu lng v mt knh hoa tiu. Knh lu lng th k c th c biu
din bng:
) ; ( ] [ ) ( n nT t d n s A t r
k
n
k k k
=

=
(2.61)
trong :
T l di ca k hiu,
k
A l bin ,
S s
k
l k hiu th n,
) ; ( n t d
k
l dng sng tri ph k hiu th n v knh th k.
y, S l k hiu m S = {1} i vi kho chuyn pha ngh phn
BPSK v S = {(1j)/ 2 } i vi kho chuyn pha t phn QPSK. Dng
sng tri ph c vit l:
) ( ] ; [ ) ; (
1
0
c
N
l
k k
lT t n l c n t d =

=

(2.62)
trong :

c
T l di chp,
N=T/
c
T l tng ch x l,
S n l c
k
) ; ( l phn t th l ca chui tri ph i vi k hiu th
n ca knh th k,
(t) l dng sng chp.
-62-

Ngoi knh lu lng, knh hoa tiu c th c biu din l:
) ; ( ) ( n nT t d s A t r k
n
k
k
=

=
(2.63)
trong :
k A l bin ,
s l k hiu hoa tiu khng i,
) ; ( n t d k l dng sng tri ph ca knh hoa tiu th k.
Trong , sng tri ph c dng:
) ( ] ; [ ) ; (
1
0
c
N
l
k k lT t n l c n t d =

=

(2.64)
trong :
) ; ( n l ck l phn t th l ca chui tri ph i vi knh hoa tiu th k.
Thng thng, bin ca knh lu lng ln hn knh hoa tiu, tc l
k
A > k A . c th tch nht qun, phi ly c thng tin v pha ca knh
pha-inh qua knh hoa tiu.
2.3.2.2. Vc-t vt khng gian
Gi s rng trm gc c trang b mt anten mng c M phn t. K
hiu a() l p ng ca mng i vi mt tn hiu c bin n v vi gc
ti l . l gc tri ca gc ti danh nh . Cng vi knh ny, vt khng
gian c th c xc nh bng:
)
~
(
1
q
Q
q
q
a v + =

=
(2.65)
trong :
|
q

~
| /2,
Q l s tn hiu tn x cc b, v

q
l h s suy hao.
-63-

Nu cu to mng trn v khng ln, t d()=da()/d, ta c th
ly xp x a(+
~
) bng:
a(+ )
~
a()+d() (2.66)
Da vo cng thc (2.66) trn, vic nh gi vt khng gian c
nghin cu trong [36]. Mt khc, nu nh, vt khng gian c th c
vit l:
v=a() (2.67)
trong :

=
=
Q
q
q
1


Ni chung, c th c coi l mt bin ngu nhin.
Cc m hnh cho vc-t khng gian v trn l cc m hnh tham s.
s dng cc m hnh tham s ny, ta cn bit thng tin v hnh dng ca mng
anten. Hn na, cc m hnh tham s ny ch c gi tr khi rt nh. Trong
phn ny, ta khng s dng cc m hnh tham s ca vc-t vt khng gian
xy dng vc-t to bp sng (vc-t to bp sng khng c tnh ton t
cc tham s , , v ). Do , m hnh tham s s khng c xem xt v
khng cn thng tin v hnh dng ca mng anten.
2.3.2.3. M hnh tn hiu vc-t
K hiu v
k
l vt khng gian ca knh th k. Tn hiu thu c khng c
tr truyn sng ca knh lu lng th k c th c vit l:
) ( ) (
k k k k
t r v t r = (2.68)
trong :
k
l tr truyn sng.
Cng thi gian ny, knh hoa tiu cng ti my thu. Knh hoa tiu th k
thu c c th c vit l:
) ( ) (
k k k k
t p v t p = (2.69)
Tn hiu thu c trm gc by gi l:
-64-

) ( ) ) ( ) ( ( ) (
1
t w t p t r t y
K
k
k k
+ + =

=
(2.70)
trong w(t) l tp nn.
2.3.3. Kt hp theo khng gian my thu trm gc
2.3.3.1. Cu trc ca b kt hp
t y[n] biu din chui ly mu ca y(t) t b bin i tng t sang s
(A/D) sau b lc trng kht cho dng sng chip (t). Gi s rng tn hiu
mong mun l tn hiu u tin. Khng lm mt tnh tng qut, ta gi s rng

1
=0. Do , vi dng sng chp hnh ch nht, c th vit: [76]

+
=
c
c
T n
nT
c
dt t y
T
n y
) 1 (
) (
1
] [
(2.71)
Trong phng php tri ph thng thng, vi mt tp cc b tng
quan cho tn hiu truyn dn u tin [r
1
(t) v p
1
(t)], vc-t tn hiu gii tri
ph cho tn hiu knh truyn dn lu lng v hoa tiu th k tng ng bng:
] ; [ ] [
1
] [
*
1
1
0
1
n l c l nN y
N
n r
N
l
+ =

=
(2.72)
v
] ; [ ] [
1
] [
*
1
1
0
1
n l c l nN y
N
n p
N
l
+ =

=
(2.73)
trong : ] ; [
1
n l c l phn t th l ca chui tri ph cho k hiu th n
ca knh hoa tiu th 1 .
T m hnh vc-t tn hiu, ta c:
] [ ] [ ] [
1 , 1 1 1 1
n i n s A v n r
r
+ =
(2.74)
v
] [ ] [
1 , 1 1 1
n i s A v n p
p
+ =
(2.75)
trong ] [
1 ,
n i
r
v ] [
1 ,
n i
p
l chui vc-t nhiu-cng-tp tng ng trong knh
lu lng v hoa tiu. Ch rng
] ; [ ] ; [
*
1
0
n l c n l c
k k
N
l

=
=
N n l c n l c
k k
N
l
=

=
] ; [ ] ; [
*
1
0

-65-

2.3.3.2. Thut ton kt hp cho to bp
c c nh gi k hiu d liu t ] [
1
n r trong (2.74), cn phi c
mt b to bp. nh ngha vc-t trng s ca b to bp cho knh hoa tiu
u tin l:
T
L
w ] ... [
1 , 1 , 2 1 , 1 1
= (2.76)
nh gi k hiu c vit l:
] [ ] [
1 1 1
n r w n s
H
= (2.77)
Trong my thu c b to bp, vc-t trng s
1
w phi c tnh c th
nh gi tt k hiu. Nu bit ] [
1
n s , tiu ch li trung bnh bnh phng
(MSE) c th c s dng tnh
1
w :
| |
2
1 1 1 1 1
| ] [ ] [ | min arg n r w n s A E w
H
w
=
(2.78)
Nhng do khng bit ] [
1
n s , cch tip cn trn l khng th thc hin
c. Tuy nhin, nh c knh hoa tiu, tiu ch li bnh phng nh nht
tnh w
1
c th tnh bng
) ( min arg
1
w C w
p
w
=
(2.79)
trong | |
2
1 1 1 1
| ] [ ] [ | ) ( n r w n s A E w C
H
p
= (2.80)
T li bnh phng nh nht trong (2.79), mt thut ton LMS tnh
ton vc-t trng s thch nghi c th c rt ra. Do :
] [ ] [ ] 1 [ ) (
1
*
1 1
n p n n w n w
LMS p
+ =
(2.81)
trong
LMS
l hm li tnh bng
] [ ] 1 [ ] [
1 1 1
n p n w s A n
H
LMS
= (2.82)
v
p
l tng ch thch nghi ca thut ton LMS.
Nh cp trn :
1
A <
1
A , tc l bin ca knh hoa tiu nh hn
knh lu lng. Nh vy, vc-t trng s t (2.81) c th khng nh
-66-

gi tt k hiu ] [ ] [
1 1 1
n r w n s
H
= . Nu c th, knh lu lng s c tn dng
tn mt vc-t trng s tt hn w
1
[n].
Knh lu lng c th c tn dng tm vc-t trng s w
1
bng
cch s dng thut ton Thut ton hng s theo khi. Mc d ] [
1
n s l khng
bit, nhng bin th li c nh v bit c [tnh cht hng s theo khi].
T , hm chi ph c th c xc nh tm vc-t trng s w
1
nh sau:
| |
2 2
1 1 1
) | ] [ | ( ) ( n r w A E w C
H
r
= (2.83)
Thut ton hng s theo khi gn vi ) (w C
r
ny c vit l:
] [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] [
1
*
1 1
n r n n w n w
CMS r
+ = (2.84)
trong
CMS
l hm li tnh bng:
] [ ] 1 [ ) | ] [ ] 1 [ | ( ] [
1
2
1 1 1
n r n w n r n w A n
H H
CMS
= (2.85)
v
r
l tng ch thch nghi ca thut ton hng s theo khi.
Thut ton hng s theo khi khng m bo chc chn hi t, trong khi
thut ton LMS th li m bo. c vc-t trng s tt hn w
1
[n], ta s s
dng kt hp ng thi hai thut ton ny.
Khng lm mt tnh tng qut, gi s rng A
1
=1 v
1
A =a. nh ngha
hm chi ph kt hp l:
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) (
1
w C w C w C
r p
+ = (2.86)
trong 01. Thut ton thch nghi gn vi hm chi ph hn hp tnh bng:
] [ ] [ ) 1 ( ] [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] [
1
*
1
*
1 1
n r n n p n n w n w
CMS r LMS p
+ + = (2.87)
So snh (2.87) vi cng thc cp nht trng s LMS (2.81), ta thy rng
vi thut ton kt hp LMS v hng s theo khi, phn cp nht trng s c
thm mt i lng l phn cui trong cng thc (2.87), do r rng l tc
hi t s nhanh hn. Tuy nhin, thut ton hng s theo khi khng phi
lc no cng m bo tnh hi t. Nh vy, trong trng hp xu nht, tc
hi t ca thut ton xut t nht cng bng tc i hi t ca LMS.
-67-

2.4. Tng kt chng
Vic x l tn hiu trn anten mng c th da trn hai k thut chnh l
phn tp hoc to bp. Vi k thut phn tp, tn hiu cc nhnh anten khc
nhau c gi thit l khng tng quan, ngha l ch tiu h thng cng tt
khi mc tng quan ca tn hiu cc nhnh cng nh. Trong khi , k
thut to bp li li dng tnh tng quan ca tn hiu cc nhnh, do pht
sinh mu thun gia vic trnh lm nhiu bp sng v mong mun c c
phn tp thu.
Trn l thuyt, c rt nhiu cc thut ton khc nhau c pht trin
cho k thut to bp ca anten thng minh trong thng tin di ng. Tuy nhin
do tnh cht thay i lin tc ca mi trng thng tin di ng, cng nh
nhng hn ch khi thc hin trong thit b thc t m cc h thng th nghim
u ch s dng cc thut ton kinh in nh trung bnh bnh phng nh
nht, bnh phng ti thiu qui, .v.v.
Cu trc ng ln DS-CDMA gm c knh hoa tiu v knh lu lng
v tch nht qun c s dng trm gc vi nhiu phn t anten. Chng
ny cng xut s dng thut ton dng c knh hoa tiu v knh lu
lng cho k thut to bp. Ngoi thut ton trung bnh bnh phng nh
nht cp nht cc trng s ca b to bp cho knh hoa tiu, thut ton
hng s theo khi cng c s dng tn dng thng tin trn knh lu
lng. Nh php cp nht kt hp c thut ton ny, tc hi t ca b to
bp thch nghi s nhanh hn.
-68-

Chng 3. Hiu qu v dung lng ca anten thng
minh i vi h thng GSM
3.1. nh gi hiu qu v dung lng khi s dng anten thng
minh chuyn bp sng
Trong h thng thng tin di ng t ong, nu tng s knh phn b cho
mt nh cung cp dch v l N
t
, th s knh ny thng c chia u s
dng cho cc trong mt cm (cluster), cu trc cm ny c ti s dng
(lp li) trong ton h thng[4]. Nu s trong mt cm l N th s knh trn
mt l:
N
c
=N
t
/N (3.1)
S knh trn mt tng khi kch c cm N gim.
Khong cch D gia cc s dng knh ging nhau c gi l khong
cch ti s dng (xem Hnh 3.1). Cc s dng cng mt tp knh c gi
l cng knh. Trong h thng t ong, c th c v s cc cng knh. S
gy nhiu cng knh lp th nht (gn vi b nhiu nhiu nht) l N
i
= 6.
V c hnh lc gic, ch c th c cc gi tr hn ch nht nh kch c cm
theo cng thc N = i
2
+ ij + j
2
, trong i, j l cc s nguyn khng m. Do
, kch c cho php ca hnh lc gic l N = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 13, 16 S
ngun nhiu cng knh cc vng xa hn th n (n l s nguyn) bng 6n.
Nu R l bn knh ca mi , hnh dng lc gic to ra mt lin quan gia
kch c v khong cch ti s dng:
D = R N 3 (3.2)
Cng thc tnh din tch ca mt hnh lc gic theo bn knh l
S =3 3 R
2
/2 (3.3)

-69-


Hnh 3.1. Mu ti s dng tn s trong thng tin di ng
Khong cch ti s dng tng khi kich c cm tng vi bn knh khng
i. Khong cch ti s dng ln s lm cho cng sut nhiu cng knh nh
hn, do tn hiu v tuyn suy hao khi khong cch tng. Do cng sut
nhiu gim khi N tng. Tuy nhin, nh ni trn, s knh cho mt s
gim khi N tng.
Xt trung tm l mong mun ca mt my di ng di chuyn trong
v gi thit rng mi anten trm gc pht x cng sut nh nhau v b bao
quanh bi cc vt cn nh nhau, cng sut sng mang trn nhiu C/I nhn
c bi mt my di ng nm ra khng mong mun, do nhiu pht sinh
t cc ngun nhiu lp gn nht l:

= =
=
i i
N
k
n
n
N
k
n
k
n
D
R
d K
R K
I
C
1 1
/ 1
/ 1
/
/
=
i
n
N
N
2 /
) 3 (
(3.4)
-70-

Trong K l hng s ph thuc vo cng sut pht x v cc tham s
anten v dk l khong cch gia my di ng v my pht cng knh th k.
Xp x d
k
~ D c s dng trong (3.4). i lng n l h s suy hao ng
truyn v m t t l suy hao ng truyn trong mi trng nht nh vi
khong cch d t my pht. Trong khng gian t do, h s suy hao ng
truyn ny l 2, trong khi trn mt t bng phng th gi tr ny xp x 4. S
dng n=4, N = 7 v N
i
= 6 trong (3.4), th ta c C/I = 72,5 ~ 18,7 dB. Vi cc
ngun nhiu lp u tin, kt qu xp x tt hn cho khong cch l d
k
= D,
D+R, D-R, D+R/2, D-R/2 [51]. Vi N 7, chnh lch gia C/I tnh theo hai
cch ny s nh hn 1 dB.
T phng trnh (3.4), ta thy cch gim nhiu v tng t s C/I l dng
anten c vng ph d qut trm gc, chia mt phng nm ngang thnh nhiu
phn. V d, nu dng ba anten c vng ph d qut 120
o
trm gc thay cho
mt anten ng hng th s ngun nhiu ca h thng 7-cm s gim t 6
xung 2. Sau mi li c chia thnh 3 con. Vic p dng vng ph d
qut 120
o
s tng C/I ca h thng ln 3 ln hay bng xp x 5 dB. T s C/I
tng ln ny c th c tn dng theo nhiu cch: gim t l li bt ca h
thng, tng kch thc , hoc tng s ngi s dng. Tuy nhin, vic to
vng ph d qut c nhc im l s knh trn mt vng d qut gim nn
hiu qu trung k gim.
Vi CIR (xc nh bi cc rng buc khc ca h thng thng tin di
ng) v n, N
i
cho trc, phng trnh (3.4) c th bin i thnh:
N =
n
I
C
Ni
/ 2
3
1
(

(3.5)
Trong ch s ng hng (omni) c loi b khi C/I
Trong vng mt dn s cao, c th gi thit rng cc ngun nhiu
c phn b ng nht trong khng gian. Nu mt anten chuyn bp sng c
-71-

m bp sng, mi bp sng c rng radian, c s dng trm gc
thay cho anten ng hng th s ngun nhiu trn mt bp sng gim i
/2 = 1/m. Do , CIR cho mt anten chuyn bp sng l
n
sb
N
Ni
m
I
C
/ 2
) 3 ( = (3.6)
Cng thc ny cho thy CIR c tng t l thun vi s bp sng m. u
im ny t c ging nh trng hp s dng anten c vng ph d qut.
Tuy nhin, khc vi anten c vng ph d qut, s knh kh dng trong h
thng chuyn bp sng khng b chia ra gia cc bp sng. Tri li, mi knh
u l kh dng cho bp sng c chn, phng trnh (3.5) c th c
dng tnh CIR vi m, N
i
, N v n cho trc. Ngc li, vi CIR, n v m cho
trc, phng trnh (3.6) c th c chuyn i xc nh kch c cm
hiu dng N
e

N
e
=
n
n
Nm
I
C
m
Ni
/ 2
/ 2
3
1

=
(

(3.7)
Phng trnh trn cho thy rng kch c cm gim khi m tng vi CIR
khng i. Nu N
t
l tng s knh trn mt cm v N
c
= N
t
/N l s knh trn
mt , th s knh hiu dng trn mt N
ce
bng
N
ce
= Nc Nc m
Nm
Nt
Ne
Nt
n
n
= =

/ 2
/ 2
(3.8)
Vi mt xc sut nghn cho trc p, mt lu lng E/N
k
trn mt
knh c th c biu din theo s knh c N
k
. Vi mt gi tr xc sut nghn
c th l 0,01, c th s dng biu din xp x sau [37]:
E/N
k
0,855 tanh(0,07N
k
) 1,41x10
-3
Nk
2
e
-0,07Nk
(3.9)
Nu gi s lu lng tiu biu ca ngi s dng l E
u
, s ngi s
dng K h tr trn mt knh l (E/N
k
)/E
u
. tnh lu lng vi anten chuyn
bp sng, s knh trn tng knh cn c dng trong (3.9) l s knh hiu
-72-

dng trn mt , N
ce
. Tng s thu bao trn , K
sb
= kN
ce
, vi h thng
chuyn bp sng c p=0,01 l
K
sb
=
Eu
Nce
[0,855 tanh(0,07N
ce
) 1,41x10
-3
N
ce
2
e
-0,07Nce
] (3.10)
Tri li s ngi dng trn mt vi anten ng hng, K
omni
, v vi
anten sector m-bp sng, K
sec
vi p = 0,01 l:
K
omni
=
Eu
Nc
[0,855 tanh(0,07N
c
) 1,41x10
-3
N
c
2
e
-0,07Nc
] (3.11)
K
sec
=
Eu
Nce
[0,855 tanh(
m
Nce 07 , 0
) 1,41x10
-3
m
Nce
e
m
Nce
07 , 0 2
|
.
|

\
|
]
Ch rng s trung k trong h thng m-sector bng m v s knh trong
tng s knh c th dng gim theo t l thun N
ce
/m.
Cng cn ch rng phng trnh (3.9-3.10) c ngha cho CIR khng
i, cn gi CIR l hng s khi rng bp sng b hp i 1/m, kch c cm
c chuyn thnh N
e
nh ch ra trong phng trnh (3.7).
3.2. Kt qu tnh s
Da trn bi ton thit lp trn, chng ti xy dng mt phn mm
da trn ngn ng lp trnh Matlab. Mi trng hot ng yu cu ca
chng trnh:
- Matlab 6.0 [40]
- Windows 95
Kt qu tnh ton kh nng tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng
cho cc nh khai thc AMPS v GSM vi cc cu hnh khc nhau c a ra
sau y.
3.2.1. Hiu qu v dung lng vi h thng AMPS
Nh khai thc h thng AMPS c tng bng thng l 12,5 MHz, mi
knh thoi chim 30 kHz th tng s knh l 12,5MHz/30kHz 416. Mu ti
-73-

s dng (N) thng thng trong AMPS l 7, vi lu lng mi thu bao l
0,04 Erlang, t l nghn p = 0,01, n = 4,5, v N
i
= 6, kt qu tng dung lng
khi p dng vng ph d qut v s dng anten chuyn bp sng c cho
trong Hnh 3.2. Ta thy rng, vi ba bp sng, dung lng h thng tng
ng k so vi trng hp anten ng hng (mt bp sng), trong anten
thng minh phc v c 2000 thu bao ln hn so vi anten c vng ph d
qut (khong 1600 thu bao). Vi 12 bp sng, kh nng tng dung lng ca
anten thng minh ln hn so vi anten c vng ph d qut khong 70 %.


Hnh 3.2. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai
thc AMPS c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=7.
Nh ni trn, khi s dng anten chuyn bp sng, t s CIR s tng
do nh khai thc c th gim h s ti s dng tn s. Trong trng hp
nh khai thc AMPS gim h s ti s dng xung 4 th dung lng h thng
tng ln rt nhiu, xem Hnh 3.3. Vi 3 bp sng, s thu bao c th phc v
bi anten c vng ph d qut l 3200 trong khi anten chuyn bp sng l
3600.
-74-




Hnh 3.3. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
AMPS c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.

3.2.2. Hiu qu v dung lng i vi h thng GSM
Tng bng thng ca mt nh khai thc di ng Vit Nam hin nay l
8 MHz cho mt chiu ln hoc xung. Vi h thng GSM, mi knh tn s
cn bng thng l 200 kHz v c th mang 8 knh lu lng (thoi) th tng
s knh lu lng N
t
= 8 MHz/200 kHz x 8 = 320. Thc t, mt s knh s
phi dng lm knh iu khin cho cc vic nh phn b knh, nhn tin,
thng bo.v.v. Vi cc mu ti s dng N=4 CIR cho anten ng hng l
16,5 dB. Kt qu ci thin dung lng ca anten chuyn bp sng c th t
khong 30% so vi anten c vng ph d qut, xem Hnh 3.4.




-75-


Hnh 3.4. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
GSM c bng thng 8 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.


Hnh 3.5. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn bp sng cho nh khai thc
GSM c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=4.

Trng hp nh khai thc GSM c bng thng 12,5MHz, N
t
=
12,5MHz/200 kHz x 8 = 500 dung lng h thng ln hn nhiu so vi h
thng AMPS, xem Hnh 3.5.
-76-

3.2.3. xut mu ti s dng tn s cho mng GSM Vit Nam khi
s dng anten thng minh
Nh kt qu tnh s trong Hnh 3.6, vi cc mu ti s dng N=4 CIR
cho anten ng hng l 16,5 dB. Khi s bp sng c tng ln ti 12 th
CIR tng ln ti 25,5 dB - ln hn nhiu so vi CIR yu cu. Vi N=3, CIR
tng t 13,5 dB ln 24 dB khi chuyn t anten ng hng sang anten thng
minh 12 bp sng cng ln hn hiu so vi gi tr CIR =16,5 dB ca trng
hp anten ng hng, N=4. Vi N=1 (mi trm gc c th s dng tt c cc
tn s ging nhau, nh i vi CDMA), CIR ch t 13,5 dB khi s dng 12
bp sng- gi tr ny ln hn CIR yu cu i vi h thng GSM (8-9dB)
[49] tuy nhin c th khng d tr chng li pha-inh.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
5
10
15
20
25
30
So beam, m
C
I
R
,

d
B

Hnh 3.6. Thay i CIR khi h s ti s dng tn s gim t 4 xung 1
(__: N=4, -x-: N=3, -o-: N=1)
Nh vy ta c th xut Mu ti s dng tn s N=3 cho mng GSM
Vit Nam khi c s dng anten thng minh. Kt qu l, h thng s c ci
thin dung lng ng k. Vi h s ti s dng N = 3, dung lng h thng
-77-

t hn 4000 thu bao so vi hn 3000 thu bao khi N=4 vi trng hp 3
bp sng, Xem Hnh 3.7. Vi bng thng 12,5MHz dung lng h thng cn
ln hn na, xem Hnh 3.8.

Hnh 3.7. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn mch bp sng cho nh
khai thc GSM c bng thng 8 MHz, h s ti s dng N=3.


Hnh 3.8. Tng dung lng bng anten chuyn mch bp sng cho nh
khai thc GSM c bng thng 12,5 MHz, h s ti s dng N=3.
-78-

3.3. nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut ti vic ti s dng
tn s
Phn ny s xem xt, nh gi xc sut nhiu ng knh trong thng tin
di ng khi tn hiu thu b bin thin do cc nh hng ca s che khut v
pha-inh.
Xt mt my di ng c ng bao tn hiu thu r
w
t trm gc mong
mun - c gi thit l t ti trung tm mt c bn knh R. My di ng
ny cng s ng thi thu tn hiu r
i
t mt trm gc khc gn cng s
dng cng tn s ny (ngun nhiu ng knh). Trc ht, ta ch xt trng
hp c mt ngun nhiu ng knh. Gi D l khong cch gia trm gc
mong mun v trm gy nhiu. kt ni gia my di ng v trm gc
mong mun hot ng c, ng bao r
w
phi ln hn r
i
mt h s bo v
q>1 no tc l r
w
>qr
i
. Gi tr chnh xc ca h s bo v ny tu thuc vo
phng php iu ch c s dng. Nhn chung, h s bo v l thp hn
i vi cc phng php iu ch bng rng hn, chng hn iu ch FM c
h s bo v nh hn so vi cc phng php iu ch c s nh AM hay
SSB. V d, truyn dn thoi s dng iu ch FM 25 kHz c th m bo
cht lng vi gi tr CIR (hay l q) = 18 dB.
Hin tng mt lin lc s xy ra khi mc nhiu qu cao v h s bo v
khng c m bo. Xc sut mt lin lc c xc nh bng xc sut m
r
w
qr
i
. Khi khng c pha-inh v che khut, tn hiu ch b suy gim bi suy
hao ng truyn, mi quan h gia cc ng bao tn hiu thu c t trm
gc mong mun v trm gc gy nhiu c biu din nh sau:

2 /
2 /
1
1
n
i
i
n
w
w
d
r
d
r

(3.12)
-79-

trong :
n l h s m suy hao ng truyn, v
d
w
,

d
i
tng ng l khong cch t my di ng ti trm gc mong
mun v trm gc gy nhiu.
Gi tr ca h s bo v tu thuc vo cng sut pht, tng ch anten,
chiu cao H
t
so vi mt t... Gi thit cc thng s ca c hai trm gc ny l
nh nhau, th qu tch nhng im tho mn r
w
=qr
i
xc nh bi phng trnh
sau:
2/ n i
w
d
q
d
=
(khng c pha-inh v che khut) (3.13)
Nu anten ca trm mong mun c to (0,0,H
t
) v ca trm gy nhiu
l (D,0,H
t
) trn mt phng nm ngang, th qu tch ny l mt ng trn tm
ti (-D/(q
4/n
-1),0) vi bn knh l Dq
2/n
/(q
4/n
-1). Hnh 3.9 cho thy vng b
nhiu (b che khut) v khng nhiu (khng b che khut) gii hn bi ng
trn. Nu chu nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut c phn b log-chun,
th ng bao tn hiu thu trong iu kin khng nhn thng c dng nh sau:
[27, 49, 79]

. 10 .
1
20 /
2 /
d
g
n
d
r
(3.14)
Trong :
g l phng sai n v Gauss c trung bnh bng khng (zero-mean),
l phng sai Rayleigh, vi tr trung bnh / 2 , v

d
(dB) l lch chun ca phn b log-chun.
Trong iu kin c pha-inh v che khut, qu tch tc thi ca cc im
tho mn r
w
=qr
i
s khng cn c dng ng trn na, m c xc nh
bng phng trnh sau: [27]
-80-


n g g
n
i
w
w
i dw w di i
q
d
d
10 / ) (
/ 2
10


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(3.15)
trong :
g
w
,
w
, v
dw
: tng ng l phng sai phn b Gauss, Rayleigh v
lch chun ca phn b log-chun ca tn hiu mong mun
g
i
,
i
, v
di
: tng ng l phng sai phn b Gauss, Rayleigh v
lch chun ca phn b log-chun ca tn hiu (gy nhiu).







Hnh 3.9. Vng c nhiu v khng nhiu (a) khng c pha-inh (b) c
pha-inh v che khut.
Hnh 3.9(b) cho thy vng nhiu v khng nhiu khi tnh n pha-inh
v che khut. R rng l nhiu c th xy ra ngay c khi my di ng rt
gn v tr ca trm gc mong mun. Hm mt xc sut ca ng bao tn
hiu thu khi c c pha-inh v che khut s c dng nh sau: [27]

( )
2
2 2
/10
/10
( ) exp exp
10
4 10 8 2
d
d
d
d
d
r
r
d d
r
r r
p r dr

(
(
=
(
(

(3.16)
trong :
r
d
=20logr l ng bao trung bnh cc b tnh bng dB, v
Nhiu
Khng nhiu
Trm mong
mun
Trm gy
nhiu
d
w
d
i

Nhiu
Khng nhiu
Trm mong
mun
Trm gy
nhiu
d
w
d
i

-81-

d
d
r = l trung bnh ca ng bao trung bnh cc b, tnh bng dB.
Hin tng mt lin lc xy ra khi r
i
r
w
/q. Xc sut xy ra iu ny c
th tnh c bng cch t r
w
=x, ri tm xc sut r
i
x/q:

/
( / ) ( )
i i i
x q
P r x q p r dr

=

(3.17)
v sau tch hp mi gi c th c ca x
Hm mt xc sut ny tho mn bi r
i
hoc r
w
c dng cng thc
(3.16). Vy, ta c xc xut mt lin lc l:
w
w
i w di di dw dw out
r d
q
r
r P r p q P

=
0
) ( ) ( ) ; , , , ( (3.18)

2
( 2 ) /10
1 exp( )
1 10
d
d
Z t
t
dt

=
+

(3.19)
trong , kt qu cui cng trn c tnh bng cch thay th cc ng bao
hm mt xc sut c dng (3.16) vo (3.18) v (3.17) sau rt gn tch
phn thu c.
Trong (3.19) ta gi thit l:
d w di d = = , v
Z Z
d
log 20

= =
d di dw
q vi q
d
=20logq l h s bo v tnh bng dB.
Vi 0 d = dB, tch phn trn c th tnh gn ng vi dng
P
out
=1/(1+Z
2
), trng hp ny tng ng vi ch c pha-inh m khng c
che khut.

-82-


Hnh 3.10. Xc sut mt lin lc khi c pha-inh v che khut
Tch phn (3.19) c tnh bng phng php s v kt qu c v
trong Hnh 3.10. Xc xut mt lin lc theo Z
d
, vi d l tham s. Ta thy
rng, mc nhiu cao xy ra thm ch ngay gn my pht, ni c mc tn
hiu mong mun trung bnh cao hn nhiu so vi mc trung bnh ca nhiu.
V d, nu
di dw
+ = 40 v h s bo v l 20 dB, th xc sut mt lin lc l
khong 1%, 4% v 15% tng ng vi d = 0, 6, v 12 dB. Ch rng P
out

khng ph thuc vo cc mc tn hiu tuyt i, m ch ph thuc vo cc
mc tng i c th hin trong
d d dw di
Z q =
3.3.1. nh hng ca s che khut
Trong trng hp ch c nh hng ca hiu ng che khut, ng bao
tn hiu s c dng:

g r
d
r
d d d
g
n
d

+ =
20 /
2 /
10 .
1
(3.20)
-83-

Thc hin phn tch tng t nh phn trc, xc sut mt lin lc khi
khng c pha-inh l:

0
2
/ 2
( , , , , ) ( ) ( )
exp( )
2
( )
2
d
d
w
dw di
out w i w dw di
Z
d
d
r
P q p r P r dr
q
t
dt
Z
Q

=
=
=

(3.21)
trong hm Q(.) l hm nh c nh ngha trong Chng 1.
Hnh 3.10 cng v ng cong biu din xc sut mt lin lc theo Z
d

vi d l tham s khi tn hiu ch b tc ng bi s che khut. V d, vi
Z
d
=20 dB nh cp mc trc, xc sut mt lin lc khi ch c che khut
ch cn 1% v 11% tng ng vi d =6 v 12 dB. Ngc li, khng ch
xc sut mt lin lc nh hn 1%, th Z
d
phi t nht l 20 dB trong trng
hoc ch c pha-inh hoc ch c che khut m d =6 dB. Gi tr ny tng ti
27 dB khi pha-inh c tnh trn nh ca che khut. Chnh lch v Z
d
l 7
dB ca 27dB, tc l khong 26%. Cng xt tng t nh trn, Z
d
phi t nht
l 39.5 dB khi d =12 dB v c th tng ln ti 44 dB khi c thm pha-inh.
Chnh lch so vi trng hp khng c pha-inh l 3.5 dB tc l khong
10%. R rng nh hng ca pha-inh cng gim khi gi tr d tng. V th
khu vc a ng ( d ln) th hin tng mt lin lc ch yu l do s che
khut.
3.3.2. Cc vng nhiu
Cc vng nhiu v khng nhiu trong mi trng khng c pha-inh v
che khut c ch ra trong Hnh 3.9(a). Khi c nh hng ca pha-inh v
che khut th ranh gii gia cc vng nhiu v khng nhiu khng cn mt l
ng n gin na v nhiu ng knh c th xy ra ngay cnh my pht cn
-84-

thu. Bin gii tm thi trong Hnh 3.11 s bin i bt thng v thay i khi
tn hiu cn thu v tn hiu gy nhiu thay i. nghin cu mt cch nh
lng, ta xt vng ph sng c xc xut 1
w i
Z q = v
/ 2 n
i
w
i w
d
d

| |
=
|
\ .
,
ng gii hn vng nhiu vi mt xc sut c th no c v bng cch
xc nh Z t Hnh 3.10 v tham chiu n theo khong cch bng cng thc:
( )
2/ n
i
w
d
qZ
d
=
(3.22)
Qu tch cc im tho mn (3.22) l ng gii hn xc sut yu cu,
ng ny c dng ng trn tm ti (-D/([qZ]
4/n
-1),0), bn knh l
D[qZ]
2/n
/([qZ]
4/n
-1). Tt c nhng im ngoi ng trn ny s c xc xut
nhiu ln hn cc im nm trong ng trn. Hn na, tm ca ng trn
di s chuyn gn hn ti trm gc mong mun. Nh vy, xc sut nhiu thp
ch xut hin trong mt khu vc nh xung quanh trm gc ny. Hnh 3.11 cho
thy mt tp cc ng vin xc sut nhiu ng knh. Trng thi gy nhiu
xu nht l khi my di ng nm mp .













Hnh 3.11. Ranh gii vng nhiu vi cc xc sut nhiu khc nhau khi c
pha-inh v che khut


-85-

H s ti s dng knh (hoc tn s) Q
D
, c nh ngha l t s ca
khong cch gia cc ng knh trn bn knh ca ang xt:
( )
2/
1 1
n
i
D
w
d D
Q qZ
R d
= = + = +
(3.23)
trong , d
w
=R ng vi trng hp xu nht. Vi m hnh lc gic, kch
thc cm N c quan h vi h s ti s dng tn s theo biu thc:

( ) | |
3
1
3
2
/ 2 2 n
D
qZ Q
N
+
= = (3.24)
Kch thc cm thc phi nm xung quanh gi tr xc nh trong (3.24),
vi li hnh lc gic, kch thc ny c tnh bng i
2
+ij+j
2
trong i v j
l nhng s nguyn khng m. Cng thc (3.23) v (3.24) cng c th c
s dng trong trng hp khng gian t do bng cch thay Z=1.
Cng trnh [27] ch ra rng, vi yu cu nghim ngt hn v xc xut
mt lin lc (P
out
nh), pha-inh v che khut c th lm thay i mnh h s
ti s dng tn s v kch thc cm (mu ti s dng tn s) khi xut hin
mt trm gy nhiu; kch thc cm ln hn so vi trng hp khng gian t
do.
3.3.3. nh gi nh hng ca cc ngun nhiu ng knh trong thc
t
phn trc, ta mi gi thit rng ch c mt ngun nhiu ng knh.
Trong khi thc t l mt h thng thng tin di ng t ong chia lc gic c
v s ngun nhiu. Tuy nhin, nhng ngun nhiu quan trng vn l nhng
gn nht so vi ang xt. Lp u tin ca cc gy nhiu gm c 6 .
Trong mc ny ta ch quan tm n 6 c cng khong D n ang xt ny
vi gi s cc tn hiu ng knh l c lp v c tm quan trng nh nhau.
Trong trng hp nhiu a ng, my di ng thu ng bao tn hiu r
w
t
-86-

trm gc mong mun v ng bao r
k
, k=1,...,N
I
=6 t cc trm gy nhiu.
ng bao tng vi i ngun nhiu l:

=
=
i
k
k i
r R
1
(3.25)
Nhiu ng knh s xy ra nu R
i
r
w
/q. Do , xc sut mt lin lc vi
tng nhiu ng knh l:

=
< =
I
N
k
i w out
i p i qR r P P
1
) ( ) | (
(3.26)
trong :
( )
w i
P r qR i < l xc sut c iu kin ca nhiu to ra do i gy nhiu,
p(i) l hm mt xc sut ca i.
Hm mt xc sut ca mi tn hiu nhiu c phn b Suzuki cho trong
(3.16). Nhng tng ca i>1 phn b Suzuki hoc Rayleigh (xy ra vi d =0)
li khng cn c dng nh vy. Muammar v Gupta [29] gi thit rng tng
ca i phn b Rayleigh c dng xp x phn b Gauss vi tr trung bnh:
exp( )
2
di
i
i
C

= (3.27)
v phng sai bng:

4
( ) exp( ) 1
di
i
var R i
C

(
=
(

(3.28)
trong : C=10/ln10.
Ngoi ra, Muammar v Gupta cng cho rng nu ta xt n tng (3.25),
th mi phn b Suzuki c th xp x bng phn b log-chun khi ta cn chnh
tr trung bnh v phng sai ca n vi gi tr tng ng ca phn b thc.
Nh vy, hm mt xc sut trong (3.16) c th ly xp x bng:
-87-


| |
2
2
2 1
( ) exp( )
2 2
d de
de de
r
C
p r
r



= (3.29)
trong : ( ) / 4 ln C
di de
= (3.30)
( ) / 4 ln 4
2 2 2
C
di de
+ = (3.31)
l tr trung bnh v phng sai ca phn b log-chun tng ng.
Lu rng h s 2C/r trong cng thc p(r) pht sinh t php bin i
Jacobi gia ng bao thc r v biu din bng dB ca n (r
d
) . Tng ca i
phn b log-chun cng xp x l mt phn b log-chun khc [58] c tr
trung bnh l:

2
2
2 ln
4 4
i
de
de i
C i
C C

= + + (3.32)
v phng sai:

2
2
4 ln 1 ln
2
de
i C exp i i
C

( | |

= +
` ( |
\ . )
(3.33)
Xc sut c iu kin ca nhiu ng knh c th c tnh bng cch
thay (3.29) vo (3.18), ri n gin ho [60]. Kt qu ta c:
= < ) | ( i qR r P
i w

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
+

2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
4 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
K
K
erf e
K
K
erf
K






(ch pha-inh)
= dxdy
y x
y x K
(

+

|
|
.
|

\
|
(


2
exp
) , ( 4
exp 1
2
1
1
2 2
2
2

(c pha-inh v che khut) (3.34)


trong :

= =
4
; log 20 ln
2
1
i
i Z K C
d
(3.35)
-88-


i d
de i
d
y x
i
C
C
Z K C


+ |
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
2
2 2
2
2
4
ln
4
ln (3.36)

d di dw d
q Z = (3.37)
trong d dw
di
= = .
Tch phn kp trong (3.34) c th vit di dng thch hp hn c th
tnh s. Ta t:
0
4
exp( ) 1 (
4
1 16
4
exp
16
2
2
2
3 2
2
2 2 2 2
>
(

+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
(


+ =
C
i Z
i
C C
Z i
d
de i d


(3.38)
cos , sin x t y t = = (3.39)
cos , sin
d i
Cs Cs = = (3.40)
th:

2
2
4
d i x y
exp exp exp
K C

| | ( | |
=
|
( |
|
\ . \ .
(3.41)
| | ( ) exp exp stcos ( = +

(3.42)
Tch phn kp trn c rt gn thnh:

2
/ 4
/ 2
0 0
1 1
( ) 1
2
stcos tcos
t e e
w i
P r qR i te e e dtd


(
< = +


(3.43)
trong ta s dng tnh cht tun hon theo ca cos( + ) v gi tr ca
hm cos bng 1 khi = .
Sau khi tnh s phng trnh (3.43), ta v c th nh Hnh 3.12 vi
i=1, 6 v d =6, 12 dB. Hnh v ny cng biu din xc sut nhiu ng knh
vi trng hp ch c pha-inh ( d =0) theo cng thc (3.34). Nh d
on, nh hng kt hp ca pha-inh v che khut gy nhiu ln hn nhiu
-89-

so vi trng hp ch c pha-inh. Hn na, ng vi mt gi tr
d
xc nh,
P(r
w
<qR
i
i) cng ln khi i cng ln.
nh gi hiu qu ca cc hm mt xc sut gn ng c dng
trong mc ny, cc ng c i=1 cho hai trng hp d =0 v 6 dB trong
Hnh 3.11 c so snh vi cc ng cong tng ng trong Hnh 3.10 .
Hnh 3.10 s dng hm mt xc sut chnh xc (tc l tun theo phn b
Suzuki), cn Hnh 3.11 li dng phn b chun vi d =0 dB v mt phn
b log-chun vi d >0 dB. Ta thy cc ng cong ng vi phn b gn
ng hu nh trng vi cc phn b chun, do c th s dng cng thc
gn ng trong vic tnh ton nhiu ng knh.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


P
(
r
w
<
q
R
l |
i
)
Z
d
(dB)
i=1, ximad=6dB
i=1, ximad=12dB
i=6, ximad=6dB
i=6, ximad=12dB
i=1, ximad=0dB
i=6, ximad=0dB

Hnh 3.12. Xc sut nhiu ng knh, vi i cho trc, theo Z
d
.

-90-

3.4. Hiu qu v dung lng ca anten chuyn bp sng vi
nh hng ca che khut v pha-inh
Kh nng tng dung lng khi s dng anten chuyn bp sng trong
iu kin khng c pha-inh v che khut c xem xt phn trc.
Trong phn ny chng ta s tnh ton mc tng dung lng ca h thng
anten chuyn bp sng khi xt ti nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut. Ta
vn gi thit l my pht t gia v cc thu bao phn b u trong .
Xt mt h thng t ong c N
c
knh trong mt v xc sut nghn l
p
b
. Nu mt lu lng l E Erlangs trn mt th lu lng thc t trn
mt knh l:

( ) 1
b
c
E p
N


= (3.44)
i lng ny c gi l h s ti. Nh ta bit, h s ti lun nh hn
1 v lun c mt khong thi gian knh ri khc khng. H thng anten
chuyn bp sng to ra m bp hp bao ph ton b mt phng nm ngang.
Ti mt thi im bt k, ch c mt trong s m bp sng l tch cc v tt c
N
c
knh s c dng trong bp sng ny. Xc sut mt bp trong ng
knh hng ti my di ng trong ang xt l 1/m. Xc sut c mt
knh tch cc trong ng knh bng t s ca s knh tch cc E(1-p
b
) cp
cho mi bp sng trn tng s knh kh dng ca bp sng (N
c
). T s ny
chnh l h s ti . Gi s my di ng trong ang xt ng k mt
knh th xc sut p
c
tm thy knh trong ng knh c bp sng
hng ti my di ng trong ang xt l:

c
p
m

=
(3.45)
-91-

Nh gi thit, xc sut i knh ng knh u trng thi tch cc
l p(i). Ni cch khc p(i) l xc sut i nhiu ng knh s dng cng knh
hng ti my di ng ang xt. Nu tng s ng knh l N
I
=6 v nu
chng hot ng c lp vi nhau th p(i) l kt qa xc sut gieo xc xc su
mt c m t bng phn b binominal. Do :
( )
6
6
( ) 1
i
i
c c
p i p p
i
| |
=
|
\ .
(3.46)
T phng trnh (3.26) v (3.45), tng xc sut mt lin lc khi c su
ngun nhiu l:

1
( ) ( )
i
out w i
k
P P r qR i p i
=
= <


=
i i
i
i w
m m i
i qR r P

=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
<

6
6
1
1
6
) | (

(3.47)
Cng thc trn cng c th p dng cho trng hp anten ng hng
bng cch thay m=1. Hnh 3.13 m t xc sut mt lin lc khi c 6 ngun
nhiu ng knh trong cc trng hp m=1, 6, 12 bp sng v d =6, 12dB.
C th thy rng vi mt gi tr d c nh, xc sut mt lin lc gim khi s
bp tng. Vi cng s bp sng th xc sut ny tng khi d tng. Vi mt xc
xut mt lin lc P
out
v mt h s ti cho trc, th gi tr Z
d
yu cu c th
xc nh c cho mi gi tr ca m. Hnh 3.14 biu din cc gi tr Z
d
c
P
out
=1% v h s ti =0,7. Vi mi gi tr ca Z
d
, h s suy hao ng
truyn n v h s bo v q, th kch thc cm hiu dng c th tnh c t
(3.24) bng:

2/
1 ( )
3
n
e
qZ
N
( +

= (3.48)

-92-











Hnh 3.13. Ch ra mt im ca xc sut rt cui gi vi su ng knh cho
m=1,6 v 12 bp v d =6 v 12 dB.
Hnh 3.14 cng biu din kch thc cm hiu dng theo m ng vi
n=4,5 v q
d
=22 dB, ng thi th hin quan h gia N
e
v m. R rng c N
e

v Z
d
u gim khi s bp m tng. V d, khi m tng t 1 ti 12, Z
d
yu cu
gim t 38,5 dB xung 22,5 dB v kch thc hiu dng cm gim t N
e

=179 xung cn 39. Vi mt tng s knh trong cm cho trc, s knh trong
tng theo h s 4,6 (=179/39) khi m tng t 1 ti 12. V vy h thng c
m=12 s tng dung lng khong 5 ln so vi h thng ng hng.








Hnh 3.14. th biu din Z
d
(hnh tri) v N
e
theo m (hnh phi)
(vi =0,7, n=4,5, P
out
=1%,
d
=6dB, q
d
=22 dB)
5 10 15
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40


Z
d
(
d
B
)
m
Zd
5 10 15
30
60
90
120
150
180
N
e
m
Ne
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1


P
o
u
t
Z
d
(dB)
m=1, ximad=6dB
m=1, ximad=12dB
m=6, ximad=6dB
m=6, ximad=12dB
m=12, ximad=6dB
m=12, ximad=12dB
-93-


Thc t th hiu sut ph
s
c dng so snh cc cu trc mng
khc nhau trong thng tin v tuyn. chnh l l s knh/ rng bng
(MHz)/km
2
v c nh ngha l:

/
1
t c
t
s
e c e
B B
B
AN B AN
= = (3.49)
trong :
B
t
[MHz] l rng bng tn kh dng trong cm,
B
c
(MHz) l rng knh, v
A(km
2
) l din tch ca .
Tt c cc thng s khc vn l hng s, th hiu sut ph t l nghch vi
N
e
. Do , quan h gia hiu sut ph ca h thng anten chuyn bp sng
vi anten ng hng l:

( )
( )
( )
( )
. .
. .
s e
s e
s b N omni
omni N s b

= (3.50)
trong s.b. l vit tt ca h thng chuyn bp sng. Phng trnh (3.50)
c tnh s v v trong Hnh 3.15. Hnh v cng cho thy hiu sut ph
tng i m
2/n
khi khng c pha-inh v che khut nh tnh bi phng trnh
(3.7). Ta thy rng tng hiu sut ph khi dng anten chuyn bp sng
trong mi trng pha-inh v che khut thm ch cn ln hn trong khng
gian t do. V vy, cn xem xt vic s dng cc anten nhiu bp sng khi c
pha-inh v che khut c tng ch ln hn. Tt nhin, s lng tuyt i v
s ngi dng c h tr trong iu kin pha-inh v che khut s nh hn
trong khng gian t do.
-94-

5 10 15
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6

n
u
y
s
(
s
.
b
)
/
n
u
y
s
(
o
m
n
i
)
m
khong gian tu do
pha-dinh va che khuat

Hnh 3.15. Hm hiu sut ph tng i theo s bp sng
(vi =0,7, n=4,5, P
out
=1%,
d
=6dB, q
d
=22 dB)
3.5. Tng kt chng
Kh nng tng dung lng cho cc h thng bng hp (FDMA, TDMA)
ca anten thng minh chuyn bp sng ni ring v anten thng minh ni
chung l rt ng k so vi anten c vng ph d qut nh hiu qu s dng
trung k cao hn v u ln hn rt nhiu so vi anten ng hng. Trong
Chng ny, lu lng ca mi thu bao c gi thit l 0,04 Erlang ln
hn lu lng thc ca h thng GSM nc ta hin nay (0,025 Erlang), cc
h thng c thit k c cht lng cao vi t l nghn l 1% (h thng hin
ti thng c thit k chp nhn cht lng thp hn vi t l nghn l 2%),
nn s thu bao c th phc v trong thc t cn ln hn na. Bng chng
trnh phn mm, chng ta c th d dng nh gi c kh nng ci thin
dung lng khi thay i h s suy hao truyn sng (vi cc loi a hnh khc
nhau).
-95-

Vic ng dng anten thng minh chuyn bp sng cc h thng thng
tin di ng GSM hin ti (N=4) c th lm dung lng h thng tng thm
30% so vi anten d qut, v ln gp 3 ln (khi s bp sng ca anten l 12)
so vi anten ng hng. Vic s dng mu ti s dng tn s mi N=3 c
xut trong lun n c th tip tc lm tng dung lng h thng ln thm
30% na.
Mu ti s dng tn s mi N=3 cho h thng GSM khi s dng anten
thng minh l kh thi do t s CIR hin ti c tnh ton, so snh bao gm
mc d tr cng sut t 7,5dB n 8,5dB d phng cho cc nh hng ca
pha-inh v che khut. Bn cnh , hiu sut ph khi dng anten chuyn bp
sng so vi anten ng hng trong mi trng pha-inh v che khut
c chng minh l ln hn trong khng gian t do. V vy, cn xem xt vic
s dng cc anten nhiu bp sng khi c pha-inh v che khut c tng ch
ln hn. Tt nhin, s lng tuyt i v s ngi dng c h tr trong
iu kin pha-inh v che khut vn nh hn trong khng gian t do.

-96-
Chng 4. Phi hp k thut to bp v phn tp cho h
thng W-CDMA
4.1. H thng W-CDMA
H thng thng tin di ng th h mi 3G c trin khai ph bin nht
s l mt h thng kt hp giao din v tuyn CDMA bng rng (W-CDMA)
vi mng li ca h thng GSM. W-CDMA c ITU chp nhn lm tiu
chun cho h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 IMT-2000 v hin c
trin khai rng ri nhiu nc trn th gii [7, 8, 16]. Tiu chun ny ch
yu da trn h thng UMTS ca ETSI (Vin Tiu chun Chu u ) v cn
c bit n vi ci tn Truy nhp V tuyn mt t UMTS (UTRA). Tiu
chun ny c xy dng vi mc ch tn dng u im ca k thut W-
CDMA trong khi vn m bo c cc u im ca mng GSM hin c. C
cu truy nhp ca UTRA l a truy nhp theo m tri ph trc tip (DS-
CDMA). Thng tin truyn c tri trn mt bng tn rng xp x 5 MHz. Do
rng bng ln, nn c gi l h thng CDMA bng rng (W-CDMA).
H thng c hai ch thit lp ng ln v ng xung khc nhau
l: song cng theo tn s (FDD) v song cng theo thi gian (TDD). ch
FDD, ng ln v ng xung s dng 2 bng tn khc nhau, mt cp bng
tn c khong cch c nh c phn b cho mt kt ni. ch TDD,
ng ln v ng xung c truyn trn cng mt tn s bng cch s
dng cc khong thi gian ng b; Cc khe thi gian trong mt knh vt l
c chia thnh hai phn pht v thu. Do mi khu vc c th c nhu cu phn
b tn s khc nhau, vic khai thc c ch FDD hoc TDD cho php s
dng hiu qu ph tn hin c.
My thu c m t trong chng ny dng cho h thng W-CDMA
ch FDD. Do , chng ny ch m t lp vt l ch FDD.
-97-

4.1.1. Cc c tnh ch yu ca W-CDMA
Cc c tnh k thut chnh ca giao din v tuyn W-CDMA l:
- H tr truyn dn tc cao: 384 kbps cho vng ph rng, 2 Mbps
cho vng ph trong nh.
- Linh ng v dch v: h tr ng thi nhiu dch v tc khc
nhau trn mi kt ni.
- H tr c FDD v TDD
- H tr cc k thut nng cao dung lng v vng ph trong tng lai
nh anten thch nghi, cu trc my thu tin tin v phn tp pht
- H tr chuyn giao lin tn v chuyn giao sang h thng khc, k c
chuyn giao sang GSM
- Truy nhp d liu chuyn mch gi hiu qu.
Cc ch tiu k thut chnh ca giao din v tuyn W-CDMA c gii
thiu trong Bng 4.1.
Bng 4.1. Cc ch tiu k thut chnh ca W-CDMA
C cu a truy nhp DS-CDMA
C cu song cng FDD/TDD
Dch v gi Hai ch (knh phi hp v dng
ring)
C cu tc thay i/ a tc h s tri thay i v a m
Tc chp 3,84 Mcps
Khong cch sng mang 4,4-5,2 MHz (khong bo v 200
kHz)
di khung 10 ms
ng b lin trm gc FDD: khng cn ng b chnh xc
C cu m ho knh M chp (tc 1/2 v 1/3)

Tc chp c th m rng ln gp 2 hoc 3 ln tc tiu chun 3,84
Mcps p ng cc tc d liu cao hn 2 Mbps. Khong bo v sng
mang c chn l 200 kHz p ng yu cu hot ng chung vi cc h
thng GSM.
-98-

4.1.2. Knh vt l ng ln
Knh tn s c xc nh theo 2 chiu m/tn s. ng ln, cc
lung thng tin khc nhau c th c pht trn nhnh I v Q. Do , mt
knh vt l s ph thuc vo tn s sng mang, m c th v pha tng ng
(0 hoc 90
o
).
Knh vt l ng ln dnh ring c 2 loi l knh d liu vt l dnh
ring ng ln (DPDCH) v knh iu khin vt l dnh ring (DPCCH).
Trn mi u ni lp 1, s lng knh DPDCH c th l 0, 1, hoc vi knh.
Thng tin iu khin lp 1 bao gm cc bt hoa tiu bit trc h tr nh
gi knh cho tch nht qun, cc cu lnh iu khin cng sut pht (TPC),
ch th khun dng truyn dn c chn (TFCI) v thng tin hi tip (FBI)
(mc nhiu). Ch th khun dng truyn dn c chn thng bo cho my
thu bit cc tham s hin thi ca cc knh truyn dn khc nhau c ghp
trn knh DPDCH ng ln. Ch c duy nht mt knh DPCCH ng ln
mi kt ni lp 1.
4.1.2.1. Tri ph v iu ch ng ln
ng ln d liu iu ch ca c knh DPDCH v knh DPCCH l
kho chuyn pha nh phn (BPSK). Knh DPCCH iu ch c ni ti
knh Q, cn knh DPDCH u tin c ni ti knh I. Cc knh DPDCH
tip theo c ni tun t ti knh I hoc knh Q. iu ch tri ph dng
trong ng ln l QPSK lng knh; Bng thng ca tn hiu tri l 3,84
Mcps; Mi ngi s dng ng ln ch c mt knh DPDCH duy nht.
Cc k hiu d liu lng cc trn nhnh I v Q c ghp mt cch c
lp bi cc m ho knh khc nhau. M ho knh y l m h s tri ph
bin thin trc giao. Tn hiu thu c c nhn vi mt m tri ph phc.
M tri ph phc ny l mt ch k duy nht cho mi my di ng. Tn hiu
-99-

trn c dng hnh xung. B lc Cosine nng cn-qun phng vi h s un
0,22 c s dng to lp dng xung. Tn hiu hnh xung ny tip tc c
bin i ln. H s tri cho knh iu khin lun c t gi tr cao nht l
256.
4.1.2.2. Cu trc khung
Hnh 4.1 trnh by cu trc khung ca ng ln DPCH. Mi khung c
di 10 ms c chia thnh 15 khe (mi khe c di T
slot
= 0,666 ms)
tng ng vi mt ln khong thi gian iu khin cng sut. Siu khung
tng ng vi 72 khung lin tip, c ngha l siu khung c di 720 ms.
H s tri (SF) c th nm trong di t 256 xung n 4 (SF=256/2
k
).
Knh DPDCH v DPCCH ng ln trn cng lp 1 thng c tc khc
nhau, ngha l c h s tri khc nhau. C th thc hin c tnh nng a m
cho knh DPCH ng ln. Khi truyn dn a m c s dng, nhiu knh
DPDCH song song c pht vi cc m knh khc nhau. Vi knh DPCCH
th ch c 1 knh duy nht cho mt kt ni.

Hnh 4.1. Cu trc khung ca knh DPDCH/DPCCH ng ln
-100-

4.1.2.3. Knh vt l ng ln chung
Knh vt l truy nhp ngu nhin c s dng truyn ti knh truy
nhp ngu nhin. Knh ny c phn b da trn cch chia khe ALOHA
(cho php pht khi c d liu cn pht). Khong b thi gian khc nhau c
gi l cc khe truy nhp v c s dng truyn ti cc burst truy nhp.
Thng tin v cc khe truy nhp ny c cung cp trong hin thi bng
cch pht qung b trn knh qun b BCCH. Cu trc ca burst truy nhp
gm 2 phn: phn mo u (2 khe), v phn bn tin.
- Phn mo u: gm mt ch k di 16 k hiu phc (1 j). Mi
k hiu mo u c tri vi mt m Gold trc giao 256-chp. C
tng s 16 ch k khc nhau, da trn tp m Gold trc giao l 16.
- Phn bn tin: C cu trc ging knh vt l dnh ring (DPCH)
ng ln. N bao gm mt phn d liu tng ng vi DPDCH
ng ln, v mt phn iu khin lp 1, tng ng vi DPCCH
ng ln. Cc phn d liu v iu khin c pht ng thi. H s
tri ca phn d liu b gii hn l mt trong cc gi tr sau SF
{256,128,64,32} tng ng vi cc tc bt ca knh. Thng tin v
tc truyn cho bit m ho knh (hay h s tri m ca knh) c
s dng trn phn d liu.
4.1.3. Knh vt l ng xung
4.1.3.1. Tri ph v iu ch ng xung
Kho chuyn pha t phn (QPSK) c p dng cho iu ch d liu
ng xung. Tng cp hai bt c bin i ni tip-sang-song song tng
ng ti cc nhnh I v Q. D liu trong cc nhnh I v Q c tri ti tc
chp bng cng mt m ho knh. M ho knh ny cng s dng h s tri
ph bin thin trc giao nh phn ng ln. Tn hiu tri ph ny sau
-101-

c trn bi mt m trn c th ca . Ngi dng ng xung c mt
knh DPDCH v mt knh DPCCH. Cc knh DPDCH b sung c iu
ch QPSK v c tri ph vi nhng m ho knh khc.
Chng ta c th thy c s khc bit gia vic tri ph v iu ch
ng xung so vi ng ln. iu ch d liu l QPSK ng xung
trong khi ng ln l BPSK. Tc d liu trn cc knh I v Q
ng xung l bng nhau, cn ng ln l khc nhau. M tri ch trong
mt c th ng xung, trong khi m tri ch c th mt my di ng
ng ln.
Ging nh ng ln, cc b lc Cosine nng cn qun phng vi h s
un 0,22 c s dng to dng xung. Tn hiu dng xung ny sau
c chuyn i ln.
4.1.3.2. Cu trc khung ng xung
Cu trc khung ca knh vt l dnh ring (DPCH) ng xung c
trnh by trong Hnh 4.2. Ging nh ng ln, mi khung 10ms c chia
thnh 15 khe. Mi khe c di 2560 chp, tng ng vi mt khong thi
gian iu khin cng sut. Mt siu khung ng vi 720 ms, tc l mt siu
khung gm 72 khung.
Tham s k ng vi h s tri ph ca knh vt l l SF = 512/2
k
. Nh
vy c th s dng thm h s tri 512 ng xung. Cc bt iu khin
khc nhau c ngha ging nh ng ln.

-102-


Hnh 4.2. Cu trc khung ca knh DPCH ng xung
4.1.4. Mi trng m phng W-CDMA
4.1.4.1. H thng m phng
Phn mm m phng bng Matlab c kh nng m phng c ng ln
v ng xung ca mt h thng W-CDMA tng t nh UMTS. Cc khi
chnh da trn x l khung v khe (mt khung pht c nhiu khe) cho c chc
nng thu v pht. my pht, vic x l da trn khung bao gm c k thut
chn v gii m.
ng ln, ch mt anten pht c s dng, cn ng xung c
th c M
t
anten pht, s dng CDTD hoc TDTD. Cc thnh phn cng pha
(in-phase) v ton phng ca tn hiu pht c ghp bi c cu ngu nhin
ca mt ng bao phc ca knh pha-inh c to ra t trc. M hnh
knh c m phng l cc m hnh trong nh, ngoi tri-vo-trong nh/i b
v trn xe ca UMTS. Cc tn hiu thu c c cng li v sau b sung
thm AWGN.
-103-

Vi mi ngi dng, d liu knh vt l bao gm mt chui thng tin c
iu khin. Ton b di ca chui thng tin v t l m ho to ra k hiu
nh phn s pht trn nhnh I v Q ca b iu ch; nh to ra tng ch x
l cho mi ngi dng. Ngi dng vi tc thng tin cao hn s c tng
ch tri ph thp hn. Ngoi vic xc nh tng ch x l, kch thc chn
khung m ho, gii m chp, turbo cng c xc nh bi tc d liu
thng tin.















Hnh 4.3. S khi tng th ng ln




B m ho
knh
B chn
knh
To
khung
K hiu hoa
tiu, TCP
B iu
ch QPSK
B tri
ph phc
K cng
sut
Kt hp
khng
gian v
MUD
B phi hp
RAKE PSA
B phi hp
RAKE PSA
B lc
trng kht
B lc
trng kht
B phi hp
RAKE PSA
B pht lnh
/k cng sut
B gii-
chn knh
B gii m
knh
My pht
My thu
Ngun d
liu
D liu
ra
SIR
1
M
R
-104-














Hnh 4.4. S khi tng th ng xung

my thu, trc tin tn hiu c x l bi b lc trng kht chp. Sau
, my thu RAKE gm nhiu b tng quan (nhnh) hot ng song song
c s dng x l tn hiu ny. Mi nhnh i chiu s tng quan ca
mt phin bn ca tn hiu thu vi chui tri ph cho ngi dng mong mun.
Nhng thay i khc nhau tng ng vi tr khc nhau cho mi thnh phn
a ng thu c my u cui di ng. u ra ca cc nhnh ca my
thu RAKE phi c kt hp li (mi khong thi gian k hiu mt ln) c
th nh gi k hiu thu c. ch phn tp pht, ngoi hot ng chun
ca my thu RAKE, vic nh gi knh cn c thc hin trn mi ng
truyn ring bit, v c dng trong mt b kt hp RAKE h tr k hiu
hoa tiu (PSA) phn gii tng lung pht t nhiu anten pht.
B gii m
S-T
B gii-
chn knh
K hiu hoa
tiu, TCP
B phi hp
RAKE PSA
B lc
trng kht

To
khung
B iu
ch QPSK
B iu ch
QPSK
K cng
sut
K cng
sut
B phi hp
RAKE PSA
B pht lnh
/k cng sut
B chn
knh
B m
ho S-T
My pht
My thu
Ngun d
liu
D liu
ra
SIR ch
1
M
T
B tri
ph phc
B tri
ph phc
-105-

iu khin cng sut vng kn c s dng trn knh dng ring
gim s khng cn bng v cng sut thu (hiu ng gn xa). Trng hp l
tng l trm gc iu chnh cng sut pht ca my di ng sao cho trm
gc bit trc c SNR s xy ra. C k hiu hoa tiu v d liu u c
s dng trong vic o cng sut tn hiu thu tc thi, k hiu hoa tiu c
dng trong php o nhiu tc thi cng cng sut tp nn. Sau , SIR o
c li c so snh vi gi tr ch quyt nh lnh iu khin cng sut.
Cu lnh ny c gi ti my pht my di ng tng hoc gim i 1
hoc 2dB cng sut pht cui mi khe.
Giao din chnh ca chng trnh phn mm m phng c cho trong
Hnh 4.5. Cc tham s m phng c th c thay i bng cch bm vo nt
Dat transceive/Channel trn giao din chnh, khi ta c th t cc tham
s m phng nh trong Hnh 4.6.


Hnh 4.5. Giao din chnh ca phn mm m phng
-106-


Hnh 4.6. Giao din thit lp cc tham s m phng
4.1.4.2. Gi thit m phng chung
- Nhiu Inter-cell khng c m phng
- Nhiu bng hp khng c m hnh ho nh mt thnh phn ca m
hnh knh
- B khuych i cng sut l tuyn tnh c my pht v thu.
- M phng ng ln v ng xung hot ng ch FDD.
- Vi tt c cc kiu my thu, gi thit rng my thu c th ng b vi
tn hiu thu. Trong m phng khng tnh n li v ng b.
- My thu RAKE c tr ln x l tng thnh phn a ng.
- My thu da trn k thut trit nhiu c nh gi knh l tng. Thc
t l ch tiu b nh gi knh trong mi trng trit nhiu s tt hn cc
-107-

trng hp khc do nhiu a ngi dng c gim di nhiu trong tn hiu
cp cho b nh gi knh.
- My pht la chn anten phn tp pht theo thi gian (AS-TDTD) v
b gii m Cc i sau (MAP) turbo c cung cp cc iu kin knh
nh gi
4.2. Phi hp k thut to bp sng v phn tp cho h thng
W-CDMA
4.2.1. Ch tiu k thut to bp sng
Trong phn ny, ta gi s mt c trm gc gia, ngi s dng di
ng c phn b khp trong theo gc tnh t trm gc. Mi ngi dng di
ng c cc vt tn x cc b xung quanh vi mt Gauss, lm cho tn hiu
a ng c to ra vi hng ti c tri gc nht nh. ng ln K
ngi dng cng pht tn hiu trn cc knh a ng khng thay i theo
thi gian (mi knh c L thnh phn a ng) ti trm gc.
Xt trng hp ch mt anten pht (M
T
=1), mt nhnh phn tp thu (M
D

=1) v M
B
phn t anten to bp c s dng vi mt my thu RAKE c L
R

nhnh. B to bp M
B
phn t to ra mu bp anten trng vi hm mt
xc sut ca hng ti ca tn hiu ngi s dng. K thut to bp ny lm
tng ti a t s tn hiu trn tp (SNR) thu c ca tn hiu t ngi dng.
B to bp c s dng y khng thc hin vic trit bp (null-steering)
gim thiu nhiu t cc ngun nhiu cng sut cao c th. C rt nhiu
cc thut ton khc nhau xc nh tp hp trng s w
(k)
c xut
trong thi gian gn y. Nhng cn ch rng kt qu phn tch ch tiu t l
li bt (BER) khng ph thuc vo nhng gi tr trng s anten c th. Hn
na, cc phn t anten c gi thit l t cch nhau gn m bo s
-108-

tng quan cao mi phn t anten. Nu tn hiu thu c m khng tng
quan, th mu bp anten s b nh hng.
Trong h thng khng gian-thi gian, u ra ca ngi s dng k c th
c biu din nh sau:
{ } )] ( exp[ ) ( ) ( Re ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( k
c
k k k k
t j t a t b A t s + = (4.1)
Trong A
(k)
l bin tn hiu thu, ) (
) (
t b
k
l chui d liu nh phn c
thi gian k hiu T
s
giy, tc l:
) (
) (
t b
k
=

=

P
i
s
k
i
i T t u b
0
) (
) / ( (4.2)
trong : u(t) = 1 0 t 1
0 mi t khc
vi P+1 k hiu c pht, ) (
) (
t a
k
l tn hiu tri ph nh phn vi li
x l N, do chu k chip l T
c
=T
s
/N. Nu chu k tn hiu tri ph bng T
s
,
th chui tri ph tng ng c gi l chui m ngn. Ngc li, vi chu
k tri ph ln hn T
s
th chui tri ph c gi l chui m di. Ngoi ra,
s dng iu ch BPSK chun vi tn s sng mang
c
rad/s v pha sng
mang
k
l mt bin ngu nhin phn b u trong khong [0,2 ]. Tn hiu
c pht i trn knh v tuyn c m hnh ho nh l knh thay i theo
thi gian, pha-inh a ng ri rc c p ng thng thp tng ng l:
] [ )). ( exp( ). ( ) (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

=
=
L
l
k
l
k
l
k
l
k
i
i j i h (4.3)
Mi ng tn hiu c c trng bi bin ngu nhin ) (
) (
i
k
l
biu din
cng ca ng tn hiu l t ngi dng k ti khong thi gian k hiu i.
Mi bin ngu nhin ny c th c m hnh ho theo phn b Rayleigh
hoc phn b Nakagami-m tu theo m hnh knh ca ton b h thng. Mi
ng cng c mt tham s dch pha
) (k
l
(i), phn b u trong khong [0,
2) v tr truyn dn
) (k
l
, phn b u trong khong [0,T
s
). y, chng ta
{
-109-

gi s rng tr a ng khng bin i theo thi gian. nh ngha qu trnh
pha-inh phc theo thi gian cho ngi dng k, thnh phn a ng l l:

=
=
P
i
s
k
l
k
l
i T t u i c t c
0
) ( ) (
) / ( ) ( ) ( (4.4)
trong :
)) ( exp( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
i j i i c
k
l
k
l
k
l
= (4.5)
Ta gi thit P=0, ngha l ch mt k hiu c tch (khng ging nh
trng hp a ngi dng, qu trnh tch ph thuc vo P=1 bt tch c),
v do (4.2) rt gn thnh:
) / ( ) exp( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
s
k
l
k
l
k
l
T t u j t c = (4.6)
Trong tt c cc trng hp xem xt y, s nhnh RAKE L
R
c th
bng, ln hn hoc nh hn s tn hiu a ng thu c L. Do tn hiu
thu c u tin s c x l bi b to bp, sau mi c tri ph.
Bin quyt nh ca bt th i ca ngi dng j u ra my thu RAKE c th
c vit nh sau [26]

=
=
R
L
n
j
n
j
i S
1
) ( ) (
) ( { + ) (
) (
i I
j
si
n
+ ) (
) (
i I
j
mai
n
+ )} (
) (
i
j
n
(4.7)
thu c biu thc BER ca h thng to bp c mt my thu
RAKE, ta cn tnh ton cng sut tn hiu
2
S
U v tng cng sut nhiu
2
T
. Khi
bit cc bin ny, SNR tnh c bng:
SNR =
2
2
T
S
U

(4.8)
B to bp tuyn tnh cch u ULA cho ngi dng ang xt (k=j) s
tnh chun ca trng s:
2
) ( j
w = ( )
2
) ( ) (
cos ) 1 ( exp( ),..., cos exp( , 1
T
j
x B
j
x
d M j d j
= ( )
) ( ) ( k
j
H
j
w w =
B
M
i
i i
M w w
B
=

=1
*
(4.9)
-110-

n gin ho phn tch ny, gi s rng tng nhiu ca (4.7) l phn
b Gauss [24, 26, 50, 52]. Gi thit ny cho thy s chnh xc, k c vi
cc gi tr K nh khi BER bng 10
-3
hoc ln hn. Do , khai trin kt qu
ca [24,26] bao hm k thut to bp, bin thin ca mi i lng nhiu
trn nhnh RAKE th n, c iu kin v tham s pha-ing
) ( j
n
, c th vit
l:
( )
2
) ( j
si
n
=
( )
) (
1
2
) (
) ( ) (
} { || ||
4
j
l
L
n l
l
jj
j j
n
s b
R E w
N
T E

=

(4.10)
( )
2
) ( j
mai
n

=
( )
) (
1
2
) (
) ( ) (
1
} { || ||
6
k
l
K
j k
k
jk
k j
n
L
l
s b
R E w
N
T E

= =

(4.11)
( )
2
) ( 2
.
4
j
n
o s
N T
= (4.12)
trong
) (k
l
biu din cng sut tn hiu trung bnh ca dng truyn l thu
c t ngi dng k. i lng tng nhiu tr thnh:
( ) ( ) ( )

=
+ + =
R
qn n
L
n
j
mai
j
si T
1
2
2
) (
2
) ( 2

(4.13)
trong L
R
biu din s nhnh ca my thu RAKE. Hn na, u ra tn hiu
mong mun ca my thu phi hp RAKE c th c vit l:
( )

=
=
R
L
n
j
n
j s b
S
w
T E
U
1
2
) ( ) (
|| ||
2

(4.14)
Trong cng thc trn, ta gi s rng my thu RAKE s khi phc thnh
phn a ng L
R
mnh nht (tc l cng sut tn hiu thu trung bnh ln
nht). thun tin, v khng lm mt tnh tng qut, thnh phn a ng
mnh nht ny c coi l thnh phn ti my thu u tin.
S thay i ca cc tham s pha-inh ca mi ngi dng gy nhiu
E{( )
2
) ( j
n
} bng cng sut tn hiu trung bnh thu c t ngi dng
) (k
l
.
-111-

S thay i ny to ra do cc qu trnh tn x vt l xy ra my di ng.
nh hng ca mng c gi gn trong tham s tng quan khng gian ny
(c gim thiu nu mng trit bp mt hng tn hiu a ng gy
nhiu c th ti trm gc, bng cch gim thiu cng sut tn hiu thu c
trong bnh t thnh phn nhiu a ng). Gi thit rng thnh phn a ng
ny c c trng ho bi c tnh mt a ng (MIP) theo hm m
[26], ngha l
) (k
l
=
d
l k
e
) 1 ( ) (
1

, 0 >
d
(4.15)
trong
) (
1
k
l cng tn hiu trung bnh tng ng vi ng ti u
tin ca ngi dng k v
d
l t l suy hao cng sut trung bnh.
Vi iu ch nht qun, BER c iu kin trn SNR tc thi S c th
c biu din nh sau [56]
) . (
0 |
s Q P
S e
= (4.16)
trong Q(x) =


x
t
dt e
2 /
2
2
1

l hm-Q [15]. SNR u ra (nh nh ngha


trong(4.8)) c th c vit theo dng yu cu ca (4.16) l:

=
=
R
L
n
j
n
S
1
2 ) (
) (
(4.17)
v
( )

\
|
=

=
) (
1
2
) (
0
} {
2
1
j
l
L
n l
l
ji
R E
N

( )
1
2 ) (
0
1
) (
1
2
) (
|| || 2
} {
3
1

= = |
|
|
.
|
+ +

j
b
K
j k
k
k
l
L
l
jk
w E
N
R E
N
(4.18)
gi thit ||w
(k)
||
2
bng nhau vi mi k.
thu c BER trung bnh, (4.16) phi c ly trung bnh trn hm
mt xc sut ca S. Phn b ca S phi p ng cc gi tr khc nhau ca
tham s pha-inh m cho cc ng thu khc nhau. Nu ta gi s rng bin
ca pha-inh
) ( j
n
l phn b Nakagami, cng sut (
) ( j
n
)
2
ca bin pha
-112-

nh tn hiu thu c s l phn b gamma. T (4.17) ta thy cn c hm mt
xc sut ca tng L
R
bin ngu nhin phn b gamma tnh t l li trung
bnh. Hm mt xc sut tng qut cho tng s lng tu cc bin ngu
nhin phn b gamma tng quan c a ra, v ta c:
p
S
(s) =



dt e t
its
S
) (
2
1

(4.19)
trong
s
(t) l hm c trng. BER cho h thng to bp c 1 my thu
RAKE by gi c th biu in nh sau:
P
e
=


ds s p P
S S e
) (
|
(4.20)
Bin thc ny c th gii c bng cc phng php s.
Vi trng hp c bit khi tham s pha-inh Nakagami ca mi thnh
phn a ng l phn b Rayleigh v bng nhau, ngha l {m
l
}=1, v cng
tn hiu trong bnh {
l
} = , (4.19) rt gn thnh:
) / exp(
)! 1 (
1
) (
1


=

s s
L
s p
R
R
L
L
R
S
(4.21)
Hn na, ta thy rng (4.16) c th rt gn thnh
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1
0
3
) 1 (
2 N
K
E
N
Q P
b
e
(4.22)
cho trng hp iu kin cng sut hon ho, khng truyn dn a ng v
s dng anten ng hng. iu ny ph hp vi kt qu thu c bi
Prusley [50] iu kin tng t.
4.2.2. Ch tiu k thut phn tp thu
Trong phn ny, ch tiu BER ca h thng phn tp thu kt hp t l
cc i vi pha-inh bt k trn mi nhnh my thu s c cp. k
thut to bp ta gi thit rng mt tp hp L thnh phn a ng khng
tng quan hon ton ging nhau ti cc phn t ca mng to bp. Nh vy,
-113-

s tng quan gia cc ng bao tn hiu ti mi phn t trong mng u
bng 1 do mi tn hiu a ng u bao gm chnh xc L tn hiu khng
tng quan.
Vi h thng phn tp, tnh trng trn thay i do cc phn t ca mng
phn tp cch nhau xa hn. Ngha l L tn hiu a ng khng tng quan
n phn t th nht ca mng phn tp khng ging thnh phn a ng
khng tng quan cc phn t khc ca mng. Thc t, khi mt s phn t
ca mng phn tp c t cch xa nhau (20 hoc ln hn), th L tn hiu
a ng khng tng quan thu c mt phn t trong mng phn tp
hon ton khc vi L tn hiu a ng thu c cc phn t khc. ngha
vt l ca iu ny l vng tn x pht ra cc phn hi a ng cho 1 phn
t ca mng phn tp hon ton khc vng tn x pht ra c thnh phn a
ng mt phn t bt k khc ca mng. Ngoi ra, khi c t 2 phn t
phn tp tr ln bt u thu L
s
(L
s
< L) thnh phn a ng ging nhau, s
tng quan gia cc ng bao pha-inh cu thnh thu c tng t 0 n
mt gi tr nh hn 1. Nu L
s
=L th s tng quan gia cc ng bao pha-
inh cu thnh thu c ti mi phn t ca h thng phn tp s bng 1.
xc nh BER ca h thng phn tp kt hp t l cc i, cn phi
xc nh phn b hm mt xc sut ca t s tn hiu trn tp SNR ti u
ra ca my thu kt hp t l cc i. Hm mt xc sut ca SNR ph thuc
vo:
+ c tnh ca thnh phn tn hiu thu c mi nhnh phn tp (gi tr
hiu dng ca tham s pha-inh Nakagami m). Ngi ta chng minh
c rng cc thnh phn a ng khng tng quan, kt hp nht qun
c tham s pha-inh Nakagami hiu dng m
eff
tnh bng: [24,56]
m
eff
=

=
R
L
l
l
m
1
(4.23)
-114-

Nu mt phn t anten trong mng phn tp thu 3 tn hiu a ng, mi
tn hiu c tham s pha-inh Nakagami m
l
= 1 v b kt hp RAKE c
s dng kt hp nht qun cc tn hiu ny, th tn hiu pha-inh tng
hp s c tham s Nakagami hiu dng l m
eff
= 3. Gi s mi nhnh phn
tp khc u thu v kt hp ti u s thnh phn a ng khng tng
quan nh nhau, th mi phn t ca mng phn tp s u thu mt tn hiu
a ng tng hp c tham s pha-inh Nakagami m
eff
= 3
+ S tng quan gia cc tn hiu thu c cc nhnh. S tng quan
gia cc ng bao pha-inh tng hp thu c mi nhnh phn tp l
mt hm ph thuc vo cao anten v mi trng tn x.

Xut pht t phn trnh by nh tnh trn, bin quyt nh ca h
thng phn tp c th c vit l:

=
=
D
D
D
M
m
j
m
j
1
) ( ) (
(4.24)
trong :
) ( ) ( j
m
j
m
D D
S = +
) ( j
si
D
m
I
+
) ( j
mai
D
m
I
+
D
m
(4.25)
v biu din u ra ca my thu RAKE trn mt nhnh phn tp c th.
u ra ca nhnh phn tp ny c dng ging nh u ra ca b to bp m
t trong (4.7), vi L
R
=1, M
B
=1 v m=m
eff
. T (4.25), r rng l u ra ca M
D

my thu RAKE li c phi hp nht qun nh c thc hin bi b phi
hp RAKE dng trong b to bp. Nh vy, kt qu phn tch ca BER trnh
by trong phn 2 vn c gi tr. Do , t [6] v (4.16), cng c th tnh BER
iu kin ca h thng phn tp bng:
) . (
0 |
s Q P
S e
= (4.26)
-115-

trong bin ngu nhin cng sut tn hiu thu c S s c hm mt xc
sut khc vi cng thc (4.16). Vi pha-inh Rayleigh (tham s pha-inh
Nakagami m =1) c ln ng truyn bng nhau (=
l
) v tng quan
bng nhau, trng hp c bit cho hm mt xc sut ca S l nh sau:

|
.
|

\
|

=
1
2 2
) (
1
) (
D
M
D
S
s
M
s p
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 )( 1 (
, , 1 .
) 1 (
exp
) 1 (
2 1 2
D
M
D
D
D
M
M
s pM
M F
s
D


+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

(4.27)
trong M
D
l s nhnh phn tp ca b kt hp t l cc i.
So snh vi (4.26), cc bin cha bit cn thit xc nh ch tiu BER
ca h thng phn tp l i lng nhiu
o
v ma trn tng quan. i lng
nhiu c xc nh trong (4.18) cho CDMA dng k thut to bp. Tuy
nhin, nh trnh by, phn tch ny c gi tr tng ng cho phn tp thu
vi M
B
=1 phn t. S dng hm mt xc sut m t bi (4.19) cng vi
(4.26), ch tiu BER c th c xc nh bng phng php trnh by trong
phn 2 v php tch phn s.
4.2.3. xut phi hp k thut to bp v phn tp cho h thng W-
CDMA
V mt nh tnh, do phn tp thu da trn vic kt hp cc tn hiu
khng tng quan (do pha-inh khng tng quan) thu c t cc phn t
khc nhau ca anten mng, h thng phn tp khng lm tng ch tiu trong
mi trng AWGN. Hn na, khi mc nhiu a truy nhp trong h thng
CDMA cao th nhiu a truy nhp l tc nhn chnh nh hng n ch tiu
BER v knh s tin ti xp x knh Gauss (gi thit l Gauss chun) nn nh
hng ca h thng phn tp gim. Tri li, h thng to bp (hay thm ch
h thng sec-t ho) s lm gim mc nhiu bng cch loi b nhiu ngi
dng khi h thng, lm cho ch tiu BER tt hn. Khi s ngi dng t v
knh b pha-inh mnh (nh trng hp truyn sng iu kin khng nhn
-116-

thng: NLOS), h thng to bp khng ci thin c tn hiu thu do khng
b sung c thng tin mi no vo tn hiu thu c, m ch hn ch c
nhiu a truy nhp. Do , h thng to bp khng lm tng ch tiu nhiu.
Trong khi , h thng phn tp kt hp c mt s tn hiu b pha-inh
mnh s lm ci thin ch tiu h thng, c bit khi pha-inh c tc ng
mnh hn nh hng ca nhiu a truy nhp.
Chnh v vy c th ni rng k thut to bp cho ch tiu tt hn trong
mi trng nhiu ngi dng (nhiu a truy nhp ln), pha-ing t, cn k
thut phn tp cho ch tiu tt trong mi trng t ngi dng pha inh mnh.
Mt h thng phi hp c to bp v phn tp s c c u im ca
vic gim nhiu bp sng m vn c c phn tp thu c bit l trong mi
trng pha inh khi tn hiu ti cc phn t anten mng khng bao gi c th
l tng quan hon ton. h thng phi hp, mi b to bp s l mt
nhnh ca h thng phn tp, nhiu tc ng ln phn t to bp s c s
dng to ra tng ch phn tp h thng phn tp. tng ny chnh l
xut ca phn ny p dng k thut phi hp to bp v phn tp cho h
thng W-CDMA. Ch tiu BER c th ca h thng s tip tc c phn tch
sau y.
Nh phn tch trong phn 3, ch tiu BER ca h thng phn tp kt
hp t l cc i tng t ch tiu BER ca b to bp sng, ch khc phn
nhiu. Nh vy xc nh ch tiu BER ca 1 h thng kt hp to bp v
phn tp, phng trnh (4.26) v (4.17) vn c th dc s dng. Khi , tng
nhnh trong s M
D
nhnh phn tp bao gm mt b to bp M
B
phn t. Nh
vy, khi thnh phn nhiu tc ng ln mi phn t trong h thng to bp
c xc nh th cng thc (4.17) c s dng. Sau phn nhiu thu c
ny li dc s dng trong (4.26) cho tng nhnh trong s M
D
nhnh phn
tp. Hn na, vi h thng kt hp phn tp v to bp, hm mt phn b
-117-

xc sut ca SNR u ra l mt phn b gamma vi M
D
bc t do v trong
tham s Nakagami mi nhnh c xc nh bng (4.23).
Gi thit mi b to bp gm 2 phn t anten (M
B
=2) v mt b to bp
hon chnh l 1 nhnh ca h thng phn tp, tng s 2x2 anten c s dng.
Kt qu m phng tnh BER cho k thut phi hp phn tp v to bp so
vi h thng hoc to bp hoc phn tp c a ra phn sau.
4.3. Kt qu m phng
Bng 4.2. Cc tham s u vo nh gi ch tiu BER
Tham s Gi tr
Mi trng

Tham s pha-inh khng nhn thng ca mi
thnh phn a ng (Nakagami)
S tn hiu a ng
S ngi dng
S RAKE fingers
S phn t to bp
Khng
nhn thng
m=1

L=5
K=10
L
R
=2
M
B
=2

Do chnh lch ch tiu BER gia cc h thng, to bp, phn tp v kt
hp c to bp v phn tp, ta s phi la chn mt k thut cho tng ch ln
nht iu kin c th no . Cc tham s m phng c cho trong Bng
4.2. C 2 h thng u c s anten nh nhau (M
B
= M
D
=4), ngha l chi ph
thc hin 2 h thng ny l bng nhau. Trc tin, vi ch tiu ca h thng
phn tp, r rng l s tng quan gia cc phn t phn tp c nh hng
n ch tiu BER. Do , khi thit k h thng phn tp, khng th s dng
gi thit cc tn hiu thu cc phn t l khng tng quan nhau trong tnh
ton BER. C th, c tng quan gia cc ng bao pha-inh ca tn hiu
thu cc nhnh phn tp khc nhau s lm tng ch tiu BER. Ch tiu h
thng to bp, kt qu BER vi M
B
=4 anten tt hn nhiu so vi h thng
phn tp M
D
=4 anten.
-118-

iu kin khng nhn thng, gi tr BER km hn do pha-inh mnh
hn, mc d ch tiu b to bp b tc ng nhiu hn nhng vn tt hn ch
tiu phn tp.
So snh h thng to bp v h thng kt hp c to bp v phn tp
c trnh by trong Hnh 4.7. C hai h thng u s dng 4 anten. B to
bp dng mng tuyn tnh cch u vi M
B
=4 phn t, cn h thng phi
hp M
B
= 2 phn t. C th thy ngay rng h thng phi hp 2 k thut nhy
cm hn vi cc gi tr tng quan ln tri ngc vi h thng phn tp
chun cp trn. Tip n l b to bp vn tip tc c ch tiu tt hn h
thng phi hp cc gi tr Eb/No nh. cc gi tr Eb/No ln hn 8 dB, c
cu phi hp to bp v phn tp thc hin tt hn so vi b to bp.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
1E-6
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1


P
e
Eb/No
DIV
BF
PhoihopDB

Hnh 4.7. Kt qu m phng i vi phn tp M
D
= 4 anten, h thng to bp
M
B
= 4 anten v h thng phi hp c phn tp v to bp mi trng
khng nhn thng
-119-

4.4. o kim h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-
CDMA
4.4.1. Gii thiu h thng th nghim
H thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA IMT-2000 c pht trin
da trn ba khi chc nng: khi ti nguyn dch v, iu khin dch v v
qun l dch v. kim tra hot ng ca cc khi ny mt cch hiu qu,
Vin nghin cu ETRI pht trin mt h thng th nghim anten thng
minh cho W-CDMA. Trong h thng ny, thit b u cui ca ngi dng
(UE) c s dng l thit b thng mi c trn th trng, phn thit b th
nghim tp trung ch yu vo phn mng truy nhp v tuyn [27].
Mt trm ca h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA cng gm c 3
sc-t c th trin khai d dng vi h thng W-CDMA IMT-2000 hin c.
Mi sc-t c mt h thng anten mng gm 8 phn t - to ra ti a 12 bp
sng. S khc nhau ca c tnh truyn sng gia cc ng truyn gia cc
phn t anten v my thu c nh c trong h thng. Vi ng xung t
Nt-B ti UE, dng bp l c nh; cn vi ng ln t UE n Nt-B, bp
sng c to lp thch nghi vi mi trng thay i. h thng th nghim
anten thng minh cho W-CDMA c giao din Uu theo tiu chun ca D n
i tc h thng th h th 3 (3GPP). Cc dch v c cung cp l dch v
chuyn mch knh nh thoi 12,2 kbps v hnh H.263 384 kbps. K thut
iu khin cng sut vng m v vng kn u c s dng v h tr c
chuyn giao mm v mm hn.
Ch tiu ca h thng di ng CDMA b hn ch bi cc c tnh ca
knh v tuyn nh nhiu, s che khut, pha-inh, tr, tri ph.v.v. vt
qua c cc gii hn v ch tiu nhiu, cc k thut b knh nh iu khin
cng sut, my thu RAKE, anten phn tp .v.v. c s dng. Tuy nhin,
vn kh t c yu cu ca cc h thng thng tin di ng tng lai (cung
-120-

cp c cc dch v a phng tin vi cc mc cht lng dch v khc nhau)
bng nhng k thut ny. Anten thng minh l mt trong nhng k thut c
trin vng nht c th p ng nhng yu cu ny.
H thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA c pht trin ci thin
ch tiu ca h thng W-CDMA IMT-2000. H thng W-CDMA ny hin
cung cp cht lng dch v khng c tt lm, c bit l cho cc dch
v thng tin di ng tc truyn d liu cao. Cu trc ca h thng thng
tin di ng th h 3 ca mt nh khai thc c th s s dng h thng W-
CDMA thng thng lm c s (trin khai rng khp) v h thng anten
thng minh cho W-CDMA ph sng cc im nng, ni yu cu nhiu
dch v cht lng cao (cu trc nh vy cng c xut s dng Hn
Quc). H thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA chp nhn c k thut to
bp sng thch nghi (ABF) v chuyn bp sng (SBF). kim tra mi kh
nng ca h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA mt cch hiu qu, h
thng th nghim c thit k n gin ti a.
4.4.2. Anten mng thng minh

Hnh 4.8. Cu hnh h thng anten thng minh
MY PHT
Rx
A/D
Rx
A/D
Rx
A/D
nh c
B

o

b

p

s


G
i
a
o

d
i

n
-
I
u
b

&

D
e
m
.

iu khin
G
i
a
o

d
i

n
-
I
u
b

&

M
o
d
.

B

o

b

p

s


iu khin
Tx
A/D
Tx
A/D
Tx
A/D
nh c
MY THU
-121-

Anten thng minh s dng mt mng cc phn t anten, mi anten c
mt vc-t tn hiu ring. Bng cch ly trng s cc vc-t tn hiu khc
nhau, ta c th to ra nhiu bp sng v iu khin hng ca mi bp sng.
Bp sng mong mun c th c to lp sao cho t s tn hiu-trn-tp m
(SNR) ca tn hiu mong mun tng ng k. Anten thng minh thng c
lp t ti trm gc (Nt-B), v kh c th lp anten mng my u cui do
hn ch v kch thc. y ta s ch xem xt trng hp anten thng minh
lp trm gc.
ng xung t trm gc ti my u cui, Trm gc pht tn hiu
cho my u cui theo hng mong mun. iu khin hng pht, Trm
gc c tr gip bi tn hiu thu t my u cui. ng ln t my u
cui ti Trm gc, Trm gc s iu khin hng bp sng v pha tn hiu
thu c v tch ra tn hiu mong mun. cc hai ng, my thu, my u
cui hoc trm gc c th thu tn hiu mong mun ca ring n m khng b
nhiu bi cc ng truyn tn hiu khc. Nh vy, dung lng h thng s
tng ln khi s bp sng v SNR tng. Cu trc anten thng minh bao gm:
- Mng anten:









Hnh 4.9. Mng anten
1/2 (63mm)
Duplexer
-122-

Anten dng nhiu phn t thit lp mu bp sng mong mun. Khi s
phn t tng, ch tiu h thng tng do gc bp sng nh. Thng thng,
ngi ta ch s dng t 4-12 phn t anten c kiu cch u tuyn tnh
hoc hnh trn cch u.
- My thu pht v tuyn:
S my thu pht v tuyn cho 1 sc-t bng s phn t anten. ng
xung, tn hiu RF pht c i qua cc khi nh b khuych i cng
sut cao, b i tn ln t bng gc,... ng ln, tn hiu RF th i qua
b khuych i tp m thp, b i tn xung bng gc,...
- B to bp sng:
Cc vct trng s cho mi anten c tnh ton khi ny thit lp
mu bp sng mong mun. Thng thng vi k thut chuyn bp sng,
s bp sng l c nh v vct trng s l khng i. Tuy nhin vi k
thut to bp thch nghi, cc vc-t trng s thay i ng tu theo mu
bp sng mong mun. Cc vc-t trng s c nh gi da trn hng
ti hoc tham chiu thi gian. Cc vc-t ny phi c x l trong thi
gian thc, do yu cu kh nng tnh ton phi rt nhanh.
- Khi nh c RF:
m bo ch tiu yu cu ca anten thng minh, cc phn t anten
phi c c tnh ging nhau. Ch cn mt khc bit nh cng gy ra nh
hng ln ln cng hoc tr ca sng mang. Khi nh c RF c
nhim v b tr nhng khc bit sao cho cc phn t anten c ch tiu
ging ht nhau.
4.4.3. Cu hnh h thng v iu kin o
H thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-CDMA c pht
trin o kim cc kh nng ca h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA
mt cch hiu qu. H thng th nghim anten thng minh c bn phn
-123-

chnh: thit b ngi dng (UE), phn h RF (RFS); phn h x l s (DPS)
v phn h m phng mng (NSS). Cc phn h ny c thc hin da trn
m hnh tham chiu h thng chun ca D n i tc h thng th h th 3 -
3GPP . Cc giao thc mng v bo hiu tun th theo cu trc ca D n i
tc h thng th h th 3 .


Hnh 4.10. H thng anten thng minh th nghim ti Vin Nghin cu ETRI

H thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-CDMA IMT-2000 c s
dng d o kim ti Vin Nghin cu ETRI c nhng c trng chnh sau:
[27]
+ Khi RF/IF:
o nh c tc thi
o IF k thut s
-124-

SA-RTS
ABFCC
#0
Sect.
1
BFNC
Sect.
2
BFNC
SPDM
(PC)
Sector 1
Sect.
3
BFNC
.
.
.
ANT # 8
ANT # 1
ABFCC
#1
Hub
BF
Display
(PC)
SMAT
Commercial UE Commercial UE
CKU
RECAU
RECU
(8way)
TRCU
(8way)
TRCAU
CALU
(8way)
RFFU
(8way)
Sector 2
Sector 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
RF/IF
Digital
UE thng mi
o 8 anten/ sc-t (4 tn s (FA)/sc-t)
+ Khi x l s
o ng xung: b chuyn bp sng, 12 bp c nh / 1 sc-t
o ng ln: B to bp thch nghi, s dng thut ton Trung bnh
Bnh phng Nh nht chun
o B gii iu ch: mi nhnh c th hot ng ba ch : to bp
thch nghi, chuyn bp sng v phn tp 2 anten.
+ iu kin o kim:
o B m phng thit b u cui ngi s dng (UE): Cng c phn
tch modem anten thng minh
o My u cui W-CDMA thng mi ca Samsung
o B m phng lp 2/3 trm gc BS: Khi gim st phn tch ch
tiu anten thng minh (SPDM)
Hnh 4.11. Cu hnh h thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA s
dng trong o kim

Hnh 4.11 trnh by cu trc khi chc nng ca h thng th nghim
anten thng minh cho W-CDMA. UE l mt my cm tay thng mi do
Samsung sn xut. Phn h RF bao gm: b khuych i cng sut cao, b
-125-

khuych i tp m thp, b i tn pht (TRCU), B i tn thu (RECU), v
b nh c (CALU); B i tn ln v xung tng ng trong B i tn pht
v B i tn thu. B lc p ng impulse hu hn cho tn hiu I- v Q- bng
gc c lp trong B nh c CALU. Mi b khuych i cng sut cao v
b khuych i tp m thp tng ng vi mt B i tn pht v B i tn
thu. Mi h thng h tr ti a 4 tn s (FA) hoc anten; Mt b nh c h
tr mt tn s. Do mng 8 anten c s dng v mi sc-t h tr ti a 4
tn s, nn 8 b khuych i cng sut cao, 8 B i tn pht, 8 b khuych
i tp m thp, 8 B i tn thu v 4 B nh c CALU s c lp t trong
mt sc-t. H thng anten thng minh cho W-CDMA h tr ti a 3 sc-t
v ln ti 192 tn hiu bng gc (2 tn hiu bng gc/anten x 8 anten/sc-t x
4 tn s x 3 sc-t), vi tc 30,72 Mcps (384 kcps x 8 bt/chip) c
truyn t khi x l s qua ng bo hiu vi sai in p thp (LVDS).

Hnh 4.12. Cc knh ca B to bp thch nghi (h tr 3 sc-t x 8 anten)

-126-

Phn h x l s bao gm b iu khin mch to bp sng, h thng
modem, b iu khin modem, v b x l trung tm (DCPU). B iu khin
mch to bp sng nh truyn tn hiu bng gc gia B nh c v h thng
modem. H thng modem trong h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho
W-CDMA c thc hin nh vi mch c th lp trnh v s c kiu chp l
mch t hp ring cho ng dng (ASIC). B iu khin modem v b x l
trung tm c thc hin bng cch s dng b x l tn hiu s v cc knh
tng ng. B x l chnh ca cc knh x l cc bn tin bo hiu gia UE v
Phn h m phng mng. Mt b iu khin mch to bp sng h tr 1 sc-
t v truyn ti ti a 64 tn hiu bng gc 30,72 Mcps. Vi mt tn s, 12
bp sng c to lp trong 1 sc-t v c th p ng ti a 360 ngi s
dng m thoi ng thi trong 1 sec-t. Mi cc knh h tr ti a 64 knh,
v cn 6 cc knh h tr 1 sc-t c 1 tn s. C th trang b ti a 18 cc
knh trong mt gi x l s - ng vi 3 sc-t x tn s.
- nh c:
+ Mc ch: b p nhng phn khng trng kht ca cc ng truyn
n RF to lp bp sng mt cch chnh xc.
+ c im: nh gi mi hm truyn bng mt tn hiu nh c khc
nhau. Tnh ton hiu qu nh c phc t cc hm truyn c nh
gi bng b iu khin DSP. Ghp cc tn hiu pht hoc tn hiu thu
da vo hiu qu nh c.
+ Thc hin tng ng trn my pht v my thu
Phn h m phng mng bao gm Khi giao din mng, Khi qun l lu
lng, b x l trung tm v khi giao din ngi s dng. Nn ca phn h
m phng mng l mt my tnh PC v cc nhim v u c thc hin
bng phn mm. Khi giao din mng c ni vi b x l trung tm ca
phn h x l s qua mng Ethernet. Lu lng c x l trong Khi qun
-127-

l lu lng mng. B x l trung tm l b x l chnh ca phn h m
phng mng v lm nhim v x l cc bn tin bo hiu. Khi giao din
ngi s dng cung cp cho ngi dng dch v thoi hoc hnh. Chc nng
ca Khi qun l lu lng mng, b x l trung tm, v Khi giao din
ngi s dng tng ng vi lp 2, lp 3, v lp ng dng ca giao thc ca
D n i tc h thng th h th 3 . Cc khi chc nng ny lin tc vi khi
giao thc tng ng ca UE.
- B iu ch:
+ Knh khng truyn dn: Knh hoa tiu chung - CPICH, Knh ng b -
SCH, Knh bo chim knh - AICH, Knh bo nhn tin - PICH
+ Ti a 32 knh truyn dn: knh vt l iu khin chung s cp -
PCCPCH, knh vt l iu khin chung th cp - SCCPCHs, knh vt l
dnh ring - DPCHs
+ Mi knh knh vt l dnh ring DPCH c th hot ng c ch
phn tp v ch to bp sng chuyn mch
+ To bp sng ng xung: 12 bp sng c nh (s bp sng trn mt
sc-t l 12).
- B gii iu ch:
+ Cu trc dng chung nhnh
+ Mi nhnh c th hot ng 3 ch : to bp sng thch nghi, to bp
sng c nh, 2 anten phn tp
+ Thut ton Trung bnh bnh phng nh nht chun c s dng cho
ABF ng ln
+ Tn hiu tham chiu chun nh gi knh, bm thi gian, nh gi
SIR v ABF l knh iu khin vt l dnh ring-DPCCH ng ln.
- B d tm:
-128-

+ B d tm ban u: ca s tm kim l 256 chp, ch ch phn tp
(ng hng)
+ B d tm a ng: d tr v bp sng (chuyn bp sng)- ca s d
tm l 64, s bp sng l 12; Kt qu tm kim c th c s dng cho k
thut Chuyn bp sng ng xung; c th hot ng c ch phn
tp (ng hng)
- Khi x l s:
+ M ho v gii m knh truyn dn: Turbo/Viterbi
+ Giao din vi lp cao hn qua b x l trung tm
+ iu khin modem: iu khin th tc knh truy nhp ngu nhin, iu
khin cng sut ban u, iu khin Chuyn bp sng ng xung, iu
khin ABF ng ln, thut ton phn b nhnh cho ng ln.


Hnh 4.13. Mu bp sng c nh ng xung
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10

Cng
sut
8 phn t anten, 12 bp sng, khong cch:63mm, 2000 MHz
-129-

4.4.4. Kt qu o kim trn h thng th nghim
Kt qu gim st bp sng ng ln v ng xung ca h thng th
nghim.

Hnh 4.14. Dng bp sng ng xung (chuyn mch bp sng) v
ng ln (bp sng thch nghi)
Kt qu o kim ch tiu:
Hnh 4.15 v Hnh 4.16 gii thiu ch tiu h thng khi dng ABF trong
h thng th nghim. Trong Hnh 4.15, ta thy t s tn hiu trn tp m tng
thm khong 3,5-4,5dB khi dng ABF 8-anten so vi khi s dng phn tp 2
-130-

anten (DIV). Hnh 4.16 cho thy s ci thin thm 1,2dB khi dng ABF 8-
anten thay cho DIV 2-anten. Nh vy, tng th ch tiu ca h thng c ci
thin khong 5,5 n 6 dB khi dng ABF 8-anten so vi DIV 2-anten.










Hnh 4.15. Kt qu o kim SNR trn H thng th nghim theo gi tr
SIR
target
t trc












Hnh 4.16. Kt qu o kim BLER cho ABF 8-anten v DIV 2-anten
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
-2
0
2
4
6
8
3.5 dB
3.5 dB
4.5 dB

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

S
N
R
Target SIR(For ABF)
ABF
DIV
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
0.01
0.1
1
1.2 dB

U
p
l
i
n
k

B
L
E
R
Target SIR(ABF and DIV respectively)
ABF
DIV
-131-

Qua vic pht trin h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-CDMA,
chng ta c th khng nh rng h thng anten thng minh s lm tng ng
k dung lng h thng. Trong h thng th nghim, 12 bp sng c to
lp trong 1 sc-t v dung lng h thng tng khong 4 ln.
4.5. X l kt qu o kim v so snh vi kt qu m phng
c th so snh kt qu o kim v kt qu m phng, trc tin ta cn
chuyn i t kt qu o BLER theo SIR sang BER theo Eb/No.
Trong cu trc ng ln W-CDMA, knh vt l dnh ring - DPCH
gm knh d liu vt l dnh ring - DPDCH (vi cc h s tri ph c th l:
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256) v knh iu khin vt l dnh ring - DPCCH (ch
vi h s tri ph l 64). Hai knh ny tu theo h s tri ph ca mnh s c
cng sut tng ng l
d
, v
c
. i lng t s cng sut c nh ngha l
=
c
d

.
xut cng thc chuyn i Eb/No v SIR
target
:
Trong h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-CDMA, lung bt
thng tin c m ho vi t l 1/3 cho iu ch k hiu, nh vy nng lng
bt thng tin bng 3 ln nng lng k hiu knh DPDCH, tnh bng dB:
E
b
=E
s|DPDCH
+ 10log3= E
s|DPDCH
+4,77 (dB) (4.28)
Theo t l tuyn tnh:
E
s|DPDCH
=
2
.E
s|DPCCH
.
256
|DPDCH fact
S
(4.29)
nh ngha:
=
256
|DPDCH fact
S
(4.30)
E
s|DPDCH
tnh bng dB c th c tnh theo cng thc sau:
-132-

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1E-5
1E-4
1E-3
0.01
0.1


5 dB
B
E
R
Eb/No
ABF
DIV
E
s|DPDCH
=
2
+ E
s|DPCCH
+ (dB) (4.31)
Thay (4.31) vo (4.28), E
b
c th c tnh theo cng thc sau (tnh bng dB)
E
b
=
2
+ E
s|DPCCH
+ + 4,77 (dB) (4.32)
Trong h thng th nghim s dng trong o kim, S
factor
ca DPDCH =
64, S
factor
ca DPCCH = 256, nh vy = 64/256 = (hay bng 6dB).
d

=15,
c
=8 nn =15/8,
Nh vy:
2
(dB) = 5,45 dB
Vi SIR
target
=
t
DPCCH S
I
E
|
= 1dB (trong I
t
l tng nhiu) th Eb/No bng:
Eb/No = 5,45 + 1 6 + 4,77 = 5,22 dB (4.33)
Ni cch khc, c th chuyn i
Eb/No = SIR
target
+ 4,22 dB (4.34)
Vi h thng W-CDMA, t l li bt khi BLER thp hn BER khong 10
ln (ngha l nu BLER =10
-2
th BER xp x c 10
-3
) [33]. Nh vy, kt qu
o c th c biu din li nh Hnh 4.17.











Hnh 4.17. T l li bt BER o c vi ABF 8-anten v DIV 2-anten
-133-


Kt qu o ch tiu cho trng hp DIV 2-anten rt ging vi kt qu m
phng cho k thut phn tp. Cn trng hp ABF 8-anten ch tiu o c
tt hn kt qu m phng do h thng o kim s dng 8 anten to bp
trong khi kt qu m phng c thc hin cho ch 4 anten.
4.6. Tng kt chng
Chng ny xut mt k thut phi hp cho chp c c u im
ca c hai k thut phn tp v to bp cho h thng W-CDMA. H thng
ny s tn dng c u im ca vic gim nhiu bp sng m vn c c
phn tp thu, c bit l trong mi trng pha inh khi tn hiu ti cc phn t
anten mng khng bao gi c th l tng quan hon ton.
Kt qu m phng cho thy rng trong mi trng nhiu ngi dng,
pha-inh mnh, k thut phi hp c to bp v phn tp cho ch tiu tt hn
h thng to bp gi tr Eb/No ln hn 8dB, mc d di gi tr ny ch tiu
ca h thng to bp vn ln hn. Nh vy, c th thy rng k thut phi
hp c lun n xut s c bit c ngha trin khai cc dch v
truyn d liu tc cao, i hi c t s Eb/No ln.
Kt qu o kim trn h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-
CDMA ti Vin nghin cu ETRI cho trng hp DIV 2-anten v ABF 8-
anten c s dng nh gi tin cy ca cc kt qu m phng.
c th so snh kt qu m phng v o kim, cng thc chuyn i gia
SIR
target
v Eb/No cho h thng W-CDMA cng c xy dng. Qua , ta
thy rng kt qu m phng ph hp vi cc kt qu o kim v chng t
c tin cy ca phng n xut.
-134-

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN
Kt lun
1. Thut ton to bp thch nghi kt hp trung bnh bnh phng nh nht v
hng s theo khi trn c knh hoa tiu v knh lu lng c s dng
cho ng ln h thng DS-CDMA c tc hi t nhanh hn nh php
cp nht trng s kt hp. Thut ton kt hp ny hon ton da trn hai
thut ton kinh in, khng lm tng phc tp tnh ton v ph hp vi
kh nng x l ca cc thit b hin nay.
2. Vic ng dng anten thng minh chuyn bp sng cc h thng thng
tin di ng GSM hin ti (N=4) c th lm dung lng h thng tng thm
30% so vi anten d qut, v ln gp 3 ln (khi s bp sng ca anten l
12) so vi anten ng hng. Vic s dng mu ti s dng tn s mi
N=3 c xut trong lun n c th tip tc lm tng dung lng h
thng ln thm 30% na.
3. Mu ti s dng tn s mi N=3 cho h thng GSM khi s dng anten
thng minh l kh thi do t s CIR hin ti c tnh ton, so snh bao
gm mc d tr cng sut t 7,5dB n 8,5dB d phng cho cc nh
hng ca pha-inh v che khut. Hn na, hiu sut ph khi dng anten
chuyn bp sng so vi anten ng hng trong mi trng pha-inh v
che khut c chng minh l ln hn trong khng gian t do.
4. Trong mi trng pha-inh, tn hiu ti cc phn t anten mng khng bao
gi l tng quan hon ton. K thut phi hp to bp v phn tp c
xut cho h thng W-CDMA tn dng c u im ca vic lm gim
nhiu bp sng m vn c c phn tp thu. Kt qu m phng cho thy
trong mi trng nhiu ngi dng, pha-inh mnh, k thut phi hp to
-135-

bp v phn tp cho ch tiu tt hn h thng to bp gi tr Eb/No ln
hn 8dB ph hp trin khai cc dch v truyn d liu tc cao.
5. Kt qu o kim trn h thng th nghim anten thng minh cho W-
CDMA ti Vin nghin cu ETRI - Hn Quc cho thy ch tiu tng th
ca h thng c ci thin khong 5,5 n 6 dB khi dng anten to bp
sng thch nghi so vi anten phn tp thng thng, tng ng dung lng
h thng c th tng khong 4 ln. Thng qua cng thc chuyn i gia
SIR
target
v Eb/No c xy dng cho h thng W-CDMA, kt qu o
kim ging kt qu m phng cho trng hp phn tp v trng hp to
bp, chng t kt qu m phng k thut phi hp to bp v phn tp cho
h thng W-CDMA cng ng tin cy.

Hng pht trin tip theo:
1. Trin khai p dng vo thc tin thut ton to bp kt hp trung bnh
bnh phng nh nht v hng s theo khi cho h thng W-CDMA.
2. nh gi nh hng ca pha-inh v che khut khi s dng anten thng
minh cho cc iu kin a hnh, thnh ph c th khi trin khai.
3. Nghin cu cu trc anten mng ph hp cho k thut phi hp to bp v
phn tp xut cho h thng W-CDMA.
4. Nghin cu bi ton p dng anten mng nhiu phn t c trm gc v
my di ng - MIMO cho W-CDMA vi k thut m ho khng gian-thi
gian.
-136-

Bi bo, Cng trnh cng b
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10. Dang Dinh Lam, Nguyen Minh Dan, Chu Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Quang Hung,
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