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Li ni u S pht trin h tng c s l yu t quan trng thc y nn kinh t pht trin v gp phn nng cao i sng x hi ca con ngi,

tha k nhng thnh tu ca cc nghnh cng nghip in t , bn dn , quang hc, tin hc v cng ngh thng tin .... nn cng nghip vin thng trong c thng tin di ng c nhng bc tin nhy vt k diu a x hi loi ngi bc sang mt k nguyn mi : K nguyn thng tin . Tt c chng ta u bit rng, chng ta ang sng trong mt x hi thng tin m trong chng ta phi tip nhn s dng thng tin vi gi tr cao v mt thi gian v cht lng. Sc cnh tranh ca tt c cc ngnh cng nghip bt ngun t vic to ra cc gi tr ln hn bng cch tn dng cc u th iu kin v thi hn. V vy thng tin lin lc s ng vai tr ct li cho vic pht trin tng lai ca x hi thng tin ny, n cng nh lc lng lao ng trong nng nghip v ngun vn trong cng nghip . Ngnh cng nghip thng tin lin lc c coi l ngnh cng nghip tr tu hoc l ngnh cng nghip ca tng lai, l nn tng tng cng sc mnh ca mt quc gia cng nh cnh tranh trong cng nghip. Ngnh cng nghip ny phi c pht trin trc mt bc so vi nhng ngnh cng nghip khc, bi v s pht trin ca cc ngnh khc da trn c s thng tin lin lc, ngnh m s ch khng n gin phc v nh mt phng tin lin lc m s ng vai tr nh mt ngun vn cho x hi tin b. Di s hng dn, quan tm nhit tnh ca thy gio Phm Minh Vit, em hiu thm c nhiu iu v lnh vc thng tin lin lc cng nh hng pht trin ca h thng vin thng ti Vit Nam. Do khun kh ca bi vit cng nh cn hn ch v kin thc cho nn khng trnh khi thiu st cng nh lm ln, em mong mun nhn c nhng kin ng gp thm hon thin hn na v kin thc ca mnh. Mt ln na, em xin chn thnh cm n thy gip em hon thnh t tt nghip ny. H Ni 10-1-2000 Sinh Vin :
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Hong Vn Khi

Ni dung Phn I: gii thiu tng quan mng gsm. Chng I: Lch s dch v thng tin di ng v gii thiu c tnh, tnh nng ca mng thng tin di ng s GSM. Chng II: cu trc v thnh phn mng gsm. Chg iii: cc gii php k thut cho giao tip v tuyn. Phn II: Cc ch tiu k thut ca mng gsm. Chng I: cu hnh trm gc bts. Chng ii: phng thc hot ng v ch tiu k thut ca mng cellular Phn III:

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Phn I. Gii thiu tng quan GSM Chng I. Lch s dch v thng tin di ng v gii thiu c tnh, tnh nng ca mng thng tin di ng s GSM 1.1. Lch s dch v thng tin di ng: H thng thng tin di ng t lu l mt khao kht ln lao ca con ngi. Khao kht ny ch c th tr thnh hin thc ngay sau khi k thut thng tin bng sng v tuyn in ra i vo th k th 19. Tuy nhin vic a h thng thng tin di ng vo phc v cng cng ch c thc hin sau chin tranh th gii ln th hai. Do s pht trin ca cng ngh in t v thng tin cng nhu cu i hi ca con ngi ngy cng tng cao nn mng thng tin di ng ngy cng c ph bin, tin cy ngy cng tng. Qu trnh pht trin ca mng thng tin di ng nh sau: * Th h th nht: Sau nm 1946. Kh nng phc v nh, cht lung khng cao, gi c t. * Th h th hai: T nm 1970 n 1979. Cng vi s pht trin ca processor m ca cho vic thc hin mt h thng phc tp hn. Nhng v vng ph sng ca Anten pht ca trm di ng cn b hn ch do h thng chia thnh cc trm pht v c th dng nhiu trm thu cho 1 trm pht. * Th h th ba: L mng t ong tng t (1979-1990). Cc trm thu pht c t theo hnh t ong, mi l 2 cell. Mng ny cho php s dng li tn s, cho php chuyn giao cc vng trong cuc gi.

Cc mng in hnh l: + AMPS (Advanced Mobile phone service): a vo hot ng ti M nm 1979. + NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone System): L h thng in thoi di ng tng t ca cc nc Bc u (1981). + TACS (Total Access Communication System): nhn c t AMPS c lp t Anh nm 1985. Ngy nay hu ht tt c cc nc Chu u u c 1 hoc nhiu mng t ong. Tt c nhng h thng t bo ny u thc hin vic truyn m tng t bng iu tn. H thng dng bng tn xung quanh tn s 450MHz hoc 900MHz, vng ph sng thng l vng rng vi s lng thu bao ln n hng trm ngn. - Th h th t: L th h da trn k thut truyn dn s. + GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): a vo hot ng ti Chu u t nm 1992. + DCS (Digital Cellular System): Da trn mng GSM s dng tn s 1800MHz. + CDMA(Code Division Multi Access): Trong tng lai. Bng 1. Gii thiu mt s mng t ong tng t c vn hnh chu u

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Nc Anh Bc u Php

H thng TACS NMT NMT Radio Com200 RTMS TACS C450 NMT NMT NMT TACS NMT TACS

Bng tn 450 900 450 450900 450 900 450 900 450 900 450 900 450 900

Thi im vn hnh 1981 1985 1989 1985 1985 1990 1985 1987 1985 1989 1984 1990 1982 1990

S thu bao (ngn thu bao) 1200 1300 90 300 60 560 600 180 130 60 60 60 60

Italia c Thu in H Lan o Ty Ban Nha

1.2 mng thng tin di ng GSM: T u nm 1980 sau khi h thng WMT c a vo hot ng mt cch thnh cng th n cng biu hin mt s hn ch: Th nht: Do yu cu dch v di ng qu ln so vi con s mong i ca cc nh thit k h thng, do h thng ny khng p ng c. Th hai: Cc h thng khc nhau ang hot ng khng ph hp vi ngi dng trong mng.

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V d: Mt u cui trong TACS khng th truy nhp vo mng NMT cng nh mt u cui di ng NMT cng khng th truy nhp vo mng TACS. Th ba: Nu thit k mt mng ln cho ton Chu u th khng mt nc no p ng c v vn u t ln. Tt c nhng iu dn n mt yu cu l phi thit k mt h thng mi c lm theo kiu chung c th p ng c cho nhiu noc trn th gii. Trc tnh hnh vo thng 9/1987 trong Hi ngh ca Chu u v bu chnh vin thng, 17 quc gia ang s dng mng in thoi di ng hp hi ngh v k vo bin bn ghi nh lm nn tng cho mng thng tin di ng s ton Chu u. n nm 1988 Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u (European-Telecommunication-Standard Institute) thnh lp nhmc trch v mng thng tin di ng s GSM. Nhm ny c nhim v a ra tiu chun thng nht cho h thng thng tin di ng s GSM di hnh thc cc khuyn ngh, ly cc tiu chun ny lm c s cho vic xy dng mng thng tin di ng v lm sao cho chng thng nht, tng thch vi nhau. * V mt k thut: Mt s mc ch ca H thng sng t mt trong nhngmc ch y l h thng cn cho php chuyn vng t do vi cc thu bao trong Chu u, c ngha l thu bao ca nc ny c th thm nhp vo mng ca noc khc khi di chuyn qua bin gii trm GSM-MS (Mobile -Station) phi to cho ngi dng gi hoc b gi c trong vng ph sng quc t. * Cc ch tiu phc v:
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- H thng c thit k sao cho MS c th c dng trong tt c cc nc c mng. - Cng vi phc v thoi, h thng phi cho php s linh hot ln nht cho cc loi dch v khc lin quan n mng lin kt s liu a dch v ISDN (Intergrated Service Digital Network). - To mt thng c th phc v cho cc MS trn cc tu vin dng cng nh mt mng m rng ca cc dch v di ng mt t. * V cht lng phc v v an ton bo mt: - Cht lng ca ting thoi trong GSM phi t nht c cht lng nh cc h thng di ng tng t trc trong iu kin thc t. - H thng c kh nng mt m ho thng tin ngi dng m khng nh hng g n h thng, cng nh khng nh hng n thu bao khc khng dng n kh nng ny. * V s dng tn s: - H thng cho php kh nng s dng di tn t hiu qu cao c th phc v vng thnh th ln vng nng thn cng nh cc dch v mi pht trin. - Di tn s hot ng: 890-960MHz. - H thng GSM900 phi c th cng tn ti vi cc h thng dng 900MHz trc y. * V mng: - K hoch nhn dng da trn khuyn ngh ca CCITT. K hoch nh s cng da trn khuyn ngh ca CCITT. H
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thng phi cho php cu trc v t l tnh cc khc nhau khi dng trong cc mng khc nhau. - Trung tm chuyn mch v cc thanh ghi dch v phi dng h thng bo hiu c tiu chun ho quc t. 1.3 Cc c tnh v phc v ca GSM: 1.3.1 Cc c tnh ca mng thng tin di ng s GSM: T cc khuyn ngh ca GSM ta c th tng hp nn cc cc c tnh ch yu sau: - S lng ln cc dch v v tin ch cho cc thu bao c trong thng tin thoi v s liu. - S tng thch ca cc dch v trong GSM vi cc dch v ca mng c sn (PSTN-ISDN) bi cc giao din theo tiu chun chung. - T ng cp nht v tr cho mi thu bao di ng. - linh hot cao nh s dng cc u cui thng tin di ng khc nhau nh my xch tay, my cm tay, t trn t. - S dng bng tn s 900MHz vi hiu qu cao nh s kt hp gia TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) vi FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access). - Gii quyt s hn ch dung lng nh vic s dng tn s tt hn. * Cc dch v c tiu chun GSM: Cc dch v thoi : - Chuyn hng cc cuc gi v iu kin.
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- Chuyn hng cuc gi khi thu bao di ng khng bn. - Chuyn hng cuc gi khi thu bao di ng bn. - Chuyn hng cuc gi khi khng n c MS. - Chuyn hng cuc gi khi nghn v tuyn. - Cm tt c cc cuc gi ra. - Cm tt c cc cuc gi ra quc t. - Cm tt c cc cuc gi ra quc t tr cc nc PLMN thng tr. - Cm tt c cc cuc gi n. - Cm tt c cc cuc gi n khi lu ng ngoi nc c PLMN thng tr. - Gi cuc gi. - i gi. - Chuyn tip cuc gi. - Hon thnh cc cuc gi n cc thu bao bn. - Nhm v s dng khp kn. -Dch v ba pha. - Thng bo cc ph. -Dch v in thoi khng tr cc. - Nhn dng s ch gi. - Nhn dng s thoi c ni. - Nhn dng cuc gi him th. - Cc dch v s liu:
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- Truyn dn s liu - Dch v bn tin ngn - Dch v hp th thoi - Pht qung b trong cell. 1.4 H thng t ong (GSm cellular system): Mng thng tin di ng l mng khng dy, cc thu bao l di ng do c hai vn c t ra l: - Qun l di ng (MM: Mobile Management). - Qun l tim nng v tuyn (RM: Radio Management). Vic qun l di ng c t chc theo mng PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network), mng di ng cng cng mt t. PLMN c coi l mt phn mng c nh c nh tuyn cuc gi. PLMN c chia thnh nhiu v tuyn nh c bn knh t 350m cho n 35km. Kch thc trn da vo a hnh v lu lng thng tin. Mi v tuyn tng ng vi mt trm thu pht c s (BTS: Base Tranceiver Station) tu theo cu to ca anten. C hai loi BTS: * BTS Onnidirectional vi anten v hng, c bc x ngoi khng gian c gc nh hng l 3600. * BTS Sector vi 2 hoc 3 anten nh hng 1800 hay 1200, cc v tuyn ny c sp xp dng t ong (Hnh v 1) v n da vo cc yu t sau:

2 1 1 1 T C S M 2 3

2 1 3 2 1 3 11

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Hnh v 1

Trong thc t, do s tng trng lu lng khng ngng trong mt cell no n mc cht lng phc v gim st qu mc ngi ta phi thc hin vic chia tch cell thnh cc cell nh hn. Vi chng, ngi ta dng cng sut pht nh hn v mu s dng li tn s c s dng t l xch nh hn( hnh sau minh ho iu ny

East to wost (50) of motropolitanarea

Thng thng cc cuc gi, c th khng xong trong mt cell. Vy h thng thng tin di ng cellular phi c kh nng iu khin v chuyn mch chuyn giao cuc gi t cell ny sang cell khc m cuc gi c chuyn giao khng b

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nh hng g. Yu cu ni trn lm cho mng di ng c cu trc khc bit vi cc mng c nh .

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Chng II: Cu trc v thnh phn mng GSM 2.1 Cu trc mng GSM:
IDN PSPDN PSTN PLMN CSPDN VLR SS AUC HLR MSC EIR

OSS

BSS BSC BTS

MS

Cc k hiu : SS: H thng chuyn mch AUC: Trung tm nhn thc VLR: B ghi nh v tm tr HLR: B ghi nh v thng tr EIR: Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b MSC:Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng( gi tt l tng i v tuyn) BSS: H thng trm gc BTS: Trm thu pht gc BSC: H thng iu khin trm gc MS: Trm di ng OMC: Trung tm khai thc v bo dng ISDN: Mng lin kt a dch v
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PSPDN: Mng chuyn mch cng cng theo gi PSTN: Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PLMN: Mng di ng cng cng mt t . Cu trc mng di ng s GMS theo khuyn ngh ca GMS. Mng GMS c chia thnh h thng chuyn mch (SS) v h thng trm gc (BSS). Mi mt h thng cha mt s khi chc nng v cc khi ny c thc hin cc phn cng khc nhau. 2.2 Cu trc mng a l : y l mt yu t quan trng i vi mt mng di ng bi tnh lu ng ca thu bao trong mng. 2.2.1. Tng i v tuyn cng (GATEWAY-MSC) GMSC lm vic nh mt tng i trung kvo cho mng GSM/ PLMN. N thc hin chc nng hi nh tuyn cuc gi cho cc cuc gi kt cui di ng, cho php h thng nh tuyn cc cuc gi n ni nhn cui cng ca chng l cc trm di ng b gi. Tt c cc cuc gi vo GSM/PLMN s c nh tuyn n mt hay nhiu GMSC.
PTSN X X ISND X PTSN GMSC

2.2.2. Vng phc v MSCNNF:

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Vng MSC c mt MSC qun l. V nh tuyn cuc gi n mt thu bao di ng, ng truyn qua mng s ni n MSC vng phc v m thu bao ang . Vng phc v l b phn ca mng c nh ngha nh mt vng m c th t n mt trm di ng nh vic trm ny c ngh li mt b nh v tm tr VLR. CME 20 vng MSC v vng phc v bao ph cng mt b phn ca mng. * Vng nh v (Location Area): Mi vng phc v MSC/VLR chia thnh nhiu vng nh v . Ti y MS c th t do di chuyn khng cn cp nht thng tin v v tr cho tng i MSV/VLR iu khin vng ny, khi mt thng bo tm gi s c pht qung b tm thu bao di ng b gi. Vng nh v c th c mt s v ph thuc vo mt hay nhiu BSC nhng ch mt MSC/VLR. Vng c nhn dng bi h thng LAI (nhn dng LAI v oc h thng s dng tm mt thu bao ang trng thi hot ng). * 8 (cell): 8 thuc vng nh v v l mt vng bao ph v tuyn c nhn dng ton cu (CGI). Trm di ng t ng nhn dng mt 8 bng cch s dng nhn dng trm gc (BSIC). 2.3. Cc thnh phn mng GMS: Ngoi hai h thng chnh SS(Switching System) v BSS (Base Station System) c mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng PSTN c ni mng thng tin di ng mt t cng cng PLMN qua SS v trm di ng MS thuc thu bao.
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2.3.1. H thng chuyn mch (SS): H thng chuyn mch SS ca CME 20 da trn c s cng ngh AXE cho php t mc linh hot cao, gi thnh h nh cu trc Mobile AXE. SS cua CME20 h tr cc giao tip ng dng ca tiu chun GSM. * Khi chc nng ca SS: - Trung tm chuyn mch cc nghip v di ng cng (GMSC). - Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng (MSC). - B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR) - B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR) - Trung tm nhn thc (AMC) - B ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR) * c tnh v nhim v ca tng khi: - MSC: l ht nhn ca mng PLMN, n c nhim v nh tuyn v kt ni cc phn t ca mng thu bao di ng vi nhau hoc vi thu bao ca mng PSTN v ISDN. Cc s liu lin quan n thu bao di ng c cung cp t HLR, VNR, AUC v EIR, t cc bo hiu cn thit s c pht ra cc giao din ngoi vi vi tt c cc thnh phn mng (BSS/HLR/AVC/EIR/OMC) v ni vi mng c nh PSTN hay ISDN. MSC cncung cp cc dch v ca mng cho thu bao. N cha cc d liu v thc hin qu trnh Hardover. Trong ch thoi mt b phn Echo-Canceller c t gia MSC v PSTN trit ting vng gy ra cc b bin i t 2 dy sang 4 dy trong PSTN.
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- HLR: C s d liu quan trng nht ca mng di ng s. HLR c s dng theo di MS, l ni thu bao mua mt ng k t mt hng khai thc GMS m HLR thuc hng ny. HLR cha thng tin v thu bao nh cc dch v b xung v cc thng s nhn thc. N cha thng tin v v tr thng tin ca MS trong mt vng MSC no v thng tin ny thay i th MS di ng. MS s gi i thng tin v v tr (qua MSC/VLR) n HLR ca mnh nhm m bo phng tin thu mt cuc gi. Trong HLR cn thc hin to mt bo hiu s 7 trn giao din vi MSC. - VLR: L c s d liu cha thng tin v tt c cc MS hin vng phc v ca MSC. Mi MSC c mt VLR v VLR c kt hp trong phn cng ca MSC. VLR c th coi nh mt HLR phn b. VLR cha thng tin chnh xc hn v v tr ca MS vng MSC. Trong trng hp MS lu ng v cng MSC mi. VLR lin kt vi MSC ly s liu v MS ny t HLR v thng bo cho HLR v tr ca MS sau VLR c th thit lp cuc gi cho MS m khng cn n HLR. - AUC: L mt b phn trong phn cng ca HLR trong GSM c nhiu bin php an ton khc nhau trnh vic s dng tri php, cho php bm v ghi li cuc gi ng v tuyn. Vi mi mt m thu bao c mt m bo mt ring bit nhm chng li s nghe trm, m ny c bo v chng mi xm nhp tri php. - EIR: Cha s liu phn cng ca thit b (MS). EIR c ni vi MSC qua ng bo hiu, cho php MSC kim tra s hp l ca thit b. N bo v mng PLMN khi s thm nhp ca thu bao tri php.

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- OSS: H thng khai thc h tr c ni n tt c cc thit b h thng chuyn mch v ni n BSS. OSS c cc chc nng sau: + Qun l h thng chuyn mch, quy nh cc thay i s thoi, phn tch tuyn, cc bng phn tch IMSI,... + Qun l thu bao : Cc loi u ni, gii phng ni, cc nhn dng nh v vng (LAI). + Qun l TRX: Cc qui nh TRX, TRI, cc knh lgc,... + Cc chc nng o : Lu lng cc chuyn giao thng k,... * H thng trm gc:

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- Cu hnh h thng: RBS Trm gc v tuyn SS


Giao tip A

BSC 10

AXE

Giao tip A

RBS 200

RBS 200

RBS 200

BSS chu trch nhim ch yu cc chc nng v tuyn h thng qun l thng tin v tuyn vi cc my di ng. N cng iu khin vic chuyn giao cc cuc gi an tin hnh gia cc c iu khin bi BSC ny. BSS chu trch nhim qun l tt c cc tim nng v tuyn ca mng v s liu v cu hnh ca . CME 20 BSS c th thc hin cc hnh ng ph hp khi xy ra cc tnh hung khng bnh thng mc d khng t ti OSS. BSS cng iu khin cc mc cng sut v tuyn cc trm gc cng nh trm di ng. BSS cha mt b iu khin trm gc BSC (Base Station Controller) v mt hay nhiu trm thu pht gc BTS (Base Tranceiver Station). Nu khong cch gia BTS v BSC nh hn 10m cc knh thng tin c th ni trc tip (Combine), nu ln hn th c th phi qua mt giao din ABIS (Remote). Mt BSC c th qun l nhiu BTS theo cu hnh hn hp theo kiu trn. 2.4 Chc nng ca BSC v BTS: 2.4.1 Chc nng ca BTS :
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Mi trm BTS phc v cho mt cung cp ng truyn v tuyn. BTS c gii hn bi hai giao din: - Giao din v tuyn (gia BTS v MS). - Giao din BTS - MSC, giao din ny c thc hin cc dng: + Giao din Abis khi BTS t cch xa GSC trn 10 m (cu hnh t xa). + Giao din ni b c gi l giao din trm gc ( BSI) khi BTS v BSC t cch xa nhau di 10m ( cu hnh kt hp v khi khng cn giao din Abis v l do khc nhau). BTS m bo: + ng ni v tuyn vi MS. + Phn bng c s ca lp thu pht 1 v 2. Phn ny s l giao thc thm nhp ng truyn knh D (LAPD: Link Access Procotol on D channel ) gia BTS v BSC v giao thc thm nhp ng truyn knh D di ng (LAPDm Link Acces Procotol on D mobile) gia BTS v MS. LAPDm c th c s dng ng thi cho bn tin ngn. + Cc chc nng khai thc v bo dng ring cng vi chc nng qun l cc tim nng v tuyn. * Cc tnh nng ca mt trm BTS: - nhy my thu: ln hn hoc bng -140 dBm. - B tr tr a tia: S cn bng cho php b tr tr a tia n 20 s. - Nhy tn:cho php s dng thm b thu pht phc v cho nhy tn.
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- Anten: BTS c th u ni n mt anten pht v mt hoc hai anten thu ( trng hp phn tp khng gian). Anten c th v hng mt phng ngang (Omnidirectiontal) hay nh hng hnh qut 1200 (Sectorial Anten ). - Cng sut pht: Cng sut pht trc khi ghp chung vo anten l 26W hay 69W (hay 30W). C th iu chnh cng sut pht tng nc 2dB. * Chc nng chung ca BSC: BSC thc hin cc chc nng qun l tim nng v tuyn. Cc chc ng chnh ca BSC l: - Thit lp v gii phng cc tim nng v tuyn theo nhu cu ca MS v MSC. - Chuyn giao MS. - iu khin cng sut BTS v MS c th thc hin bi BTS hoch bi BSC. Nh khai thc c th t trung tm khai thc v bo dng (OMC) np phn mm mi v d liu xung BSC , thc mt s chc nng khai thc v bo dng: hin thi cu hnh BSC. BSC cng c th thu nhp cc s liu o t BTS, BIE, lu gi chng trong b nh v cung cp OMC theo yu cu. Gioa din gia BSC v OMC c thc hin bng cc ng truyn X.25. BSC cng c giao din ngi my u ni ti ch thit b my tnh u cui. Giao din A gia BSC v MSC s dng bo hiu knh chung s 7, cn giao din Abis gia BSC v BTS s dng LAPD.

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ng truyn vt l ni gia BSC vi BTS v MSC l cc ng 2M G 703, mt s h thng khi TRAU t MSC. Gia MSC v BTS cc my ghp knh ph c s dng tit kim ng truyn. cc h thng c TRAU t ti BSC th cc knh lu lng n MSC l 64 Kbis/s.

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Chng iii. Cc gii php k thut cho giao tip v tuyn 3.1 V tuyn s tng qut: chng ny cp n vic s dng thit b v tuyn truyn thng tin gia trm di ng v mng PLMN GMS m khng dng n y trong mng t ong m n nh hng n cc tn hiu thu. Mt s vn quan trng khi quy hoch tn s l s hn ch bi i lng nhiu ca h thng t ong. 3.1.1. Suy hao ng truyn v pha inh: Suy hao ng truyn l qu trnh m tn hiu thu yu dn o khong cch gia trm di ng v trm tng m khng c mt cn gia. Ls d2.f2 Ls (dB) = 33,4 (dB) + 20logF(MHz) + 20log(km) Tx v Rx: Vi khng gian t do , suy hao ng truyn c tnh: d: l khong cch gia anten pht Tx v thu Rx. f: tn s pht (Cng thc trn ch ng vi cc h thng v tuyn di ng gn BS.) Mi trng s dng ca MS ca thng c chong ngi vt gy hiu ng che ti lm gim cng che tn hiu. Khi di ng cng vi i di ng cng tn hiu gim , tng d gia TX v RX c hay khng c chng ngi. gc

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Hiu ng ny gi l pha inh chun lgc. Thi gian gia 2 ch trng pha inh khong v khong v gy ra vi MS lp trn xe v chuyn ng.

MS

Trong trng hp mi trng thng tin c mt thu bao dy v nhiu chng ngi ta c pha inh nhiu tia hay raile, xy ra khi tn hiu nhiu ng t anten Tx n Rx.

TR

hin tng pha inh raile, tn hiu thu c l tng cc tn hiu phn x khc fa, khc bin . Nhng tn hiu ny khi cng li nh cc vct to nn mt vct tng gn bng khng c nghi l cng tn hiu bng 0. y l ch trng pha nghim trng.

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25

mt khong cch nht nh Xm so vi Tx, tn hiu thu c minh ho nh sau:


Gi tr trung bnh chung D tr padi nh
X X+ 10

Gi tr trung bnh cc b

Ch trng padinh nhy my thu


m

Cng tn hiu thu (Rx) Fc = 900MHz nhy my thu l mc tn hiu vo yu nht cn thit cho mt tn hiu ra qui nh. Khi quy hoch h thng, chng li pha inh th gi trih trung bnh chung c ly ln hn nhy my thu lng Y(dB) bng ch trng pha phainh mnh nht, Y(dB) c gi l d tr phainh. 3.1.2. Phn tn thi gian: Hin tng ny c ngun gc t phn x t mt vt xa anten th Rx v km. N dn n giao thoa gia cc k hiu ISI tc l giao thoa gia cc k hiu ln cn vi nhau. GMS tc bit l 270kB/s, mi bit tng ng vi 3,7s v tng ng vi khong cch l 1,1km. Khi c phn x t 1km pha sau trm di ng th tn hiu phn x phi qua gng ng di tr tn hiu i thng 2km. Tn hiu mong mun s c trn vi tn hiu 2bit.

X+ 15

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26

1 0

0 BTS

Giao thoa k hiu (1) v (0)

3.1.3. Cc phng php phng nga suy hao truyn dn do phainh: ci thin my thu v cht lng ca tn hiu thu, c 4 phng n thc hin nh sau: * Phn tp anten: trnh nguy c c 2 anten thu b ch trng phainh su cng mt lc, ta s dng 2 anten Rx c lp thu cng tn hiu ri kt hp cc tn hiu ny li ta s c mt tn hiu ra khi b kt hp t b phainh hn. Khong cch gia 2 Tx v 2Rx phi ln khng gian tn hiu 2 anten nh.
Tn hiu 1 Tn hiu 2

Ante n

CTH SS

* Nhy tn:

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27

Vi pha inh raile, mu phainh ph thuc vo tn s ngha l ch trng phainh xy ra cc v tr khc nhau i vi cc tn s khc nhau. Nh vy ta c th thay i tn s sng mang trong mt s tn s khi cuc gi ang tin hnh, khi gp ch trng phainh ch mt phn thng tin b mt. khi phc li thng tin hon thin ta dng phng php sau: * M ho knh: truyn dn s ngi ta o cht lng ca tn hiu c ch yu bng s lng cc bit thu c chnh xc, u n biu din t s bit li BER. BER khng th bng khng do thay i ng truyn nu c c cho php mt lng nht nh v c kh nng khi phc thng tin ny hoc c th pht hin trnh s dng thng tin li. BER quan trng vi pht s liu hn Voice. phng php m ho knh ta phi pht i mt lng thng tin c s bit ln hn nhng s t an ton chng li cao hn. M ho knh c th pht hin v sa li tng bit thu. V d: Khi mun gi mt bit 0 hay 1 c bo v ta b xung thm bao bit nh sau: Thng tin 0 1 B xung 000 111 Gi i 0000 1111

Khi m 0000 s ng vi 0 v 1111 s ng vi 1. T l l 1:4V, bo v s xy ra nh sau: Thu c : 0000 Quyt nh: 0 0010 0 0110 x 0111 1 1110 1

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28

Ring cm 0110 khng xc nh c c th, trm 0111 v 1110 c pht hin l li. Mi knh kim tra li cchia thnh mi khi v m xon. m khi, mt s bit kim tra c b xung vo mt s bit thng tin nht nh. Cc bit kim tra ch ph thuc vo cc bit thng tin khi bn tin. m ho xon, b m ho to ra khi cc bit m khng ch ph thuc vo cc bit ca khi bn tin hin thi c dch vo b m ho m cn ph thuc vo cc bit ca khi trc. M ho khi thng c s dng khi c bo hiu nh hng theo khi v s dng pht hin li khi thc hin Yu cu t ng pht ARQ. M ho xon lin quan nhiu hn n s sai li. C hai m ny c s dng GSM. Hai bc m ho c dng cho c ting v s liu. * Ghp xen: Cc li bit thng xy ra theo tng cm o cc ch trng phainh ln lm nh hng nhiu bit lin tip. gii quyt hin tng li bit qu di ta dng phng php ghp knh xen tch cc bit lin tip ca mt bn tin sao cho cc bit ny gi i khng lin tip.
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

Cc khi bn tin ghp xen

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4

Mt khung

Cc khi bn tin c ghp xen

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29

Khi truyn dn khung 2 c th mt nu khng ghp xen ton v khi bn tin s mt nhng ghp xen s m bo ch th th hai tng khi l b mc li: 1 x 3 4 1 x 3 4 1 x 3 4 1 x 3 4 M ho knh c th khi phc li thng tin ca tt c cc khi. GMS b m ho knh cung cp 456bit cho tng 20Ms ting v oc ghp xen to ra cc khi 57bit. Mt khung ting 20ms to 456bit, cc bit ny c ghp xen vo 8 nhm 57bit cc cm bnh thng c khong trng dnh cho 2x27bit .

57

26

57

Ngi ta thng b xung thm mt mc ghp knh xen k gia 2 khung ting, iu ny lm tng thi gian tr h thng nhng c th cho php mt ton b mt cm v n nh hng 12,5% s bit mi khung ting v c th c hiu chnh bng m ho knh. 3.1.4 Phng php chng phn tn thi gian: M hnh truyn dn:
My pht My thu ti u

Knh

My thu ti u l my thu hiu r knh. Ta lp m hnh ton hc ca knh v iu chnh my thu n m hnh. Knh c xt nh mt b lc v c kch thch bi mt tn hiu
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30

bit trc. So snh u ra vi u vo ta c p ng xung ca b lc. p ng xung ca b lc cho ta bit c tn hiu ra i vi tn hiu vo, nh vy ta c th tm c p ng xung ca knh v lp m hnh knh khi phn tch mt tn hiu thu c. p ng xung khi khng c phn x (a) v c mt phn x (b).

(t)

(a) Khng c phn x

(b) c mt phn x

Xt nguyn l lm vic ca mt b cn bng: Sau khi lp m hnh knh ta s phi to ra tt c cc chui bit c th c ri a chng qua m hnh knh chui u vo m t nhn c chui u ra ging n nht gi l chui nguyn thu hay chui pht. Theo quy nh ca GMS, mt b cn bng cn c kh nng x l mt tn hiu phn x tr n 14,8s tng ngvi thi gian ca 4bit. Lc ny ngay c tn hiu phn x cng b nh hng bi phainh raile, nhng do tn hiu ny c mu phainh c lp so vi tn hiu i thng nn n c li dng t hiu qu cao hn. Vy vi cc tn hiu phn x tr di 15Z n cho ta thm nng lng ci to tn hiu thu.

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31

Trn thc t di chui N thng ln ln phi c thc hin nhiu so snh v mt nhiu thi gian tnh ton gy mt s chm tr khng cho php. khc phc kh khn ny ngi ta phi s dng n thut ton Vinri m khng cn phi th tt c cc chui. 3.1.5. Truyn dn s v tn hiu tng t: Trong trng hp truyn ting ni l dng sng lin tc khc vi truyn s liu ta phi thc hin ly mu tn hiu tng t, lng t m ho tn hiu dng s 1 v 0. Cc mu tng t c trnh by bng mt tp hp hu hn cc mc c xc nh bi s cc bit ta cn s dng trnh by mt mu. h thng vin thng s chn s mc ri rc ho =256 mc (8bit) vi mi mu ta trnh by gi tr tng t bng mt gi tr c lng t ho 8bit. Vi tc ly mu 8kHz ta c tc bit: 8000mu/s x 8bit = 64kb/s Qu trnh ny c gi l iu ch xung m PCM gm 3 bc:

Lng t Ly mu M ho

ng truyn PCM 64 kb/s

Ta t nhiu knh trn cng mt ng truyn PCM (ghp knh) trnh lng ph. Nu ghp 32 knh trn mt ng truyn PCM theo tc bit ca n l : 32x64kb/s=2,048Mb/s. Thit b ghp knh iu khin vic gn cc khe thi gian 0,1 gi i khe 1,...Trong 32 knh truyn th knh 0 dng cho ng b, knh 16 dng cho bo hiu cn 30 knh cn li dng cho ting thoi. Phn trnh by
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32

trn l v d v a thm nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA. Mt phng php khc vi TDMA v FDMA (a thm nhp phn chia tn s) c dng qung b v tuyn, mi knh c dnh cho mt bng tn ring. Tng ng h thng di ng t ong tng t, mi cuc gi mt s dng mt bng tn (hai bng khi truyn song cng). Sau y l so snh gia TDMA v FDMA

MS1 MS2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MS2 TDMA

MS5

* ng b thi gian: Khi s dng TDMA v tuyn, mi trm di ng s dng khe thi gian Ts ca mnh nhng khi khong cch gia MS v BS tng ln gy tr thi gian truyn tn hiu v tr ny ln qu th thng tin pht i t MS khe TS n s trng vi tn hiu thu c ca BS ti khe TS n+1 ca MS khc. kim tra thi gian n v cc lnh oc gi n MS ta c qu trnh nh trc thi gian mi khi MS di chuyn ra xa. * M ho ting: mt s h thng di ng t ong FDMA khong cch gia cc knh l 25kHz (NMT, TACS) v GMS khong cch ny bng 200kHz. So snh TDMA 200kHz v FDMA 25kHz ta c hiu qu s dng tn s nh nhau v knh 25kHz c tc 412kB/s. Khi s dng phng php iu ch pha ti thiu Gauss (GMSK) rng bng khng b chiu s rt ln. m bo bng tn cho php ta gim ti thiu tc
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33

bit cho tng knh ting bng cch m ho ting (Vocodes) v m ho theo dng sng. M ho theo kiu pht m Vocodes gip ta nhn bit c ting ni nhng rt tng hp v ta kh nhn ra ai pht m. S dng m ho sng (m ho PCM ng u) thng tin trc tip chnh thc dng sng c pht i vi tc i hi cao v cho ta mt cht lng cng rt cao. Tc bit b m ho dng sng thay i gn t 16kb/s n 64kb/s i vi b m ho PCM ng u. Ngoi ra ta cn c cc b m ho cho php c m t nh mt s pha trn gia Vocodes v m ho dng sng. Cc b m ho lai ghp lp kn ch trng gia cc b m ho Vecodes v dng sng vi tc bit t 5kb/s, cht lng theo tc bit. GMS s dng b m ho ghp lai gi l m ho tin nh tuyn tnh-Tin nh thi gian di-kch thch xung u. B LPC-LPT-RPE. - LPC v cc thng s LPD: 3,6kb/s. - Cc thng s RPE: 9,4kb/s - Tc bit u ra b m ho ny l 13kb/s, 20ms ting cho 260bit. 3.1.6: B chuyn i m v ghp knh TCSM(Trans Code and Subrate Channel Multiplexer).

Tng quan v TCSM.

Chc nng chuyn i m v ghp knhTCSM l mt phn modul ca phn h trm gc BSS. Mc ch ca TCSM l:
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34

- Cung cp s chuyn i gia cc dng tn hiu trn ng truyn 16Kbit/s 64Kbit/s trong mng di ng GSM. - Gim s knh truyn dn trn mt t phc v cho u i gia trm gc v trung tm chuyn mch di ngMSC. Vic gim s knh t c bng cch t thm chc nng chuyn i m ti MSC v BSC, s dng cc knh 16Kbit/s cho truyn thoi v truyn s liu. Ghp 90knh 16Kbit/s trn mt ng truyn 2048Kbit/s thnh 90 knh cao tc. V tr thun li cho b chuyn i m TC l t ti v tr MSC. V rng trong trng hp cc knh 16Kbit/sc s dng trn tt c ng truyn, gia BSC v MSC v s ghp knh cng c th c s dng tip kim ng truyn. Hn na, chuy mch iu khin gc BSCcho php s dng tt nht b chuyn i m. Trong thc t: - B chuyn i m c th c trang b theo s cc knh c s dng gia BC v MSC. Ni chung, s b chuyn i th t hn s knh Traffic trn giao din BSS. - Li ca b chuyn i m khng nh hng lm n . - S linh hot ca b chuyn i m cho php thay bng cc loi mi trong tng lai. (Hnh sau ch ra nguyn l truyn dn chug gia BSC v MSC ).

BSC

TCSM

TR

TCSM

MSC

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35

Hnh sau ch ra thit b c s dng trong ghp knh ng truyn 2048Mbit/s: TC

BSC

SM

TR

SM

MSC

B chuyn i m TC c th c s dng mt cch c lp m khng cn thit b ghp knh. V d trong trng hp TC c th c t gia MSC v BS TR TC C MSC

BS C

TC

TR

MSC

BSC hoc ti v tr MSC hoc ti v tr BSC. iu ny cho php d dng s dng TC c th c hoc khng cSM. Trong trng hp c bit tai MSC hoc BSC. B SM c th c s dng gia BSC v TC nhng khng c gia MSC v TC. B TCSM gm 2 phn chnh m c th c s dng mt cch c lp l: - B chuy i m TC(TransCoder). - B ghp knh SM( SubMultiplexer). * B chuyn i m TRCU(transCoder Unit).

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36

cho php s dng mt cch linh hot TC bao gm mt nhm cc modulc lp m c th c t giao din BSC/MSC, hoc MSC, hoc BSC. B TRCU thc hin s chuyn i m cho knh thoi, c th ln ti 30 knh. N c giao din 2Mbit/s( A_interface) vi MSC, mt giao din 2Mbit/svi BSC( hoc SM) ni m cc knh 16Kbit/s c ghp thnh knh 64Kbit/s. Trn giao din A_interfacecuae TRCU cc knh c m ho v c t chc theo chun ng truyn, theo khuyn ngh G732. Trn giao din vi BSC ca TRCU, cc knh thoi s liu c chuyn dn tng 2 bit mt bi cc bit 1 v 2 ca khe thi gian 8 bit. Mt modul TRCU y d gm 30TRAU ( An individual TransCoder Unit). M 29 hoc 30 b ny c th c s dng cho chuy i m cho cc knh traffic. Mt b TRAU tng ng vi 32 khe thi gian ca ng truyn s 2048Kbit/s. TS0 lun lun khng c truy nhp, TS1.... TS15 v TS17.... TS31 thng mang Traffic, v TRCU c th qun l chng. TS31 cng c th c s dng truyn LAPD hoc knh Q1. Nu SM khng c s dng, mt TS phi c dnh cho tn hiu gim st,Q1 v TRAU tng ng vi TS ny khng c s dng. Nu b iu khin TC, TSC ti v tr TS, mt TS trn trung k A phi c dnh cho LAPD t BSC ti TSC, v TRAU tng ng vi TS ny cng khng c s dng. Chc nng ca TRAU l: - Chuyn i khi 260 bit m ho ting thnh 160 mu 8 bit theo lut A_PCM, v ngc li.
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37

- To khung v ng b cc khi m ho ting. - Tch knh thoi ang lm vic. - iu chnh pha ca cc khi trn ng xung trc tip gim tr. - Gi cnh bo ti BSC thng qua TSC. - t ch kim tra lp theo yu cu ca BSC hoc MSC.
CHO info 15 0 1 16 Kb 15 # 7 16 Signalling 17 15 16 Kb CHO info 0 1 15 PCM Channel 15 # 7 16 Signalling 17 15 PCM Channel 3 1 M S C

BS C

BS C

TC

LPADfor TC mainternace mainternac e

012345 67

BSC/TCSM interface
1

Channel uer

A_ interface

Chc nng ca TRCU l: - Qun l khe thi gian TS0 trn ng truyn 2048Kbit/s. - Gi v nhn cc bit trn giao din 2048Kbit/s. - u ni knh bo hiu s 7 t TS16 trn ng truyn 2048Kbit/s t MSC ti TS16 ca ng tryun 2048Kbit/s m BSC.
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38

- Gi cnh bo ti BSC thnh qua TSC. - Truyn cc bn tin OM ti TSC v BSC. * Thit b ghp knh SM2M (2Mbit/s Sub Multiplexer). B ghp knh cho mt mng truyn dn 2Mbit/s l thit b c lp m c th c s dng khi TC c t ti MSC ghp 90 knh cho 16Kbit/s ca ba TRCU vo mt ng truyn 2Mbit/s. Cc knh thoi v s liu chim cc khe thi gian m khng phi l bi s ca 4. Bo hiu s 7 chim cc khe thi gian 20, 24 v 28. Khe thi gian 4, 8, v 12 c dnh cho dch v ch s chuyn i kt cui MSC ln BSC. Khe 16 trng. B ghp knh c th c s dng hay khng ph thuc vo cu hnh ca mng. Nu c s dng, n phi c t c u v ui ca ng truyn dn. Cc chc nng chnh ca SM2M l: Ghp 3 30 knh 16Kbit/s cc khe thi gian ca ng truyn 2Mbit/s thnh mt knh 90 cao tc trn ng truyn 2Mbit/s. Gim TS0 ca giao din 2Mbit/s. Gi cnh bo ti C thng qua TSC ti thit b d phng ng cao tc HWRED ( High Way REDun dancy). t ch lim tra vng. Truyn cc bn tin O & M gia BSC v BSC.
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39

3.2.giao tip v tuyn : Giao tip v tuyn l tn gi chung ca u ni gia MS v BTS giao tip s dng khi nim TDMA vi 1 khung TDMA cho mt tn s mang, mi khung gm 8TS hng t BTS n BS (ng xung). 3.2.1. Khi nim cc knh giao tip v tuyn: Mng GMS/PLMN c dnh 124 knh sng mang , sng ny di tn: - ng ln (MS-BTS) : 890-915MHz. - ng xung (BTS-MS): 935-960 MHz - Vit Nam, GMS s dng bng tn ng ln 890,2-898,4 MHz v ng xung 935,2-934,4MHz. Mi tn s sng mang 200kHz trn mi sng mang thc hin ghp knh theo thi gian ng vi mi khung TDMA ta c so knh bng 124x8(khe)=922 knh. *Knh vt l: Mt s TS ca mt khung TDMA mt sng mang l mt knh vt l th mt sng mang GMS c 8 knh vt l, thng tin pht i t mt TS gi l Burst. * Knh lgc: Knh lgc c ni khc nhau tu theo loi thng tin cn truyn cc knh lgc c chia thnh knh lu thng (TCH) v knh iu khin. * Knh lu thng:
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40

L knh mang ting hoc m ho hoc s liu ca ngi s dng , l knh ng ln v xung, im n im. - Knh Bm hay ton tc TCH mang thng tin (ting m ho hay s liu) tc tng 22,8kbit/s. - Lm hay TCH bn tc mang thng tin (ting m ho hay s liu) tc tng 11,4kbit/s. * Knh iu khin: mang tn hiu hay s liu ng b - Knh qung b BCH gm: + FCCH: Knh mang thng tin tn hiu chnh tn s ca MS knh ng xung im ti a im. + SCH: Knh ng b mang thng tin ng b khung ca MS v nhn dng BTS, knh ng xung im ti a im. + BCCH: Knh iu khin qung b thng tin chung trn c s mt knh cho BTS , knh ng xung im ti a im. - Cc knh iu khin chung CCCH: + Knh tm gi (PCH): Dng gi MS, knh ng xung im ti a im. + Knh thm nhp ngu nhin (RACH): c dng yu cu mt knh iu khin ng ring ng mt mnh (SDCCH) hay tr li tm gi hoc thm nhp khi khi u hoc ng k cuc gi MS, knh ng ln im n im. + Knh cho php thm nhp (AGCH): Dng dnh mt SOCCH hay trc tip mt TCH cho MS, knh ng xung im - im. - Cc knh iu khin ring:

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41

+ SDCCH: Dng bo hiu h thng khi thit lp mt cuc gi trc khi n nh mt TCH. Knh ln xung imim. + Knh iu khin lin kt chm (SACCH) lin kt vi mt SOCCH hoc mt TCH, l knh s liu lin tc mang thng tin lin tc nh cc thng bo o c t trm MS v cng tn hiu thu t hin thi v cc trm ln cn, thng tin ny cn cho chuyn giao v iu chnh cng sut MS v ng b thi gian. Knh ln xung im-im. + Knh iu khin lin kt rt nhanh FACCH lin kt vi TCH v lm vic ch ly cp nh trong trng hp chuyn giao (handover) ngi nghe s khng thy c s gin on thng tin.

3.2.2. Cm: Cm l mu thng tin mt khe thi gian km knh TDMA, c 8 khe thi gian mt ln TDMA c pht i th c 1 cm ca mt loi thng tin. * Cm bnh thng :NB
TB 3

Cc bit c mt Chui hng Cc bit c mt TB m dn m 3 58 26 58 0,577 ms 156,25 bit

GP 8,25

- Cc bit c mt m gm 57bit s liu hay ting v mt c ly cp. - Chui hng dn l mu bit bit trc b cn bng c th thnh lp mt m hnh knh.

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42

- Cc bit ui TS lun l 0,0,0 gip b cn bng xc nh u v cui mu bit. - Khong bo v GP l mt khong trng cho php my pht dch ln hay dch xung trong gii hn do khuyn ngh GMS qui nh. * Cm hiu chnh tn s: iu chnh tn s ca MS, n tng ng sng mang cha b iu ch. Lp li ca mt cm gi l FCCH.
TB 3

Cc bit c nh 0 142 0,577 ms 156,25 bit

TB 3

GP 8,25

* Cm ng b (SM): Dng ng b thi gian ca MS


TB 3

Cc bit c mt Chui ng Cc bit c mt TB m b m 3 39 64 39

GP 8,25

Khi ng b di d dng nhn bit v mang thng tin s khung TDMA cng m nhn dng trm c s BS. Lp li ca cm l SHC. S khung gip MS bit loi knh lgc ang c truyn bng iu khin. Mt chu trnh nh s khung l 3,5 gi vi mi khung TDMA thi gian l 6,615ms. * Cm thm nhp (AB): S dng thm nhp ngu nhin v c GP dnh cho pht cm t trm di ng.
TB 3

Chui ng b 41

Cc bit c mt TB m 3 36

GP 8,25

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43

* Cm gi: c pht i t BTS v khng cha thng tin khun mu ging nh cm bnh thng vi cc bit mt m c thay bi cc bit hn hp c mu bit xc nh. 3.2.3. Sp xp cc knh lgc cc knh vt l: Xt mt BTS vi n sng mang (truyn song cng, mi sng mang Co,....Cn c 8 khe thi gian Ts. Vi Co ng xung, Tso c dng ch sp xp cc knh iu khin.
012 7 012 7 01

Cc khung TDMA

FS B

C FS C

BCCH

CCCH ng xung

C FS C

C FS C

C FS C

* Ghp cc BCH v CCCH TSo: - TSo sng mang Co, ng ln khng xung cha cc knh FCCH, SCH, v BCCH, n c dng thm nhp BCCH, FCCH, SCH, FCH, AGCH ng xung ring RACH ng ln.

012

7 012

7 01

RRRRRRRRR

51 khung TDMA lin tip

- i vi TS1 c s dng sp xp cc knh iu khin ring ln cc knh vt l, o tc bit trong qu trnh thit lp cuc gi v ng k kh thp nn c th c 8 SDCCH mt TS1. S dng TS hiu qu hn.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

44

* Cc cch ghp knh TS1 : - SDCCH + SACCH ng xung. - SDCCH + SACCH ng ln TS1 thng tin ca khe s c s dng cho cc knh lu khng TCH. TS 2-7 gi l cc knh lu khng lgc vi chu k lp li l 26Ts. TSo: l cc knh iu khin lgc, chu k lp li 51Ts. TS1: Cc knh iu khin lgc chu k lp li 102Ts. - Vi cc sng mang C1-CN dnh cho Ts0-7 u l TCH. - Mi ch c 1Co v ch c sau TCH (Tc2-7). - Vi sng mang b xung, c STS c th s dng cho TCH. 3.4. o cng trm di ng: * ch ri: Chn khi bt ngun di ng: - MS gia 124 knh RF h thng GSM v tnh ton mc trung bnh cho tng knh, MS iu chnh n sng mang mnh nht v tm xem n c pht l BCCH hay khng, nu ng th MS c s liu BCCH xem c th kho n ny khng, nu khng MS s tm n sng mang mnh th hai. - MS c th c b nh BCCH v n s ch tm cc sng mang ny. Nu qu trnh khng thnh cng MS thc hin qu trnh 1 BCCH, MS c thng bo cn gim st cc sng mang BCCH no chn li kho n BTS khc. Nh vy MS trn cp nht danh sch 6 sng mang mnh nht. * Ch ni thng cuc gi: MS lin tc qua SACCH thng bo cho h thng cng tn hiu thu t BTS ln
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45

cn. BSC s dng cc php o ny nhanh chng quyt nh cc ch khc khi chuyn giao cn thit. Vic o c ln cn thc hin gia cc khong thi gian pht v thu khe Ts dnh cho trm. Cng tn hiu ca mi phc v c gim stkhi thu Ts dnh cho MS SACCH, cng tn hiu ca cc sng mang BCCH ln lt c o theo qui trnh: Pht, o, pht, o,... gi tr trung bnh tng php o cho tng sng mang c tnh ton v thng bo cho SBC. cc gi tr o tng ng vi BTS cn o, phi xc nh nhn dng BTS BSIC pht SCH trn Ts0, Co. Trong thi gian khung trng (ICLE) TCHC, TDMA-267, BSIC cho BTS ln cn c.
2 4
012 7012

2 5
7

IDLE

Down link
012

45 MHz 1

012

7012

012

* Nguyn l o MS:

2 4

2 5

Up link

(1): MS thu v o cng tn hiu (2): MS Pht (3): MS o cng tn hiu cho t nht mt ln cn. (4): MS c BSIC SCH (TS0) cho mt ln cn MS khng bit khi no xy ra TS0 sng mang BCCH ln cn nu phi o trong khong thi gian 8Ts chc chn l Tso s xy ra trong qu trnh o. Vic ny thc hin bng IDLE.
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3.5. Cc trng hp v th tc thng tin: 3.5.1. Tng quan: Trc khi kho st cc th tc thng tin khc nhau, hy kho st cc tnh hung c bit ca 1 PLMN c tt c cc thu bao di ng, v th ta quan st MS mt s tnh hung sau: * Tt my: Mng s khng th tip cn m my v MS khng tr li thng bo tm gi. N s khng bo cho h thng v vng nh v (nu c) v MS s c coi l ri mng. * MS bt my ( trng thi ri): H thng c th tm gi MS thnh cng, MS c coi l nhp mng. Trong khi chuyn ng, MS lun kim tra rng n c ni n mt knh qung b c thu pht tt nht. Qu trnh ny c gi l lu ng(Roaming). MS cn thng bo cho h thng v cc thay i vng nh v, qu trnh ny c gi l cp nht v tr. * MS bn: Mng v tuyn c mt knh thng tin (knh ting) dnh cho lung s liu ti v t MS trong qu trnh chuyn ng MS phi c kh nng chuyn n mt knh thng tin khc. Qu trnh ny c gi l chuyn giao (Handover). quyt nh chuyn giao h thng phi din gii thng tin nhn uc t MS v BTS. Qu trnh ny c gi l nh v.
3.5.2.

Lu ng v cp nht v tr:

Coi rng MS trng thi tch cc, ri v ang chuyn ng theo mt phng lin tc MS c kho n mt tn s v
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tuyn nht nh c CCCH v BCH TSo. Khi MS ri xa BTS ni vi n cng tn hiu s gim. mt thi im no khng xa bin gii l thuyt gia hai ln cn nhau cng ti mc m MS quyt nh chuyn n mt tn s mi thuc mt trong cc ln cn n. chn tn s tt nht n lin tc o cng tn hiu ca tng tn s trong s tn s nht nh ca ln cn. Thng MS phi tm c tn s BCH/CCCH t BTS c cng tn hiu tt hn tn s c. Sau khi t kho n tn ss mi ny, MS tip tc nhn thng bao tm gi / cc thng bo qung b chng no tn hiu ca tn s mi vn tt. Quyt nh vic thay i tn s BCH/CCCH s c thc hin m khng cn thng bo cho mng. Ngha l mng mt t khng tham gia v qu trnh ny. Kh nng chuyn ng v nh ng thi vi vic thay i ni thng MS giao tip v tuyn ti thoi im cn thit m bo cht lng thu c gi l lu ng Roaming. - Khi MS chuyn ng n gia hai cll thuc 2 BTS khc nhau: Ta bit rng MS khng h bit cu hnh ca mng cha n. gi cho MS thng tin v v tr chnh xc ca n h thng gi i nhn dng vng nh v (LAI) lin tc giao tip v tuyn bng BCCH. Khi i vo cell Thuc BSC khc MS s nhn thy vng mi bng cch thu BCCH. V thng tin v v tr c tm quan trng ln nn mng phi thng bo v s thy i ny, in thoi di ng qu trnh ny c gi l ng k cng bc. MS
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khng cn cch no khc l phi c gng thm nhp vo mng cp nt v t ca mnh MSC/VLR. Qu trnh ny c gi l cp nht v tr. Sau khi pht v tr mi ca mnh ln mng, MS tip tc chuyn ng trong vng mi nh m t trn. - Khi MS chuyn ng gia hai vng phc v khc nhau: Trong trng hp c mt cuc gi vo cho MS, vic chuyn t mt vng phc v MSC/VLR ny sang mt vng phc v MSC/VLR khc c nghi l tuyn thng tin i qua mng cng s khc. tm c nh tuyn ng, h thng phi tham kho b ghi nh v thng tr HLR v th MSC/VLR s phi cp nht HLR v v tr ca MSC/VLR cho MS ca chng ta. Qu trnh cp nht v tr nh sau:
(5) xo v tr
HLR VLR

(6) tip nhn xo (3) tip nhn v tr nht v tr


VLR MSC

MSC

(2) Yu cu cp

(1) Yu cu nht v tr

(4) Cng nhn cp nht v tr

Sau khi cp nht v tr thnh cng HLR h thng s hu b v tr c, HLR thng bo hu b v tr cho tng i MSC/VLR c xo v tr c ca MS c lin quan. 3.5.3.Th tc nhp mng ng k ln u:
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Khi MS bt my n s qut giao tip v tuyn tm ra tn s ng, tn s m MS tm kim s cha thng tin qung b cng nh thng tin tm gi BCH/CCCH c th c. MS t kho n tn s ng nh vic hiu chnh tn s thu v thng tin ng b V y l ln u MS s dng nn phn mng chu trch nhim s l thng tin ti / t MS hon ton khng c thng tin v MS ny, MS khng c ch th no v nhn dng vng nh v mi . Khi MS c gng thm nhp ti mng v thng bo vi h thng rng n l MS mi vng nh v ny bng cch gi i mt thng bo Cp nht v tr mng n MSC/VLR. T gi tr i MSC/VLR s coi rng MS hot ng v nh du trng d liu ca MS ny bng 1 c nhp mng co ny lin quang n IMSI. 3.5.4. Th tc ri mng: Th tc ri mng lin quan n IMSI. Th tc ri mng ca IMSI cho php thng bo vi mng rng thu bao di ng s tt ngun , lc ny tm gi MS bng thng bo tm gi s khng xy ra. Mt MS trng thi hot ng c nh du l nhp mng. Khi tt ngun MS gi thng bo cui cng n mng ,thng bo ny cha yu cu th tc ri mng. Khi thu c thng bo ri mng MSC/VLR nh du c IMSI ri mng tng ng. * Tm gi:

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Cuc gi n MS oc nh tuyn n MSC/VLR ni MS ng k. Khi MSC/VLR s gi i mt thng bo tm gi n MS, thng bo ny c pht qung b trn ton b vng nh v LA ngha l tt c cc BTS trong LA s gi thng bo tm gi MS. Khi chuyn ng LA v nghe thng tin CCCH MS s nghe thy thng bo tm gi v tr li ngay lp tc. * Gi t MS: Gi s MS ri v mun thitlp mt cuc gi thu bao ny s quay tt c cc ch s ca thu bao b gi v bt u th tc ny bng cch n phm pht . Khi ny MS gi i mt thng bo u tin n mng bng CCCH yu cu thm nhp . Trc ht MSC/VLR s ginh ring cho MS mt knh ring , kim tra th loi ca thu bao b gi v nh du thu bao ny trng thi bn . Nu thuee bao gi c php s dng mng MSC/VLR s cng nhn yu cu thm nhp . By gi MS s gi i mt thng bo thit lp cuc gi , tu theo thu bao b gi l c nh hay di ng s ca n s c phn tch trc tip MSC?VLR hoc gi n mt tng i chuyn tip ca mng PSTN c nh . Ngay khi ng ni n thu bao b gi sn sng thng bo thit lp cuc gi s c cng nhn, MS cng s c chuyn n mt knh thng tin ring. By gi tn hiu cui cng s l s khng nh thu bao. * Gi n thu bao MS: Gi s c mt thu bao A thuc mng c nh PSTN yu cu thit lp cuc gi vi thu bao B thuc mng di ng.

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- Thu bao A quay m ni nhn trong nc t ti vng GSM/PLMN. Ni thng c thit lp t tng i ni ht ca thu bao A n GMSC ca mng GSM/PLMN. - Thu bao A quay s ca thu bao B, so thu bao c phn tch GMSC. Bng chc nng hi p GMSC gi MSISDN cng vi yu cu v s lu ng (MSRN) n b ghi nh v thng tr (HLR) - HLR nh s thu bao ca MS c quay v nhn dng GSM/PLMN MSISDN IMSI - HLR ch cho MS vng phc v v gi IMSI ca MS n VLR ca vng phc v ng thi yu cu v MSRN. - VLR s tm thi gn s lu ng MSRN cho thu bao b gi v gi n ngc tr v HLR, HLR s gi n v tng i cng GSMC. - Khi nhn c MSRN ng tng i GMSC s c kh nng thit lp cuc gi n vng phc v MSC/VLR ni thu bao B hin ang c mt. - VLR s ch cho thu bao ny vng nh v (LAI) giai on qu trnh thit lp cuc gi h thng mun rng thng bo tm gi thu bao b gi c pht qung b trn vng ph sng ca tt c cc ca vng nh v ny. V vy MSC/VLR gi thng bo tm gi n tt c cc BTS trong vng nh v. - Khi nhn c thng tin tm gi, BTS s pht n ln ng v tuyn knh tm gi PCH. Khi MS trng thi ri v nghe knh PCH ca mt trong s cc thuc vng nh v LA, n
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s nhn thng tin tm gi , nhn bit dng IMSI v gi tr li v thng bo tm gi. - Sau cc th tc v thit lp cuc gi v sau khi gn cho mt knh thng tin cuc gi ni trn ddc ni thng n MS knh v tuyn. * Cuc gi ang tin hnh, nh v: By gi ta xem xt iu g s xy ra khi mt trm di ng trng thi bn chuyn ng xa dn BTS m n ni n ng v tuyn. Nh ta va thy MS s dng mt knh TCH ring trao i s liu/tn hiu ca mnh vi mng khi cng ri xa BTS, suy hao ng truyn cng nh nh hng ca Phadinh s lm hng cht lng truyn dn v tuyn s. Tuy nhin h thng c kh nng m bo chuyn sang BTS bn cnh. Qu trnh thay i n mt knh thng tin mi trong qu trnh tit lp cuc gi hay trng thi bn c gi l chuyn giao. Mng s quyt nh v s thay i ny. MS gi cc thng tin lin quan n cng tn hiu v cht lng truyn dn n BTS qu trnh ny c gi l cp nht. MS v mng c kh nng trao i thng tin v bo hiu trong qu trnh cuc gi c th ng b chuyn vng. Trong qu trnh hi thoi knh TCH dnh ring, MS phi tp trung ln TCH ny v th khng th mt knh khc dnh ring cho bo hiu. Mt l do khc na l s lng knh c hn nn h thng khng s dng 2 knh cho cng mt hng, vic t chc truyn dn s liu trn knh TCH sao cho cuc ni chuyn cng nh thng tin v bo hiu c gi i trn 1 knh. Lung s liu s c pht i theo mt trnh t chnh xc c MS
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ln BTS c th phn bit gia cuc ni chuyn v cc thng tin bo hiu. By gi ta quay li vic nh v, trc ht BTS s thng bo cho MS v cc BTS ln cn v cc tn s BCH/CCCH. nh thng tin ny MS c th o cng tn hiu cc tn s BCH/CCCH ca trm gc ln cn, MS o c cng tn hiu ln cht lng truyn dn TCH bn ca mnh. Tt c cc kt qu o ny c kt qu o ny c gi n mng phn tich su hn. cui cng BTS s quyt nh chuyn vng. BSC s phn tch cc kt qu o do BTS thc hin TCH bn . Tm li BSC s gii quyt 2 vn : - Khi no cn thc hin chuyn vng - Phi thc hin chuyn vng ti BTS no Sau khi nh gi chnh xc tnh hung v bt u qu trnh chuyn vng, BSC s chu trch nhim thit lp mt ng ni thng n BTS mi. C cc trng hp chuyn vng sau: * Chuyn giao trong vng 1 BSC: trng hp ny BSC phi thit lp mt ng ni n BTS mi, dnh ring mt TCH ca mnh v ra lnh cho MS phi chuyn n 1 tn s mi ng thi cng ch ra mt TCH mi. Tnh hung ny khng oif hi thng tin gi n phn cn li ca mng. Sau khi chuyn giao MS phi nhn cc thng tin mi v cc ln cn. Nu nh vic thay i n BTS mi cng l thay i vng nh v th MS s thng bo cho mng v LAI mi ca mnh v yu cu cp nht v tr.

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- Chuyn giao gia hai BSC khc nhau nhng cng mt MSC/VLR Trng hp ny cho thy s chuyn giao trong cng mt vng phc v nhng gia hai BSC khc nhau. Mng can thip nhiu hn khi quyt nh chuyn giao. BSC phi yu cu chuyn giao t MSC/VLR. Sau c mt ng ni thng mi (MSC/VLR BSC mi BSc mi) phi c thit lp v nu c TCH ri. TCH ny phi c dnh cho chuyn giao. Sau khi MS nhn c lnh chuyn n tn s mi v TCH mi. Ngoi ra sau khi chuyn giao MS c thng bo v cc ln cn mi. Nu vic ny thay i BTS i cng vi vic thay i vng nh v MS s gi i yu cu cp nht v tr trong qu trnh cuc gi hay sau cuc gi. - Chuyn giao gia hai vng phc v MSC/VLR y l trng hp chuyn giao phc tp nht nhiu tn hiu c trao i nht trc khi thc hin chuyn giao. Ta s xt 2 MSC/VLR. Gi MSC/VLR c (tham gia cuc gi trc khi chuyn giao) l tng i phc v v MSC/VLR mi l tng i ch. Tng i c s gi yu cu chuyn giao n tng i ch sau tng i ch s m nhn vic chun b ni ghp ti BTS mi. Sau khi thit lp ng ni gia hai tng i tng i c s gi i lnh chuyn giao n MS.

***

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Phn II. Cc ch tiu k thut ca mng gsm. Chng I. cu hnh trm gc bts. 1.1. s khi:

MCU
Tu chn A bis CPR
TCU DTC

CU B G H P

FU

Tu chn A

T C

F H U

B I E

B I E
DTC

S M

S M
1

T C

OMU

V tuyn /K bng
gc

Truyn dn

/k BSC

Truyn dn

BTS

BSC

- BIE: Thit b giao din trm gc.

Hong Vn Khi - Lp KTTT5 - K40


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- TC: Cc b chuyn i m. - SM: khi ghp knh con. - DTC: B iu khin trung k s. - CPR: B x l iu khin. - TCU: Khi iud khin u cui. - FU: Khi to khung. - FHU: Khi nhy tn. - CU: Khi sng mang. MCU: Khi ng h ch.

- OMU: Khi khai thc v bo dng. 1.2. chc nng chung ca BTS: Mi trm BTS phc v cho mt cung cp ng truyn v tuyn. Cc chc nng c bn ca BTS c nu phn trn. BTS c gii hn bi hai giao din: - Giao din v tuyn ( gia BTS v MS ). - Giao din BTS - BSC, giao din y c thc hin cc dng. + Giao din Abit khi BTS t cch xa BSC trn 10m ( cu hnh t xa). + Giao din ni b c gi l giao din trm gc (BSI) khi BTS v BSC c t cch xa nhau di 10m ( cu hnh kt hp v khi khng cn giao din Abit v l do khc ).

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BTS m bo: - ng ni v tuyn MS. - Phn bng c s ca lp thu ph 1v 2. Phn y l giao thc thm nhp ng truyn knh D(LAPD: Link Access Protocol on D Channel) gia BSC v BTS v giao thc thm nhp ng truyn knh D di ng (LAPDm: Link Access Protocol on D Mobile ) gia BTS v MS. LAPDmc th s dng ng thi cho dch v bn tin ngn. - Cc chc ng khai thc v bo dng ring cng vi chc nng qun lcc timnng v tuyn. * Cc tnh ng ca mt trm BTS. - nhy my thu: Ln hn hoc bng -104dBm. - B tr tr a tia: S cn bng cho php b tr tr a tia n 20 s - Nhy tn: Cho php s dng thm cc b thu pht phc v thm cho nhy tn. - Anten: BTS c th u ni n t anten pht v mt oc hai anten thu ( trng hp phn tp khng gian ). Anten c th v hng mt phng ngang ( Omnirectional ) hay nh hng hnh qut1200 ( Sectorial Anten ). - Cng sut pht: Cng sut pht trc khi ghp chung vo anten l 26W hay 69W ( hay 30W ). C th iu chnh cng sut tng nc 2dB.

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1.3. chc nng cc khi: Mt BTS bao gm cc khi sau: - Khi giao din trm gc - Khi to khung. - Khi nhy tn. - Khi dng h ch. - Khi sng mang. - Khi ghp chung anten. - Khi khai thc v bo dng. S khi m t qu trnh x l v bin i tn hiu BTS c cho cc hnh sau: * Nhim v ca khi ng h ch MCU l to ea cc loi ng h sau: - ng h tham kho cho b tng hp tn s. - ng h bit 3,7 s. - ng h khung TDMA: 4,615ms. - S khung ( FN ). * Nhim v ca khi to khung gm: - Thch ng tc s liu v ting ( chuyn i vo 16Kbit/s v ngc li ). - M ho v gii m knh.

Hong Vn Khi - Lp KTTT5 - K40


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- ng b vi b chuyn i m t xa gim ti thiu thi gian tr. - Ghp xen v kh ghp xen. - Mt m ho v gii mt m. - Gii iu ch v cn bng. - To lp khung. - iu khin cng sut my pht bao gm c DTX. - Pht hin TACCH. - Pht hin c ch th im lng (SID ). - Gii m cm thm nhp chuyn giao. - Nhim v ca phn pht ca khi sng mang ( CU ) gm: - iu ch. - Bin i nng tn. - Khuych i v iu chnh n nh cng sut. - iu khin to khung. * Thc hin x l: - Giao thc lp 2 ( LAPDm ) bao gm kim tra khung, qun l ng truyn v tuyn. - Giao thc lp 2 ( LAPD ) vi BSC. - Giao thc lp 2 vi OMU. - Giao thc lp 3 c th chia thnh:

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+ nh tuyn cc bn tin trong sut lp 3. + X l v nh tuyn cc bn tin trong sut lp 3.

M ho knh Thch ng giao din trm gc Gii m knh iu khin khi to khung

T/ nBI E

T MCU Phn ng h phi khi Giao khung din nhy tn

Khi thy tn

FU

Gii iu ch

n khi ghp chung

K/ cng sut

Bin i nng tn Tng hp tn s

/C GMSK

Cnh bo

TX RX

iu khin

Giao din ng v h iu khi iu n Cn khi n h bo

Tng hp tn s Giao tip Ly mu

T u vo my thu

Bin i h tn

CU

MCU: Khi ng h ch

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* Thc hin cc tnh nng: - Qun l knh v tuyn. - iu khin cng sut. - o cht lng. - Tm gi. - Bo dng. * Tham gia thc hin: - nh trc thi gian. - Gim st ( cc phn t ca BTS ). - Qun l chuyn i m t xa. * Nhim v ca phn thu khi CU gm: - Bin i h tn. - Ly mu tn hiu. - Tnh ton cng in trng tn hiu thu. * Nhim v ca b kt hp: - m bo ni chung cc my pht ca CU vo mt anten pht bng cch s dngcc b Circulator v cacs hc cng hng. - Chuyn mch bo v cho knh BCCH.

Hong Vn Khi - Lp KTTT5 - K40


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- o kim h s sng ng cho tng knh v cho anten. - u vng my pht vi my thu kim tra.

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a/ MF1 Ghp bng rng Gim st phn x
Hc CH F1

Ante n

CU 1

Chuyn mch

MF2

Lc

CU 2 BCCH

Gim st phn x MFn

Hc CH F2

u vng n my thu kim tra

CU n
Gim st phn x
Hc CH Fn

Cnh bo h s sng ng

CH: Cnh hng

b/
Cc Anten thu Thu chnh Lc
BT Gh p u vng kim tra

Rl e
K T N K TN d phng

Rl e
Ghp chung

MT1
CU1

iu khin v trng thi

n khi khai thc v bo d ngOMU MTn


CUn

Thu phn tp khng gian Lc Gh BT p u vng kim tra

KT N K TN d phng

Ghp chung

Hong Vn Khi - Lp KTTT5 - K40


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* Nhim v ca khi u vo my thu: - Lc. - Khuych i tp m nh. - Phn chia tn hiu n cc my thu tng ng. - T chc thu phn tp khng gian. * Nhim v ca khi khai thc v bo dng OMUgm: - Khai thc v bo dng cho cc khi khc nhau trongBTS. - Giao din vi u cui khai thc ngi my.

Hong Vn Khi - Lp KTTT5 - K40


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Chng ii: phng thc hot ng v ch tiu k thut ca mng cellular 2.1: khi nim v lu lng: Lu lng ca mt thu bao bt k c tnh bng cng thc: A = nT/3600 [Erlang ]. Trong : n - S trung bnh cc cuc gi trong mt gi. T - Thi gian trung bnh mt cuc gi (s). A - Lu lng thng tntn nhi s dng. V d: S liu thng k cho bit rng i vi mng di ng, th n v T thng c cc gi tr nh sau: N = 1: Trung bnh trong mt gi c mt cuc gi. T = 120s: Thi gian trung bnh ca mt cuc gi l 120giy. Vy lu lng ca mt ngi s dng l; A = (1x120)/3600 = 0,033 = 33m Erlang. Nh vy vi 1000thu bao s lu lng l 33 Erlang. T con s c s ny gip ta tnh ton c s kng yu cu trong mt mng t ong.

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2.1.1. Mc phc v GOS (Grade of Service): c th quyt nh v b tr trm gc, cn bit c bao nhiu thu bao v % cc cuc gi nghn c cho php %, cc cuc gi nghn c xc nh bng cht lng cuc gi l mc phc v GOS. Theo tnh ton trn mt thu bao cn lu lng l 0.033 Erlang s chim knh TCH trong khong 3,3% thi gian. Vi 30 thu bao th n chim khong 100% thi gian knh v tuyn, iu ny dn n nghn mc cao khng th chp nhn c. gim nghn ny cc knh ti phi c lu lng t i hoc tng trn c s lulng cn thit. Nghn chp nhn c hay GOS thng l t 2 5% y ta chn 2% vi mt mc GOS ta c th tnh c s knh cn thit theo bng GOS. 2.1.2. Dung lng Traffic trung k v dung lng thu bao: Khi nim trung k trong GSM c th hiu l cc TS (Time Slot) dnh cho cc knh mang ting v sliu TCH. Cc thu bao khi thc hin cuc gi s n nh mt TS tc mt knh nht nh. Nu nh trung k c 13 knh cng hot ng th thu bao di ng c th s dng bt c knh no m hin ti ang ri. Gi s c 1000 thu bao di ng na thu bao cn mt dung lng l 33 m Erlang do vy c th ti 100% thi gian ca 33 knh ny.

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iu quan trng l phi bit c vi lu lng Traffic l bao nhiu c th mang nhng knh ny nu ta s dng cp phc v GOS l 2%. Bng GOS s cho tnh c lu lng (Erlang) theo s knh (n) khc nhau v tc dch v ( kh nng nghn cuc gi E) GOS l khc nhau. V d: S knh n = 30. Nghn GOS= 2%. Tra bng ta c lu lng N= 21,93 erlang. T y ta c th tnh c dung lng ( s lng) thu bao cn phc v. V mi thu bao di ng cn mt lu lng l A=0,033 Erlang. Do vy vi N= 21,93 th c th phc v c s thu bao l : S=N/A=N/0,033[thu bao](*). Theo th d trn th: S=21,93/0,033=644 [thu bao]. Cng thc (*) rt quan trng, n gip ta tnh c s thu bao cn phc v theo s knh TCH cn thit t c phng hng nh dung lng cn m rng mng. 2.1.3 Hiu qu s dng trung k: Hiu qu s dng trung k l hiu sut s dng ti a knh m khng gy ra tc nghn ti a c cho knh . Hiu qu s dng trung k c tnh theo cng thc: H=N-N x E/n=N(1-E)/n.

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Trong : N l lu lng Traffic trung k. E nghn GOS thng chn l 2% n: s knh TCH. Hiu qu s dng trung k th hin kh nng ti a ca mt knh. V d trn vi lu lng trung k l 21,93 erlang do vi 33 knh th mi knh s s dng 21,941/33= 56% thi gian. Di y l bng hiu qu cc trung k 6, 14, 22, 30, 38, v 45 knh. S (n) 6 14 22 30 38 45 knh Traffic(N) erlang=2% 2,28 2,20 14,90 21,93 29,17 35,61 ng vi Hiu qu s dng

knh (H). 0,37 0,57 0,66 0,71 0,75 0,78

Vi bng trn ta nhn thy trung k 45 knh c hiu qu s dng knh gp 2,1 ln trung k 6 knh. Nh vy s knh trung k TCH cng ln th hiu qu s dng trung k cng cao. 2.2. Mng t ong:

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2.2.1. Cc thng s: Cn phi d on dung lng cn thit (lu lng phc v ) a ra s knh cn thit thc hin theo yu cu cht lng phc v. Gi s cn phi phc v 1000 thu bao di ng vi tng s 33 Erlang trong mt vng nh v gm 5 cell vi mc phc v GOS = 2% V tng s knh cn thit l 60 knh. Bng di y cho thy lu lng phc v phn b theo tng vng ( cell ) nh sau: Cell A B C D E Tng 5 cell Lu lng (%) 40 25 15 10 10 100 Erlang 13,20 8,25 4,95 3,30 3,30 33.00 S knh 20 14 10 8 8 60

Ta nhn thy rng lu lng phc v phn chia khng ng u cho mi vng, ti vng mt thp th s knh TCH i hi t hn, ngc li vi vng mt cao th s knh TCH cn nhiu hn. y cng l mt c s quan trng cho thit k mng nhm p ng lu lng cn thit cho tng vng kho st. Ngha l dung lng mng t ong c nh c bi phn b lu lng v s knh cn thit cho tng vng.

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2.2.2. Lu lng knh logic: Trong GSM mi tn s c 8 knh c ghp, tc l c 8 knh trong mi trng hp n gin nht ( bi v thc t mi c th c nhiu tn s ). Trong mi ny mt knh s dng cho thng tin qung b cc knh cn li s dng cho knh ting v s liu TCH ( knh lu thng 0 v knh cui cng dng cho thit lp cuc gi SDCCH.) - knh TCH: Thi gian trung bnh ca cuc gi l 120 giy, mi thu bao cn 1 Traffic l 0,033 Erlang do cuc gi trung bnh trong gi cao im l: A 3600/T = 0.033 3600/120 = 1 - knh SDCCH: Thi gian cho SDCCH l 3s. Cho rng y c 3 ln cp nht v tr khi thit lp cuc gi v 4 knh SDCCH s dng cho mt thu bao di ng vo gi cao im, do vy lu lng SDCCH cho thu bao di ng s l: 4 3/3600 = 0,033 Erlang, c ngha l bng 1/10 ca Traffic cho thu bao di ng . Mt knh vt l vi 48 knh SDCCH c lp t bng Erlang vi t l nghn GOS = 2% ta tra bng c dung lng l 3,6271 Erlang. iu ny c ngha l 8 knh SDCCH/8 c th phc v c 3,6271/0,033 =1099 thu bao m phc v 1099 thu bao th dung lng ca knh TCH cn thit l 36,271 Erlang, tra bng tm c 45 knh TCH . Nh vy sau 5 sng mang truyn i s c thm mt knh SDCCH cn thit thit lp cuc gi.

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Ta bit cu trc ghp knh Radio Interface: Vi mi tn s tng ng vi mt FU ( hay mt TRX ) th s dnh TS0 v TS1 cho cc knh iu khin, cc TS cn li dnh cho TCH. Di y l bng thng k TCH, lu lng Erlang, s thu bao phn b FU ( TRX ). FU in Cell TCHs Channel Erlang Subcriber 1 6 2,9 4 89 2 14 8,2 0 248 451 3 22 4 30 3 664 857 5 37 6 45 6 107 130 8 6 7 53 43,1

14,9 21,9 28,3 35,

2.2.3. Cht lng phc v: Cht lng phc v nh ngha kh nng thit lp v kt cui cuc gi cho cc thu bao di ng. Bao gm t l ri cuc gi, t l ri trn knh TCH, nghn trn Air Interface, Handover v cc vn truyn dn. * T l ri TCH ( TCH Failure Rate): T l ri trn knh TCH ph thuc vo 3 yu t sau: - Tng s knh TCH khng th t n trm di ng trong th tc thit lp thng thng khi trm di ng chuyn t knh SDCCH sang TCH.

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- Tng s cc ln chuyn giao trong khng thnh cng dn n trm di ng quay li knh c hoc cuc gi b ri. - Tng s cc cuc gi b ngt khi cc trm di ng t c n knh TCH v khng lin quan n th tc chuyn giao nhng cuc gi b ngt do cc nguyn nhn nm ngoi vng bao ph sng, pin ht nng lng, tt ngun. * T l ri cuc gi ( Droppled Call ): - Ri cuc gi xy ra khi chuyn giao khng thnh cng. - Ri cuc gi cng xy ra khi gp li trn knh TCH - T l ri cuc gi c o t trn airterface vi thit b o K1-103 v phn mm x l AGLAE. * Nghn trn Airinterface: - Nghn trn Airinterface xy ra trn SDCCH trong qu trnh thit lp cuc gi. - Nghn trn Airinterface xy ra trn TCH trong qu trnh tin hnh cuc gi. * Handover: - T l Handover thnh cng. - T l Handover tht bi. 2.2.4. Cu trc cc phn t mng:

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i vi mng di ng t bo mt t th cc BTS c th coi l cc thnh phn ch yu ca mng. Do ta c th gi cc BTS l cc phn t ca mng GSM cng vic thit k mng sau khi tnh ton c lu lng v cht lng phc v s l lp cu hnh cho cc i trm, tc l BTS hay cc phn t mng. * La chn v tr t trm: - Kt qu vic phn tch mi trng a l v vic cc i BTS c xut phi nh gi c mi nguy him do phn tn thi gian. Cc mi trng in hnh m c th xy ra phn tn thi gian: + Cc vng ni. + H ao vi b dc ng hoc xy dng nhiu nh ca. + Cc thnh ph nhiu i. + Cc to nh cao tng. Trong tt c cc trng hp trn khi hiu s qung ng i gia tn hiu i thng v phn x t cc vt cn ni trn ln hn ca s cn bng (4,5 Km) s ny sinh vn . C hai cch trnh t phn tn thi gian c hi nh sau:

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- t BTS gn ti vt phn x nht, s bo m hiu s qung ng nm trong gii hn b cn bng. - Hng anten trnh vt phn x nu BTS t xa vt phn x. Anten phi c t s hng trc trn hng cao. * Cc khi nim v i trm: - Site: Trm c th l mt BTS nu s dng anten Omi hoc 3 BTS nu s dng anten secter. - Cell: mi tng ng 1 BTS, trong mi c th c nhiu tn s. - TRX: Trm thu pht bao gm anten pht kt hp. - FU: Frame Unit tng ng vi mt tn s v bng TRX. Cc Site c th gm ti a 3 BTS. Mi BTS c th c gm t 1 n nhiu FU (TRX). 2.2.5. l thuyt mch cell - tn s: Trn c s tnh ton lu lng cn phi vch ra mu v quy hoch tn s khng ch cho mng ban u m cho c cc giai on pht trin tip theo. * Quy hoch Cell:

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Omni split phrase 1

Cell split phrase 0

Cell

- Omni cell: Cell c to bi hnh trn v ngi ta s dng anten ng hng do trng bc x ra mi hng ca Cell l nh nhau . kiu ny c quy hoch cho vng c mt lu lng thp. - Cell split phase 0: Cc cell c tng trng bi cc hnh lc gic, s dng cell cho mt site. Site ny dng anten sector ra 3 hng mi hng tng ng vi vi mt cell. Gc phng v ca cc anten phn cch nhau 1200. Mi cell s dng cc anten pht 600 v 2 anten thu phn tp 600 cho mt gc phng v. Quy hoch cell kiu ny cho vng c mt cao. - Cell split phase 1: c pht trin t phase 0 bng cch t mi cell ban u mt Site sector. Site chia nh cell thnh 3 cell mi nh vy s cell s tng ln gp 3 ln mi cell ban u . Phase1 c dng nhng vng c mt rt cao.

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- Cellular Network: Mng s s dng rt nhiu cell, tu thuc vng c mt cao hay thp m ngi ta la chn cc kiu Omni hay phase 0, phase 1, phase 2. * S dng li tn s: Nguyn l c s khi thit k h thng t ong l cc mu c gi l mu s dng li tn s . S dng li tn s l s dng cc knh v tuyn cc vng tn s mng ph cho cc vng a l khc nhau, cc vng ny phi cch nhau mt c ly ln mi nhiu giao thoa ng knh C/I c th chp nhn c. Mu s dng li tn s c k hiu l N/M trong N l v tr t Site, M l nhm tn s . Vi R l bn knh cell s dng li tn s v D l khong cch gia hai cell s dng chung tn s, hn ch t s C/I th phi tho mn: D/R=(3m)1/2.

1 1

D0

E0

F0

G0

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Trong mng thng tin di ng c 3 mu s dng li tn s sau: * Mu 3/9 * Mu 4/12 * Mu 7/21 D = 5,2 R D=6R D = 7,9R

Mng GSM ca VSM s dng mu 4/12. - M hnh 3/9: s dng nhm 9 tn s trong mt mu s dng li tn s 3 i. - M hnh 4/12: s dng nhm 12 tn s trong mt mu dng li tn s 4 i. - M hnh 7/21: s dng nhm 21 tn s trong mt mu dng li tn s 7 i.

M hnh Mu s dng li tn s 7/21 E1 C 1 C 3 C 2 D 1 D 3 D 2 3 1 F 2 E3 C 2 F A 3 F B 3 A 1 A 2 F1 E2 D 3 B 1 B 2 C 2 D 1 D 2 C 1 C 3

E3 C 1 C 3

E2

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M hnh mu s dng li tn s 4/12

C1 D 1 D 3 A1 B2 C1 A3 C2 B1 D 3 A1 B2 C1 A3 C2 A2 B3 D 1 D 2 C3 A2 B3 D 2 C3

B1 A1

C3 B1

C2

B3 C1

B2 A3 C2 B1 D 3 B2 C1 A3 C2 B1 D 3 B2

A2 D 1 D 2 A1

B3

C3

A2 D 1 D 2

B3

C3

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Mu s dng li tn s 3/9 B1 A1 A3 B1 B3 B3 A2 C1 C3 B2 A1 A3 B2 A1 A3 C2 B1 B3 A2 B2 A2

- Ch nh knh cho mu s dng li tn s: Nguyn tc ch nh knh cho cc mu s dng li tn s v cc tn s sng mang trong vng 1 BTS phi khc nhau sng mang v cc tn s trong cng mt trm ( Site ) hay cng mt v tr phi cch nhau Nsng mang. Do bng tn ca GSM l hn tr do cc nguyn tc trn dn n s sng mang trong 1 Cell l rt hn ch . Cch phn b sng mang nh bng di y:

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Bng ch nh knh cho m hnh 4/12: Nhm knh A tn Cc knh 1 1 1 3 B 1 2 1 4 C 1 3 1 5 D 1 4 1 6 A 2 5 1 7 B 2 6 1 8 C 2 7 ... . D 2 8 ... A 3 9 ... . B 3 1 0 ... . Nhn xt: Mu 4/12 s dng nhm 12 tn s: A1, a2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2, D3. Trong c php s dng 4 i ( Site ): A, B, C, D. Vy theo mu s dng trn cc sng mang cng Cell cch nhau 12 sng, cn cc sng cng v tr cch nhau 4 sng. V d: Tn s 13 cel A1 cch nhau 12 sng mang. Tn s 1 v 5 SiteA cch nhau 4 sng mang. - Kh nng p dng: + M hnh 3/9: M hnh ny c sng mang dng trong 1 cell l tng i ln, tuy nhin khong cch di tn gia cc sng mang l nh, do kh nng nhiu ng knh C/I, nhiu knh ln cn C/A l cao. Kh nng p dng cho nhng vng c mt my di ng cao, kch thc Cell l nh nhng vng ph sng d dng trnh c nhiu cho phainh. M hnh ny ph hp phc v Indoor cho cc khu cao tng. C 3 1 1 ... D 3 1 2 ...

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+ M hnh 4/12: M hnh ny s dng cho nhng vng c mt trung bnh do c s knh trong 1 cell t hn. Nhiu ng knh t khi l 1 vn ln. Vi m hnh ny kch thc Cell c th m rng ph hp vi cc vng c mt trung bnh v t nh cao tng. C th phc v INDOOR v INCAR. + M hnh 7/21: C th phc v cho nhng khu vc c mt thp, do s lng knh trong mt cell l nh. Ta thy loi ny c khong cch di tn gia cc knh ln cn v cc knh cng cell tng i ln. Cc cell ng knh v nhiu cch nhau xa do khng c hin tng nhiu ng knh v nhiu ln cn, m bo cht lng cc vng ph sng. Do n c s dng khithunh cc cell thch hp vi mt mydi ng ngy cng tng v nhng vng ph sng kh c kch thc cell tng i nh. - D on ng truyn C/I, C/A, C/R: T mt v tr t BTS tin hnh kho st v truyn dn v tuyn, trong cn d on cc thng tin v bn . Khi kho st cn s dng cc phng tin pht sng trne ca gip cho vic o c cc v trkhc nhau trn cng mt BTS. D on truyn lan l mt cng vic rt kh khn v n b nh hng bi nhiu yu t nh a hnh, tn s, cao anten thu pht.... Do khi thit k, d on cc mc nhiu, phn x, phainh phi s dng cc thit b chuyn dng, cc cng thc l thuyt cng nh s liu v bn . Tn hiu c o c cc

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vng a hnh khc nhau, c mc khc nhau nh trong nh, trong xe t. Tt c u d on cho vic truyn lan mt cch chnh xc. D on cha chnh xc v mc lu lng c phn b, dn n kh nng c qu ti, mc nghn khng chp nhn c, c lu lng thp khng hiu qu, nhng iu n n yu cu m rng mng. S m rng mng s c nh hng n phn mng ang hot ng bnh thng. N c th l nhiu ng knh,chuyn giao khng tt... Do qu trnh thit k l mt cng vic phc tp. Sau khi lp t h thng phi kim tra cc yu cu t ra, ri mi a mng vo khai thc.

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