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Rock and Pop

1950s
Ÿ Rhythm and Blues - saxophone and electric guitar - more powerful beat than 40’s - prominently African american music, but then spread out Examples - Drifters (gospel-tinged vocal group), the Platters (falsetto lead sounds) Influenced - Fats Domino, Chuck Berry Ÿ Rock and Roll - Teenage delinquency - contemporary music - rebelliousness à loudness, pounding beat Examples - Bill Haley and the Comets (Rock Around the Clock 1954) - 1st big hit of r&r - Elvis Presley ‘King’ of Rock and Roll - youthful rebellion

1960s
Ÿ Soul - Black performers - emphasized emotionality - gospel roots Examples - James Brown, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin Ÿ Motown Motor Town USA - From Detroit - Blend of rhythm and blues with popular music - American African composers/performers à mainstream popular. Examples - Diana Ross and the Supremes, Stevie Wonder Ÿ Rock & Roll British Influence - new era - influenced wider range of sounds/musical ideas - experimentation with electronic effects - ‘classical’/non-western instruments - unconventional scales, chord progressions, rhythms Examples - The Beatles (1964 American Tour), The Rolling Stones Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison, Ringo Starr

formal structures .equivalent to Romantic era song cycles 1970s .Billy Joel. Against racial bigotry) 1960s Fusion Folk Rock Jazz Rock Psychedelic Rock Acid Rock Art Rock 60’s .Bookends (Simon and Garfunkel) .popular dance music Example .Donna Summers ‘Disco Queen’ Ÿ singer-songwriters Examples .revival of rock and roll .instrumentation .concept albums à songs linked bya basic idea .popular with many young people Developed by . Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (Beatles) .Ÿ Folk Rock .visual aspects of stage show .scope of its harmony and textual content .70s Expansion of: .theatricality .record companies released ‘oldies’ Ÿ Disco .Technological advancements in recording techniques . social injustice .lyrics à contemporary issues eg.nostalgic fascination with 50’s rock and roll . Broadway musicals . War.Bob Dylan (Blowin’ In the Wind.continuation of 60’s styles . Bruce Springsteen Ÿ County Rock .Sgt.moved to mainstream as stars won national popularity .influence on Hollywood films.

‘second British invasion’ .Johnny Cash.the Police. Disconcerting Examples .pounding drums . Guns ‘n’ Roses Ÿ Rap . speed.unrestrained guitars à very loud .disk jockey accompaniment à manipulated recordings on two trutables . the Clash.primal rock 1980s Ÿ New Wave .popular in America . the Beastie Boys 1990’s Ÿ Heavy metal substyles à thrash. New Order.Black soul music Ÿ Punk . The Cure Ÿ Heavy Metal .Run-D.east coast American cities .Examples . computers .extensive use of electronic technology .technically refined . Motley Crue.stylistically eclectic . Iron Maiden.synthesizers. Willie Nelson Ÿ Reggae .Jamaican Ÿ Funk .derived from punk .Rhythmically assertive .young urban blacks .C.renewed interest among teens .rhythmically accented poetic recitation .outlandish-looking performers Examples .M.heavily amplified bass . death Ÿ Rap .collage of percussive and musical effects .lyrics à sex & violence. Dolly Parton.anger and frustration of urban youth Examples .Metallica.

synthesizer . funk. country.rhythm guitar (electric) .. Eminem. Soundgarden.Nirvana. electric piano.signers . NoFX.Garth Brooks Ÿ 70’s music à Disco. grinding guitar . Tupac.pan-Latin influences Examples . Alice in Chains. Reggae. Pearl Jam. punk Elements Ÿ TONE COLOUR .Gloria Esefan. sax 1960’s .stylistic variety Influenced by: 1970s punk.brash. Nine Inch Nails Ÿ Punk resurgence .Green Day. Dre. hard rock. Rock & roll.powerfully amplifiers .electric bass .inspired by success of grunge Examples .guitar manipulated electronically .young people disenchanted with ‘polished’ mainstream rock .trumpets. Dr. System of a Down Ÿ Latino .stylistic features from other popular music . trombones. Public enemy.controversial gangsta rap à deliberately antisocial and explicit lyrics Examples . Ricky Martin Ÿ Country . heavy metal Examples . Missy Elliot Ÿ Grunge/Alternative .percussion -keyboard à piano.De La Soul.variety of instruments .electric guitar à contrast brass-reed sound of 30s/40s big=band .wide range of tone colours Band: .lead guitar (electric) .despair of Seattle .angry lyrics .

rhythmic excitement à heightened by subdivision into equal notes (8 faster pulses) .different stanzas of text set to repeated melody and accompaniment Chorus .multiple computers in contemporary rock concerts Ÿ SINGING STYLE .black.nonsense syllables . country.60s/70s combined complicated rhythms with basic pattern. .‘hook line’ à repeated melody/lyric .attention drawn to words due to repetition Ÿ verse-chorus . folk.bass player emphasisez offbeats Ÿ FORM .chants (yeah yeah yeah!) Ÿ RHYTHM .exploitation of synthesizers and computers (improving technology) .differ from crooning sounds by earlier popular vocalists Ÿ Shout Ÿ Cry Ÿ Wail Ÿ Growl Ÿ Guttural Ÿ Falsetto .strong accent on second and fourth beats .powerful quadruple meter .musical accompaniment remains same for each stanza (found in folk) .early music in 12-bar blues form .4 or 8 bar phrases .harpsichord to sitar Diverse sounds .eg .symph orch 1970’s/80’s .verse/stanza followed by chorus/refrain Verse .crowd noises .few performers could sounds like a large ensemble 1990’s/2000s . western .disk jockey à manipulate vinyl recordings .32-bar A A B A or variant Ÿ strophic .text and music repeated ..electronic blips .

then Dorian Ÿ HARMONIC PROGRESSION .Beatles and Beachboys using innovative new chord progression .short melodic patterns that are repeated/varied several times Use of modes Eg .simple .eg Eleanor Rigby .John Lennon ‘Norwegian Wood’ .irregular phrases .3 or 4 basic chords .John Lennon/Paul McCartney .sometimes restricted to two chords .Mixolydian.mid 60s ..