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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

LI NI U
Cng vi s pht trin ca t nc, nhng nm gn y cc ngnh kinh t quc dn u pht trin mnh m, v ngnh cng nghip vin thng cng khng l ngoi l. S ngi s dng cc dch v mng tng ng k, theo d on con s ny ang tng theo hm m. Ngy cng c nhiu cc dch v mi v cht lng dch v cng c yu cu cao hn. ng trc tnh hnh ny, cc vn v mng bt u bc l, cc nh cung cp mng v cc nh cung cp dch v cng c nhiu n lc nng cp cng nh xy dng h tng mng mi. Nhiu cng ngh mng v cng ngh chuyn mch c pht trin, trong s chng ta phi k n cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS). MPLS ang c nghin cu p dng nhiu nc, tp on BCVT Vit Nam cng p dng cng ngh ny cho mng th h k tip NGN. ng trc s pht trin nhanh chng ca cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS, vic tm hiu cc vn v cng ngh MPLS l vn quan trng i vi sinh vin. Nhn thc c iu , bn kho lun tt nghip Tm hiu kh nng ng dng cng ngh chuyn mch a giao thc nhn MPLS trn mng ng trc Vit Nam gii thiu v qu trnh pht trin dch v cng nh cng ngh mng dn ti MPLS, tm hiu cc vn k thut ca cng ngh, v ng dng ca cng ngh MPLS trong mng th h k tip NGN ca tp on BCVT Vit Nam. B cc ca bn kho lun gm 3 chng.
Chng 1 : Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn

a giao thc MPLS Chng 2 : Gii thiu cu trc mng ng trc Vit Nam Chng 3 : ng dng MPLS trn mng ng trc Vit Nam Cng ngh MPLS l cng ngh tng i mi m, vic tm hiu v cc vn ca cng ngh MPLS i hi phi c kin thc su rng, v lu di. Do vy bn kho lun tt nghip khng trnh khi nhng sai st. Rt mong nhn c s ph bnh, gp ca cc thy c gio v cc bn. Xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti PGS.TS Nguyn Cnh Tun ngi tn tnh hng dn em trong sut qu trnh hon thnh bn kho lun tt nghip ny. Xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trong khoa Vin thng gip em trong thi gian qua.

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Xin gi li cm n ti gia nh, bn b v ngi thn - nhng ngi gip ng vin ti trong qu trnh hc tp. CHNG 1 GII THIU TNG QUAN V CNG NGH CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC (MPLS) 1.1 Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin 1.1.1 Cc ng lc ra i ca chuyn mch nhn Trong nhng nm gn y, mng internet pht trin rt nhanh v tr nn rt ph bin. Internet tr thnh mt phng tin thng tin rt hiu qu v tin li phc v cho gio dc, thng mi, gii tr, thng tin gia cc cng ng, cc t chc.. Hin nay ngy cng pht trin cc ng dng mi c trong thng mi v th trng ngi tiu dng. Cc ng dng mi ny c vn hnh i hi bng thng rng v cc nhu cu v di thng c m bo trong mng ng trc. Cng vi cc dch v truyn thng c cung cp qua internet th cc dch v thoi v a phng tin ang c s dng v pht trin. V s la chn cho vic cung cp l tch hp cc dch v ang c mong i. Tuy nhin, tc v gii thng ca cc nhu cu v cc dch v v ng dng ny vt qu h tng internet hin nay. Vi giao thc nh tuyn internet TCP/IP c kh nng nh tuyn v truyn gi ht sc mm do linh hot v rng khp ton cu. Nhng IP khng m bo cht lng dch v, tc truyn tin theo yu cu, trong khi cng ngh ATM c tc truyn tin cao, m bo thi gian thc v cht lng dch v theo yu cu nh trc. Hn na cc dch v thng tin th h sau c chia thnh hai xu hng pht trin l: Hot ng kt ni nh hng v hot ng khng kt ni. Hai xu hng pht trin ny dn tim cn v hi t vi nhau tin ti ra i cng ngh IP/ATM. S kt hp IP vi ATM c th l gi php k vng cho mng vin thng trong tng lai. S ra i ca chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS) l tt yu v l gii php p ng c nhu cu , khi nhu cu v tc pht trin rt nhanh ca mng internet yu cu phi c giao thc mi m bo cht lng dch v theo yu cu ng thi phi n gin v tc x l phi rt cao

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc l mt gii php linh hot cho vic gii quyt cc vn m cc mng ngy nay ang phi i mt, l tc , kh nng m rng cp mng, qun l cht lng dch v (QoS) v k thut lu lng. MPLS xut hin p ng cc yu cu dch v v qun l bng thng cho giao thc internet th h sau da trn mng ng trc Tm li, chuyn mch nhn a giao thc s ng vai tr quan trng trong vic nh tuyn (da trn cc thc o QoS v cht lng dch v) chuyn mch, chuyn tip cc gi tin qua mng th h sau cng nh gii quyt cc vn lin quan ti kh nng m rng cp v hot ng vi cc mng Frame Relay v ch truyn ti khng ng b ATM hin nay p ng cc nhu cu dch v ca ngi s dng mng 1.1.2 Lch s pht trin ca MPLS Vic hnh thnh v pht trin cng ngh MPLS xut pht t nhu cu thc t, c cc nh cng nghip vin thng thc y nhanh chng. S thnh cng v nhanh chng chim lnh th trng m cng ngh ny c c l nh vo vic chun ho cng ngh. Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin cng ngh, nhng gii php ban u ca hng nh Cisco, IBM, Toshiba. Nhng n lc chun ho ca t chc tiu chun IETF trong vic ban hnh v tiu chun MPLS.s cung cp cho chng ta nhng nhn nh ban u v xu hng pht trin MPLS. MPLS c xut u tin do hng Ipsilon mt hng rt nh v cng ngh thng tin trong trin lm v cng ngh thng tin, vin thng ti Texas. Sau Cisco v hng lot hng khc nh IBM, Toshibacng b cc sn phm cng ngh chuyn mch ca h di nhng tn khc nhau nhng u cng chung bn cht cng ngh chuyn mch nhn. Thit b nh tuyn chuyn mch t bo ca Toshiba nm 1994 l tng i ATM u tin c iu khin bng giao thc IP thay cho bo hiu ATM. Tng i ca Ipsilon cng l ma trn chuyn mch ATM c iu khin bi khi x l s dng cng ngh IP. Cng ngh chuyn mch th ca Cisco cng tng t nhng c b xung thm mt vi k thut nh lp chuy tip tng ng FEC, giao thc phn phi nhn. n nm 1998 nhm nghin cu IETF tin hnh cc cng vic a ra tiu chun v khi nim v chuy mch nhn a giao thc. S ra i ca MPLS c d bo l tt yu khi nhu cu v tc pht trin rt nhanh ca mng Internet i hi phi c mt giao thc mi

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m bo cht lng dch v theo yu cu. C rt nhiu cng ngh xy dng trn mng IP IP trn nn ATM (IPoA) IP trn nn SDH/SONET (IPOS) IP qua WDM IP qua cp quang

Mi loi c nhng u v nhc im ring. Trong cng ngh ATM c s dng rng ri trong cc mng IP ng trc c tc cao v m bo c dch v, iu khin lung v mt s c tnh khc m cc mng nh tuyn truyn thng khng c c, trong trng hp i hi thi gian thc cao th IpoA l gii php ti u. MPLS c hnh thnh da trn k thut . MPLS thc hin mt s chc nng sau H tr cc gii php mng ring o VPN nh tuyn hin (iu khin lu lng)

H tr cc b cho nh tuyn IP trong cc tng i chuyn mch ATM Khi nim chuyn mch nhn xut pht t hai khi nim: Tng i chuyn mch v b nh tuyn. Xt trn gc chuyn mch, phng thc iu khin lung, t l gi c v cht lng tng i chuyn mch s tt hn b nh tuyn. Song b nh tuyn li c kh nng nh tuyn mm do m tng i chuyn mch khng c c. Do , chuyn mch nhn ra i l s kt hp v k tha cc u im trn cng nh khc phc nhng nhc im ca c tng i v b nh tuyn truyn thng. 1.1.3 Qu trnh chun ho MPLS i vi cng ngh chuyn mch mi, vic tiu chun ho l mt kha cnh quan trng quyt nh kh nng chim lnh th trng nhanh chng ca cng ngh . Cc tiu chun lin quan n IP v ATM c xy dng v hon thin trong mt thi gian tng i di. Cc tiu chun v MPLS ch yu c IETF pht trin v hon thin ITEF hon thin tiu chun MPLS v a ra cc ti liu RFC trong nm 1999. Sau nm 1999 lin tc ban hnh cc tiu chun MPLS nh v qun l, bo mt, tnh tng thch vi cc cng ngh khc
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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Nh vy c th thy rng MPLS pht trin nhanh chng v hiu qu. iu ny cng chng minh nhng yu cu cp bch trong cng nghip cho mt cng ngh mi. Hu ht cc tiu chun MPLS hin ti c ban hnh di dng RFC. Sau khi ton b cc RFC c hon thin, chng s c tp hp li xy dng mt h thng tiu chun MPLS 1.1.4 Nhm lm vic MPLS trong IETF MPLS l mt nhm lm vic IETF cung cp cc bn phc tho v nh tuyn, gi chuyn tip v chuyn mch cc lung lu lng qua mng s dng MPLS. Nhm c chc nng sau Xc nh c ch qun l lung lu lng ca cc phn t khc nhau, nh cc lung lu lng gia cc phn cng, cc my mc khc nhau hoc thm ch l cc lung lu lng gia cc ng dng khc nhau. Duy tr c lp ca cc giao thc lp 2 v lp 3 Cung cp cc phng tin sp xp cc a ch ip thnh cc nhn c di c nh v n gin c cc cng ngh gi chuyn tip gi tin v chuyn mch gi s dng. Giao din vi cc giao thc nh tuyn c sn nh RSVP v OSPF. H tr IP, ATM v cc giao thc lp 2 Frame-Relay Trong MPLS, vic truyn d liu thc hin theo cc ng chuyn mch nhn (LSP). Cc ng chuyn mch nhn l dy cc nhn ti mi nt v ti tt c cc nt dc theo tuyn t ngun ti ch. LSP c thit lp hoc l trc khi truyn d liu hoc trong khi tm lung d liu. Cc nhn c phn phi s dng giao thc LDP hoc RSVP hoc da trn giao thc nh tuyn nh BGP v OSPF. Mi gi d liu nn v mang cc nhn trong qu trnh i t ngun ti ch. Chuyn mch tc cao c th chp nhn c v cc nhn vi di c nh c chn vo v tr u ca gi tin hoc t bo v c th c phn cng s dng d chuyn mch cc gi tin mt cc nhanh chng gia cc ng lin kt. Nhm lm vic MPLS chu trch nhim chun ho cc cng ngh c s cho s dng chuyn mch nhn v cho vic thi hnh cc ng chuyn mch nhn v cho vic thi hnh cc ng mch nhn trn cc loi cng ngh lp lin kt, nh Frame Relay, ATM v cng ngh LAN (Etherbet, Token Ring,). N bao gm cc th tc v cc giao thc cho vic phn phi nhn gia cc b nh tuyn, xem xt v ng gi v multicast.

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Cc mc tiu khi u ca nhm lm vic gn nh hon thnh. C th, n xy dng mt s cc RFC nh ngha giao thc phn phi nhn c s (LDP), kin trc MPLS c s v ng gi tin, cc nh ngha cho vic chy MPLS qua cc ng lin kt ATM, Frame-Relay. Cc mc tiu gn y ca nhm lm vic Hon thnh cc ch mc cn tn ti Pht trin cc mc tiu chun ngh ca nhm lm vic MPLS thnh cc bn Dratf Standard bao gm: LDP, CD-LDP v cc tiu chun k thut RSVP-TE cng nh vn ng gi. nh r cc m rng ph hp vi LDP v RSVP cho vic xc nhn LSP ngun. Hon thnh cc cng vic trn MPLS-TE MIB.

Xc nh cc c ch chp nhn li ci tin cho LDP.

Xc nh cc c ch phc hi MPLS cho php mt ng chuyn mch nhn c th c s dng nh l mt bn d tr cho mt tp cc ng chuyn mch nhn khc bao gm cc trng hp cho php sa cc b Cung cp ti liu v cc phng thc ng gi MPLS m rng cho php hot ng trn cc ng chuyn mch nhn trn cc cng ngh lp thp hn, nh phn chia theo thi gian ( Sonet ADM ) di bc sng v chuyn mch khng gian. 1.2 Cc thnh phn ca MPLS: [1], [2], [4]. 1.2.1. Khi qut MPLS Khi mt gi tin tun theo cc phng thc lp mng connectionless t mt b nh tuyn n b nh tuyn tip theo, mi b nh tuyn phi a ra mt quyt nh gi chuyn tip c lp gi tin . Do , mi b nh tuyn phn tch mo u gi tin v mi b nh tuyn s chy cc thut ton nh tuyn lp mng. Mi b nh tuyn la chn Hop tip theo cho gi tin mt cch hon ton c lp da trn nhng phn tch c n v mo u gi tin v kt qu cu vic chy thut ton nh tuyn. Cc mo u gi tin cha ng nhiu thng tin hn l thng tin cn thit la chn Hop tip theo. La chn Hop tip theo c th xem l s cu thnh ca hai chc nng. Chc nng th nht chia ton b gi tin vo cc tp lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC ( Forwarding Equivalence Clas ). Chc nng th hai l xp xp mi FEC cho mt Hop tip theo. Khi quyt

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

nh gi chuyn tip c a ra, vi cc gi tin c xp xp vo cng mt FEC l ging nhau. Tt c cc gi tin trong cng mt FEC c th v xut pht t mt nt c th s i theo cng mt tuyn ng hoc theo mt tp cc tuyn ng lin kt vi FEC . Trong gi chuyn tip IP truyn thng, mt b nh tuyn c th s a hai gi tin vo cng mt FEC nu nh mt vi tin t a ch X trong bng nh tuyn ca b nh tuyn ph hp vi a ch ch ca gi tin. Khi gi tin truyn qua mng, mi Hop ln lt kim tra li gi tin v n nh n vo mt FEC. Trong MPLS, vic n nh mt gi tin c th vo mt FEC c thc hin mt ln khi gi tin i vo mng. FEC m gi tin c n nh m ho thnh mt gi tr c di c nh c gi l nhn. Khi mt gi tin c chuyn tip ti Hop tip theo ca n, nhn c gi theo gi tin, nh vy cc gi tin dn nhn trc khi chng c gi chuyn tip. Ti cc Hop pha sau, khng c nhng phn tch su hn v mo u lp mng. ng hn l nhn c s dng nh ch s trong bng m n xc nh Hop tip theo v nhn mi. Nhn c c thay th bng mt nhn mi v gi tin c gi ti Hop tip theo. Trong m hnh gi chuyn tip MPLS, khi mt gi tin c n nh vo mt FEC th khng c bt c mt phn tch mo u no c cc b nh tuyn pha sau thc hin. Tt c cng vic gi chuyn tip c iu khin bng cc nhn. iu ny c mt s cc u im so vi vic gi chuyn tip lp mng truyn thng. Vic gi chuyn tip c th c thc hin bng cc tng i c kh nng tm kim v thay th nhn, nhng khng c kh nng phn tch mo u lp mng hoc khng c kh nng phn tch mo u lp mng ti mt tc xc nh. K t lc gi tin c n nh vo mt FEC khi n i vo mng, b nh tuyn u vo c th s dng bt c thng tin no m n c v gi tin cho d cc thng tin khng th ly c t mo u lp mng trong khi quyt nh vic n nh. V d, cc gi tin ti cc cng khc nhau c th c n nh cho cc FEC khc nhau. Trong khi vic gi chuyn tip truyn thng c th ch xem xt n thng tin c mang theo cng vi gi tin trong mo u gi tin. Mt gi tin i vo mng ti b nh tuyn c th c th c dn nhn khc vi mt gi tin tng t nhng i vo mng ti mt b nh
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tuyn khc, kt qu l cc quyt nh gi chuyn tip ph thuc vo b nh tuyn ni vo. iu ny khng th thc hin c trong vic gi chuyn tip truyn thng, khi m b nh tuyn li vo ca gi tin khng c mang theo gi tin. Nhng yu t quyt nh xem liu gi tin c n nh cho mt FEC nh th no c th tr nn ngy cng phc tp, nu khng c bt c mt tc ng no vo cc b nh tuyn ch n thun l gi chuyn tip cc gi tin dn nhn. i khi chng ta mun bt gi tin i theo mt tuyn ng xc nh c chn trc hoc ti thi im gi tin i vo mng hn l tuyn ng c la chn bng thut ton nh tuyn ng khi gi tin qua mng. iu ny c th c thc hin nh l vn v chnh sch hoc h tr iu khin lu lng. Trong gi chuyn tip truyn thng, iu ny i hi gi tin mang b m v tuyn ng ca n i theo. Trong MPLS, mt nhn c th c s dng i din cho mt tuyn ng khng cn phi mang theo gi tin. Mt vi b nh tuyn phn tch mo u lp mng ca gi tin khng phi n thun ch ka chn Hop tip theo m cn quyt nh quyn u tin ca gi tin. Sau chng ta c th p dng cc ngng loi b hoc cc lch trnh khc nhau cho cc gi tin khc nhau. MPLS cho php nhng khng yu cu quyn u tin c th c xc nh hon ton hoc mt phn t nhn MPLS l chuyn mch nhn a giao thc, a giao thc y c ngha l cc cng ngh ca n c th p dng trong bt c giao thc lp mng no nh IP, IPX 1.2.2 Cc khi nim c bn ca mng MPLS 1.2.2.1 Nhn (Lable): Nhn l mt thc th c di ngn v c nh khng c cu trc bn trong. Nhn khng trc tip m ho thng tin ca mo u lp mng nh a ch mng. Nhn c gn vo mt gi tin c th s i din cho mt FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Classes: Nhm chuyn tip tng ng) m gi tin c n nh. Thng th mt gi tin c n nh mt FEC (hon ton hoc mt phn) da trn a ch ch lp mng ca n. Tuy nhin nhn khng phi l m ho ca a ch .

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Nhn trong dng n gin nht xc nh ng i m gi tin c th truyn qua. Nhn c mang hay c ng gi trong tiu lp 2 cng vi gi tin. B nh tuyn kim tra cc gi tin qua ni dung nhn xc nh cc bc chuyn k tip. Khi gi tin c gn nhn, cc chng ng cn li ca gi tin thng qua mng ng trc da trn chuyn mch nhn. Gi tr nhn ch c ngha cc b ngha l chng ch lin quan n cc bc chuyn tip gia cc LSR. Dng ca nhn ph thuc vo phng thc truyn tin m gi tin c ng gi. Kiu khung (Frame mode): Kiu khung l thut ng khi chuyn tip mt gi nhn gn trc tiu lp ba. Mt nhn c m ho vi 20 bt, ngha l c th c 2 m 20 gi tr khc nhau. Mt gi c nhiu nhn gi l chng nhn (Lable stack). mi chng trong mng ch c mt nhn bn ngoi c xem xt LABLE EXP S TTL STACK

LABLE=20 bits EXP (EXPERIMENTAL)=3 bits S (BOTTOM OF STACK)=1 bit TTL (TIME TO LIVE)=8 bits Trong : EXP: dnh cho thc nghim. Khi cc gi tin xp hng c th dng cc bt ny tng t nh cc bit IP u tin (IP Precedence) S: l bt cui chng . Nhn cui chng bit ny c thit lp ln 1,cc nhn khc c gi tr bt ny l 0.

TTL: thi gian sng l bn sao ca IP TTL. Gi tr ca n c gim ti mi chng trnh lp nh IP. Thng dng khi ngi iu hnh mng mun che du cu hnh mng bn di khi tm ng t mng bn ngoi. Kiu t bo (Cell mode): Thut ng ny dng khi c mt mng gm cc ATM LSR dng trong mt phng iu khin trao i thng tin VPI/VCI thay v dng bo hiu ATM. Trong kiu t bo, nhn l trng VPI/VCI ca t bo. Sau khi trao i nhn trong mt phng iu khin, mt phng chuyn tip, router cng vo phn tch gi thnh cc t bo
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ATM, dng gi tr VCI/CPI tng ng trao i trong mt phng iu khin v truyn t bo i. Cc ATM LSR pha trong hot ng nh chuyn mch ATM-chng chuyn tip mt t bo da trn VPI/VCI vo v thng tin cng ra tng ng. Cui cng, router cng ra sp xp cc t bo thnh mt gi. Kiu khung PPP hoc Ethernet, gi tr nhn dng giao thc P-ID (hoc Ethernet type) c chn vo mo u khung tng ng thng bo khung l MPLS n hng hay a hng.
Tiu IP D liu

Gi tin IP

Tiu Shim

Tiu IP

VPI/VCI

D liu

Hnh 1.1: Lp lin kt d liu l ATM


Tiu IP D liu

Gi tin IP

Tiu Shim

Tiu IP

D liu

DLCI

D liu

Hnh 1.2: Lp lin kt d liu Frame-relay

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh


Tiu PPP Tiu Shim Tiu lp 3

Tiu gi PPP trn SDH

Nhn

Tiu MAC LAN Tiu MAC Tiu Shim Tiu lp 3

Hnh 1.3: Nhn trong Shim-gia lp 2 v lp 3 1.2.2.2 Ngn xp nhn (Lable stack): L mt tp hp th t cc nhn gn theo gi chuyn ti thng tin v nhiu FEC v v cc LSP tng ng m gi i qua. Ngn xp nhn cho php MPLS h tr nh tuyn phn cp (mt nhn cho EGP v mt nhn cho IGP) v t chc a LSP trong mt trung k LSP. iu ny to iu kin thun li cho ch hot ng ng hm 1.2.2.3 Bng chuyn tip chuyn mch nhn: Cha thng tin v nhn vo, nhn ra, giao din vo, giao din ra. 1.2.2.4 B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn ( LSR-Lable Switching Router ): L thit b chuyn mch hay thit b nh tuyn s dng trong mng MPLS chuyn cc gi tin bng th tc phn phi nhn. C mt s lo LSR nh LSR, LSR-ATM.

1.2.2.5 Lp chuyn tip tng ng ( FEC-Forward Equivalence Class ): FEC l mt nhm cc gi, nhm cc gi ny chia s cng yu cu trong s chuyn tip chng qua mng. Tt c cc gi trong mt nhm nh vy c cung cp cng cch chn ng ti ch. Khc vi chuyn tip IP truyn thng, trong MPLS vic gn mt gi c th vo mt FEC c th ch c thc hin mt ln khi cc gi vo trong mng. MPLS khng ra quyt nh chuyn tip vi mi datagram lp 3 m s dng khi nim FEC. FEC ph thuc vo mt s cc yu t, t nht l ph thuc vo a ch IP v
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c th l ph thuc c vo kiu lu lng trong datagram (thoi, d liu, fax). Sau da trn FEC, nhn c tho thun gia cc LSR ln cn t li vo ti li ra trong mt vng nh tuyn. Mi LSR xy dng mt bng xc nh xem mt gi phi c chuyn tip nh th no. Bng ny c gi l c s thng tin nhn (LIB: Label Information Base), n l t hp cc rng buc FEC vi nhn (FEC-to-label). V nhn li c s dng chuyn tip lu lng qua mng. 1.2.2.6 C s thng tin nhn ( LIB-Lable Information Base ): L bng kt ni trong LSR c cha gi tr nhn/ FEC c gn vo cng ra cng nh thng tin v ng gi d liu truyn tin xc nh phng thc mt gi tin c chuyn tip. 1.2.2.7 Tuyn chuyn mch nhn ( LSP-Lable Switching Path ): L tuyn to ra t u vo n u ra ca mng MPLS dng chuyn tip gi ca mt FEC no s dng c ch hon i nhn. Cc tuyn chuyn mch nhn cha mt chui cc nhn ti tt c cc nt dc theo tuyn t ngun ti ch. LSP c thit lp trc khi truyn d liu hoc trong khi xc nh lung d liu no . Cc nhn c phn phi bng cc giao thc nh LDP, RSVP. Mi gi d liu c ng gi li v mang cc nhn trong sut thi gian di chuyn t ngun ti ch. Chuyn mch d liu tc cao hon ton c th thc hin da theo phng php ny, v cc nhn c di c nh c chn vo phn u ca gi tin hoc t bo v c th c s dng bi phn cng chuyn mch nhanh cc gi gia cc lin kt. 1.2.2.8 Gi tin dn nhn: Gi tin dn nhn l gi tin m nhn c m ha trong . Trong mt s trng hp, nhn nm trong mo u ca gi tin dnh ring cho mc ch dn nhn. Trong cc trng hp khc, nhn c th c t chung vo trong mo u lp mng v lp lin kt d liu min l y c th dng c cho mc ch dn nhn. Cng ngh m ho c s dng phi ph hp vi c thc th m ho v thc th gii m nhn. 1.2.2.9 n nh v phn phi nhn: Trong mng MPLS, quyt nh kt hp mt nhn L c th vi mt FEC F c th l do LSR pha trc thc hin. LSR pha trc sau khi kt hp s thng bo vi LSR pha sau v s kt hp . Do vy, cc nhn

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c LSR pha trc n nh v cc kt hp nhn c phn phi theo hng t LSR pha trc ti LSR pha sau. 1.2.2.10 C cu bo hiu Yu cu nhn: Mt LSR yu cu mt nhn t dng xung ln cn nn n c th lin kt n FEC xc nh. C cu ny c th dng truyn n cc LSR tip theo cho n LER li ra. p ng nhn: p ng mt yu cu nhn, LSR lung xung s gi mt nhn n cc b khi ng lung ln s dng c cu nh x nhn.
p ng nhn V d nhn 2 LSR p ng nhn V d nhn 5

Li vo LER

Yu cu nhn Cho ch C

B nh tuyn B

Yu cu nhn Cho ch C

B nh tuyn C

Hnh 1.4: C cu bo hiu

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1.2.3 Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS


LSR bin

LSR li

Hnh 1.5: M hnh mng MPLS Mng MPLS bao gm nhiu nt c chc nng nh tuyn v chuyn tip ni vi nhau. Mi nt tng ng vi mt thit b LSR ( Lable Switching Router) Mng MPLS c th c chia thnh hai min l min li MPLS ( MPLS core ) v min bin MPLS ( MPLS Edge ).Tng ng vi mi min ta c thit b tng ng: - B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn ( Lable Switching router-LSR ): L thnh phn quan trng nht trong mng MPLS, n l b nh tuyn tc cao trong mng li MPLS tham gia vo vic thit lp ng chuyn mch nhn LSP s dng cc giao thc bo hiu nhn thch hp v chuyn cc gi d liu trong phm vi mng MPLS da trn cc tuyn thit lp bng cc th tc phn phi nhn. - ATM-LSR: L cc tng i ATM c th thc hin cc chc nng nh LSR. Cc ATM-LSR thc hin chc nng nh tuyn gi IP, gn nhn trong mng iu khin v chuyn tip s liu theo c ch chuyn mch t bo ATM trong mng s liu. C th s dng giao thc MPLS trong mng
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iu khin thit lp knh o ATM, chuyn tip t bo n nt ATM-LSR tip theo. Do , cc tng i ATM c th nng cp phn mm thc hin chc nng ca LSR. - B nh tuyn bin nhn ( Lable Edge Router-LER ): L thit b hot ng ti bin ca mng truy nhp v mng MPLS. LER h tr nhiu cng kt ni t nhng mng khc nh Frame-Relay, ATM, Ethernet. N tip nhn hay gi i cc gi tin n hay i t cc mng khc ti mng MPLS sau khi thit lp ng chuyn mch nhn. LER c vai tr rt quan trng trong vic gn v tch nhn khi gi tin i vo hay i ra khi mng MPLS. Cc LER ny c th l b nh tuyn li vo (Ingress Router ) hoc l b nh tuyn li ra (Egress Router ). - B nh tuyn bin li vo nhn gi tin IP, kim tra li lp 3 v t vo ngn xp nhn trc khi gi gi tin vo mng LSR. - B nh tuyn bin li ra nhn gi tin c nhn, loi b nhn kim tra li lp 3 v chuyn tip gi tin IP n nt tip theo. ATM-LSR bin: - Nhn gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn phn vo cc t bo ATM v chuyn tip cc t bo n nt tip theo. Nhn cc t bo ATM t ATM-LSR cn k ti to cc gi t cc t bo ATM v chuyn tip gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn. Phn bit chuyn mch nhn v chuyn mch thng thng C ba im phn bit quan trng gia chuyn mch nhn v nh tuyn gi tin IP thng thng: nh tuyn thng thng Phn tch mo u IP Tn ti mi nt mng H tr unicast v Yu cu nhiu thut multicast ton chuyn tip Thng s nh tuyn Da vo a ch IP Chuyn mch nhn Ch tn ti nt bin Yu cu mt thut ton chuyn tip C th da vo thng s bt k nh cht lng dch v, mng ring o

1.3

Cc giao thc c bn ca MPLS Mng MPLS khng bt buc mt phng thc bo hiu n no cho vic phn phi nhn. Cc giao thc nh tuyn nh BGP ( giao thc cng
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bin ) c th dng giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn RSVP m rng h tr trao i nhn. Nhng IETF cng xc nh mt giao thc mi c bit n nh giao thc phn phi nhn LDP ( Lable Distribution Protocol ) lm r hn v bo hiu v qun l khng gian nhn. S m rng ca giao thc LDP c s cng c xc nh h tr nh tuyn lin vng da trn cc yu cu v QoS. Nhng m rng ny cng c p dng trong vic xc nh giao thc nh tuyn rng buc ( CR-LDP ). Cc giao thc h tr trao i nhn nh sau: LDP: ch ra cc ch IP vo trong cc bng. RSVP, CR-LDP s dng cho k thut lu lng v dnh trc ti nguyn. 1.3.1 Giao thc phn phi nhn ( LDP ) Giao thc phn phi nhn c nhm nghin cu MPLS ca IETF xy dng v ban hnh c tn l RFC 3036. Phin bn mi nht c cng b nm 2001 a ra nhng nh ngha v nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc LDP. Giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong qu trnh gn nhn cho cc gi tin. Giao thc LDP l giao thc iu khin tch bit c cc LSR s dng trao i v iu phi qu trnh gin nhn/ FEC. Giao thc ny l mt tp hp th tc trao i cc nhn bn tin cho php cc LSR s dng gi tr nhn thuc FEC nht nh truyn gi tin. Mt kt ni TCP c thit lp gia cc LSR ng cp m bo cc bn tin LDP c truyn theo ng th t. Cc bn tin LDP c th xut pht t bt k mt LSR (iu khin ng chuyn mch LSP c lp ) hay t LSR bin li ra (iu khin LSP theo lnh ) v chuyn t LSR pha trc n LSR pha sau cn k Vic trao i cc bn tin LDP c th c khi pht bi s xut hin ca lung s liu c bit, bn tin lp d tr RSVP hay cp nht thng tin nh tuyn. Khi mt cp LSR trao i bn tin LDP cho mt FEC nht nh th mt ng chuyn mch LSP t u vo n u ra c thit lp sau khi mi LSR ghp nhn u vo ni u ra tng ng trong LIB ca n. Pht hin LSR ln cn: Th tc LSR ln cn ca LDP chy trn UDP v thc hin nh sau (minh ho hnh v d i ).

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Mt LSR nh k gi bn tin Hello ti tt c giao din ca n. Nhng bn tin ny c gi trn UDP, vi a ch multicast ca tt c router trn mng con. Tt c cc LSR tip nhn bn tin Hello ny trn cng UDP. Nh vy, ti mt thi im no LSR s bit c tt c cc LSR khc m n c kt ni trc tip. Khi LSR nhn bit c a ch ca LSR khc bng c ch ny th n s thit lp kt ni TCP n LSR . Khi phin LDP c thit lp gia 2 LSR. Phin LDP l phin hai chiu c ngha l mi LSR hai u kt ni u c th yu cu v gi rng buc nhn. Trong trng hp cc LSR khng kt ni trc tip trong mt mng con, ngi ta s dng mt c ch b sung nh sau:

LSR nh k gi bn tin Hello trn UDP n a i ch IP c khai bo khi lp cu hnh. Pha nhn bn tin ny c th tr li li bng bn tin HELLO khc truyn ngc li n LSR gi v vic thit lp cc phin LDP c thc hin nh trn.
U D P H e llo

U D P H e llo T C P O pen

In itia liz a tio n IP L a b e l R e q u e st

L a b e l M a p p in g

Hnh 1.7: Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn

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Thng thng trng hp ny hay c p dng khi gia hai LSR c mt ng LSP cho iu khin lu lng v n yu cu phi gi cc gi c nhn qua ng LSP . Cc bn tin LDP Tiu bn tin LDP Mi mt bn tin LDP c gi l n v d liu giao thc PDU, c bt u bng tiu bn tin v sau l cc bn tin LDP nh trnh by trn y. Hnh 2.21 ch ra cc trng chc nng ca tiu LDP v cc trng ny thc hin cc chc nng sau:

Phin bn: S phin bn ca giao thc, hin ti l phin bn 1. di PDU: Tng di ca PDU tnh theo octet, khng tnh trng phin bn v trng di. Nhn dng LDP: Nhn dng khng gian nhn ca LSR gi bn tin ny. Bn octet u tin cha a ch IP c gn cho LSR: nhn dng b nh tuyn. Hai octet cui nhn dng khng gian nhn bn trong LSR.Vi LSR c khng gian nhn ln, trng ny c gi tr bng 0.
0 P h i n 1 5 b n N N h n d n g h n L D d n g P L d i D P P 3 1 D U

. Hnh 1.8: Tiu LDP M ho TLV LDP s dng lc m ho kiu- di-gi tr m ho cc thng tin mang trong bn tin LDP. Nh ch ra trn hnh 2.22, LDP TVL c m ho thnh mt trng 2 octet trong s dng 14 bt xc nh kiu, v 2 bit xc nh cch hnh ng cho trng hp LSR khng nhn ra c kiu; 2 octet tip theo xc nh trng di v trng gi tr c di thay i. Trng kiu qui nh cc m trng gi tr c dch. Trng di xc nh di ca trng gi tr.

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Trng gi tr c th cha cc TLV khc.

0 U F K i u

5 d i

t r

Hnh 1.9: M ho TLV Da trn bn tin nhn c, khi bit U c gi tr 0, LSR s gi thng bo ngc li ni gi v ton b bn tin s c b qua. Nu U c gi tr 1, LSR s b qua bn tin cha bit kiu m khng gi thng bo li pha gi v phn cn li ca bn tin vn c x l nh th l bn tin cha bit kiu ny khng tn ti. Bit F ch c s dng khi bit U = 1 v bn tin LDP cha bn tin cha bit kiu ny c truyn i. Nu bt F bng 0 th bn tin cha bit kiu s khng chuyn i cng bn tin LDP cha n v nu bit F=1 th bn tin cha bit kiu s chuyn i cng bn tin LDP cha n. Cc khun dng v chc nng ca cc TLV. Trong phm vi n ny xin php khng ni n. Khun dng bn tin LDP Tt c cc bn tin LDP c khun dng sau:
U Kiu bn tin ID bn tin Thng s bt buc Thng s tu chn di bn tin

Hnh 1.10: Khun dng cc bn tin LDP

Bit U: bit bn tin cha bit. Nu bit ny bng 1 th n khng th c thng dch bi pha nhn, lc bn tin b b qua m khng c phn hi. Kiu bn tin: Ch ra kiu bn tin l g.

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Chiu di bn tin: Ch ra chiu di ca cc phn nhn dng bn tin, cc thng s bt buc, v cc thng s tu chn. Nhn dng bn tin: l mt s nhn dng duy nht bn tin. Trng ny c th c s dng kt hp cc bn tin Thng bo vi mt bn tin khc. Thng s bt buc, v Thng s tu chn tu thuc vo tng bn tin LDP. V mt nguyn l, mi th xut hin trong bn tin LDP c th c m ho theo TLV, nhng cc c t LDP khng phi lun lun s dng lc TLV. N khng c s dng khi n khng cn thit v s s dng ca n s gy lng ph khng gian. Chng hn khng cn thit phi s dng khun dng TLV nu chiu di ca gi tr l c nh hay kiu ca gi tr c bit v khng phi ch nh mt nhn dng kiu Cc bn tin v chc nng ca bn tin trong LDP: Bao gm 11 bn tin LDP : Bn tin Notification. Bn tin Hello. Bn tin Initialization. Bn tin KeepAlive. Bn tin Address. Bn tin Address Withdraw. Bn tin Lable Mapping. Bn tin Lable Request. Bn tin Lable Abort Request
Bn tin Lable Withdraw.

bn tin Lable Release. 1-Bn tin thng bo ( Notification Message ): Bn tin ny c s dng bi mt LSR thng bo vi cc LSR ng cp khc v trng thi mng l ang trong iu kin bnh thng hay b li. Khi LSR nhn c mt bn tin thng bo v mt li, n s ngt phin truyn ngay lp tc bng vic ng phin kt ni TCP li v xo b cc trng thi lin quan n phin truyn ny. V d v li: hng s khi ng phin LSP, cc bn tin xu. 2-Bn tin Hello: Bn tin ny dng trao i gia 2 LDP ng cp.
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3-Bn tin Initilization: Cc bn tin thuc loi ny c gi khi bt u mt phin LDP gia 2 LSR trao i cc tham s, cc i lng tu chn cho phin. Cc tham s ny bao gm: Ch phn phi nhn Cc gi tr nh thi Phm vi cc nhn s dng trong knh gia 2 LSR C hai LSR u c th gi cc bn tin Initilization v LSR nhn s nhn tr li bng Keep Alive nu cc tham s c chp nhn. Nu c mt tham s no khng c chp nhn th LSR tr li thng bo v phin kt thc. 4-Bn tin Keep Alive: Bn tin ny dng trao i gia cc thc th ng cp gim st tnh n nh v lin tc ca vic h tr ca mt kt ni TCP trong mt phin LDP. Cc bn tin ny c gi nh k khng c bn tin no c gi m bo cho mi thnh phn LDP bit rng thnh phn LDP khc ang hot ng tt. Trong trng hp khng xut hin bn tin Keep Alive hay mt s bn tin khc ca LDP trong khong thi gian nht nh th LSR s cho rng kt ni b hng v phin truyn s b dng 5-Bn tin Address: Bn tin ny c gi i bi mt LSR ti cc LDP ng cp thng bo cc a ch giao din ca n. Mt LSR khc nhn bn tin mang a ch ny duy tr c s d liu nh x trng nhn dng v cc a ch chng tip theo gia cc LDP ng cp. 6-Bn tin Address Withdraw ( Bn tin hu b a ch ): Bn tin ny dng xo a ch c thng bo trc . Danh sch a ch LTV cha mt lot cc a ch ang c yu cu cn xo b bi LSR. 7-Bn tin Lable Mapping ( Bn tin nh x nhn ): Cc bn tin nh x nhn c s dng qung b lin kt gia FEC ( tin t a ch ) v nhn gia cc thc th ng cp. Bn tin ny c s dng khi c s thay i trong bng nh tuyn ( thay i tin t a ch ) hay thay i trong cu hnh LSR tm dng vic chuyn nhn cc gi trong FEC . Nu mt LSR phn phi mt nh x i vi mt FEC ti nhiu thc th ng cp LDP, vn cc b c t ra l liu n nh x mt nhn n ti FEC ny v phn phi s nh x ny ti tt c cc thc th LDP ng cp ca n hay s dng cc nh x khc nhau cho tng LDP khc nhau. 8-Bn tin Lable Withdraw: Bn tin ny c nhim v ngc li so vi bn tin nh x a ch, c s dng xo b cc kin kt gia cc FEC
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v cc nhn va thc hin. Bn tin ny c gi ti mt thc th ng cp thng bo rng nt khng cn tip tc s dng cc lin kt nhn-FEC m LSR gi trc 9-Bn tin Lable Request: Bn tin yu cu nhn c LSR s dng yu cu mt LDP ng cp cung cp mt s kt hp nhn ( Binding ) cho mt FEC. Mt LSR c th pht bn tin yu cu nhn di bt k mt trong nhng trng hp sau: - LSR nhn ra mt FEC mi thng qua bng chuyn tip v Hop tip theo l mt thc th LDP ng cp nhng LSR khng c nh x t Hop tip theo cho FEC cho. - C s thay i FEC ca chng tip theo nhng LSR khng c s nh x t chng tip theo i vi FEC cho. - LSR nhn mt yu cu nhn i vi mt FEC t mt LDP ng cp ln (Upstream LDP peer ) FEC Hop tip theo l mt LDP ng cp v LSR khng nh x nhn cho chng tip theo 10-Bn tin gii phng nhn ( Lable Release Message): Bn tin ny c LSR s dng khi nhn c chuyn i nhn m n khng cn thit na. LSR phi pht bn tin gii phng nhn ny di bt k mt trong nhng trng hp sau. - LSR gi nh x nhn khng thuc Hop tip theo i vi mt FEC c nh x v LSR c cu hnh duy tr cho qu trnh hot ng. - LSR nhn mt nh x nhn t mt LSR m chng khng phi l ca Hop tip theo i vi mt FEC v LSR c cu hnh cho vic duy tr qu trnh hot ng ch hot ng gn nhn theo yu cu t pha trc, LSR s yu cu gn nhn t LSR ln cn pha trc s dng bn tin Lable Request. Nu bn tin Lable Request cn phi hu b trc khi dc chp nhn ( do nt k tip trong FEC yu cu thay i ) th LSR yu cu s loi b yu cu nh bn tin Lable Request Abort. 11-Bn tin Lable Abort Request ( Bn tin b d nhn ): Bn tin ny c s dng lo b cc bn tin yu cu nhn bt thng Cc ch phn phi nhn: Chng ta bit mt s ch hot ng trong vic phn phi nhn nh: khng yu cu pha trc, theo yu cu pha trc, iu khin LSP theo lnh hay t lp, duy tr tin tin hay lu gi. Cc ch ny c tho thun bi LSR trong qu trnh khi to phin LDP.
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Khi LSR hot ng ch duy tr lu tr, n s gi nhng gi tr nhn/ FEC m n cn ti thi im hin ti. Cc chuyn i khc c gii phng. Ngc li trong ch duy tr tin tin, LSR gi tt c cc chuyn i m n c thng bo ngay c nhng chuyn i khng c s dng ti thi im hin ti, Hot ng ca ch ny nh sau: - LSR1 gi lin kt nhn vo mt s FEC n mt trong cc LSR k tip ( LSR2 ) cho FEC . - LSR2 nhn thy LSR1 hin ti khng phi l nt tip theo i vi FEC v n khng th s dng lin kt ny cho mc ch chuyn tip ti thi im hin ti nhng n vn lu gi lin kt ny li. - Ti thi im no sau ny c s xut hin thay i nh tuyn v LSR1 tr thnh nt tip theo ca LSR2 i vi FEC th LSR2 s cp nht thng tin trong bng nh tuyn tng ng v c th chuyn tip cc gi c nhn n LSR1 trn tuyn mi. Vic ny c thc hi mt cch t ng m khng cn n bo hiu LDP hay qu trnh phn b nhn mi. u im ln nht ca ch duy tr tin tin l kh nng phn ng nhanh hn khi c s thay i nh tuyn. Nhc im ln nht l lng ph b nh v nhn. iu ny c bit quan trng v c nh hng rt ln i vi nhng thit b lu tr bng nh tuyn trong phn cng nh ATM-LSR. Thng thng ch duy tr lu gi nhn c s dng cho cc ATMLSR. 1.3.2 Giao thc phn phi nhn da trn rng buc ( CR-LDP ). Giao thc phn phi nhn nh tuyn da trn rng buc CR-LDP ( Constraint-Based Routing-LDP ) c s dng iu khin cng bc LDP. Giao thc ny l phn m rng ca LDP cho qu trnh nh tuyn cng bc ca LSP. Cng ging nh LDP, n s dng cc phin TCP gia cc LSR ng cp gi cc bn tin phn phi nhn. hiu r hn v nh tuyn cng bc da trn rng buc, ta xt vic nh tuyn vi mt mng IP truyn thng. Mt mng c th c xem nh l mt tp hp cc h thng t tr AS, trong vic nh tuyn mi AS tun theo giao thc nh tuyn trong min. Vic nh tuyn gia cc AS li tun theo nh tuyn lin min. Cc giao thc nh tuyn trong min c th l RIP, OSPF, IS-IS cn giao thc nh tuyn lin min ang c s dng l BGP. Trong phm vi mt h thng t tr, c ch xc nh tuyn trong cc giao thc nh tuyn trong min thng tun theo thut ton ti u. V d: Trong giao thc nh tuyn RIP th l s ti u v s nt
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mng trn tuyn ng m gi tin i t ngun ti ch. C nhiu tuyn ng i t ngun n mt ch nhng mi mt tuyn ng li c s nt, bng thng, tr khc nhau. Do vy vi RIP th thut ton BellmanFord c s dng xc nh sao cho ng i qua t nt nht. i vi nh tuyn cng bc, ta c th xem mt mng nh l mt tp hp cc nt mng v mt tp hp cc kt ni ga cc nt mng . Mi knh s c cc c im ring. kt ni gia hai nt bt k th cn phi tho mn mt s yu cu ( rng buc ) v coi cc rng buc ny nh l cc c im ca cc knh. Ch c nt u tin trong cp ng vai tr khi to ng kt ni mi bit c im ny. Nhim v ca nh tuyn cng bc l tnh ton xc nh ng kt ni t nt ny n nt kia sao cho tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc c t ra vi lin kt , cc iu kin rng buc c th l mt trong nhiu cc tiu ch. V d nh: S nt t nht, ng i ngn nht, bng thng rng nht, dung lng ng truyn, thi gian thcTuy nhin vic ti u ho theo cc tiu ch khc nhau khng th c p ng mt cch ng thi. Mt thut ton ch ti u theo mt tiu ch no ch khng th p ng mt thi im nhiu tiu ch v hai yu cu hai tiu ch c th xung t nhau, chng hn: ng i ngn nht s nt t nht cha chc bng thng rng nht. Do vy thut ton nh tuyn rng buc cng khng th p ng ti u theo tiu ch. N ch thc hin ti u theo mt tiu ch no ng thi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc c t ra. Khi xc nh c mt ng kt ni th nh tuyn cng bc s thc hin thit lp, duy tr v chuyn trng thi kt ni dc theo cc knh ph hp nht trn tuyn ng. Ngoi cc iu kin rng buc c t ra i vi knh, cn c cc iu kin c t ra i vi vic qun tr. Chng hn nh qun tr mun ngn khng cho mt lu lng no i qua mt s knh nht nh trong mng c xc nh bi mt s c im no . Do , thut ton nh tuyn m nh qun tr phi thc hin l tm cc knh xc nh m n cho qua lu lng trn, ng thi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc khc na. nh tuyn cng bc cn c th l s kt hp ca c hai iu kin rng buc l qun l v c im knh mt cch ng thi ch khng phi ch tng iu kin ring r. V d, nh tuyn cng bc phi tm ra mt ng va phi c rng bng tn nht nh, va phi loi tr ra mt s knh c c im nht nh.
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im khc bit chnh gia nh tuyn IP truyn thng vi nh tuyn cng bc l: thut ton nh tuyn IP truyn thng ch tm ra mt ng ti u ng vi duy nht mt tiu ch c t ra, trong khi thut ton nh tuyn cng bc va tm ra mt tuyn ng ti u theo mt tiu ch no ng thi phi tho mn mt s iu kin rng buc nht nh.Chnh v iu ny m thut ton nh tuyn cng bc trong mng MPLS c th p ng c yu cu trong khi cc mng s dng cc thut ton tm ng khc khng th c c, k c giao thc nh tuyn IP. lm c iu ny, c rt nhiu nguyn nhn. Trong , nguyn nhn chnh l do nh tuyn cng bc yu cu ng i phi c tnh ton v xc nh t pha ngun. Cc ngun khc nhau c cc rng buc khc nhau i vi mt tuyn ng trn cng mt ch. Cc iu kin rng buc ng vi b nh tuyn ca mt ngun c th ch c bit n bi b nh tuyn m thi, khng mt b nh tuyn no khc trn mng c bit v cc iu kin ny. Ngc li trong b nh tuyn IP th ng i c xc nh v tnh ton bi tt c cc b nh tuyn phn tn ton mng. Mt nguyn nhn khc l kh nng nh tuyn hin ( hoc ngun ) v cc ngun khc nhau c th tnh ton xc nh cc ng khc nhau n cng mt ch. V vy, ch da vo thng tin v ch l khng c th xc nh ng truyn cc gi tin. Mt nguyn nhn na l i vi phng php nh tuyn cng bc th vic tnh ton xc nh ng phi tnh n cc thng tin v c im tng ng ca tng knh trong mng. i vi cc phng php IP n gin khng h tr kh nng ny. V d giao thc nh tuyn truyn thng da vo trng thi knh ( nh OSPF)ch truyn duy nht cc thng tin bn, ri ca tng knh v di ca tng knh, cc giao thc nh tuyn vector khonh cch nh RIP th ch truyn o cc thng tin a ch nt tip theo v khong cch. 1.3.3. Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn RSVP ( Resource Reservation Protolcol ). RSVP l giao thc bo hiu ng vai tr quan trng trong mng MPLS, c s dng dnh trc ti nguyn cho mt phin truyn trong mng Internet. N cho php cc ng dng thng bo v cc yu cu cht lng dch v ( QoS ) vi mng v mng s p ng bng cc thng bo thnh cng hay tht bi.
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RSVP c dng cung cp kh nng vn hnh c bo v bng vic t trc ti nguyn cn thit ti mi my tham gia vo h tr lung lu lng v d nh truyn hnh hi ngh, i vi cc giao thc IP l giao thc khng kt ni n khng h tr vic thit lp cc ng cho lung lu lng, trong khi RSVP c thit k thit lp cc ng truyn cng nh bo v gii thng trn cc ng truyn. RSVP yu cu cc my nhn lu lng v yu cu cht lng dch v QoS cho lung d liu. Cc ng dng ti my nhn phi gii quyt cc thuc tnh QoS s c truyn ti RSVP. Sau khi phn tch cc yu cu ny, RSVP c s dng gi cc bn tin ti tt c cc nt nm trn tuyn ng ca gi tin. RVSP thao tc vi tt c t tc n hng v a hng, vic lin mng thi im hin ti l cc giao thc a hng. RSVP mang cc thng tin sau: - Thng tin phn loi nh n m cc lung lu lng vi cc yu cu QoS c th c th c nhn bit trong mng. Thng tin ny bao gm a ch IP pha gi v pha nhn, s cng UDP. - Ch tiu k thut ca lung lu lng v cc yu cu QoS, theo khun dng TRpec v Rspec bao gm cc dch v yu cu ( c bo m hoc ti iu khin ). RSVP phi mang cc thng tin trn t cc my ch ti tt c cc tng i chuyn mch v cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn t b pht ti b tu. V vy, tt c cc thnh phn mng phi tam gia vo vic m bo cc yu cu QoS ca ng dng. RSVP s dng bn tin trao i ti nguyn dnh trc qua mng cho lung IP. RSVP l giao thc ring mc IP. N s dng cc gi d liu IP hoc UDP phn bin ca mng thng tin gia cc LSR ng cp. N khng i hi duy tr phin TCP, nhng sau phin ny n phi x l nhng mt mt ca cc bn tin iu khin. RSVP mang thng tin trong c hai loi c bn l PATH v RESV xc nh lung v cc QoS cho lung. Cc yu cu ny ch ra dc v c bo v, v d tc nh cho lung d liu, kch thc cm. Mt bn tin PATH bao gi cng c gi ti mt a ch gi l a ch phin, n c th l a ch n hng hoc a hng. Chng ta thng xem phin i din cho mt ng dng n, n c xc nhn bng mt a ch ch v s cng ch s dng ring cho ng dng.
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Khi b thu nhn bn tin PATH n c th gi bn tin RESV tr li cho b pht, bn tin RESV dng xc nhn phin c cha thng tin v s cng dnh ring v Rspec xc nhn mc QoS m b thu yu cu. N cng bao gm mt s thng tin xem xt nhng b pht no c php s dng ti nguyn ang c cp pht. Khi cng dnh ring c thit lp, cc b nh tuyn nm gia b pht v b thu s xc nh cc gi tin thuc cng dnh ring no nh kim tra nm trng trong mo u IP v giao thc truyn ti l: a ch ngun, s cng ngun, s giao thc ( UDP,TCP.), a ch ch, s cng ch. Tp hp cc gi tin c nhn dng theo cch ny c gi l lung dnh ring. Cc thng tin trong lung dnh ring c khng ch m bo khng pht sinh lu lng vt qu so vi thng bo trong Tspec v c xp vo hng i ph hp theo yu cu QoS. Mt c im na cn phi nhc n i vi giao thc ny l RSVP l giao thc trng thi mm. N khc vi cc lo giao thc khc l trng thi s t ng ht hiu lc sau mt thi gian tr khi n c lm ti theo nh k, tc l RSVP s lin tc gi cc bn tin PATH v RESV lm ti cc cng dnh ring. Nu chng khng c gi i trong mt khong thi gian no y th cng dnh ring t ng hu b. Qu trnh MPLS h tr RSVP RSVP c s dng trong mng MPLS h tr cht lng dch v QoS v iu khin lu lng. MPLS s dng RSVP cho php cc LSR da vo vic phn loi gi tin theo nhn ch khng phi theo mo u IP nhn bit cc gi tin thuc cc lung ca cng dnh ring. V vy, cn phi c s kt hp phn phi gia cc lung v cc nhn cho cc lung c cc cng dnh ring RSVP. Ta c th xem mt tp cc gi tin to bi cng dnh ring RSVP nh l mt trng hp ring ca FEC. Chng ta nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi l i tng Lable c mang trong bn tin RSVP RESV. Khi mt LSR mun gi bn tin RESV cho mt lung RSVP mi, LSR cp pht mt nhn t trong tp nhn ri, ti mt li vo trong LFIB ca n vi nhn li vo c t cho nhn cp pht v gi bn tin RESV c cha nhn ny. Khi nhn c bn tin RESV cha i tng Lable, mt LSR thit lp LFIB ca n vi nhn ny l nhn li ra. Sau , n cp pht mt nhn s dng nh l nhn li vo v chn n vo bn tin RESV trc khi n gi i .
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Khi cc bn tin RESV truyn n cc LSR ngc, LSP c thit lp dc theo tuyn ng. Khi cc nhn c cung cp trong cc bn tin RESV, mi LSR c th d dng kt hp cc ti nguyn QoS ph hp vi LSR. Vic thit lp cho mt lung dnh ring RSVP l ch c b nh tuyn u tin trong LSP lin quan ti vic xem xt cc gi tin thuc lung dnh ring no. iu ny cho php RSVP c p dng trong mi trng MPLS theo cch m n khng th thc hin c trong mng IP truyn thng. Theo quy c th cc cng dnh ring RSVP ch c th to nhng lung ng dng ring l, tc l nhng lung ng dng c xc nh nh vo 5 trng mo u nh cp trn. Tuy nhin cng c th t cu hnh ca b nh tuyn chn cc gi da trn mt s tiu chun v d nh tuyn c th xem xt cc tin t ng vi cng mt ch v t chng vo LSP. V vy, thay v c mt LSP cho mi lung ng dng ring, mt LSP c th cung cp QoS cho nhiu lung lu lng. Do vy, c tnh ny c th p dng cho kh nng cung cp (ng ng ) vi bng thng m bo yu cu cho mt ng thu bao thay v phi s dng nhiu ng thu bao ring c c cng gii thng nh trn. iu ny rt hu dng vi cc cng ty ln mun c nhiu kt ni vi cc cng ty khc m ch s dg mt ng thu bao nhm gim bt s phc tp trong vic qun tr cng nh iu khin lu lng, y mt lu lng ln cn c gi dc theo cc LSP vi bng thng ti lu lng. h tr mt s cch s dng tng cng ca RSVP, MPLS nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi c th mang trong bn tin PATH l i tng Lable Request. Bn tin ny cp trong phn cc bn tin LDP. Kh nng m rng ca RSVP Mt trong nhng iu chc chn v RSVP l n c th chu tn tht v kh nng m rng mt mc no y. Trong thc t, c tnh ny khng chnh xc hon ton. RSVP khi u c thit k h tr d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring v y l nhim v vi nhng thch thc v kh nng m rng vn c. Ni chung thut ng ny c s dng ch gii hn s dng ti nguyn tng nhanh nh th no khi mng tng trng. V d, trong mng IP quy m ln nh mng xng sng nh cung cp dch v Internet, chng ta c th quan tm n vic liu mt bng nh tuyn s chim b nh ca b nh tuyn ln n mc no, kh nng b x l v bng thng lin kt.

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V th, bng nh tuyn tng chm hn nhiu so vi s ngi s dng kt ni vo mng. D tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring r rng l nh hng xu n kh nng m rng. Chng ta c th cho rng mi ngi s dng s d tr ti nguyn ti mt vi tc trung bnh, v th s ti nguyn d tr c to ra qua mng ln c kh nng tng nhanh bng s ngi s dng ca mng. iu ny s dn n chi ph ln nu mi b nh tuyn phi lu tr trng thi v tin trnh mt vi bn tin cho mi ti nguyn d tr cho lung ng dng ring. Ni tm li, s chnh xc hn nu ni rng mc d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng l km hn so vi RSVP. S khc nhau ny c bit quan trng khi chng ta xem xt rng RSVP khng nhng i hi cho vic d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring m cn d tr ti nguyn cho lu lng tng hp 1.3.4. Giao thc MPLS-BGP MPLS m rng chc nng cho BGP mang cc nhn trong giao thc cng bin BGP, MPLS-BGP cho php b nh tuyn chy BGP phn phi nhn ti cc b nh tuyn bin khc mt cch trc tip thng qua bn tin cp nht ca BGP. Tip cn ny m bo cho qu trnh phn phi nhn v cc thng tin nh tuyn n nh v gim bt tiu ca bn tin iu khin x l. 1.4 Hot ng ca MPLS: gi tin truyn qua mng MPLS, mng s thc hin cc bc sau: To v phn phi nhn. To bng cho mi bng nh tuyn. To ng chuyn mch nhn. Gn nhn da trn tra cu bng. Truyn gi tin. Ngun gi cc d liu ca n ti ch. Trong min MPLS, khng phi tt c cc lu lng t mt ngun cn thit truyn qua cng mt tuyn ng. Da trn cc c tnh lu lng, cc LSP khc nhau c th c to ra cho cc gi tin vi cc yu cu khc nhau t pha ngun. To v phn phi nhn: Trc khi d liu truyn, cc b nh tuyn quyt nh to ra lin kt nhn ti cc FEC c th v to bng

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Trong LDP cc b nh tuyn lung xung bt u phn phi nhn v gn nhn vo FEC. Cc c tnh lin quan n lu lng v dung lng MPLS c iu chnh thng qua s dng LDP. Giao thc bo hiu nn dng giao thc vn chuyn c th t v m bo tin cy To bng: Khi chp nhn cc lin kt nhn mi LSR to ra bng c s d liu nhn ( LIB ). Ni dung ca cc bng ny xc nh mi lin h gia nhn v FEC, nh x gia cng vo v bng nhn vo n cng ra v bng nhn ra. Cc LIB c cp nht khi c s thay i hoc iu chnh nhn. To ng chuyn mch nhn: Cc LSP c to ra theo chiu ngc vi cc mc trong cc LIB. Gn nhn da trn bng tra cu: B nh tuyn u tin LER1 trong hnh trn s dng bng LIB tm ng tip theo yu cu nhn cho FEC c th Cc b nh tuyn tip theo s dng bng tm ng tip theo. Khi gi tin n LSR li ra LER4 hnh trn nhn c loi b v gi tin c truyn ti ch. Chuyn tip gi tin: Hnh trn m t ng i ca gi tin khi n c truyn t ngun ti ch. Ln u tin ca yu cu nhn, cc gi tin khng c nhn ti LER1. Trong mng IP, n s tm a ch di nht tm cc bc tip theo. LSR1 l bc tip theo ca LER1. LER1 s khi pht cc yu cu nhn ti LSR1. Yu cu ny s c pht trn ton mng. LDP s xc nh ng dn o m bo QoS. Mi b nh tuyn trung gian LS2 v LS3 s nhn gi tin gn nhn thay i nhn v truyn i. Gi tin n LER4, loi b nhn v gi ra khi min hot ng ca MPLS v phn pht ti ch. ng truyn gi tin c ch ra trong hnh trn. C hai ch hot ng i vi MPLS: ch hot ng khung ( Frame-mode) v ch t bo ( Cell-mode ).

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1.4.1 Ch hot ng khung. Ch hot ng ny xut hin khi s dng MPLS trong mi trng cc thit b nh tuyn thun iu khin cc gi tin IP im-im. Cc gi tin dn nhn c chuyn tip trn c s khung lp 2. C ch hot ng ca MPLS trong ch ny c m t hnh di y.

Bc1: nhn gi tin IP ti LSR bin Bc2: Kim tra lp 3 gn nhn, nhuyn gi IP n LSR li 1 LSR bin 1 LSR li 2

Bc5:Kim tra nhn xo b nhn i chuyn gi IP n ch

LSR bin 4

LSR bin 2

LSR li 1

LSR li 3

Bc3:Kim tra nhn chuyn i nhn chuyn gi IP n LSR li 3 LSR bin 3

Bc4: Kim tra nhn chuyn i nhn chuyn gi IP n LSR bin 4

Hnh 1.11: Mng MPLS trong hot ng ch khung Cc hot ng trong mng s liu: Qu trnh chuyn tip mt gi IP qua mng MPLS c thc hin qua mt bc c bn sau y: LSR bin li vo nhn gi IP, phn loi gi vo nhm chuyn tip tng ng FEC v gn nhn cho gi vi ngn xp nhn tng ng vi FEC xc nh. Trong trng hp nh tuyn mt a ch ch, FEC s tng ng vi mng con ch v vic phn li gi s n gin l vic so snh bng nh tuyn lp 3 truyn thng. LSR li nhn gi tin c nhn v s dng bng chuyn tip nhn thay i nhn li vo ca gi n vi nhn li ra tng ng vi cng FEC ( trong trng hp mng con l mng IP ).

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Khi LSR bin li ra ca vng FEC ny nhn c gi tin c nhn, n loi b nhn v thc hin chuyn tip gi tin IP theo bn nh tuyn lp 3 truyn thng. Mo u nhn MPLS.

Nhn MPLS c chn trc s liu cn gn nhn ch hot ng khung. Tc l nhn MPLS c chn vo gia mo u lp 2 v ni dung thng tin lp 3 ca khung lp 2, v tr ca nhn MPLS trong khung lp 2 c th hin trong hnh v. Do nhn MPLS c chn vo v tr nh vy nn b nh tuyn gi thng tin phi c phng tin g thng bo cho b inh tuyn nhn bit rng gi ang c gi i khng phi l gi IP thun m l gi c nhn. n gin chc nng ny, mt s dng giao thc mi c nh ngha trong lp 2 nh sau: Trong mi trng LAN cc gi c nhn truyn ti gi lp 3 hng hay a hng s dng gi tr 8847H v 8848H cho dng Ethernet. Cc gi tr ny c s dng trc tip trn phng tin Ethernet ( bao gm c Ethernet v Gigabit Ethernet ). Trn knh im-im s dng giao thc PPP, s dng giao thc mi c gi ny MPLS ( giao thc iu khin ). Cc gi MPLS c nh du bi gi tr 8281H trong trng giao thc PPP Cc gi MPLS truyn qua chuyn dch khung DLCI gia mt cp thit b nh tuyn c nh du bi nhn dng giao thc SNAP ca chuyn dng khung, tip theo mo u SNAP vi gi tr 8847H cho Ethernet nh trong mng LAN.
Chuyn mch nhn trong ch khung:

Ta s xt qu trnh chuyn i nhn nh hnh trn trong mng MPLS sau khi nhn c mt gi tin IP. Sau khi nhn khung PPP lp 2 t b nh tuyn bin s 1, LSR li lp tc nhn dng gi nhn c l gi c nhn da trn gi tr trng giao thc PPP v thc hin vic kim tra nhn trong c s d liu chuyn tip nhn. Kt qu nhn 30 c thay bng nhn ra 28 tng ng vi vic gi tin s chuyn tip n LSR3 li 3. Ti li 3, nhn c kim tra, nhn s 28 c thay bng hn s 37 v cng ra c xc nh. Gi tin c chuyn tip n LSR bin s 4

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Ti LSR bin s 4, nhn 37 b loi b v vic kim tra a ch IP a ch lp 3 c thc hin, gi tin c chuyn tip n b nh tuyn ngoi mng MPLS. Qu trnh chuyn i nhn c thc hin trong cc LSR li da trn bng nh tuyn nhn. Bng nh tuyn ny phi c cp nht y m bo mi LSR trong mng MPLS c y thng tin v tt c cc hng chuyn tip. Qui trnh ny xy ra trc khi thng tin c truyn trong mng v c gi l qu trnh lin kt nhn ( Lable Binding ).
Qu trnh lin kt v lan truyn nhn.

Khi xut hin mt LSR mi trong mng MPLS hay bt u khi to mng MPLS, cc thnh vin LSR trong mng MPLS phi c lin lc vi nhau trong qu trnh khai bo qua bn tin Hello. Sau khi bn tin ny c gi, mt phin giao dch gia hai LSR c thc hin th tc trao i l LDP. Sau khi c s d liu nhn LIB c to ra trong LSR, nhn c gn cho mi FEC m LSR nhn bit c. i vi nh tuyn n hng, FEC tng ng vi tin t trong bng nh tuyn IP v bn chuyn i cha trong LIB. Vy nhn c gn trong mi tin t trong bng nh tuyn ny c cp nht lin tc khi xut hin nhng tuyn trong min mi. Do LSR gn nhn cho mi tin t IP trong bng nh tuyn ca chng ngay sau khi tin t xut hin trong bng nh tuyn v nhn l phng tin c LSR khc s dng, khi gi gi tin c nhn ny c gi l gn nhn iu khin c lp vi qu trnh phn phi ngc khng yu cu. Vic qung b cc nhn c qung b ngay dn tt c cc b nh tuyn thng qua phin LDP. 1.4.2 Ch hot ng t bo MPLS. trin khai MPLS qua mng ATM cn phi gii quyt mt s vn sau. Hin ti khng tn ti c ch no cho vic trao i trc tip cc gi IP gia cc nt MPLS ln cn qua giao din ATM. Tt c cc s liu trao i qua giao din ATM phi c thc hin qua knh o ATM. Cc tng i ATM khng th thc hin vic kim tra nhn ha a ch lp 3. Kh nng duy nht ca ATM l chuyn i VC u vo sang VC u ra ca giao din ra. thc thi MPLS qua ATM th cn mt s c ch sau.

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Cc gi tin IP trong mng iu khin khng th trao i trc tip qua giao din ATM. Mt knh o VC phi c thit lp gia 2 nt ln cn trao i gi thng tin iu khin. Nhn trn cng trong ngn xp nhn phi c s dng cho cc gi tr VPI/VCI. Cc th tc gn v phn phi nhn c sa i m bo cc tng i ATM khng phi kim tra a ch lp 3. Trong phn ny mt s thut ng sau c s dng. Giao din ATM iu khin chuyn mch nhn ( LC-ATM ): l giao din ATM trong tng i hoc trong b nh tuyn m gi tr VPI/VCI c gn bng th tc iu khin MPLS (LDP). ATM-LSR l tng i ATM s dng giao thc MPLS trong mng iu khin v thc hin chuyn tip MPLS gia cc giao din LC-ATM trong mng s liu bng chuyn mch t bo truyn thng. LSR theo khung l LSR chuyn tip ton b cc khung gia cc giao din ca n. B nh tuyn truyn thng l LSR kiu ny. Min ATM-LSR l tp hp cc ATM-LSR kt ni vi nhau qua cc giao din LC-ATM ATM-LSR bin l LSR theo khung c t nht mt giao din LC-ATM. Kt ni trong mng iu khin qua giao din LC-ATM Cu trc MPLS i hi lin kt thun IP gia cc mng iu khin ca cc LSR ln cn trao i lin kt nhn cng nh cc gi iu khin khc. ch hot ng MPLS khung yu cu ny c p ng mt cch n gin bi cc thit b nh tuyn c th gi nhn cc gi IP v cc gi c nhn qua bt k giao din ch khung no d LAN hay Wan. Cn tng i ATM khng c kh nng . cung cp kt ni IP thun gia cc ATMLSR c hai cch thc sau. Thng qua kt ni ngoi bng nh kt ni Ethernet gia cc tng i Thng qua knh o qun l trong bng tng t cch m giao thc ATM Fourum thc hin nh sau: Knh o iu khin MPLS VC thng thng s dng gi tr VPI/VCI l 0/32 v bt buc phi s dng phng php ng gi LLC/SNAP cho cc gi IP theo tiu chun RFC1483. Khi trin khai MPLS trong tng i ATM ( ATM-LSR ) phn

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iu khin trung tm ca tng i ATM phi h tr thm bo hiu MPLS v giao thc thit lp knh VC. Chuyn tip cc gi c nhn qua min ATM-LSR: Vic chuyn tip cc gi nhn qua min ATM-LSR c thc hin trc tip qua cc bc sau: ATM-LSR bin li vo nhn gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn thc hin kim tra c s d liu chuyn tip LIB hay c s cuyn tip d liu chuyn tip nhn c phn chia thnh t bo ATM v gi n ATM-LSR tip theo. Gi tr VPI/VCI c gn vo mo u tng t bo. Cc nt ATM-LSR chuyn mch t bo theo gi tr VPI/VCI trong mo u ca t bo theo c ch chuyn mch ATM truyn thng. C ch phn b v phn phi nhn phi bo m vic chuyn i gi tr VPI/VCI trong min v ngoi min l chnh xc. ATM-LSR ti li ra ti to li cc gi c nhn t cc t bo, thc hin vic kim tra nhn v chuyn tip t bo n LSR tip theo. Vic kim tra nhn da vo gi tr VPI/VCI ca t bo n m khng da vo nhn trn nh ngn xp trong mo u nhn MPLS do ATM-LSR gia cc bin ca min ATM-LSR ch thay i gi tr VPI/VCI m khng thay i nhn bn trong cc t bo ATM. Trong cn ch rng nhn nh ca ngn xp c lp li gi tr bang 0 bi ATMLSR bin li vo trc khi gi c nhn c phn chia thnh t bo. Phn b v phn phi nhn trong min ATM-LSR.

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Bc6: Gi tr VPI/VCI ni vng c gn bi ATM -LSR1 co LSR bin1 tr li cho yu cu

Bc1: Gi yu cu nhn X n nt k

Bc3: ATM-LSR3 gi yu cu nhn X n LSR 4 ATM-LSR li 2

LSR bin 1

LSR bin 4

LSR bin 2

ATM-LSR li 1 Bc2: ATM-LSR1 gi yu cu nhn X n ATM-LSR3

ATM-LSR li 3

Bc4: LSR bin4 gn gi tr VPI/VCI v gi tr li ATM-LSR3

LSR bin 3

Bc5: ATM-LSR3 gn gi tr VPI/VCI ni vng chuyn i Vo sang VPI/VCI ra v gi VPI/VCI mi n ATM-LSR1

Hnh 1.12: Phn b nhn trong mng ATM-MPLS Vic phn b v phn phi nhn trong ch hot ng ny c th s dng c ch ging nh trong ch hot ng khung. Tuy nhin nu trin khai nh vy th s dn ti cc hn ch bi mi nhn c gn qua giao din LC-ATM tng ng vi mt ATM VC. V s lng VC qua giao din ATM l hn ch nn cn gii hn s lng VC phn b qua LC-ATM mc thp nht. m bo c iu ny, cc LSR pha sau s m nhn trch nhim yu cu phn b v phn phi nhn qua giao din LC-ATM. LSR pha sau cn nhn gi tin n nt tip theo phi yu cu nhn t LSR pha trc n. Thng thng cc nhn c yu cu da trn ni dung bng nh tuyn m khng da vo lung d liu iu i hi nhn cho mi ch trong phm vi ca nt k tip qua giao din LC-ATM. LSR pha trc c th n gin phn b nhn v tr li yu cu cho LSR pha sau vi bn tin tr li tng ng. Trong mt s trng hp, LSR pha trc c th phi c kh nng kim tra a ch lp 3 ( nu n
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khng cn nhn pha trc yu cu cho ch ). i vi tng i ATM, yu cu nh vy s khng c tr li bi ch khi no n c nhn c phn b cho ch pha trc th n mi tr li yu cu. Nu ATM-LSR khng c nhn pha trc p ng yu cu ca LSR pha sau th n s yu cu nhn t LSR pha trc n v ch tr li khi nhn c nhn t LSR pha trc n. Hp nht VC. Hp nht VC tc l gn cng VC cho cc gi n ch. y l mt vn quan trng cn gii quyt i vi tng i ATM trong mng MPLS. ti u ho qu trnh gn nhn ATM-LSR c th s dng li nhn cho cc gi cg ch. Khi cc gi xut pht t cc ngun khc nhau ( cc LSR khc nhau ) nu s dng chung mt gi tr VC cho ch th s khng c kh nng phn bit gi no thuc lung no v LSR pha trc khng c kh nng ti to li ng gi t cc t bo. trnh trng hp ny, ATMLSR phi yu cu LSR pha trc n phn b nhn mi mi khi LSR pha sau n i hi nhn n bt c ch no ngay c trong trng hp n c nhn phn b cho ch . Qu trnh gi k tip cc t bo ra knh VC nh vy c gi l hp nht knh o VC. Chc nng hp nht knh o VC ny gim ti a s lng nhn phn b trong min ATM-LSR. 1.4.3 Hot ng ca MPLS khung trong mng ATM-LSR. Do vic chuyn i cng ngh mng tc ng n rt nhiu mt trong mng khai thc t nhng vn ghp ni mng cng nh quan nim v cch thc vn hnh khai thc. Qu trnh chuyn i sang mng MPLS c th c thc hin theo nhiu cch: hoc l thc hin qua mt s giai on nht nh hoc trin khai ng lot t u. MPLS c hai ch hot ng c bn l ch hot ng khung v ch hot ng t bo. i vi h tng c s nh Frame-Relay hoc ATM-PVC th rt kh trin khai c hot ng t bo ca MPLS, thng thng th ch khung s c s dng trong mi trng nh vy thc hin kt ni MPLS xuyn sut mng. Trong mt s iu kin nht nh nh trong giai on chuyn dch sang mng IP+ATM=( MPLS ) hoc chuyn mch ATM chuyn tip khng h tr MPLS th cn thit phi s dng ch hot ng khung qua mng

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ATM-PVC. Cu hnh ny phi ph hp, tuy nhin n cng gp kh khn khi s dng IP qua ATM trong ch chuyn dch ( do s lng ln cc VC ).

Knh ATM PVC

VPI 01

VPI 08 LSR bin2

LSR bin1

Chuyn mch ATM

Hnh 1.13: Kt ni MPLS qua mng ATM-PVC Kt ni gia hai LSR c thit lp bng knh PVC xuyn sut. Cc phin LDP c thc hin thng qua kt ni PVC ny. Qu trnh phn phi nhn c thc hin theo kiu phn phi nhn chiu i khng yu cu. Vic s dng MPLS qua mng ATM-PVC yu cu ng gi bng ALL5SNAP trn knh PVC . Vic s dng ch khung qua mng ATM-PVC l rt cn thit trong qu trnh chuyn dch sang mng MPLS. 1.5 Cc u im ca MPLS - H tr mm do v linh hot cho tt c cc dch v trn mt mng n. - n gin ho cu hnh mng so vi gii php IP trn nn ATM. - H tr tt c cc cng c iu khin lu lng mng m bao gm c nh tuyn lin tip v chuyn mch bo v. - H tr a kt ni v a giao thc. - Kh nng m rng chc nng iu khin v chuyn tip. Mi phn c th pht trin khng cn n cc phn khc, to s pht trin khng cn n cc phn khc, to s pht trin mng d dng hn, gi thp hn v t li hn. - H tr cho tt c cc loi lu lng - nh tuyn gin tip: mt thuc tnh ca MPLS l n h tr cho nh tuyn gin tip. Cc ng chuyn mch nhn nh tuyn gin tip c hiu
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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

qu hn nh tuyn ngun trong IP. Cung cp cc chc nng cho k thut iu khin lu lng. Cc ng nh tuyn gin tip cng nh cc ng hm o c th mang loi lu lng bt k nh SNA, IPX.. - nh tuyn lin vng: chuyn mch nhn cung cp kh nng tch hon thin hn gia nh tuyn lin vng v trong vng. Nhng kh nng ci tin ny ca qu trnh x l nh tuyn v thc t to li cc tuyn bit c yu cu bn trong mt vng. Li ch ny ca ISP v nhng ti tin c th c mt lng ln lu lng truyn thng. 1.6 ng dng ca MPLS Mng MPLS c nhiu ng dng trong c 3 ng dng ch yu - Tch hp IP v ATM: do chuyn mch nhn c th thc hin c bi cc chuyn mch ATM, MPLS l mt phng php tch hp cc dch v IP trc tip trn chuyn mch ATM. S tch hp cn phi t nh tuyn IP v phn mm LDP trc tip trn chuyn mch ATM. Do tch hp hon ton IP trn mch ATM, MPLS cho php chuyn mch ATM h tr ti u cc dch v IP nh IP a hng (multicast), lp dch v IP, RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol-giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn h tr QoS) v mng ring o. - Dch v mng ring o IP (VPN): VPN thit lp c s h tng cho mng Intranet v Extranet l mng IP m cc cng ty kinh doanh s thit lp trn c s ton b cu trc kinh doanh ca h. Dch v VPN l dch v Intranet v Etranet m cc mng c cung cp bi nh cung cp dch v n nhiu t chc khch hng. MPLS kt hp vi giao thc cng bin ( BGP ) cho php mt nh cung cp mng h tr hng nghn VPN ca khch hng. Nh vy, mng MPLS cng vi BGP to ra cch thc cung cp dch v VPN trn c ATM v cc thit b da trn gi tin rt linh hot, d m rng quy m v d qun l. Thm ch trn cc mng ca nh cung cp nh, kh nng linh hot v d qun l ca cc dch v MPLS+BGP VPN l u im ch yu. - iu khin lu lng v inh tuyn IP hin: Vn quan trng trong cc mng IP lin tc l thiu kh nng linh hot cc lung lu lng IP s dng hiu qu di thng mng c sn. Do vy, thiu ht ny lin quan kh nng gi cc lung c chn sn v d nh chn cc ng trung k c m bo cho cc lp dch v ring. MPLS s dng cc ng chuyn mch nhn (LSPs). Kh nng iu khin lu lng IP ca MPLS s

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

dng thit lp c bit cc LSP iu khin mt cch linh hot cc lung lu lng IP

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

CHNG 2 GII THIU CU TRC MNG NG TRC CA VIT NAM

2.1 Cu trc vt l mng vin thng. 2.1.1 Khi nim v mng vin thng. Mng vin thng l phng tin truyn a thng tin t u pht ti u thu. Mng c nhim v cung cp cc dch v cho khch hng. Mng vin thng bao gm cc thnh phn chnh: Thit b chuyn mch, thit b truyn dn, mi trng truyn v thit b u cui.

Hnh 2.1: Cc thnh phn chnh ca mng vin thng - Thit b chuyn mch gm c tng i ni ht v tng i qu giang. Cc thu bao c ni vo cc tng i ni ht v tng i ni ht c ni vo tng i qu giang. Nh cc thit b chuyn mch m ng truyn dn c dng chung v mng c th s dng kinh t. - Thit b truyn dn dng ni thit b u cui vi tng i, hay gia cc tng i thc hin vic truyn cc tn hiu. Thit b truyn dn chia lm hai loi: thit b truyn dn pha thu bao v thit b truyn dn cp quang. Thit b truyn dn pha thu bao dng mi trng thng l cp kim loi, tuy nhin c mt s trng hp mi trng truyn l cp quang hoc v tuyn. - Mi trng truyn dn bao gm truyn hu tuyn v v tuyn. Truyn hu tuyn bao gm cp kim loi, cp quang. Truyn v tuyn bao gm vi ba ,v tinh.

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Mng vin thng cng c th c nh ngha nh sau: Mng vin thng l mt h thng gm cc nt chuyn mch c ni vi nhau bng cc ng truyn dn to thnh cc cp mng khc nhau. Mng vin thng hin nay c chia thnh nhiu loi. l mng mc li, mng sao, mng tng hp, mng vng kn. Cc loi mng ny c u im v nhc im khc nhau ph hp vi cc vng a l khc nhau. Mng vin thng PSTN hin nay c phn cp nh sau
Tng i quc t

Tng i chuyn tip min

Tng i ni ht

Truy nhp thu bao

Hinh 2.2: Cu trc mng PSTN phn cp Trong mng hin nay gm 3 nt: - Nt cp 1: Trung tm chuyn mch quc t - Nt cp 2: Trung tm chuyn mch ng di. - Nt cp 3: Trung tm chuyn mch ni ht. 2.1.2. Cc c im ca mng vin thng hin nay. Cc mng vin thng hin ti c c im chung l tn ti mt cch ring l, ng vi mi loi dch v thng tin li c t nht mt loi mng vin thng ring bit phc v dch v . - Mng Telex: Dng gi cc bc in dng k t c m ho c tc truyn rt thp.

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

- Mng in thoi cng cng ( POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service ): y thng tin ting ni c s ho v chuyn mch h thng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN. - Mng truyn s liu: Bao gm cc mng chuyn mch gi trao i d liu gia cc my tnh da trn giao thc ca X.25. - Cc tn hiu truyn hnh bng sng v tuyn, cp - Trong phm vi c quan, s liu gia cc my tnh c trao i thng qua mng cc b LAN ( Local Area Network ) l cc mng Ethernet, Token Bus ,Token Ring Qu kh l bn p cho tng lai. Do vy trc khi tm hiu cng ngh vin thng mi ta cn rt kinh nghim t lch s pht trin ca mng: - Xt v gc dch v th gm cc mng sau : Mng in thoi c nh, mng in thoi di ng v mng truyn s liu. - Xt v gc k thut bao gm cc mng chuyn mch, mng truyn dn, mng truy nhp, mng bo hiu v mng ng b. 2.1.3 Mng vin thng cng cng (PSTN) Xt v mt chc nng cung cp dch v, cu trc mng vin thng VNPT c phn thnh hai lp: chuyn ti dch v v truy nhp dch v. - Lp chuyn ti dch v s bao gm cc tng i quc t, tng i chuyn tip, tng i ni ht. - Lp truy nhp dch v gm phn thu bao ca Host, cc v tinh, thit b truy nhp thu bao quang, cp ng, v tuyn. 2.1.3.1 H thng chuyn mch Vi cu trc mng hin nay th mng chuyn mch ca VNPT chia lm 3 cp da trn cc tng i chuyn tip quc t, chuyn tip quc gia, ni tnh v ni ht. Cc tng i chuyn tip quc t c t ti ba trung tm l H Ni, Tp HCM v Nng, cc tnh thnh khc nhau c cc cu trc mng khc nhau vi nhiu tng i Host. Cc tng i hin c ph bin trn mng vin thng Vit Nam l: cc tng i VKX lin doanh gia Vit Nam v Hn Quc, A1000E10 ca Alcatel, NEAX61 ca NEC, AXE10 ca Ericsson, EWSD ca Siemens. Cc cng ngh chuyn mch ang s dng l chuyn mch knh cho mng PSTN, X.25 cho mng Frame relay v ATM cho truyn s liu. V mt cu trc mng, mng vin thng Vit Nam hin ti c th chia thnh 3 cp

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Tng i quc t

G atew ay Q uc t

G ateway Q uc t

Toll Tng i quc gia quc gia (lin tnh)

Toll quc gia

Tng i ni tnh

Host

H ost

Hnh 2.3: Cu trc mng Vin thng PSTN Vit Nam hin ti - Cp quc t: bao gm cc tng i Gateway, cc ng truyn dn quc t nh: cc trm v tinh mt t, cc h thng cp quang bin TVH, SE-ME-WE3, tuyn p quang CSC. - Cp quc gia: bao gm cc tng i chuyn tip Transit quc gia, cc tuyn truyn dn ng trc. - Cp ni tnh: Gm cc tng i Host, cc v tinh, truy nhp, tng i c lp, thit b truy nhp thu bao, cc tuyn truyn dn ni tnh. S sau l s kt ni mng chuyn mch. Da theo s liu thu bao theo vng a l, mng VNPT c t chc thnh 5 vng lu lng phn nh nh sau: - Vng 1: Khu vc min Bc kt ni cc tng i thuc 27 tnh thuc khu vc tnh min Bc (t H Giang n H Tnh, tr H Ni). - Vng 2: Thuc khu vc H Ni. - Vng 3: Khu vc min Trung, cc tnh t Qung Bnh tr vo n Khnh Ho, akLak. - Vng 4: Khu vc T.P H Ch Minh.

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

- Vng 5: 18 Tnh ng bng Nam b v ng bng Sng Cu Long ( cc tnh cn li). Mi vng lu lng c chia thnh cc khu vc chuyn tip (Transit Area), vic chuyn tip lu lng vo, ra v trong cc khu vc do cc nt chuyn mch quc gia (National Transit Switch) m trch. S lng c th cc nt chuyn mch quc gia trong mt vng lu lng tu thuc vo s lng thu bao ca tng vng lu lng. Lu lng i v ca cc vng no c nh tuyn qua cc tng i Transit quc gia ca vng qua cng Gateway i quc t. S dng phng thc nh tuyn Nhn chung mng chuyn mch hin nay cn nhiu cp v vic iu khin b phn tn trong mng (iu khin nm ti cc tng i). Mng chuyn mch quc gia Mng chuyn mch quc gia bao gm 09 tng i Transit quc gia TOLL/VTN nh sau: - Tng i AXE 10 local 6 ( BYB 202): 03 h thng vi nng lc x l ti a l 600.000 BHCA v dung lng ti a 24.000 trung k c lp t ti H Ni, T.P H Ch Minh, Nng. - Tng i AXE 10 local 7.2 ( BYB 501): 04 h thng vi nng lc x l ti a l 1.500.000 BHCA v dung lng ti a 60.000 trung k c lp t ti H Ni, Nng, Tp H Ch Minh v Cn Th. - Tng i loi TDX 10 lp t ti H Ni (160 E1) v Tp H Ch Minh (272 E1). Tuy nhin hin nay do cht lng dch v khng tt, khng m bo c yu cu ca khch hng nn ang trong k hoch s chuyn sang ch d phng cho mng chuyn mch lin tnh. - 07 tng i AXE u c tnh nng STP lm im chuyn tip bo hiu cho h thng bo hiu C7 ca ton mng v tnh nng SCCP phc v cho dch v Roaming cho mng di ng. Mi vng c trang b t nht 2 tng i Transit, cc tng i Transit trong vng c u cho khc phc s mt cn bng lu lng. Lu lng qua tuyn trc tip ny ch chim 5% tng lu lng Transit ca tng i. 2.1.3.2 H thng truyn dn Mng truyn dn ca Vit Nam hin nay s dng c v tuyn v hu tuyn. V v tuyn c cc h thng viba s dng cng ngh PDH bn cnh cn c cc ng truyn qua v tinh i quc t. Trong truyn dn hu tuyn th ph bin l cp quang tuy vy vn c nhng on dng cc loi
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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

cp khc. V truyn dn quang th Vit Nam ang khai thc cc thit b ca nhiu hng khc nhau cho tng h thng. Cc h thng truyn dn quang ch yu s dng cng ngh SDH vi cc cp ghp khc nhau nh STM4, STM-16 hay STM-64 cho cc tuyn lin tnh cn trong tnh c th l STM1 hay STM-4 ty vo nhu cu dung lng thc t v tng lai. Tuyn trc Bc-Nam s dng mng Ring cp quang 2,5 Gbit/s (trn cp quang quc l 1A v cp quang 500 KV) v tuyn viba PDH 140 Mbit/s Mng truyn dn cp quang lin tnh pht trin c ti hu ht cc trung tm tnh, vi: - Tng chiu di tuyn cp quang quc l 1A l 1.935 km. - Tng chiu di cc tuyn cp quang lin tnh l 5.090 Km. Nng dung lng mch trc Backbone ln 20 Gbit/s s dng cng ngh DWDM a vo s dng vo thng 10/2003. Hon chnh 13 mng Ring lin tnh theo cu trc c duyt, nng cp cc mng Ring ln c dung lng p ng nhu cu x hi ( 2.5 Gbit/s- 5 Gbit/s). Nng cp Ring trung k lin i ti H Ni, T.P H Ch Minh v Nng ln 5- 10 Gbit/s. Va qua VNPT a vo khai thc h thng truyn dn Backbone Bc Nam 20Gbit/s da trn cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng DWDM s dng thit b ca Nortel 2.1.3.3 H thng truy nhp Hin ti trn mng c nhiu loi truy nhp khc nhau tu thuc vo tng loi mng vi tng loi dch v. Trong di ng, truyn hnh ta c truy nhp v tuyn vi nhiu cng ngh khc nhau nh MMDS, LMDS, GPRS, CDMA, FDAMGn y cn c thm truy nhp WLAN cng c trin khai ti mt s a im. V truy nhp hu tuyn ta c truy nhp bng thoi truyn thng, ADSL, truy nhp qua ng cp truyn hnh, qua ng in lc v cng ngh mong i s l truy nhp quang ti tng h gia nh 2.1.3.4 H thng bo hiu Hin ti mng vin thng Vit Nam s dng c hai loi bo hiu l R2 v SS7. Mng bo hiu SS7 v ang thay th dn bo hiu R2 trong tng cng on bo hiu, tuy vy vi mng thoi th bo hiu R2MFC vn c s dng ph bin. H thng SS7 c trin khai vi mt cp STP (im chuyn giao bo hiu) ti ba trung tm H Ni,Tp HCM v Nng.

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Hnh 2.4: H thng bo hiu Vit nam 2.1.3.5 H thng qun l Vic khai thc v bo dng mng vin thng tp chung ( TMN) c nhiu u im cho cc nh khai thc mng. Bi nhiu chc nng c th c qun l mt cch hiu qu t mt hoc vi im trn mng iu ny c ngha l ch cn t nhn vin cho iu hnh mng li . Xu hng ti y s l t ng ho cho cc chc nng qun l mng. Vit Nam ang trong qu trnh xy dng mng qun l vin thng tp trung TMN. Cn hin ti th mi h thng mng ring c qun l bi cc phng thc qun l khc nhau. 2.1.3.6 H thng ng b Mng ng b Vit Nam hot ng theo nguyn tc ch t c d phng, bao gm 4 cp v hai loi giao din chuyn giao tn hiu ng b ch yu l 2MHz v 2Mb/s. Mng c phn chia lm 3 vng c lp, mi vng c hai ng h mu, mt ng h chnh (Cesium) v mt ng h d phng (GSP). Cc ng h c t ti trung tm ca 3 vng v c iu khin theo nguyn tc ch t. Cc tng i quc t v tng i Toll trong mi vng c iu khin bi ng h ch theo phng thc ch t. Cc tng i Tandem v Host ti cc tnh hot ng bm theo cc tng i Toll v cc tng i v tinh ng b theo tng i Host m n u ti, tt c u theo phng thc ch t. 2.2 Cu trc mng vin thng NGN 2.2.1. nh ngha mng NGN

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

Cho ti nay cc t chc v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii rt quan tm n NGN nhng vn cha c mt nh ngha r rng. Do vy ta ch c th tm nh ngha NGN nh sau: NGN l mng c h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai cc dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, l s hi t gia thoi v d liu, gia c nh v di ng. 2.2.2. Cc yu t thc y tin ti NGN 2.2.2.1. Ci thin chi ph u t Cng ngh chuyn mch knh truyn thng chm thay i so vi s thay i nhanh chng ca cng ngh my tnh. Cc chuyn mch knh chim phn ln trn mng PSTN nhng khng thc s ti u cho truyn s liu. Trong khi nhu cu trao i thng tin gia mng PSTN v mng Internet ngy cng tng, do xut hin nhu cu xy dng h thng chuyn mch tng lai da trn cng ngh hon ton gi cho c thoi v d liu. Cc giao din m ti mi lp cho php la chn linh hot nh cung cp thit b. Truyn ti da trn gi cho php phn b bng tn hiu qu v linh hot. Nh gip nh khai thc qun l d dng, nng cp mt cch hiu qu phn mm ti cc nt iu khin, d dng trin khai dch v mi m khng cn thay i mng qua gip gim chi ph vn hnh khai thc mng. 2.2.2.2. Xu th i mi vin thng Trong vng hi nhp kinh t th gii xu th hi nhp cng din ra mnh m trong vin thng. Cnh tranh ngy cng khc lit khi th gii buc cc chnh ph phi m ca th trng vin thng. thch ng vi xu th , p ng c kh nng cung cp loi hnh dch v cho nhiu dng khch hng th yu cu h thng mng phi c m cao c th kt ni nhiu nh cung cp dch v vi nhau. Vi yu cu ny cc mng c khng th thc hin c trong khi NGN thch ng rt tt vi i hi ny nh mt cu trc m hp l. 2.2.2.3. Cc doanh thu mi D bo hin nay cho thy doanh thu t thoi gn nh t mc bo ho v khng th tng thm c na. Trong khi doanh thu t cc dch v gi tr gia tng ngy cng tng, xu hng s vt doanh thu t thoi trong tng lai gn. Trc vin cnh nhiu nh cung cp, khai thc vin thng khng th b qua c hi tng doanh thu ny. Do vy vic pht trin mt mng mi p ng tt c cc dch v gia tng hin c cng nh
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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

nhng nhu cu dch v mi trong tng lai l khng th khng lm. Tt c cc iu trn cho thy s pht trin mng vin thng ln NGN l mt iu thit yu v cn thit cho cuc sng cng nh s tn ti ca cc nh khai thc cung cp dch v vin thng. Yu cu pht trin NGN Trc ht cc nh khai thc dch v vin thng phi xem xt mng TDM m h tn rt nhiu chi ph u t quyt nh xy dng mt NGN xp chng hay thm ch thay th cc tng i truyn thng bng nhng chuyn mch cng ngh mi sau ny. Cc nh khai thc cn tm ra phng php cung cp cc dch v mi cho khch hng ca h trong thi k qu trc khi cc mng ca h chuyn sang NGN mt cch y . Vn ln nht cn nhc ti l phi h tr dch v thoi qua IP v hng lot cc dch v gi tr gia tng khc trong khi c ch best effort phn phi cc gi tin khng cn p ng na. Mt thch thc cn bn na l m rng mng IP theo nhiu hng, nhiu kh nng cung cp dch v trong khi vn gi c u th ca mng IP. Mt kha cnh khc l quy m mng phi ln cung cp cho khch hng nhm chng li hin tng tc nghn c chai trong lu lng ca mng li. Vic tng s lng cc giao din m cng lm tng nguy c mt an ninh mng. Do m bo an ton thng tin mng chng li s xm nhp tri php t bn ngoi tr thnh vn sng cn ca cc nh khai thc mng. Vn cng khng km phn quan trng l cc gii php qun l thch hp cho NGN trong mi trng a nh khai thc, a dch v. Mc d cn mt nhiu thi gian v cng sc trc khi h thng qun l mng c trin khai nhng mc tiu ny vn c gi tr v s mang li nhiu li ch nh gim chi ph khai thc, dch v a dng. Mt vn quan trng na khi trin khai NGN l cc cng ngh p dng trn mng li phi sn sng: * V cng ngh truyn dn: phi pht trin cc cng ngh truyn dn quang SDH, WDM hay DWDM vi kh nng hot ng mm do linh hot, thun tin cho khai thc v iu hnh qun l. * V cng ngh truy nhp: phi a dng ho cc dng truy nhp c v tuyn v hu tuyn. Tch cc pht trin v hon thin em vo ng dng rng ri cc cng ngh truy nhp tin tin nh truy nhp quang, truy nhp

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

WLAN, truy nhp bng rng, c bit l trin khai rng truy nhp ADSL v h thng di ng 3G. * V cng ngh chuyn mch: Mc d c nhiu tranh lun v vic la chn cng ngh no cho NGN trong cc cng ngh IP, ATM, IP/MPLS, song c th ni chuyn mch gi s l s la chn trong NGN. Gn y vi s hon thin v nghin cu cng ngh MPLS s ha hn l cng ngh chuyn mch ch o trong NGN. Bn cnh mt cng ngh khc l chuyn mch quang cng ang c nghin cu, hy vng s sm c ng dng trong thc t. 2.2.4. Cu trc chc nng NGN c cu trc chc nng nh sau: - Lp kt ni (truy nhp v truyn dn/ phn li) - Lp trung gian hay lp truyn thng (Media) - Lp iu khin - Lp qun l Trong cc lp trn, lp iu khin hin nay rt phc tp vi nhiu loi giao thc, kh nng tng thch gia cc thit b ca cc hng l vn ang c cc nh khai thc quan tm.

Lp ng dng

Lp iu khin

Lp qun l

Lp truy nhp

Lp chuyn ti

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc mng NGN cp dch v

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Hnh 2.6 : Cu trc chc nng ca NGN

* Lp truyn dn v truy nhp Phn truyn dn - Ti lp vt l truyn dn quang vi cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng DWDM s c s dng. - Cng ngh IP/MPLS c th c s dng truyn dn trn mng li m bo QoS. - Cc router c s dng bin mng li khi lu lng ln v ngc li khi lu lng nh Switch router c th m nhn lun chc nng nhng router ny. - Lp truyn dn c kh nng h tr cc mc QoS khc nhau cho cng mt dch v v cho cc dch v khc nhau. Lp ng dng s a ra cc yu cu v nng lc truyn ti v n s thc hin yu cu . Phn truy nhp - Vi truy nhp hu tuyn: c cp ng v xDSL ang c s dng. Tuy vy trong tng lai truyn dn quang DWDM, PON s dn chim u th, th trng ca xDSL v modem s dn thu nh li. - Vi truy nhp v tuyn ta c h thng thng tin di ng GSM hoc CDMA, truy nhp v tuyn c nh, v tinh. Trong tng li cc h thng

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truy nhp khng dy s pht trin rt nhanh nh truy nhp hng ngoi, bluetooth hay WLAN. - Lp truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni gia thu bao u cui v mng ng trc qua cng giao tip thch hp. NGN cng cung cp hu ht cc truy nhp chun cng nh khng chun ca cc thit b u cui nh: truy nhp a dch v, in thoi IP, my tnh PC, tng i ni b PBX * Lp truyn thng * Gm cc thit b l cc cng phng tin nh: - Cng truy nhp: AG kt ni gia mng li v mng truy nhp, RG kt ni mng li v mng thu bao nh. - Cng giao tip: TG kt ni mng li vi mng PSTN/ISDN, WG kt ni mng li vi mng di ng. Lp ny chu trch nhim chuyn i cc loi mi trng (FR, PSTN, LAN, v tuyn) sang mi trng truyn dn gi c p dng trn mng li v ngc li. * Lp iu khin Lp iu khin bao gm cc h thng iu khin m thnh phn chnh l Softswitch cn gi l MGC hay Call agent, c kt ni vi cc thnh phn khc nhau nh: SGW MS FS AS kt ni cuc gi hay qun l a ch IP. Lp iu khin c nhim v kt ni cung cp cc dch v truyn thng sut t u cui n u cui vi bt k loi giao thc v bo hiu no. Cc chc nng qun l v chm sc khch hng cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin. Nh c giao din m nn c s tch bit gia dch v v truyn dn, iu ny cho php cc dch v mi c a vo nhanh chng v d dng. * Lp ng dng Lp ny gm cc nt thc thi dch v ( thc cht l cc server dch v) cung cp cc ng dng cho khch hng thng qua lp truyn ti. Lp ng dng cung cp cc dch v c bng thng khc nhau v nhiu mc . Mt s dch v s thc hin lm ch vic iu khin logic ca chng v truy nhp trc tip ti lp ng dng, cn mt s dch v khc s thc hin iu khin t lp iu khin. Lp ng dng kt ni vi lp iu khin thng qua giao din m API. Nh m cc nh cung cp dch v c th pht trin cc ng dng v trin khai nhanh chng trn dch v mng. * Lp qun l
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Lp qun l l mt lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp t kt ni cho n lp ng dng. Ti lp qun l ngi ta c th khai thc hoc xy dng mng gim st vin thng TMN nh mt mng ring theo di v iu phi cc thnh phn mng vin thng ang hot ng. 2.2.5. Cc thnh phn ca NGN
NGN l mng th h k tip khng phi l mng hon ton mi do vy khi xy dng NGN ta cn ch vn kt ni NGN vi mng hin hnh v tn dng cc thit b vin thng hin c trn mng nhm t c hiu qu khai thc ti a. Cu trc vt l ca NGN

Hnh 2.7: Cu trc vt l ca NGN

2.2.5.1. Cc thnh phn ca NGN Trong NGN c rt nhiu thnh phn song y ch trnh by nhng thnh phn th hin r nt s tin tin ca NGN so vi mng vin thng truyn thng c th l: - Media Gateway (MG) - Media Gateway Controller (MGC)
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Signalling Gateway (SG) Media Server (MS) Application Server (Feature Server)

Hnh 2.8: Cc thnh phn ca NGN

* Media Gateway MG Media Gateway cung cp phng tin truyn ti thng tin thoi, d liu, fax v video gia mng gi IP v mng PSTN. Trong mng PSTN, d liu thoi c mang trn knh DSo. truyn d liu ny vo mng gi mu thoi cn c nn li v ng gi. c bit y ngi ta s dng mt b x l tn hiu s DSP. * Media Gateway Controller MGC MGC l n v chnh ca Softswitch. N a ra cc quy lut x l cuc gi, cn MG v SG s thc hin cc quy lut . N iu khin SG thit lp v kt thc cuc gi. Ngoi ra n cn giao tip vi h thng OS v BSS MGC chnh l cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc nhau, nh PSTN, SS7, mng IP. N chu trch nhim qun l lu lng thoi v d liu qua cc mng khc nhau. N cng c gi l Call Server do chc nng iu khin cc bn tin.

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Mt MGC kt hp vi MG, SG to thnh mt cu hnh ti thiu cho Softswitch. * Signalling Gateway SG Signalling Gateway to ra chic cu ni gia mng bo hiu SS7 vi mng IP di s iu khin ca Media Gateway Controller (MGC). SG lm cho Softswitch ging nh mt nt SS7 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Nhim v ca SG l x l thng tin bo hiu. * Media Server Media Server l thnh phn la chn ca Softswitch, c s dng x l cc thng tin c bit. Mt Media Server phi h tr phn cng DSP vi hiu sut cao nht. * Application Server /Feature Server Server c tnh l mt server mc ng dng cha mt lot dch v ca doanh nghip. Chnh v vy n cn c gi l Server ng dng thng mi. V hu ht cc server ny t qun l cc dch v v truyn thng qua mng IP nn chng khng rng buc nhiu vi Softswitch v vic phn chia hay nhm cc thnh phn ng dng. Cc dch v cng thm c th trc thuc Call Agent hoc cng c th thc hin mt cch c lp. Nhng ng dng ny giao tip vi Call Agent thng qua cc giao thc nh SIP, H323 Chng thng c lp vi phn cng nhng li yu cu truy nhp c s d liu c trng. Feature Server xc nh tnh hp l v h tr cc thng s dch v thng thng cho h thng a chuyn mch. 2.2.5.2 Nguyn tc t chc cu trc mng th h sau - NGN Phn vng lu lng: Cu trc mng th h sau c xy dng da trn phn b thu bao theo vng a l, khng t chc theo a bn hnh chnh m c phn theo vng lu lng. Trong mt vng c nhiu khu vc v trong mt khu vc c th gm mt hoc nhiu tnh, thnh. S lng cc tnh thnh trong mt khu vc tu thuc vo s lng thu bao ca cc tnh thnh . Cn c vo phn b thu bao, mng NGN ca VNPT c phn thnh 5 vng lu lng nh sau: - Vng 1: Cc tnh pha bc tr H ni, H Ty, Bc Ninh, Bc Giang v Hng Yn. - Vng 2: H Ni, H Ty, Bc Ninh, Bc Giang v Hng Yn. - Vng 3: Cc tnh Min Trung v Ty Nguyn. - Vng 4: TP H Ch Minh.
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Vng 5: Cc tnh pha Nam tr TP H Ch Minh. T chc lp ng dng v dch v - Lp ng dng v dch v c t chc thnh mt cp cho ton mng. - S lng nt ng dng v dch v ph thuc vo lu lng dch v cng nh s lng v loi hnh dch v. Giai on u ton mng s c 2 node t ti H Ni v Tp H Ch Minh. T chc lp iu khin Lp iu khin c t chc thnh mt cp chung cho ton mng thy v c 4 cp nh hin nay gm: quc t, lin tnh, tn m v ni ht) v c phn theo khu vc qun l c 3 node iu khin t ti H Ni, TP H Ch Minh v Nng. -

Service Nodes

Service Nodes

(Lp iu khin)

Min Trung (N)

Min Nam

Min Bc

TP.HCM

HN

(Lp chuyn ti) Hnh 2.9: M hnh kt ni lp iu khin v ng dng mng NGN

Lp iu khin c chc nng iu khin lp chuyn ti v lp truy nhp cung cp cc dch v ca mng NGN, gm nhiu module nh module iu khin kt ni IP/MPLS, iu khin nh tuyn kt ni IP, iu khin kt ni cuc gi thoi bo hiu s 7...
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T chc lp chuyn ti. Lp chuyn ti: c t chc thnh 2 cp: cp ng trc quc gia v cp vng) - Cp ng trc quc gia: gm ton b cc note chuyn mch ng trc (li IP/MPLS) v cc tuyn truyn dn kt ni cc nt trc. Cp ng trc c t chc gm 2 plane A v B, kt ni cho gia cc node ng trc tc l 2,5 Gbit/s nhm m bo an ton mng, c nhim v chuyn mch cuc gi gia cc khu vc. - Cp vng: Gm ton b cc note chuyn mch (IP/MPLS) cng nh cc b tp trung ni vng m bo vic chuyn mch cuc gi trong ni vng v sang vng khch. Kt ni t node vng ln node trc 155 Mbit/s. - Cc node chuyn mch IP/MPLS trong vng phi c tnh nng tch hp lu lng mng XDSL (kt ni vi cc BRAS hoc tch hp tnh nng BRAS trong mng (xDSL) hoc cung cp dch v cho cc thu bao bng rng xDSL. B tp trung IP/MPLS c th dng thu gom lu lng knh kt ni ln cc node vng. T chc lp truy nhp - Lp truy nhp: gm cc node truy nhp hu tuyn v v tuyn, cc node ny c t chc khng theo a gii hnh chnh - Cc node truy nhp ca cc vng lu lng ch c kt ni n node chuyn mch ng trc ca vng . - Cc thit b truy nhp th h mi phi c kh nng cung cp cng dch v truyn thng PSTN cng nh cc dch v mi bao gm POTS, VOIP, IP/MPLS, FR, X25, IP2 VPN, xDSL.. 2.2.6 Kt ni mng NGN vi mng truyn thng 2.2.6.1 Kt ni vi mng PSTN Kt ni mng NGN vi mng PSTN hin ti c thc hin thng qua thit b ghp lung trung k (trunking Gateway TGW) mc n x E1 v bo hiu s 7, khng s dng bo hiu R2 cho kt ni ny. Cc thit b Trunking Gateway c tnh nng chuyn tip cc cuc gi thoi tiu chun 64 Kbit/s hoc cc cuc gi thoi VoIP qua mng NGN. im kt ni c thc hin ti tng i Host hoc tandem ni ht v tng i Gateway quc t nhm gim cp chuyn mch, gim chi ph u t cho truyn dn v chuyn mch ca mng PSTN v tn dng nng lc chuyn mch ca mng NGN. i vi mng PSTN, mng NGN s ng vai
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tr nh h tng i Transit quc gia ca mng PSTN cho cc dch v thoi tiu chun 64 Kbit/s. Cc cuc thoi lin tnh tiu chun 64 kbit/s lin tnh hoc quc t t cc tng i Host PSTN s c chuyn tip qua mng ti cc Host khc hoc ti tng i Gateway quc t. Cu hnh kt ni nh m t hnh v sau
PSTN NGN

Lp ng dng Tng i quc t

Lp ng dng

Lp iu khin

Lp iu khin

Tng i chuyn tip min

TGW

IP/MPLS

Cp trc

Lp truyn ti Tng i ni ht TGW IP/ MPLS Cp vng

Truy nhp thu bao

Lp truy nhp thu bao

Acess

Hnh 2.10: Cu hnh kt ni NGN PSTN

2.2.6.2 Kt ni vi mng Internet Kt ni mng NGN vi trung tm mng Internet ISP v IAP c thc hin ti node IP/MPLS quc gia thng qua giao tip mc LAN. Tc cng LAN khng thp hp tc theo chun Gigabit Ethernet (GE). Nu trung tm mng khng cng v tr t node IP/MPLS quc gia th s dng kt ni LAN qua cng GBE im kt ni mng NGN vi cc node truy nhp mng internet POP c lp cho thu bao truy nhp gin tip c thc hin ti node IP/MPLS ni vng th s dng kt ni LAN qua cng quang.

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i vi cc v tinh ca tng i Host PSTN c tch hp tnh nng truy nhp Internet POP th im kt ni mng NGN vi cc node truy nhp Internet POP tch hp c thc hin ti b tp trung IP/MPLS hoc ti cc node IP/MPLS ni vng thng qua giao tip IP/MPLS tu thuc vo v tr ca POP tch hp. Tc cng IP/MPLS ph thuc vo quy m ca POP nhng t nht l n x E1. Cu hnh kt ni c m t nh (hnh 2.20) 2.2.6.3 Kt ni vi mng FR, X25 hin ti Cc mng FR, X25 hin nay s thuc lp truy nhp ca mng NGN, do vy s c kt ni vi mng NGN qua b tp trung IP/MPLS.
PSTN NGN

Lp ng dng Tng i quc t

Lp ng dng

Lp iu khin

Lp iu khin

Tng i chuyn tip min

Cp trc

IP/MPLS

Internet

Lp truyn ti Tng i ni ht IP/ MPLS

POP

Cp vng

Truy nhp thu bao

Lp truy nhp thu bao

Acess

Hnh 2.11: Cu hnh kt ni NGN Internet PSTN

2.2.7 L trnh chuyn i 2.2.7.1 Yu cu : Phng n chuyn i dn cu trc mng hin ti sang mng NGN n nm 2010 cn bo m mt s yu cu c bn sau y: - Khng nh hng n vic cung cp dch v vin thng trn mng.

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- Vic chuyn i phi thc hin theo nhu cu ca th trng tng bc. - Thc hin c phn ti lu lng Internet ra khi cc tng i Host c s thu bao truy nhp Internet chim ti 20%. - Bo m cung cp dch v truy nhp bng rng ti cc thnh ph ln. - Bo ton vn u t ca VNPT. 2.2.7.2 Nguyn tc thc hin Thc hin chuyn i tng bc, u tin thc hin trn mng lin tnh trc nhm p ng nhu cu v thoi v truyn s liu lin tnh v tng hiu qu s dng cc tuyn truyn dn ng trc. Mng ni tnh thc hin c trng im ti cc tnh thnh ph c nhu cu v truyn s liu truy nhp Internet bng rng u tin gii quyt phn ti lu lng Internet cho mng chuyn mch ni ht v p ng nhu cu truy nhp Internet tc cao trc nhm to c s h tng thng tin bng rng pht trin cc dch v a phng tin, phc v chng trnh chnh ph in t, e- commerce... ca quc gia. Khng nng cp cc tng i Host hin c ln NGN do c s khc bit kh ln gia cng ngh chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi, t chc xy dng h thng chuyn mch NGN mi , ring bit v thc hin kt ni vi cc mng hin ti theo cc nguyn tc mc 2.4.1.3 trn. Ngng vic trang b mi cc tng i host cng ngh c, ch m rng tng i Host ang hot ng trn mng p ng cc nhu cu thoi v truyn s liu bng hp v ch nng cp vi mc ch phn ti Internet v cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao dng cng ngh xDSL trong khi mng NGN cha bao ph ht vng phc v. Pht trin nt truy nhp mi ca NGN p ng cc nhu cu Host mi. 2.2.7.3 L trnh chuyn i - Giai on 2001 2003 Trang b 2 node iu khin v 2 node dch v ti min bc (t ti H Ni) v min nam (t ti TP. H Ch Minh). nng lc x l cuc gi ca mt node trn 4 triu BH CA tng ng vi trn 240.000 knh trung k hoc trn 400.000 thu bao. Trang b 3 node IP/MPLS ng trc ti min bc (t ti H Ni) v min nam (t ti TP H Ch Minh) v min trung (ti Nng).
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Trang b cc node ghp lung trung k TGW v mng IP/MPLS ni vng cho 11 tnh v thnh ph ln gm H ni, TP H Ch Minh, Hi Phng, Qung Ninh, Hu, Nng, Khnh Ho, B Ra Vng Tu, ng Nai, Cn Th, Bnh Dng. Lp t cc node truy nhp NGN nhm cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao (xDSL) ti cc tng i Host trung tm ca 11 tnh thnh ph Nh vy, vo giai on ny s c mng chuyn mch lin vng v ni vng tic 5 vng lu lng. Mt phn lu lng thoi ca mng ng trc PSTN s c chuyn sang mng NGN ng trc. - Giai on 2004 -2005 Tng s node iu khin v IP/MPLS nhm m rng vng phc v ca mng NGN ti cc tnh thnh ph cn li v hnh thnh mt chuyn mch A&B nh theo nguyn tc t chc mng mc 2.4.1.3, bo m cung cp dch v XDSL ti 64 tnh thnh. - Giai on 2006 - 2010 Chuyn mch IP/MPLS cp ng trc, cc node iu khin c trang b vi cu trc 2 mt y chuyn ti lu lng chuyn tip vng v lin vng cho 5 vng lu lng. Lu lng PSTN mt phn c chuyn qua mng tng i PSTN v phn ln c chuyn ti qua mng NGN. 2.2.8 H thng qun l mng v dch v Vic qun l v khai thc mng s theo m hnh qun l mng tp trung vi h thng qun l mng TNM a vo khai thc khong cui nm 2003. Giai on 1 h thng c trang b mt trung tm iu hnh v qun l mng Quc gia tp trung vi cc OMC ca VTN, VTI, H Ni, HCM v OMC khu vc khc c kh nng qun l v khai thc mng tp trung qun l n tng phn t mng. Cc i tng thc hin s thuc cc n v qun l v chu s iu hnh trc tip ca trung tm iu hnh mng Quc gia. Giai on 2 h thng s hon thin c kh nng qun l ton b mng li VNPT vi cc OMC qun l mng chuyn mch gi, mng truyn dn, ngoi vi v cc chng loi tht b trn ton mng cha u t trong giai on 1. K hoch pht trin dch v Giai on n 2010 l giai on bng n v dch v, nhiu loi hnh dch v bng hp, bng rng, dch v gi tr gia tng trn thoi c nh, di

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ng, internet s c a vo khai thc p ng nhu cu a dng ca khch hng. Cc dch v mi: Tip tc pht trin cc dch v hin ti nh thoi c bn, thoi qua IP, Internet cc dch v tr trc, cc dch v gia tng... s pht trin cc dch v bng rng tc cao nh dch v s dng cng ngh ADSL: Truy nhp internet, VoD, truyn hnh, cc dch v theo yu cu, VoDSL... mng VPN, dch v chng thc in t, thu knh tc cao, cc dch v thng minh IN trong mng di ng, cung cp dch v 3G cho di ng nh truy nhp internet tc cao cho di ng Video Streaming, nhn tin a phng tin MMS... c bit u t pht trin cc dch v IN i vi mng thoi PSTN cung cp cc dch v thng minh cho thu bao c nh l mng hin ang c s thu bao ln. Mng li pht trin mnh m v phng thc khai thc mi ti u s to th mnh vng chc cho VNPT trong mi trng cnh tranh.

Cc dch v NGN cung cp NGN (Next Generation Network) l mng vin thng ang c ng dng mnh m trn th gii vi s kt hp vi 3 mng c s hin nay l vin thng, truyn thng, Internet, mng ny cho php h tr mi phng thc truyn thng tin nh m thanh, d liu, hnh nh v m bo cung cp mi dch v, p ng nhu cu ca ngi s dng in thoi, truyn s liu, Internet, truyn hnh pht thanh, gii tr qua mng Trn cng mt cng ngh IP l im mnh ca NGN. Tp on Bu Chnh Vin Thng Vit Nam (VNPT) ang a NGN vo hot ng vi mc tiu to thm nhiu dch v mi p ng nhu cu s dng ca khch hng ngy cng cao, NGN ang l mc tiu ca nhiu nh khai thc vin thng trn th gii, kh nng cung cp a dch v. u im ln nht ca NGN l cho php trin khai cc dch v mt cch nhanh chng v a dng, p ng s hi t gia thng tin thoi, truyn d liu v Inernet, gia c nh v di ng vi gi thnh thp. Nhng u im ny gip cho mng NGN cng cho php truy sut ton cu, tch hp nhiu cng ngh mi, ng dng mi, v m ng cho cc c hi kinh doanh pht trin ca khch hng. Ngoi nhng u im trn, ng dng ca NGN cho php gim thiu thi gian a dch v mi ra th trng v nng cao hiu xut s dng
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truyn dn thm vo , NGN cng cho php nhng nh cung cp dch v tng cng kh nng kim sot, bo mt thng tin ca khch hng, p ng c hu ht cc nhu cu ca nhiu i tng s dng nh doanh nghip, vn phng Vi nh cung cp dch v, NGN p ng y cc yu cu kinh doanh mi ca khch hng, linh hot s dng cc giao dch in t a truy nhp, a giao thc cung cp cc dch v cho khch hng m khng ph thuc vo nhiu nh cung cp thit b v khai thc mng li. Da trn nn mng NGN Tng cng ty Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT) gii thiu ti ngi s dng cng mt lc 8 dch v mi nh sau: - Dch v in thoi c nh tr tin trc 1719 y l dch v gi in thoi ni ht, ni tnh, ng di trong nc v quc t vi hnh thc khch hng mua th mnh gi s dng, trn cng mt th mnh gi khch hng c th la chn cuc gi cht lng cao VoIP 64 kbit/s hoc cuc gi gi thp VoIP 8 kbit/s. Dch v in thoi tr trc gip khch hng qun l c s tin s dng dch v. - Dch v bo cuc gi t Internet (Call Waiting Internet) Dch v ny cho php nhn cc cuc gi n trong khi ang truy nhp Internet thng qua ng dy in thoi, khi s dng dch v khch hng s c cung cp mt ng kt ni o th 2 v c th qun l ton b cc cuc gi n trong khi ang s dng Internet. - Dch v Webdial page Dch v Webdial page cho php ngi s dng dch v thc hin cuc gi t mt trang web trn Internet (Webdial Page Server) ti mt thu bao PSTN. Cuc gi c th l Phone to Phone hoc PC to Phone. Mun s dng dch v ny khch hng cn c mt my in thoi, mt my tnh kt ni Internet v phi ang k s dng dch v Webdial Page, ngi s dng s c cp mt username v password truy nhp vo website Webdial Page. Ngi s dng truy nhp vo Webdial Page Server qua mng Internet v s dng username v password ng nhp vo. Sau , tu theo thng tin ngi s dng in vo s c hai kiu thc hin cuc gi PC to Phone v Phone to Phone. - Dch v in thoi min ph ng di 1800 (1800 Tollfree) Dch v ny cho php thc hin cuc gi min ph ti nhiu ch khc nhau thng qua mt s truy nhp thng nht trn mng vi cc ph thu bao gi
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bng cu gi ni ht. Cc ph ng di ca cuc gi s c tnh cho thu bao ng k dch v 1800 Dch v Tollfree p ng nhu cu ca cc doanh nghip cung cp sn phm hoc dch v v cc t chc mang tnh x hi nh cc cng ty qung coc s lng khch hng ng o. Cc thu bao s dng dch v Tollfree s c tng kh nng tip xc vi khch hng, to iu kin cho thu bao thc hin tt hn vic tip th sn phm v dch v qua chm sc khch hng ca mnh c tt hn. - Dch v thng tin gii tr 1900 (1900 Premium Rate Service) Dch v ny c cung cp bi nh khai thc vin thng v cng ty cung cp dch v thng tin cho khch hng. Ngi s dng dch v gi in n mt s in thoi d nh do nh khai thc vin thng cung cp nghe thng tin (th thao, thi tit) ca cng ty cung cp dch v thng tin. Mc cc cuc gi s c thu cao hn cc in thoi thng thng v tin cc thu c ca ngi s dng c chia theo cng thc tho thun gia nh khai thc v cng ty cung cp thng tin. Vi dch v ny nh cung cp thng tin d dng cung cp cc loi thng tin cho khch hng ca mnh. - Mng ring o. Dch v mng ring o cung cp kt ni mng ring o (LAN/ WAN) cho khch hng da trn cng ngh ng dy thu bao s loi xDSL vi u im kt ni n gin chi ph thp, khch hng ch cn ng k cc im v tc kt ni theo nhu cu s dng. 2.2.9 Kt lun Vic xy dng mng NGN l xu hng pht trin tt yu ca vin thng th gii v Vit Nam cng khng nm ngoi xu hng y. Trn y l mt s gii php v cu trc NGN ca mt s nh cung cp v t chc quc t v m hnh pht trin NGN ca VNPT hin nay.

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CHNG 3 NG DNG MPLS TRN MNG NG TRC NGN Vic trin khai cng ngh mng MPLS hay cng ngh mng khc cn c cn nhc k trc khi tin hnh. Cng nh vy i vi MPLS. Tuy c coi l cng ngh mng tn tin gii quyt c nhiu nhc im ca IP, ATM nhng khng co ngha l MPLS c cng nhn nh mt gii php duy nht cho mng th h sau ( NGN ). Trc khi i vo phn tch kh nng ng dng cng ngh MPLS trong mng th h sau ca chng ta cn xem xt mt s vn k thut v kinh t sau y: - an ton v n nh ca cng ngh MPLS. - V tr ca MPLS trong cc m hnh chuyn mch a dch v MSF - Tnh kh thi ca cng ngh: sn phm thng mi v kh nng tng thch vi cc cng ngh khc hin c. - Tc trin khai nhanh hay chm: tnh n gin khi trin khai. - Kh nng trin khai cc ng dng, dch v mi nh VPN, Data, Video - Vn hnh, khai thc bo dng cc thit b MPLS. - Gi thnh thit b. Cc kha cnh k thut quan trng trong vic trin khai cng ngh MPLS trong mng NGN. 3.1. Cc cng ngh v trin vng trin khai Trn c s nh hng pht trin ca NGN n nm 2010, c th xem xt trin khai mt s cng ngh chuyn mch nh sau: * Cng ngh chuyn mch IP * Cng ngh chuyn mch ATM * Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn MPLS * Cng ngh chuyn mch Lamda (quang) Mi cng ngh s c u nhc im nht nh, tuy nhin trc khi i vo phn tch u nhc im ca mi cng ngh chng ta cn nhn mnh mi trng trin khai ti Vit Nam nh sau: * Cc ng dng IP cn rt hn ch, ch yu l WWW v mt s dch v VoIP c bn u tin. Mng Internet c bn l mng cc b nh tuyn.

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* Cha c h tng c s ATM. Mng ATM ca Vit Nam cha c thit lp mc d c xut hin ti mt s a phng nh H Ni, * Mng chuyn tip khung (FR) khng pht trin mnh, ch yu phc v cho dch v knh thu ring. * Mng X.25 rt hn ch Nh vy c th khng nh c: * Mng c xy dng s l mt mng hon ton mi, xy dng t u. * Quy m v phng thc thc hin: Quy m rng, trin khai t mng ng trc n mng truy nhp. * Cc dch v c bn ban u: Internet tc cao, VoIP, knh thu ring, VPN, cc ng dng thng mi in t, truyn s liu, video, a phng tin. 3.1.1 Cng ngh IP mi nt mng tnh ton mng chuyn tin mt cch c lp. Phng thc ny, do vy yu cu kt qu tnh ton ca phn nh tuyn ti tt c cc nt phi nht qun vi nhau. S khng thng nht ca kt qu s dn n vic chuyn gi tin sai hng, iu ny ng ngha vi vic mt gi tin. Kiu chuyn tin theo tng chng hn ch kh nng ca mng. V d, vi phng thc ny, nu cc gi tin chuyn ti cng mt a ch i qua cng mt nt th chng s c truyn qua cng mt im ti ch. iu ny khin cho mng khng th thc hin mt s chc nng khc nh nh tuyn theo ch, theo dch v. Tuy nhin, bn cnh , phng thc nh tuyn v chuyn tin ny nng cao tin cy cng nh kh nng m rng ca mng. Giao thc nh tuyn ng cho php mng phn ng li vi s c bng vic thay i tuyn khi router bit c s thay i v topo mng qua vic cp nht thng tin v trng thi kt ni. Vi cc phng thc nh CDIR (Classless Inter Domain Routing), kch thc ca bn tin c duy tr mc chp nhn c, v do vic tnh ton nh tuyn u c cc nt t thc hin nn mng c th m rng m khng cn bt c thay i no. C cu nh tuyn c nhim v tnh ton ng i ti cc nt trong mng. Do vy, c cu nh tuyn phi c cp nht cc thng tin v topo
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mng, thng tin v nguyn tc chuyn tin v n phi c kh nng hot ng trong mi trng mng gm nhiu nt. Kt qu tnh ton ca c cu nh tuyn c lu trong cc bng chuyn tin (Forwarding table) cha thng tin v chng tip theo c th gi gi tin ti hng ch. Da trn cc bn chuyn tin, c cu chuyn tin chuyn mch cc gi IP ti hng ch. Phng thc chuyn tin truyn thng l theo tng chng mt. cch ny, S pht trin t bin ca IP, s tng trng theo cp s nhn ca thu bao Internet l mt thc th khng ai c th ph nhn. Hin nay, lng dch v ln nht trn cc mng ng trc trn thc t u l t IP. Trong cng tc tiu chun ho cc loi k thut, vic bo m tt hn cho IP tr thnh trng im ca cng tc nghin cu. IP l giao thc chuyn tip gi tin. Vic chuyn tip gi tin thc hin theo c ch phi kt ni. IP nh ngha c cu nh s, c cu chuyn tin, c cu nh tuyn v cc chc nng iu khin mc thp (ICMP). Gi tin IP gm a ch ca bn nhn, a ch l s duy nht trong ton mng v mang y thng tin cn cho vic chuyn gi ti ch. u im: n gin, chun ha, mc ph bin rng, c coi l cng ngh ca tng lai. Nhng nghin cu gn y ch ra kh nng s dng IP trc tip trn nn cng ngh quang v nhng sa i giao thc IP m bo cht lng dch v mi to tin cho kh nng chim lnh th trng ca cng ngh ny trong tng lai. Nhc im: Vi nh tuyn IP truyn thng, cht lng dch v ch dng li mc n lc ti a. Khng c kh nng h tr cc dch v thi gian thc nh thoi hay video cht lng cao. c th h tr cc dch v ny cn b sung cc giao thc iu khin cht lng dch v nh RSVP hay chuyn sang IPv6. 3.1.2 Cng ngh ATM Cng ngh ATM da trn c s ca phng php chuyn mch gi, thng tin c nhm vo cc gi tin c chiu di c nh, trong v tr ca gi khng ph thuc vo ng h ng b v da trn nhu cu bt k ca

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knh trc. Cc chuyn mch ATM cho php hot ng vi nhiu tc v dch v khc nhau. ATM c hai c im quan trng : - Th nht ATM s dng cc gi c kch thc nh v c nh gi l cc t bo ATM, cc t bo nh vi tc truyn ln s lm cho tr truyn lan v bin ng tr gim nh i vi cc dch v thi gian thc, cng s to iu kin cho vic hp knh tc cao c d dng hn. - Th hai, ATM c kh nng nhm mt vi knh o thnh mt ng o nhm gip cho vic nh tuyn c d dng. ATM khc vi nh tuyn IP mt s im. N l cng ngh chuyn mch hng kt ni. Kt ni t im u n im cui phi c thit lp trc khi thng tin c gi i. ATM yu cu kt ni phi c thit lp bng nhn cng hoc thit lp mt cch t ng thng qua bo hiu. Mt khc, ATM khng thc hin nh tuyn ti cc nt trung gian. Tuyn kt ni xuyn sut c xc nh trc khi trao i d liu v c gi c nh trong sut thi gian kt ni. Trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni, cc tng i ATM trung gian cung cp cho kt ni mt nhn. Vic ny thc hin hai iu: dnh cho kt ni mt s ti nguyn v xy dng bng chuyn t bo ti mi tng i. Bng chuyn t bo ny c tnh cc b v ch cha thng tin v cc kt ni ang hot ng i qua tng i. iu ny khc vi thng tin v ton mng cha trong bng chuyn tin ca router dng IP. Qu trnh chuyn t bo qua tng i ATM cng tng t nh vic chuyn gi tin qua router. Tuy nhin, ATM c th chuyn mch nhanh hn v nhn gn trn cell c kch thc c nh (nh hn ca IP), kch thc bng chuyn tin nh hn nhiu so vi ca IP router, v vic ny c thc hin trn cc thit b phn cng chuyn dng. Do vy, thng lng ca tng i ATM thng ln hn thng lng ca IP router truyn thng. u im: L cng ngh trong giai on chn mui, c chun ha bi ITU-T v Din n ATM (ATM-forum), c kh nng h tr IP qua ATM nhng ch l s kt hp m cha phi l s tch hp IP v ATM.

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Nhc im: Gi thnh cao, giao thc iu khin (MPOA) phc tp hn so vi IP truyn thng. Vic to thm mt lp ATM ca cc ng dng IP s lm hn ch rt nhiu kh nng ca IP. 3.1.3 Cng ngh MPLS i vi cc nh thit k mng m ni, s pht trin nhanh chng, s m rng khng ngng ca mng Internet, s tng vt ca lng dch v cng nh s phc tp ca cc loi hnh dch v, dn dn lm cho mng vin thng hin ti khng cn kham ni. Mt mt, cc nh khai thc than phin kh kim c li nhun, nhng mt khc th thu bao li ku ca l gi c qu cao, tc th qu chm. Th trng bc bch i hi c mt mng tc cao hn, gi c thp hn. y chnh l nguyn nhn cn bn ra i mt lot cc k thut mi, trong c MPLS. Bt k k thut ATM tng c coi l nn tng ca mng s a dch v bng rng (B-ISDN), hay l IP t thnh cng ln trn th trng hin nay, u tn ti nhc im kh khc phc c. S xut hin ca MPLS k thut chuyn mch nhn a giao thc gip chng ta c c s chn la tt p cho cu trc mng thng tin tng lai. Phng php ny dung hp mt cch hu hiu nng lc iu khin lu lng ca thit b chuyn mch vi tnh linh hot ca b nh tuyn. Hin nay, cng c nhiu ngi tin tng mt cch chc chn rng MPLS s l phng n l tng cho mng ng trc trong tng lai. MPLS tch chc nng ca IP router lm hai phn ring bit : chc nng chuyn gi tin v chc nng iu khin. Phn chc nng chuyn gi tin, vi nhim v gi gi tin gia cc router, s dng c ch hon i nhn tng t nh ATM. Trong MPLS, nhn l mt s c di c nh v khng ph thuc vo lp mng. K thut hon i nhn v bn cht l vic tm nhn ca mt gi tin trong mt bng cc nhn xc nh tuyn ca gi v tm nhn mi ca n. Vic ny n gin hn nhiu so vi vic x l gi tin theo kiu thng thng, do vy ci thin c kh nng ca thit b. Cc router s dng k thut ny c gi l LSR (Label Switch Router). Phn chc nng iu khin ca MPLS bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn lp

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mng vi nhim v phn phi thng tin gia cc LSR, v th tc gn nhn chuyn thng tin nh tuyn thnh cc bng nh tuyn cho vic chuyn mch. MPLS c th hot ng c vi cc giao thc nh tuyn Internet khc nh OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) v BGP (Border Bateway Protocol). Do MPLS h tr vic iu khin lu lng v cho php thit lp tuyn c nh, vic m bo cht lng dch v ca cc tuyn l hon ton kh thi. y l mt im vt tri ca MPLS so vi cc nh tuyn c in. Ngoi ra MPLS cn c c ch chuyn tuyn (Fast rerouting). Do MPLS l cng ngh chuyn mch hng kt ni, kh nng b nh hng bi li ng truyn thng cao hn cc cng ngh khc. Trong khi , cc dch v tch hp m MPLS phi h tr li yu cu dung lng cao. Do vy, kh nng phc hi ca MPLS m bo kh nng cung cp dch v ca mng khng ph thuc vo c cu khi phc li ca lp vt l bn di. Bn cnh tin cy, cng ngh MPLS cng khin cho vic qun l mng c d dng hn. Do MPLS qun l vic chuyn tin theo cc lung thng tin, cc gi tin thuc mt FEC c th c xc nh bi mt gi tr ca nhn. Do vy, trong min MPLS, cc thit b o lng mng c th da trn nhn phn loi cc gi tin. Lu lng i qua cc tuyn chuyn mch nhn (LSP) c gim st mt cch d dng dng RTFM (Real Time Flow Measurement). Bng cch gim st lu lng ti cc LSR, nghn lu lng s c pht hin v v tr xy ra nghn lu lng c th c xc nh nhanh chng. Tuy nhin, gim st lu lng theo phng php ny khng a ra c ton b thng tin v cht lng dch v (v d nh tr t im u n im cui ca min MPLS) u im: n gin, tch hp nh tuyn v chuyn mch, iu khin nh tuyn trn nn tng IP, chuyn mch trn nn ATM, h tr cht lng dch v chp nhn c (cao hn DiffServ, thp hn ATM). Gi thnh hp l. Nhc im: Gi thnh cao hn IP truyn thng, thp hn ATM, chun ha ang trong giai on tip tc pht trin. Theo d kin, qu trnh pht trin ca giao thc trong mng li c d bo nh sau: Giai on 2003-2005: IP/MPLS qua SONET/SDH sang cp quang
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Giai on sau 2005: IP/MPLS qua cp quang trc tip 3.2 Cc gii php ng dng MPLS Chng ta s phn tch gii php ng dng cng ngh MPLS trn nn mng NGN ca tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT). iu ny cng khng lm gim i tnh tng qut bi y l nh khai thc ln nht Vit Nam v trong tng lai vn s l cng ty gi vai tr ch lc quyt nh n h tng c s thng tin quc gia. T nhng phn tch trn chng ta c th nhn thy: - Cng ngh MPLS hon ton ph hp vi nh hng pht trin ca mng Vin thng VNPT n nm 2010. - Vic la chn MPLS s gii quyt rt tt nhng ng dng IP v chuyn mch, nh tuyn; cc thit b chuyn mch, nh tuyn s thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn thun ty. Phn iu khin s lin quan trc tip n cc giao thc iu khin nh UNI, PNNI cho ATM; CRLDP, RSVP cho MPLS; RIP, BGP, OSPF, cho IP. Cc chc nng lin quan n diu khin phng tin truy nhp v iu khin cuc gi u do chuyn mch mm m nhn. Cc m hnh mng ng trc ng dng cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc ( MPLS ). i vi vic trin khai cng ngh MPLS v c bn c th chia lm 3 gii php chnh nh sau. - Trin khai MPLS cho mng li ( cc tng i chuyn tip vng ). - Trin khai MPLS cho cc tng i a dch v ti cc vng lu lng, mng li s dng tng i ATM. - Mng li v cc tng i a dch v s dng MPLS. 3.2.1 M hnh 1: MPLS trong mng li. Trin khai cc thit b MPLS ti lp trc ca mng th h sau cho cc giai on pht trin theo nh hng t chc mng vin thng ca VNPT n nm 2010. K hoch c tin hnh nh sau. * Giai on n nm 2003: Trin khai cc thit b chuyn mch nhn ( LSR ) ti H Ni, Nng v TP H Ch Minh vi hai trung tm iu khin H Ni v TP H Ch Minh. Tt c cc trung k ca cc nt ny u s dng MPLS. Nh vy cc nt truyn ti ny ng vai tr LSR li

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Ti mt s tnh thnh ph trng im nh: Hi Phng, Qung Ninh, Nng, Khnh Ho, Vng Tu, Bnh Dng, Cn Thta trang b cc tng i a dch v ATM+IP h tr cng MPLS.. * Giai on 2004-2005. Trin khai thm 2 LSR li ti 2 vng lu lng mi xut hin, hnh thnh hon chnh 2 mt chuyn ti MPLS ( A v B ). B xung nt iu khin ti Nng, to 3 vng iu khin ring bit. Khng m rng phm vi mng MPLS xung cp vng. * Giai on 2006-2010. Hon chnh cc nt iu khin ( 5 vng iu khin ). M rng phm vi MPLS xung cp vng.

iu khin LDP , CR-LDP

iu khin Truyn ti
Cp ng trc
MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core )

Mt A Mt B

MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core )


a dch v

MPLS (LSR Core ) MPLS (LSR Core )


a dch v a dch v

Cp vng

a dch v

a dch v

Khu vc pha Bc

Khu vc H Ni

Khu vc min Trung v Ty nguyn

Khu vc TP. H Ch MInh

Khu vc pha Nam

Hnh 3.1: Cu hnh t chc mng MPLS phng n 1 n 2005 Cc u, nhc im ca m hnh ny. - u im : + n gin trong t chc v trin khai.

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+ Thng nht c vi phng n t chc mng NGN l tch bit chc nng lp truyn ti v iu khin. + Sn phm thng mi c trn th trng. + Kt ni vi cp vng ( cc tng i a dch v ) thng qua giao din + + MPLS hay ATM 155 Mbit/s hay 622 Mbit/s rt n gin do bn thn cc thit b c th khai bo MPLS hay ATM trn cng mt cng vt l - Nhc im : + Chi ph u t ban u cao. + Cn xc nh r hn cht lng dch v QoS c bit i vi cc dch v thoi khi lu lng thoi ( PSTN ) c chuyn tip qua mng MPLS.

3.2.2 M hnh 2: ATM li, MPLS cc tng i a dch v Cng ngh chuyn mch ATM c s dng trong mng ng trc, cng ngh MPLS c s dng ti cc tng i a dch v ca mng th h sau cho cc giai on pht trin theo nh hng t chc mng Vin thng ca VNPT n nm 2010. * Giai on n nm 2003: Trin khai 3 tng i ATM li cho 3 vng H Ni, Nng v TP H Ch Minh. Cc kt ni c th l PVC hoc SVC. Ti mt s tnh thnh, thnh ph trng im nh: Hi Phng, Qung Ninh, Hu, Nng, Khnh Ho, Vng Tu, Bnh Dng, Cn Thtrang b cc tng i a dch v. Cc tng i ny s dng cng ngh MPLS. * Giai on 2004-2005: Trang b thm 2 nt tng i ATM ti 2 vng lu lng H Ni v TP H Ch Minh hnh thnh hon chnh 2 mng chuyn ti ATM ( A v B ). B sung nt iu khin ti Nng, to thnh 3 vng iu khin ring bit. * Giai on 2006-2010: Hon chnh cc nt iu khin cho 5 vng lu lng ( 5 vng iu khin)

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iu khin SVC , PVC

iu khin Truyn ti
Cp ng trc
ATM ATM ATM

Mt A Mt B

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM
MPLS (LSR bin )

ATM
MPLS (LSR bin ) MPLS (LSR bin )

Cp vng

MPLS (LSR bin )

MPLS (LSR bin )

Khu vc pha Bc

Khu vc H Ni

Khu vc min Trung v Ty nguyn

Khu vc TP. H Ch MInh

Khu vc pha Nam

Hnh 3.2: Cu hnh t chc mng MPLS phng n 2 n 2005 Cc u nhc im ca m hnh: - u im: + Thng nht c vi phng n t chc mng NGN l tch bit chc nng lp iu khin v chuyn ti. + Sn phm thng mi c trn th trng, c bit cc tng i ATM loi mi c kh nng nng cp h tr MPLS ch bng phn mm. + Kt ni vi cp vng ( cc tng i a dch v MPLS ) thng qua giao din ATM 155Mbit/s hay 622Mbit/s. - Nhc im: + Khng pht huy ht u im ca cng ngh MPLS trn ton mng + Cn gii quyt vn hp nht VC v b m ca cc tng i ATM trn mng ng trc khi trin khai MPLS ti cc thnh ph trng im. + Gi thnh cc thit b MPLS ni chung vn cn cao nn nu u t quy m ln th chi ph ban u cao.

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+ Vic trin khai MPLS lp a truy cp a dch v lm phc tp qu trnh iu khin cuc gi bi nt iu khin s phi chuyn i hoc s dng nhiu giao thc thit lp cuc gi. 3.2.3 M hnh 3: Mng MPLS hon ton: S dng cng ngh MPLS trong mng chuyn tip cp ng trc v cp vng ca mng NGN cho cc giai on pht trin theo nh hng t chc mng Vin thng ca VNPT n nm 2010 c d kin trin khai nh sau. * Giai on n nm 2003: Trin khai 3 LSR li tiu H Ni, Nng v tp H Ch Minh. Tt c cc trung k ca tng i ny u s dng MPLS. Ti mt s tnh thnh ph trng im nh: Hi Phng, Qung Ninh, Nng, Khnh Ho, Vng Tu, Bnh Dng, Cn Thtrang b cc tng i a dch v, cc tng i ny c coi l cc LSR bin. * Giai on 2004-2005: Chuyn 2 LSR vng H Ni v TP H Ch Minh tr thnh 2 li, hnh thnh hon chnh 2 mng truyn ti MPLS ( A v B ). B xung nt iu khin ti Nng, to 3 vng iu khin ring bit. * Giai on 2006-2010: Hon chnh 5 nt iu khin cho 5 vng lu lng ( 5 vng iu khin ) M rng phm vi MPLS ti cc vng mi xut hin.

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iu khin LDP, CR-LDP

iu Khin Truyn ti
Cp ng trc
MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core)

Mt A Mt B

MPLS (LSR core ) MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core)


MPLS (LSR bin )

MPLS (LSR core) MPLS (LSR core)


MPLS (LSR bin ) MPLS (LSR bin )

Cp vng

MPLS (LSR bin)

MPLS (LSR bin)

Khu vc pha Bc

Khu vc H Ni

Khu vc min Trung Khu vc pha Nam Khu vc v Ty nguyn TP. H Ch MInh

Hnh 3.3: Cu hnh t chc mng MPLS phng n 3 n 2005 - u im: + n gin trong t chc v trin khai. + Thng nht c vi phng n t chc mng NGN l tch bit chc nng lp iu khin v chuyn ti. + Sn phm thng mi c trn th trng + m bo mng MPLS xuyn sut i vi cc dch v nh Internet, truyn s liu, VPN ti mt s a phng c nhu cu cao. + Phng n t chc mng iu khin tng i n gin v t hoc khng c yu cu thay i giao thc iu khin. + Kh nng nng cp thit b c d bo trc nn hiu qu u t v khai thc thit b cao. - Nhc im:

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Chi ph u t ba u cao. 3.3 Mt s nhn xt: - Gii php 1 tng i hp l v t chc mng cng nh kh nng tng thch vi cng ngh hin ang s dng cho mng Internet, mng PSTN. Tuy nhin, cn lu n vn MPLS hoc ATM c h tr ch yu bi phn iu khin v cc th tc i km. - Gii php 2 phc tp v t chc v nng cp m cng khng gim c chi ph u t. - Gii php 3 c nhiu u im hn, pht huy kh nng iu khin lu lng u vit ca cng ngh MPLS, dch v VPN cht lng xuyn sut c th c cung cp ngay. Tuy nhin chi ph u t ban u cao nhng c th xem xt trin khai cc tng i a dch v cng ngh MPLS theo tng vng hoc c chn la bo m cp truy cp cho MPLS gim chi ph u t ban u. - Vi m hnh 1 v 3, do mng ng trc ca VNPT phi m nhn chc nng kt ni cng quc t nn cn gii quyt kt ni quc t khi mng MPLS quc t cha hnh thnh, c th gii quyt bng vic b sung kh TGW kt ni n cng quc t hin nay cho cc dch v PSTN, cc dch v Internet hay truyn s kiu IP c th c kt ni trc tip i quc t qua cng ATM. Vi m hnh 2 cn xc nh ch hot ng t bo cho cc tng i a dch v s dng MPLS v mng ng trc s dng cng ngh ATM, cc tng i ATM ph c kh nng h tr MPLS tr thnh cc ATM-LSR

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KT LUN

Vi nhng u im vt tri, MPLS c xem l cng ngh y ha hn trong mng vin thng th h k tip NGN. Sau mt thi gian hc tp tm hiu, bn kho lun tt nghip tng kt c mt s vn sau: Xu hng pht trin dch v v cng ngh mng trong ch ra u nhc im ca cc mng IP v ATM dn ti s xut hin cng ngh MPLS, nhng s c la chn cng ngh MPLS. Cc vn k thut ca cng ngh MPLS. Kh nng ng dng ca MPLS trong mng NGN ca Tng cng ty BCVT Vit Nam. Cng vic nghin cu v cng ngh MPLS vn ang c cc t chc tip tc nghin cu, pht trin v hon thin tiu chun. Vic hon thin cc tiu chun c vai tr quan trng i vi cc nh sn xut thit b, cng nh cc nh cung cp mng. Mng vin thng Vi t Nam kp thi ng dng cng ngh MPLS tr n mng li NGN, ang m rng ra nhng ng dng MPLS mng bin v mng ring o bi nhiu u im ca cng ngh ny. V thi gian c hn v kin thc cn hn ch bn lun v n ny chc cn nhiu thiu st mong c cc thy c ch bo. Xin trn trng cm n

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TI LIU THAM KH O

[1]: Phng Vn Vn, Mnh Quyt, Nguyn Tt c Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS . Nh sn xut bu in H Ni nm 2003. [2]: Ng Th Khnh Ly Xy dng m hnh mng ng trc ng dng cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS , lun vn thc s H Ni- 2005. [3]: Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh-Vin thng trung tm o to Bu chnh Vin thng I. Bi ging T chc mng vin thng v cc dch v H Ni-2005. [4]: Tng hp ti liu t Internet. [5]:Tp ch Bu chnh vin thng v cng ngh thng tin 2004,2005-B bu chnh vin thng

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MC LC

Li m u .................................................................................................1 Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS.......................................................................................... 2 1.1. Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin.........................................................2 1.1.1. Cc ng lc ra i ca chuyn mch nhn................................2 1.1.2. Lch s pht trin ca MPLS.........................................................3 1.1.3. Qu trnh chun ho MPLS...........................................................4 1.1.4. Nhm lm vic MPLS trong IETF..................................................4 1.2. Cc thnh phn ca MPLS...................................................................6 1.2.1. Khi qut MPLS............................................................................ 6 1.2.2. Cc khi nim c bn ca MPLS..................................................8 1.2.3. Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS 13 1.3. Cc giao thc ca MPLS 15 1.3.1. Giao thc phn phi nhn 15 1.3.2. Giao thc phn phi nhn da trn rng buc 22 1.3.3. Giao thc ginh trc ti nguyn 24 1.3.4. Giao thc MPLS BGP 27 1.4. Hot ng ca MPLS............................................................................ 27 1.4.1. Ch hot ng khung 29 1.4.2. Ch hot ng t bo 31

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1.4.3. Hot ng ca MPLS khung trong mng ATM LSR 34 1.5. Cc u im ca MPLS 35 1.6. ng dng ca MPLS............................................................................. 36 Chng 2: Gii thiu cu trc mng ng trc ca Vit Nam...........38 2.1. Cu trc vt l mng vin thng ...........................................................38 2.1.1. Khi nim v mng vin thng......................................................38 2.1.2. Cc c im ca mng vin thng hin nay...............................39 2.1.3. Mng vin thng cng cng (PSTN).............................................40 2.2. Cu trc mng vin thng NGN............................................................44 2.2.1. nh ngha mng NGN..................................................................44 2.2.2. Cc yu t thc y tin ti mng NGN........................................45 2.2.3. Yu cu pht trin NGN...........................................................46 2.2.4. Cu trc chc nng.......................................................................47 2.2.5. Cc thnh phn ca NGN.............................................................50 2.2.6. Kt ni mng NGN vi mng truyn thng ..................................54 2.2.7. L trnh chuyn i........................................................................56 2.2.8. H thng qun l mng v dch v................................................58 2.2.9. Kt lun.........................................................................................61 Chng 3: ng dng MPNS trn mng ng trc NGN.....................62 3.1. Cc cng ngh v trin vng trin khai.................................................62 3.1.1. Cng ngh IP.................................................................................63 3.1.2. Cng ngh ATM............................................................................64 3.1.3. Cng ngh MPLS..........................................................................65 3.2. Cc gii php ng dng MPLS.............................................................67 3.2.1. M hnh 1 MPLS trong mng li....................................................68 3.2.2. M hnh 2 ATM li.........................................................................70 3.2.3. M hnh 3 mng MPLS hon ton.................................................71 3.3. Mt s nhn xt.....................................................................................73 Kt lun ton bi.........................................................................................74
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Ti liu tham kho......................................................................................75

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THUT NG V T VIT TT ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode ARP Address Resolution Protocol ATMARP ATM Address Resolution Protocol BGP Border Gateway Protocol CoS CLIP CR CR-LDP CR-LSP DLCI ER EGP FR FEC IETF IP ISDN LAN LANE LDP LER LIB LSP LSR MG MPLS MPOA NGN Class of Service Classical IP Constrained Routing Constrained Routing-LDP Constrained Routing-LSP Data Link Connection Identifer Explicit Routing Edge Gateway Protocol Frame Relay Fowarding Equivalent Class Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Protocol Integrated Service Digital Network Local Area Network LAN Emulation Label Distribution Protocol Label Edge Router Label Information Base Label Switched Path Label Switch Router Media Gateway Multiprotocol Label Switching Multiprotocol Over ATM Next Generation Network
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Ch truyn dn khng ng b Giao thc phn gii a ch Giao thc phn gii a ch ATM Giao thc cng ng bin Lp dch v IP trn ATM nh tuyn cng bc nh tuyn cng bc-LDP nh tuyn cng bc-LSP Nhn dng kt ni lin kt d liu nh tuyn hin Giao thc nh tuyn cng bin Chuyn tip khung Lp chuyn tip tng ng Nhm tc v k thut Internet Giao thc Internet Mng s tch hp a dch v Mng cc b M phng LAN Giao thc phn b nhn Router bin nhn C s thng tin nhn ng dn chuyn mch nhn Router chuyn mch nhn Cng a phng tin Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc a giao thc trn ATM Mng th h k tip

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i hc Quc gia H Ni - Trng i hc Cng ngh

OSPF PID PSTN QoS RESV RFC RSVP SPF STM SVC TCP TGW TLV TLV ToS UDP VC VCI VNPT VP VPN VPI WAN

Open Shortest Path First Protocol Identifier Public Switch Telephone Network Quality of Service Resevation Request For Comment Resource Resevation Protocol Shortest Path First Synchronous Transmission Mode Signaling Virtual Circuit Transission Control Protocol Traffic Gateway Time To Live Type-Leng-Value Type of Service User Datagram Protocol Virtual Circuit Virtual Circuit Identifier Vietnam Post & Telecommunications Virtual Path Virtual Private Network Virtual Path Identifier Wide Area Network

Giao thc ng i ngn nht u tin Nhn dng giao thc


Mng chuyn mch thoi cng cng

Cht lng dch v Bn tin dnh trc Yu cu kin Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn ng i ngn nht u tin Ch truyn dn ng b Knh o bo hiu Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Cng lu lng Thi gian sng Kiu-Chiu di-Gi tr Kiu dch v Giao thc lc d liu Knh o Nhn dng knh o Tng cng ty BCVT Vit Nam ng o Mng ring o Nhn dng ng o Mng din rng

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