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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

**NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections
**

This NCCI presents a method for determining the non-dimensional slenderness without explicit determination of Mcr. The basic, conservative method can be refined to take account of section geometry and bending moment distribution.

Contents

1. 2. 3. Simplified method Economy from more complexity Allowance for the effect of destabilizing loads 2 3 6

Created on Friday, September 02, 2011 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Page 1

Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement L iz NOTES is the distance between points of restraint of the compression flange is the radius of gyration of the section about the minor axis. the loading is not “destabilising”. Lower yield strengths for thicker elements reduce λ LT by up to 5%. For example.1 λ LT for different grades of steel where Created on Friday. Simplified method For straight segments of hot-rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections with lateral restraints to the compression flange at both ends of the segment considered and with no destabilizing loads.3. Table 1. For further information. there may be little gain. Destabilising loads need to be taken into account in design.1. see also: Economy from more complexity Non-uniform bending moment distribution reduces λ LT by up to 40% where there is significant reversal of moment. where a floor acts as a horizontal diaphragm restraining the beam. U = 0. For beams designed as “simply supported”.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU 1. Section geometry reduces λ LT by up to 15%.2. Improved economy can be gained by increasing the complexity of the slenderness calculation.3. It is advisable to detail structures to avoid “destabilising” loading.3 may be conservatively taken from Table 1.2 or §6.1 is derived from equation (1) taking C1 = 1.9. but for columns with large moments.0 and β w = 1. September 02.all rights reserved. S 235 S 275 S 355 S420 S 460 λ LT = L iz 104 λ LT = L iz 96 λ LT = L iz 85 λ LT = L iz 78 λ LT = L iz 75 Table 1.0.2. V = 1. the value of λ LT required by EN1993-1-1 §6. This may be achieved by detailing so that the load and the beam flange are not free to move laterally. the gain may be significant. 2011 This material is copyright . Derivation of above simplified equations Page 2 . Allowance for the effects of destabilising loads Background Theory Destabilising loads are rare but when they do exist the bending resistance is reduced.0.

September 02. Values of 1 for some bending moment diagrams are given in Table 2.0 (this value has been used in the simplified method above).2.y g A Iz Iw In which g allows for the curvature of the beam if it has zero vertical deflection ⎛ I ⎞ before it is loaded and is given by g = ⎜1 − z ⎟ or.1(2). conservatively. or as V = 1 1 ⎛ λz 4 1+ ⎜ 20 ⎜ h tf ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 for doubly symmetric hot rolled I and H sections Page 3 . C1 Values for other bending moment diagrams can be obtained from [SN003]. the economy may be significant. it may be taken as: either. = 1. V is a parameter related to the slenderness. g = 1.all rights reserved. NOTE: For beams in “simple” construction (designed as Simple Supported beams).0 ⎜ Iy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Conservatively. There is little economy to be gained for simply supported beams by use of 1 . Economy from more complexity A less conservative value of λ LT may be obtained by taking account of bending moment diagram. Conservatively. but in C1 columns with negative values of ψ (see Table 2. When the loading is not “destabilising”.1) and large bending moments. conservatively. U is a parameter dependent on the section geometry and is given by: U= Wpl. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement λ LT where C1 = 1 λ 1 UV z β w = UV λ z β w λ1 C1 C1 (1) is a parameter dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram. λ LT is given by Created on Friday.1. see EN1993-1-8 §5. 2011 This material is copyright .0 for all sections symmetric about the major axis. section geometry and lower yield strengths. U = 0. C1 = 1.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU 2. Where the loading is not “destabilising”.1 and Table 2.9 (this value has been used in the simplified method above).

0 unless it can be demonstrated otherwise = Wy Wpl.y λ1 =π E in which fy is the yield strength appropriate to the thickness of the steel.all rights reserved. y βw Created on Friday. 2011 This material is copyright . September 02. then V = 1+ 4 1 (λz )2 π 2E A Iw G It Iz λz L k = kL .in which iz is the distance between points of restraint to the compression flange is the effective length parameter and should be taken as 1. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Wy is the modulus used to calculate Mb. where the loading is not “destabilising”.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU The exact definition of V.Rd For Class 1 and 2 sections Wy = Wpl.y For Class 3 sections Wy = Wel. is: V= ⎛ k ⎜ 4 ⎜ kw ⎝ 1 ⎞ (λz )2 ⎟ + ⎟ π2E A Iw ⎠ G It Iz 2 If k = kw. fy Page 4 .

94 0.75 -1. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement 1 C1 M ψM -1 ≤ ψ ≤ +1 1.25 -0.00 +0.77 Page 5 .all rights reserved.25 0.63 -0.75 0. to be used with k=1.87 0.81 0.66 0.62 0.0 C1 ψ +1.75 +0. to be used with k=1. September 02.50 -0.2 Values of 1 for cases with transverse loading.86 0.00 Created on Friday.94 0.00 Table 2. 2011 This material is copyright .NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU Table 2.62 0.1 Values of 1 for end moment loading.70 0.50 +0.0 C1 Bending moment diagram Loading and support conditions 1 C1 0.00 0.

1b. 3. The load therefore applies an additional torque. such a load is described as a “destabilising” load. deflecting laterally and twisting. 2011 This material is copyright . If both the load and the beam are free to move laterally.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU 3.1 An example of a destabilising load increasing the effect of lateral torsional buckling. Allowance for the effect of destabilizing loads The effect of a ‘destabilising’ load may be taken into account by increasing the value of the non-dimensional slenderness. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement w e a) Load acting through shear centre b) Load acting at top flange (destabilising load) Figure 3.all rights reserved. Page 6 .1 Beams with destabilizing loads A beam with the load acting at a distance above the shear centre of the section is shown in Figure 3. the line of action of the load remains vertical but moves relative to the shear centre of the section. The destabilising effect arises because when the beam buckles. September 02. w Created on Friday.

Values of C2 are given in SN003. 25 Created on Friday. V may be taken conservatively as: 1 = V 2 1 ⎛ λz ⎞ 2 Iz 4 1+ ⎜ ⎜ h t ⎟ + C2 z g I ⎟ 20 ⎝ f ⎠ w ( ) C2 zg is a parameter dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram. 2011 This material is copyright . λ LT is given by λ LT where V = βw = (2) = 1 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢⎛ k ⎜ ⎢⎜ k w ⎝ ⎢ ⎣ ⎞ (λz )2 + C z ⎟ + 2 g ⎟ π 2E A Iw ⎠ G It Iz 2 ( )2 ⎤ ⎥ Iz ⎥ Iw ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. September 02.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU 3.2 Slenderness with destabilising loads 1 λ UVD z λ1 C1 1 UVD λ z βw C1 Where the loading is “destabilising”. is the height of the “destabilising” load above the shear centre D = 1 ⎛ Iz ⎜1 − V 2 C 2 z g ⎜ Iw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement For doubly symmetric hot rolled I and H sections.all rights reserved.5 Page 7 .

or conservatively as g =1. The elastic critical buckling moment may be written: ⎛ π 2 EI z ⎜ M cr = C1 (kL)2 g ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ k ⎜ ⎜k ⎝ w 2 ⎞ ⎞ I w (kL )2 GI t ⎟ 2 ⎟ + 2 + (C2 z g ) − C2 z g ⎟ ⎟ I π EI z ⎟ ⎠ z ⎠ where g is the correction factor for the increase in critical buckling moment caused by ⎛ I ⎞ increased curvature. which may be taken as g = ⎜1 − z ⎟ .0. September 02. ⎜ Iy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Created on Friday. 2011 This material is copyright .NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU Annex A Background Theory The theoretical consistency between the simplified method and the explicit method using Mcr for calculating values of λ LT is demonstrated below. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement EN 1993-1-1 defines the “non-dimensional” slenderness as λ LT = Wy f y ⎛ π 2 EI z ⎜ C1 (kL )2 g ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ k ⎜ ⎜k ⎝ w ⎞ I w (kL )2 GI t ⎟ + C2 zg ⎟ I + 2 π EI z ⎠ z 2 Wy f y M cr = ( ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ − C2 zg ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 W y g (kL )2 1 = C1 A ⎛ I z ⎞ π 2 E ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ A ⎠ fy ⎜ Iw ⎜ ⎜ Iz ⎜ ⎝ 1 ⎡ ⎢⎛ k ⎢⎜ ⎢⎜ k w ⎝ ⎢ ⎣ ⎞ (kL )2 GI t I z + C z ⎟ + 2 g ⎟ ⎛ I z ⎞ Aπ 2 E I w ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ A⎠ 2 ( )2 ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎟ Iz ⎥ ⎥ − C2 zg ⎟ Iw ⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎦ ⎠ 1 W y g (kL )2 1 = C1 A (iz )2 π 2 E fy 1 1 Iw ⎛ ⎡ 2 ⎜ ⎛ k ⎞ (kL )2 G I t I z ⎟ + + C2 zg I z ⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎜ k w ⎟ (iz )2 π 2 E AI w ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ( ) 2 Iz ⎤ ⎥ − C2 zg I z Iw ⎥ Iw ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ defining λ1 = π kL E and λz = iz fy Page 8 .all rights reserved.

y g A Iz Iw λ LT 2 V2 1 2 ( λz ) β WU = C1 (λ1 )2 ⎛1 − V 2C z I z ⎜ 2 g ⎜ Iw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ defining D = 1 ⎛ ⎜1 − V 2C 2 z g I z ⎜ Iw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ λ LT = (λ )2 1 βWU 2 z 2 V 2 D 2 C1 (λ1 ) 1 λ UVD z λ1 C1 βW ∴ λ LT = Page 9 . y and U = Wpl. y g C1 Wpl. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement λ LT = 1 Wy Wpl. 2011 This material is copyright .NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU = 1 Wy g C1 A Iz (λz )2 1 2 Iw (λ1 ) ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 ⎛ k ⎜ ⎜k ⎝ w ⎞ ( λz ) + C z ⎟ + 2 g ⎟ 2 π E A Iw ⎠ G It Iz 2 2 ( )2 II z − C2 zg w ⎞ ⎟ Iz ⎟ ⎟ Iw ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ defining V = 1 ⎛ k ⎜ ⎜k ⎝ w ⎞ (λz )2 + C z ⎟ + 2 g ⎟ π 2E A Iw ⎠ G It Iz 2 ( )2 II z w Created on Friday. September 02.y A I z ( λz )2 1 2 ⎛ I w ( λ1 ) ⎜ 1 − C2 zg I z ⎜V 2 Iw ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ defining β w = Wy Wpl.all rights reserved.

V reduces to V= 1+ 1 = 1+ 4 1 (λz )2 π 2E A Iw G It Iz (λz )2 π2E A Iw G It Iz ⎛h⎞ For hot-rolled I-sections. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Therefore. Where k = kw and the load is applied through the shear centre of the section.all rights reserved. September 02. 2011 This material is copyright . and where the loads are not “destabilising”. ≈ 20⎜ ⎟ ⎜t ⎟ G It Iz ⎝ f⎠ π 2E A Iw 2 Created on Friday. for hot-rolled I-sections.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU V may be simplified as follows. V may be taken as: V= 4 1+ 1 1 ⎛ λz ⎜ 20 ⎜ h tf ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Page 10 .

September 02. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement Company The Steel Construction Institute The Steel Construction Institute SCI Date James Lim Charles King D C Iles 2/3/05 G W Owens A Bureau A Olsson C Mueller J Chica G W Owens SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI 1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 21/04/06 2. Germany 5. UK Created on Friday.NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU Quality Record RESOURCE TITLE NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: Page 11 . Sweden 4.all rights reserved. 2011 This material is copyright . France 3.

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