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Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS

LI CM N
C th ni y l mt ti rt mi v cng rt kh. Nhng vi s n
lc ca bn thn v trn ht l s ch bo v tn tnh hng dn ca PGS,
TS Nguyn Kim Giao em hon thnh lun n ny. V vy li u tin em
xin chn thnh cm n s quan tm gip ch bo v hng dn ca
thy.
Ngoi ra em cng xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trong
Khoa in T Vin Thng - trng i hc Cng Ngh - i hc quc gia
Ha Ni ging dy v to mi trng tt cho em nghin cu v hc tp.
Cui cng ti xin chn thnh cm n cc bn hc cng kho K49
nhng ngi lun st cnh bn ti trong sut qu trnh hc tp cng nh
trong thi gian lm kho lun tt nghip.
H Ni, thng 5 nm 2008
Sinh vin
inh Mnh Hi
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 1
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
TM TT NI DUNG
Vn RWA hin nay rt c quan tm nghin cu vi mt s
lng cng trnh ng k c cng b. Vi cng mt cu trc vt l,
bng cc phng php nh tuyn v gn bc sng hp l trong cu trc
mng quang cho ta truyn c lu lng cao v mang li hiu qu s
dng bng tn cng nh cht lng dch v
Lun vn trnh by tng quan v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
MPLS v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qutGMPLS.
Trn c s mt s gii php in hnh cho bi ton RWA, lun vn
xy dng c m hnh m phng cc bi ton xut bng OMNET++
cho mng quang thng minh ION.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 2
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
MC LC
Li cm n .....................................................................................................
Mc lc.............................................................................................................
Thut ng vit tt.............................................................................................
Li m u
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1
Chng 1:Tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
MPLS v GMPLS
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3
11. Gii thiu
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3
1.2. Cng ngh IP
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4
1.3. Cng ngh ATM
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4
1.4. Cng ngh MPLS
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1.4.1. Cc khi nim c bn MPLS
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9
1.4.2. Thnh phn c bn ca MPLS
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1.4.3. Cc giao thc s dng trong MPLS
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 3
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
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A. Giao thc phn phi nhn (LDP)
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B. Giao thc RSVP
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C. Giao thc CR LDP
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D. Giao thc MPLS BGP
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1.5.Cng ngh GMPLS
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1.5.1.Nhn tng quan ca GMPLS
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1.5.2.B giao thc GMPLS
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32
Chng 2: Gii thiu bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong
mng quang....................................................................................................
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33
2.1. Gii thiu
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33
2.2.Cc loi bi ton RWA
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2.2.1. Thit lp lung quang tnh (SLE)
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 4
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
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34
2.2.2. Thip lp lung quang ng (DLE)
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2.3.Cc phng php gii quyt bi ton
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2.4.C s l thuyt
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2.4.1. Gii thiu l thuyt th
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2.4.2. Gii thut Dijkstra
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2.5. Bi ton RWA trong thit lp lung quang tnh (SLE)
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2.6. Bi ton RWA trong thit lp lung quang ng (DLE)
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2.6.1. Bi ton nh tuyn
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A. nh tuyn c nh
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B. nh tuyn thay th c nh
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C. nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin tng th
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inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 5
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
D. nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin cc b
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43
2.6.2. Bi ton gn bc sng
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A. Thut ton gn bc sng theo th t bc sng
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B. Thut ton gn bc sng ngu nhin
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C. Thut ton gn bc sng da trn bc sng s dng nhiu nht t
nht
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48
2.6.3. Bo hiu v t trc ti nguyn
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48
A. t trc sng sng
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48
B. t trc theo chng
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49
Chng 3:Phng php nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong mng
quang da.. trn k thut GMPLS
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50
3.1 MPLS v mng quang thng minh
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50
3.1.1. Tm bao qut rng ln ca MPLs
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50
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 6
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
3.1.2. Cc giao thc nh tuyn v phn phi nhn trong nn MPLS
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51
3.1.3. Hng ti ngn xp giao thc n gin hn: IP/MPLS qua DWDM
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51
3.1.4. Tng quan gia MPLS v mng quang
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51
3.1.5. Lin kt v qun l ba mt phng iu khin
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52
3.2 Bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong mng quang t chc trn
k thut GMPLS
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3.2.1. Tng quan v k thut GMPLS
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53
3.2.2.Thit lp v khi phc lung quang
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3.3. Cc iu kin rng buc trong nh tuyn quang
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3.3.1. iu kin rng buc trong lp vt l
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55
3.3.2. Cc rng buc bc sng
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3.3 Kin trc GMPLS
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3.4. B nh tuyn GMPLS thc t: B nh tuyn Hikari
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 7
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
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56
3.5 Kt lun chng
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Chng 4: Xy dng m hnh bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng
trong mng quang s dng k thut GMPLs
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59
4.1. Tng quan v OMNET++
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4.1.1. Gii thiu chung
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4.1.2. Cc thnh phn chnh ca OMNET++
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4.1.3. ng dng
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4.1.4. M hnh thut ton trong OMNET++
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4.1.5. Lp trnh thut ton
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4.1.6. S dng OMNET++
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4.1.7. H thng file
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4.2. Phng php thc lun nghim
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 8
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
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4.2.1. Cc gi thuyt
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65......................................................................................................................
A. nh ngha bi ton
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B. Xem xt thi gian thit lp yu cu
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C. Yu cu n
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D. Xem xt kin trc ca mng quang thng minh ION
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E. Cc iu kin rng buc vt l
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4.2.2. Xy dng hm mc tiu
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4.2.3. M t bi ton RWA
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A. Gii thut nh tuyn
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B. M t bi ton nh tuyn
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4.3. Xy dng m hnh
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inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 9
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
4.3.1 ng li thc thi
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A. M hnh mng
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B. Cc tham s h thng
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4.4. Kt qu v so snh
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4.4.1. So snh cc bi ton gn bc sng
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4.4.2. Tc nghn v trung bnh tuyn lin kt s dng
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4.4.3. Nhn xt chung v tc nghn trong mng ION
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4.4.4. So snh gia cc thc o TAW n gin v nng cao
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Kt lun
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inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 10
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
THUT NG VIT TT
ADM Add-Drop Multiplexer B ghp knh xen r
ARIS Aggregate Route-Based IP Chuyn mch IP theo
phng php tp hp tuyn
ASE Amplified Spontaneous Emission Pht x t pht c
khuych tn
ATM Asynchronous Tranfer Mode Phng thc truyn ti khng
ng b
BGP Boder Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn cng min
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol Giao thc mng phi kt
ni
CPU Central Processor Unit B x l trung tm
CR-LDP Constraint-Based routing Labed Giao thc phn b nhn
c xc
Distribution protocol nh tuyn da trn rng buc
CSR Cell Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch t bo
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier Nhn dng kt ni lp lien kt
d
liu
DLE Dynamic Lightpath Establishment Thit lp lung quang
ng
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Ghp knh phn chia theo bc
Muntiplexing sngmt cao (40 hoc
80 knh
quang trn m si)
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class Lp chuyn tip tng ng
FIB Forwarding Information Base C s d liu chuyn tip trong
b nh tuyn
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 11
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
GMPLS Generalized Multi Protocol Label Chuyn mch nhn a
giao thc
Switching tng qut
IETF International Engineering Task T chc tiu chun k thut
Quc
Force t cho Internet
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol Giao thc nh tuyn
trong min
ILP Integer Linear Program Quy hoch tuyn tnh
nguyn
IP Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet
ISCD Interface Switching Capability B m t kh nng chuyn
mch
Descriptor giao din
IS-IS Intermediate System to Giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS
Intermediate System
IS-IS-TE Intermediate System to Giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS c k
Intermediate System Traffic thut lu lng
Engineering
LDP Label Distribution Protocol Giao thc phn b nhn
LMP Link Management Protocol Giao thc qun l knh
LSA Link State Advertisement Bn tin qung b trng
thi lin kt
LSP Label Switching Path ng chuyn mch nhn
LSR Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn mch
nhn
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a giao
thc
NGN Next Generation Network Mng th h sau
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 12
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
NP Subset op class NP problems Tp hp con ca lp cc bi
ton
Complete NP m n c xem rt kh
gii
OSPF Open Shortest Path First Giao thc nh tuyn
OSPF
OSPF-TE Open Shortest Path First-Traffic Giao thc nh tuyn
OSPF
Engineering c k thut lu lng
OXC Optical Cross-Connect u ni cho quang
PMD Polarization Mode Dispersion Tn sc mt phn cc
PPP Point to Point Protocol Giao thc im - im
RIP Realtime Internet Protocol Giao thc bo hiu IP thi gian
thc
RSVP Wavelength Resvation Protocol Giao thc t trc ti
nguyn
RSVP-TE Wavelength Resvation Protocol- Giao thc t trc ti
nguyn c
Traffic Engineering k thut lu lng
RWA Routing and Wavelength nh tuyn v gn bc sng
Assignment
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Phn cp truyn dn s ng
b
SLE Static Lightpath Establishment Thit lp lung quang tnh
Sonet Synchronous Optical Network Mng quang ng b
TCP Transport Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin
truyn ti
TE Traffic Engineering K thut lu lng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 13
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
TED Traffic Engineering Database C s d liu c k thut lu
lng
TLV Type Length Value Gi tr chiu di tuyn (s
nt)
TWA Total Wavelength and Available Tng s bc sng v
bc sng
C th s dng
UDP User Data Protocol Giao thc d liu ngi
s dng
UNI User Network Interface Giao din mng- ngi s dng
VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier Trng nhn dng knh o
VPI Virtual Path Identifier Trng nhn dng ng o
WCC Wavelegth Continuity Rng buc bc sng lin tc
Constraint
WRN Wavelength Routed Network Mng inh tuyn bc sng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 14
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
LI M U
Trong nhng nm gn y,cng vi vic bng n Internet trn ton cu
ko theo l cc dch v mi nh truyn hnh s a phng tin, video,
x l nh i hi bng thng ngy cng cao ln ti c gigabyte vi khong
cch xa, mt cao ri ro thp. Nhng cc giao thc hin nay khng th
p ng c nhu cu . Do xu th tt yu l cn phi c mt giao
thc mi ra i nhm tho mn cc yu cu trn.Theo nghin cu th cc
si quang vi thun li v bng thng (tn s sng mang c 200 THz),
trong lng v kch thc nh; hon ton cch bit v in, khng c giao
thoa cng nh suy ho v ng truyn thp. V nhng u im
c pht trin cho cc ng dng rng ri trong mng truyn dn hin nay.
tn dng c nhng u im trn th vic phn lung v gn bc
sng ph hp cho tn hiu n v i cho cc tuyn trn si quang l cng
vic rt c ngha nhm pht huy nng lc tim tng ca si trong vic
tng dung lng ng truyn
Trn th gii mng ghp knh theo bc sng WDM (Wavelength
Division Multiplexing) c thng mi ho t nm 1996. Xu th pht
trin mng hin nay Vit Nam l mc tiu xy dng mng truyn ti ton
quang cho mng th h sau NGN (Next Generation Network) da trn cng
ngh WDM. Nhng l lc phi thng v cng ngh truyn dn quang trong
tp trung vo nghin cu vn cng ngh mng WDM trn th gii
hin nay ang dn dn p ng c nhu cu tt yu ca mng. C nhiu
vn cn phi c gii quyt trong mng WDM nhm ngy cng hon
thin c tnh mng. Trong cc vn th nh tuyn v gn bc
sng trong mng quang ni chung v mng WDM ni ring c coi l mt
trong nhng k thut quan trng nht v c tnh sng cn. Mt mt k thut
ny cho php xy dng c mng truyn dn quang linh hot v m bo
thng sut cc lu lng tn hiu ln. Mt khc n cho php tn dng bng
tn ca si quang trong khi vn n gin ho c rt nhiu cu trc
mng. iu c tc ng ln ti vic xy dng v bo dng mng rt c
hiu qu sau ny.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 15
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Trong nhng nm gn y ngnh cng nghip vin thng v ang
tm mt phng php chuyn mch c th kt hp u im ca IP (nh c
cu nh tuyn) v ca ATM (nh thng lng chuyn mch). Cng ngh
chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) l
kt qu pht trin ca nhiu cng ngh chuyn mch Ip s dng c ch
hon i nhn nh ca ATM tng tc truyn gi tin m khng cn
thay i cc giao thc nh tuyn ca IP. Nhng gn y nn cng nghip
vin thng li b ht v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
(Generalized MPLS) do gii php v mt phng iu khin cho mng quang
th h sau.GMPLS h tr khng ch cc thit b thc hin chuyn mch gi
m cn thc hin chuyn mch theo min thi gian, theo bc sng v
theo khng gian. GMPLS nhm hin i ho vic nh tuyn qua mng
thng tin quang bng vic to ra mt mt phng chung gia cc lp qun l
dch v IP v cc lp thng tin quang, c bit cho php chng phn ng
rt linh hot vi cc yu cu thay i bng thng, cho php thit lp cc
dch v thng tin quang nng ng hn.
Vi ngha cng vic nghin cu tm hiu v nh gi cc thut
ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong mng quang da trn GMPLS
c tin hnh trong lun vn ny l rt cn thit, c bit khi xu th mng
NGN yu cu vic cp pht ti nguyn.Vi ton b ni dung trnh by trong
lun vn ny, ti mong mun c tip tc nghin cu v vn ny
nhm tham gia v trao i mt vn hc thut trong mt lnh vc mng
thng tin quang cn rt rng ln v hp dn.
Mc ch ca ti lun vn l nghin cu cc k thut nh tuyn v
gn bc sng trong mng quang da trn GMPLS. Vi mc tiu ni
dung ca lun vn bao gm cc vn sau:
Chong 1: Gii thiu tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a
giao thc (MPLS) v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut (GMPLS)
Chng 2: Gii thiu v vn nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong
mng quang (RWA) v cch thc chung gii quyt bi ton ny
Chng 3: Tp trung trnh by v phng php nh tuyn v gn
bc sng trong mng quang da trn k thut chuyn mch nhn a giao
thc tng qut GMPLS
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 16
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Chng 4: Tp trung vo vic xy dng m hnh bi ton nh tuyn
v gn bc sng trong mng quang da trn k thut chuyn mch nhn
a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
CHNG 1
TNG QUAN V CNG NGH CHUYN MCH
NHN A GIAO THC MPLS V GMPLS
1.1 GII THIU
Trong nhng nm gn y cng vi s bng n ca Internet trn
ton cu th cc dch v thoi v a phng tin cng ngy cng pht trin
vi tc chng mt. Ko theo l vn v tc v di thng ca cc
dch v ny vt qu ti nguyn h tng ca Internet hin nay.
Nh chng ta bit giao thc nh tuyn TCP/IP c u im l kh
nng nh tuyn v truyn gi tin mt cch ht sc mm do v linh hot.
Tuy nhin nhc im ca n l khng m bo c cht lng dch v,
tc truyn tin theo yu cu. Trong khi cng ngh ATM c th mnh
u vit v tc truyn tin cao, m bo thi gian thc v cht lng dch
v theo yu cu nh trc nhng n li khng c c kh nng nh
tuyn mm do nh ca TCP/IP. Gii php c t ra i vi cc nh
khoa hc l tm ra mt phng thc chuyn mch c th kt hp ng thi
u im ca TCP/IP v ATM. S kt hp c th l gii php k vng cho
mng vin thng tng lai- mng th h sau NGN.
Chuyn mch nhn l gii php p ng c nhu cu . C l yu
t thc y quan trng nht ng sau chuyn mch nhn l nhu cu pht
trin chc nng nh tuyn ca Internet v IP. V cng l iu tt yu do
i hi ca s pht trin nhanh chng ca Internet.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 17
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
S ra i ca chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS gp phn
gii quyt cc vn m cc mng ngy nay ang phi i mt nh tc ,
lu lng truyn kh nng m rng cp mng, qun l cht lng dch
v (QoS). MPLS xut hin p ng cc yu cu dch v v qun l
bng thng cho giao thc Internet (IP) th h sau da trn mng ng
trc.
Ni tm li, s ra i ca MPLS ng mt vai tr quan trng trong
vic nh tuyn, chuyn mch v chuyn tip cc gi qua mng th h sau
cng nh gii quyt cc vn lin quan ti kh nng m rng mng. N
c th hot ng vi cc mng Frame Relay v ch truyn ti khng
ng b ATM hin nay p ng cc nhu cu dch v ca ngi s dng.

1.2. CNG NGH IP
Nh nhc trn MPLS l s kt hp ca hai cng ngh IP v
ATM. Nn chng ta s gii thiu khi qut v hai cng ngh ny.
S pht trin t bin ca IP, s tng trng theo cp s nhn ca
thu bao Internet l mt thc t khng ai c th ph nhn. Hin nay,
lng dch v ln nht trn cc mng ng trc trn thc t u l t IP.
Trong cng tc tiu chun ho cc loi k thut, vic m bo tt hn cho IP
tr thnh trng im ca cng tc nghin cu.
IP l giao thc lin mng phi kt ni. Vic chuyn gi tin thc hin
theo c ch phi kt ni. IP nh ngha c cu nh s, c cu chuyn tin,
c cu nh tuyn v cc chc nng iu khin mc thp (ICMP). Gi tin
IP gm a ch ca bn nhn a ch l s duy nht trong ton mng v
mang y thng tin cn cho vic chuyn gi ti ch. T khi giao thc
ny ra i, n nhanh chng tr thnh giao thc lin mng thng dng nht.
Ngy nay gn nh cc lin mng cng cng s dng giao thc IP. Mng IP
c mt khp mi ni, mng Internet ton cu chng ta hin nay cng
ang s dng giao thc IP.
Bn cnh nhng u im tuyt vi ca giao thc IP (nh kh nng
nh tuyn), n cng c khng t nhng nhc im (nh kh nng qun l
cht lng dch v), cc nh cung cp mng trong qu trnh pht trin lin
tc b sung cc giao thc, thut ton mi (chng hn cc giao thc QoS
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 18
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
nh: RSVP, IntServ, DiffServ; giao thc IPSec, RTP/RTCP hay cc thut
ton tng tc tm kim a ch trong bng nh tuyn) c th khc phc
cc nhc im ca mng IP. Nhng ci g cng c gii hn ca n, khi nhu
cu s dng dch v ca ngi s dng tng ln c v loi hnh ln cht
lng dch v th mi s b sung l khng v cn c nhng cng ngh
mng mi c bn cht khc (khng l gii php phi kt ni) p ng yu cu
QoS tt hn. V th l nhiu cng ngh mng ra i, in hnh l FR v
ATM.
Tm li, IP l mt giao thc chuyn mch gi c tin cy v kh
nng m rng cao. Tuy nhin, vic iu khin lu lng rt kh thc hin
do phng thc nh tuyn theo tng chng. Mt khc, IP cng khng h
tr cht lng dch v.
1.3. CNG NGH ATM
Cng vi s pht trin ca Internet v tng tc x l ca b nh
tuyn l s pht trin mnh trong lnh vc chuyn mch. Mng s dch v
tch hp bng rng (B-ISDN) l mt k thut cho php truyn thng thi
gian thc gia cc thit b truyn thng u cui, s dng k thut ATM.
ATM c th mang mi lung thng tin nh thoi, d liu, video, phn mnh
n thnh cc gi c kch thc c nh (gi l cell), v sau truyn ti cc
cell trn ng dn c thit lp trc, gi l kt ni o.
Cng ngh ATM da trn c s phng php chuyn mch gi,
thng tin c nhm vo cc gi tin c chiu di c nh, trong v tr ca
gi khng ph thuc vo ng h ng b, v da trn nhu cu bt k ca
knh trc. Cc chuyn mch ATM cho php hot ng vi nhiu tc v
dch v khc nhau.
ATM c hai c im quan trng:
- Th nht ATM s dng cc gi c kch thc nh v c nh gi l
cc t bo ATM, cc t bo nh vi tc truyn ln s lm cho tr truyn
lan v bin ng tr gim nh i vi cc dch v thi gian thc, cng s
to iu kin cho vic kt hp knh tc cao c d dng hn.
- Th hai ATM c kh nng nhm mt vi knh o thnh mt ng
o nhm gip cho vic nh tuyn c d dng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 19
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ATM khc vi nh tuyn IP mt s im. N l cng ngh chuyn
mch hng kt ni. Kt ni t im u n im cui phi c thit lp
trc khi thng tin c gi i. ATM yu cu kt ni phi c thit lp
bng nhn cng hoc thit lp mt cch t ng thng qua bo hiu. Mt
khc, ATM khng thc hin nh tuyn ti cc nt trung gian. Tuyn kt ni
xuyn sut c xc nh trc khi trao i d liu v c gi c nh
trong sut thi gian kt ni. Trong qu trnh thit lp kt ni, cc tng i
ATM trung gian cung cp cho kt ni mt nhn. Vic ny nhm thc hin
hai iu: dnh cho kt ni mt s ti nguyn v xy dng bng chuyn t
bo ti mi tng i. Bng chuyn t bo c tnh cc b v ch cha thng
tin v cc kt ni ang hot ng i qua tng i. iu ny khc vi thng
tin v ton mng cha trong bng chuyn tin ca router dng IP.
Qu trnh chuyn tip t bo qua tng i ATM cng tng t vic
chuyn gi tin qua router. Tuy nhin, ATM c th chuyn mch nhanh hn
v nhn gn trn cell c kch thc c nh (nh hn ca IP), kch thc
bng chuyn tin nh hn nhiu so vi ca IP router, v vic ny c thc
hin trn cc thit b phn cng chuyn dng. Do vy, thng lng ca
tng i ATM thng ln hn thng lng ca IP router truyn thng.
Do c kh nng h tr truyn d liu, thoi, v video vi cht lng
cao trn mt s cc cng ngh bng tn cao khc nhau, ATM tng c
xem nh l cng ngh chuyn mch ha hn v thu ht nhiu s quan tm.
Tuy nhin, hin nay cng nh trong tng lai h thng ton ATM s khng
phi l s la chn ph hp nht.
i vi cc ng dng c thi gian kt ni ngn, th mi trng hng
kt ni dng nh li khng thch hp do thi gian thit lp kt ni cng
nh t l phn thng tin mo u li qu ln. Vi cc loi lu lng nh
vy th mi trung phi kt ni vi phng thc nh tuyn n gin, trnh
phi s dng cc giao thc bo hiu phc tp s ph hp hn.
1.4. CNG NGH MPLS
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS) l kt qu ca qu trnh
pht trin nhiu gii php chuyn mch IP, c chun ho bi IETF. Tn
gi ca n bt ngun t thc t l hon i nhn c s dng nh l
k thut chuyn tip nm bn di. S dng t a giao thc trong tn
ca n c ngha l n c th h tr nhiu giao thc lp mng, khng ch
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 20
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ring IP. Ngoi ra cc nh cung cp mng c th cu hnh v chy MPLS
trn cc cng ngh lp 2 khc nhau nh Fram Relay khng ch ring
ATM. V mt kin trc iu ny l ng, nhng trong thc t MPLS thng
tp trung vo vic vn chuyn cc dch v IP trn nn ATM.
MPLS l gii php nhm lin kt nh tuyn lp mng v c ch hon
i nhn thnh mt gii php n nht t c cc mc tiu sau:
Ci thin hiu nng nh tuyn
Ci thin tnh mm do ca nh tuyn trn cc m hnh xp chng
truyn thng.
Tng tnh mm do trong qu trnh a v pht trin cc loi hnh
dch v mi.
Mng MPLS c kh nng chuyn cc gi tin ti lp 3 bng vic s
dng x l tng gi v chuyn tip gi tin ti lp 2 s dng c ch hon i
nhn. MPLS da trn m hnh ngang cp, v vy mi mt thit b MPLS
chy mt giao thc nh tuyn IP, trao i thng tin nh tuyn vi cc thit
b ln cn, v ch duy tr mt khng gian cu hnh mng v mt khng gian
a ch.
MPLS chia b nh tuyn lm hai phn ring bit: chc nng chuyn
gi tin v chc nng iu khin. Phn chc nng chuyn gi tin vi nhim
v gi gi tin gia cc b nh tuyn IP, s dng c ch hon i nhn
tng t nh ca ATM.Trong MPLS nhn l mt thc th c di c nh
v khng ph thuc vo lp mng. K thut hon i nhn v bn cht l
vic tm chng k tip ca gi tin trong mt bng chuyn tip nhn, sau
thay th gi tr nhn ca gi ri chuyn ra cng ra ca b nh tuyn. Vic
ny n gin hn nhiu so vi vic x l gi tin thng thng v do vy ci
tin kh nng ca thit b. Cc b nh tuyn s dng thit b ny gi l b
nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label switching Router). Phn chc
nng iu khin ca MPLS bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng vi
nhim v phn phi thng tin nh tuyn gia cc LSR, v th tc gn nhn
chuyn thng tin nh tuyn thnh bng nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn.
MPLS c th hot ng c vi cc giao thc nh tuyn Internet nh
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) v BGP (Boder Gateway Protocol) hay
PNNI ca ATM. Do MPLS h tr iu khin lu lng v cho php thit lp
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 21
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
tuyn c nh nn vic m bo dch v ca cc tuyn l hon ton kh thi.
Ngoi ra, MPLS cn c c ch nh tuyn li nhanh (fast rerouting).
Bn cnh tin cy, cng ngh MPLS cng h tr vic qun l mng
c d dng hn. Do MPLS qun l vic chuyn tin theo cc lung thng
tin, cc gi tin thuc mt FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class - lp chuyn
tip tng ng) c th c xc nh bi gi tr ca nhn. Do vy, trong
min MPLS, cc thit b o lu lng mng c th da trn nhn phn
loi cc gi tin. Bng cch gim st lu lng ti cc b nh tuyn chuyn
mch nhn LSR, nghn lu lng nhanh chng c pht hin v v tr xy
ra nghn lu lng c th xc nh. Tuy nhin, gim st lu lng theo
phng thc ny khng a ra c ton b thng tin v cht lng dch
v (v d nh tr xuyn xut ca min MPLS). Vic o tr c th c thc
hin bi giao thc lp hai. gim st tc ca mi lung v m bo
cc lung lu lng tun th tnh cht lu lng c nh trc, h
thng gim st c th dng mt thit b nh dng lu lng. Thit b ny s
cho php gim st v m bo tun th c tnh lu lng m khng cn
thay i cc giao thc hin c.
Khi mt gi tin vo mng MPLS, cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch
nhn khng thc hin chuyn tip theo tng gi m thc hin phn loi gi
tin vo trong cc lp tng ng chuyn tip FEC, sau cc nhn c
nh x vo trong cc FEC. Mt giao thc phn b nhn LDP c xc nh
v chc nng ca n l n nh v phn b cc rng buc FEC/nhn
cho cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR. Khi LDP hon thnh nhim
v ca n, mt ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP c xy dng t li
vo ti li ra. Khi cc gi vo mng, LSR li vo kim tra nhiu trng trong
tiu gi xc nh xem gi thuc v FEC no. Nu c mt rng
buc nhn/FEC th LSR li vo gn nhn cho gi v nh hng n ti giao
din u ra tng ng. Sau gi c hon i nhn qua mng cho n
khi n n LSR li ra, lc nhn b loi b v gi c x l ti lp 3.
Hiu nng t c y l nh vic a qu trnh x l lp 3 ti bin ca
mng v ch thc hin mt ln ti thay cho vic x l ti tng node trung
gian nh ca IP. Ti cc node trung gian vic x l ch l tm s ph hp
gia nhn trong gi v thc th tng ng trong bng kt ni LSR v sau
hon i nhn- qu trnh ny thc hin bng phn cng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 22
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Mc d hiu nng v hiu qu l 2 kt qu quan trng, song chng
khng phi l cc li ch duy nht m MPLS cung cp. Trong mt ca
nhng nh cung cp cc mng ln, th kh nng thc hin k thut lu
lng tin tin m khng phi tr gi v hiu nng ca MPLS c quan
tm c bit.
MPLS thc hin cc chc nng sau:
+ Xc nh c cu qun l cc tnh ht khc nhau ca cc lung lu
lng, nh cc lung gia cc my, phn cng khc nhau hoc thm ch
cc lung gia nhng ng dng khc nhau.
+ Duy tr s c lp ca cc giao thc lp 2 v 3
+ Cung cp phng php nh x a ch IP vi cc nhn n gin,
c di c nh c s dng bi cc cng ngh chuyn tip gi v
chuyn mch gi khc nhau
+ Giao din vi cc giao thc nh tuyn hin c nh giao thc t
trc ti nguyn RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) v giao thc m
ng ngn nht u tin (OSPF)
+ H tr IP, ATM v giao thc lp 2 Frame Relay
Trong MPLS vic truyn d liu xy ra trn cc ng chuyn mch nhn
LSPs (Label Switch Path) to ra t u vo n u ra ca mng MPLS
dng chuyn tip gi ca FEC no s dng c ch chuyn i nhn.
LSPs c thit lp trc khi truyn d liu (kch thch iu khin). Cc
nhn (tn nhn dng chnh xc giao thc) c phn b bng vic s dng
giao thc phn b nhn LDP (Label Ditribution Protocol) hoc RSVP hoc
c i ln (piggybacked) cc giao thc nh tuyn nh giao thc nh
tuyn cng min (BGP) v OSPF. Mi gi d liu bc v mang cc nhn
trong sut hnh trnh ca chng t ngun ti ch. Bi v cc nhn c
di c nh c chn u gi hoc t bo nn c th chuyn mch gi
nhanh gia cc tuyn lin kt bng phn cng.
1.4.1. CC KHI NIM C BN MPLS
Nhn
Nhn l mt thc th c di ngn, c nh v khng c cu trc
bn trong. Nhn xc nh ng m gi s i qua. Nhn khng trc tip m
ho thng tin ca mo u lp mng, nh a ch lp mng. Nhn c
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 23
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
gn vo mt gi tin c th s i din cho mt FEC m gi tin c n
nh.
Thng th mt gi c n nh cho mt FEC (hon ton hoc mt
phn) da a ch ch lp mng ca n. Tuy nhin nhn khng bao gi l
m ho ca a ch . Dng ca nhn ph thuc vo phng tin truyn
m gi tin c ng gi. V d cc gi ATM (t bo) s dng gi tr VPI/
VCI nh nhn, Frame Relay s dng DLCI nh nhn, mt on m c
chn thm s dng cho nhn. Khun dng on m gm 4 byte c cu
trc nh hnh sau.
Hnh 1.1: Dng nhn MPLS chung
i vi cc khung PPP hay Ethernet gi tr nhn dng giao thc P-ID
(hoc Ethertype) c chn thm vo mo u khung tng ng thng
bo khung l MPLS unicast hay multicast
Ngn xp nhn (Label stack)
l mt tp hp c th t cc nhn gn theo gi truyn ti thng
tin v nhiu FEC m gi nm trong v v cc LSP tng ng m gi i qua.
Ngn xp nhn cho php MPLS h tr nh tuyn phn cp (mt nhn cho
EGP v mt nhn cho IGP) v t chc a LSP trong mt trung k LSP. Mi
mc trong ngn xp nhn gn lin vi mc phn cp no . iu ny to
thun li cho ch hot ng ng hm trong MPLS
B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label switching Router)
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 24
1 bit
Link Layer
Header
MPLS Shim
Network Layer
Header
Other Layers Headers
and data
Label
Exp.bi
t
BS TTL

20 bits 3 bits
8 bits
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
L thit b (Router hay Switch) s dng trong mng MPLS chuyn
cc gi tin bng th tc phn phi nhn. C mt s loi LSR c bn nh
sau: LSR, LSR bin, ATM-LSR, ATM-LSR bin
Cc lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC (Forwarding Equivalence
Classes)
Cc lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC) l khi nim c dng
ch mt lp cc gi c u tin nh sau (chng u gi ti chng tip
theo nh nhau) qua mng MPLS ngay c khi c s khc bit gia cc gi
tin ny th hin trong mo u lp mng.
+ Bng chuyn tip chuyn mch nhn
L bng chuyn tip nhn c cha thng tin v nhn vo, nhn ra,
giao din vo, giao din ra.
ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Switching Path)
L tuyn to ra t u vo n u ra ca mng MPLS dng
chuyn tip gi ca mt FEC no s dng c ch hon i nhn. LSP
c thit lp trc khi truyn d liu. MPLS cung cp hai la chn cho
vic thit lp LSP.
nh tuyn theo chng - Mi LSR la chn chng tip theo mt cch
c lp cho mt FEC nht nh. Phng php ny ging vi hin nay
c s dng trong mng IP. LSR s dng giao thc nh tuyn c sn
no nh OSPF, giao din mng - mng ring ATM (PNNI)
nh tuyn r rng (explicit) nh tuyn r rng ging nh nh tuyn
ngun. LSR li vo (tc l LSR m d liu bt u truyn) xc nh danh
sch cc nt m ER-LSP truyn qua. ng dn xc nh c th khng
ti u cng c. Dc ng i ti nguyn c th c t trc m
bo QoS cho lu lng d liu. iu ny lm gim nh k thut lu lng
khp mng, v cc dch v phn bit c cung cp bng vic s dng cc
lung da trn cc chnh sch hoc phng thc qun l mng.
C s d liu nhn.
L bng kt ni trong LSR. C cha gi tr nhn FEC c gn vo
cng ra cng nh thng tin v ng gi phng tin truyn.
Gi tin dn nhn
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 25
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Gi tin dn nhn l gi tin m nhn c m ho trong . Trong mt
vi trng hp, nhn nm trong mo u ca gi tin dnh ring cho mc
ch dn nhn. Trong cc trng hp khc, nhn c th c t chung
vo trong mo u lp mng v lp lin kt d liu min l y c trng
c th dng cho mc ch dn nhn. Cng ngh m ho c s dng phi
ph hp vi c thc th m ho v thc th gii m.
n nh v phn phi nhn.
Trong mng MPLS, quyt nh kt hp nhn L c th vi mt FEC
M c th l do LSR pha trc thc hin. LSR pha trc sau khi kt hp s
thng bo vi LSR pha sau v kt hp . Do vy, cc nhn c LSR
pha trc n nh v cc kt hp nhn c phn phi theo hng t
LSR pha trc ti LSR pha sau.
1.4.2. THNH PHN C BN CA MPLS
LSR: L thnh phn quan trng c bn ca mng MPLS. LSR l thit
b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn (Label Switching Router). Thit b ny thc
hin chc nng chuyn tip gi thng tin trong phm vi mng MPLS bng
th tc phn phi nhn.
LSR bin: L thit b nm bin ca mng MPLS. LSRs bin gi hay
nhn cc gi thng tin t hay n mng khc nhau (Frame Relay,ATM.)
v chuyn tip lu lng ca cc mng ny ln mng MPLS sau khi thit
lp LSPs bng vic s dng giao thc bo hiu nhn li vo v phn b
lu lng tr li mng truy nhp li ra. LSR bin gn hay loi b nhn
cho cc gi thng tin n hoc i ra khi mng MPLS. Cc LSR bin c th
l Igress Router (router li vo) hay Egress Router (router li ra).
ATM- LSR: S dng giao thc MPLS trong bng iu khin thit lp
knh o ATM. Chuyn tip t bo n nt ATM-LSR tip theo.
ATM-LSR bin: Nhn gi c nhn hoc khng c nhn, phn vo cc
t bo ATM v gi cc t bo n nt ATM-LSR tip theo. Nhn cc t bo
ATM t
ATM-LSR cn k, ti to cc gi t cc t bo ATM v chuyn tip
gi c nhn hoc khng nhn.
1.4.3. CC GIAO THC S DNG MPLS
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 26
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Tham gia vo qu trnh truyn thng tin trong mng MPLS c mt s
giao thc nh LDP, RSVP, CR-LDP, MPLS-BGP. Cc giao thc nh RIP,
OSPF s dng trong mng router nh tuyn cc gi IP s khng c
cp n phn ny.
A. Giao thc phn phi nhn LDP
Giao thc phn phi nhn c nhm nghin cu MPLS ca IETF
xy dng v ban hnh di tn RFC 3036. Phin bn mi nht c cng
b nm 2001 a ra nhng nh ngha v nguyn tc hot ng ca giao
thc LDP.
Giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong qu trnh gn nhn
cho cc gi thng tin. V tr ca giao thc LDP v cc mi lin kt chc
nng c bn ca LDP vi cc giao thc khc th hin trn hnh 2.6. Giao
thc LDP l giao thc iu khin tch bit c cc LSR s dng trao
i v iu phi qu trnh gn nhn/FEC. Giao thc ny l mt tp hp cc
th tc trao i cc bn tin cho php cc LSR s dng gi tr nhn thuc
FEC nht nh truyn cc gi thng tin.
Mt kt ni TCP c thit lp gia cc LSR ng cp m bo
cc bn tin LDP c truyn mt cch trung thc theo ng th t. Cc
bn tin LDP c th xut pht t bt c mt LSR (iu khin ng chuyn
mch nhn LSR c lp) hay t LSR bin li ra (iu khin LSP theo lnh)
v chuyn t LSR pha trc n LSR pha sau cn k. Vic trao i cc
bn tin LDP c th c khi pht bi s pht hin ca lung s liu c
bit, bn tin lp d tr RSVP hay cp nhp thng tin nh tuyn. Khi mt
cp LSR trao i bn tin LDP cho mt FEC nht nh th mt ng
chuyn mch LSP t u vo n u ra c thit lp sau khi mi LSR
ghp nhn u vo vi nhn u ra tng ng trong LIB ca n. LDP c
th hot ng gia cc LSR kt ni trc tip hay khng trc tip.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 27
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Thnhphngiaoth cMPLS
Thnhphngiaothckhngphi MPLS
C
s
thng
tin
nhn
Mgr Dscy Sess Adtv Notf
OSPF UDP TCP
IP
MPLSFwd ARP
MAC
PHY
Mgr QunlLDP
Dscy Bntinthmd
Sess Bntinqunlphin
Advt PhthnhLDP
Notf Bntinxcnhn
Giaothcphnbnhn
Hnh 1.2. V tr giao thc LDP trong b giao thc MPLS
Cc loi bn tin LDP
LDP nh ngha 4 loi bn tin: Bn tin thm d, Bn tin phin, Bn tin
pht hnh, Bn tin thng bo. Bn loi bn tin ny cng ni ln chc nng
m n thc hin.
Bn tin thm d (Discovery): Dng thng bo v duy tr s c
mt ca 1 LSR trong mng. Theo nh k, LSR gi bn tin Hello
qua cng UDP vi a ch multicast ca tt c cc router trn
mng con.
Bn tin phin (Session): thit lp, duy tr, v xo cc phin
gia cc LSR. Hot ng ny yu cu gi cc bn tin Initialization
trn TCP. Sau khi hot ng ny hon thnh cc LSR tr thnh
cc i tng ngang cp LDP
Bn tin pht hnh (Advertisement): Dng to, thay i v
xo cc rng buc nhn vi cc FEC. Nhng bn tin ny cng
mang trn TCP. Mt LSR c th yu cu 1 nh x nhn t LSR
ln cn bt k khi no n cn. N cng pht hnh cc nh x nhn
bt c khi no n mun mt i tng ngang cp LDP no s
dng rng buc nhn.
Bn tin thng bo (Notification): Dng cung cp cc thng bo
li, thng tin chn on, v thng tin trng thi. Nhng bn tin ny
cng mang trn TCP.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 28
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
a s cc bn tin LDP chy trn giao thc TCP m bo tin
cy ca cc bn tin (ngoi tr bn tin thm d).
LDP c thit k d dng m rng, s dng kiu bn tin c bit
thu thp cc i tng m ho TVL (kiu, di, gi tr).
Th tc thm d LSR ln cn
Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn ca LDP chy trn UDP thc hin nh
sau (hnh 1.3):
Mt LSR nh k gi bn tin Hello ti cc cng UDP bit trong
tt c cc b nh tuyn trong mng con ca nhm multicast.
Tt c cc LSR tip nhn bn tin Hello ny trn cng UDP. Nh vy,
ti mt thi im no LSR s bit c tt c cc LSR khc m n
c kt ni trc tip.
Khi LSR nhn bit c a ch ca LSR khc bng c ch ny th
n s thit lp kt ni TCP n LSR .
Khi phin LDP c thit lp gia 2 LSR. Phin LDP l phin hai
chiu c ngha l mi LSR hai u kt ni u c th yu cu v gi
rng buc nhn.
Trong trng hp cc LSR khng kt ni trc tip trong mt mng
con, ngi ta s dng mt c ch b sung nh sau:
LSR nh k gi bn tin Hello n cng UDP bit ti a ch IP xc
nh c khai bo khi lp cu hnh. u nhn bn tin ny c th tr li li
bng bn tin HELLO khc truyn mt chiu ngc li n LSR gi v vic
thit lp cc phin LDP c thc hin nh trn.
Thng thng trng hp ny hay c p dng khi gia 2 LSR c
mt ng LSP cho iu khin lu lng v n yu cu phi gi cc gi c
nhn qua ng LSP .
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 29
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
UDP Hello
UDP Hello
TCP Open
Initialization
Label Request
Label Mapping
IP
Hnh 1.3. Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn
Tiu bn tin LDP
Mi mt bn tin LDP c gi l n v d liu giao thc PDU, c
bt u bng tiu bn tin v sau l cc bn tin LDP nh c
trnh by trn. Hnh 2.8 ch ra cc trng chc nng ca tiu LDP v
cc trng ny thc hin cc chc nng sau:
Phin bn: Ch s phin bn ca giao thc, phin bn ang s
dng hin ti l phin bn 1.
di PDU: Tng di ca PDU tnh theo octet, ngoi tr
trng phin bn v trng di.
Nhn dng LDP: Nhn dng khng gian nhn ca LSR gi bn
tin ny. Bn octet u tin cha a ch IP c gn cho LSR
(nhn dng b nh tuyn). Hai octet cui nhn dng khng gian
nhn bn trong LSR.Vi LSR c khng
gian nhn ln, trng chc nng ny t v gi tr 0.
.
0
1 5 3 1
P h i n b n
d i P D U
N h n d n g L D P
N h n d n g L D P
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 30
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Hnh 1.4. Tiu LDP
M ho TLV
LDP s dng lc m ho kiu- di-gi tr m ho cc thng
tin mang trong bn tin LDP. Nh ch ra trn hnh 2.9, TVL c m ho
thnh mt trng 2 octet trong s dng 14 bt c trng cho kiu, v
2 bit (U, F) cho trng hp LSR khng nhn ra c kiu, 2 octet tip theo
l trng di v trng gi tr c di thay i.
Trng kiu qui nh cc trng m gi tr c dch.
Trng di xc nh di ca trng gi tr.
Trng gi tr c th cha cc TLV khc.
0
1 5 3 1
K i u
d i
G i t r
U F
Hnh 1.5. M ho TLV
Da trn bn tin nhn c, khi bit U c gi tr 0, LSR s gi thng
bo ngc li ti ni pht v ton b bn tin s c b qua. Nu U c gi
tr 1 th mc d khng nhn ra kiu LSR khng cn gi thng bo v vn x
l phn cn li ca bn tin nh th l bn tin cha bit kiu ny khng tn
ti.
Bit F ch c s dng khi bit U = 1 v bn tin LDP cha bn tin
cha bit kiu ny c truyn i. Nu bt F bng 0 th bn tin cha bit
kiu s khng chuyn i cng bn tin LDP cha n v nu bit F=1 th bn
tin cha bit kiu s chuyn i cng bn tin LDP cha n.
Cc khun dng v chc nng ca cc TLV (vt khi phm vi
n ny nn xin php khng ni n).
Khun dng bn tin LDP
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 31
ID bn tin
U Kiu bn tin di bn tin
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Hnh 1.6. Khun dng cc bn tin LDP
Bit U: bit bn tin cha bit. Nu bit ny bng 1 th n khng th
c thng dch bi pha nhn, lc bn tin b b qua m khng
c phn hi.
Kiu bn tin: Ch ra kiu bn tin l g?
di bn tin: Ch ra chiu di ca cc phn nhn dng bn tin,
cc thng s bt buc, v cc thng s tu chn.
Nhn dng bn tin: l mt s nhn dng duy nht bn tin.
Trng ny c th c s dng kt hp cc bn tin thng
bo vi mt bn tin khc.
Thng s bt buc, v Thng s tu chn tu thuc vo tng
bn tin LDP.
V mt nguyn l, mi th xut hin trong bn tin LDP c th c
m ho theo TLV, nhng cc c t LDP khng phi lun lun s dng
lc TLV. N khng c s dng khi n khng cn thit v s s dng
n khi s gy lng ph khng gian. Chng hn khng cn thit phi s
dng khun dng TLV nu chiu di ca gi tr l c nh hay kiu ca gi
tr c bit v khng phi ch nh mt nhn dng kiu.
Khun dng v chc nng cc bn tin LDP
Phn ny cung cp thng tin v khun dng v chc nng ca cc
bn tin LDP bao gm:
Bn tin Notification - Bn tin Thng bo
Bn tin Hello Bn tin Cho hi
Bn tin Initialization - Bn tin khi to
Bn tin Keepalive - Bn tin gi ng
Bn tin Address - Bn tin a ch
Bn tin Address Withdraw Bn tin Thu hi a ch
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 32
Thng s bt buc
Thng s tu chn
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Bn tin Label Mapping - Bn tin Rng buc nhn
Bn tin Label Request Bn tin Yu cu nhn
Bn tin Label Withdraw - Bn tin Thu hi nhn
Bn tin Label Release Bn tin Gii phng nhn
Bn tin Label Abort Request - Bn tin Yu cu hu b nhn
Bn tin Notification:
Bn tin thng bo cho bit mt li khng th trnh khi, l kt qu ca
qu trnh x l bn tin hay trng thi ca phin LDP.
Nu mt LSR bt gp mt iu kin m cn thng bo ti LSR
ngang cp cng vi thng tin t vn hay li, n gi LSR mt thng bo
cha TLV trng thi m m ha thng tin v cc TLV ty chn thm. Nu
iu kin l khng th trnh khi, sau khi gi bn tin thng bo, LSR chm
dt phin LDP bng cch ng kt ni TCP v loi b tt c cc trng thi
lin kt cng vi phin ny.
Bn tin Initialization:.
Cc bn tin thuc loi ny c gi khi bt u mt phin LDP gia
2 LSR trao i cc tham s, cc i lng tu chn cho phin. Cc tham
s ny bao gm:
Ch phn b nhn
Cc gi tr nh thi
Phm vi cc nhn s dng trong knh gia 2 LSR .
C 2 LSR u c th gi cc bn tin Initialization v LSR nhn s tr
li bng KeepAlive nu cc tham s c chp nhn. Nu c mt tham s
no khng c chp nhn th LSR tr li thng bo c li v phin kt
thc.
Bn tin KeepAlive:
Cc bn tin KeeepAlive c gi nh k khi khng c bn tin no
c gi m bo cho mi thnh phn LDP bit rng thnh phn LDP
khc ang hot ng tt. Trong trng hp khng xut hin bn tin
KeepAlive hay mt s bn tin khc ca LDP trong khong thi gian nht
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 33
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
nh th LSR s xc nh i phng hoc kt ni b hng v phin LDP b
dng.
Bn tin Address:
Mt LSR gi mt bn tin a ch n LSR ngang cp thng bo
cc a ch giao din ca n. Mt LSR nhn mt thng ip bn tin a ch
s dng cc a ch n bit duy tr c s d liu cho nh x gia cc b
nhn dng LDP ngang cp v cc a ch chng tip theo. Khi mt phin
LDP mi c khi to v trc khi gi bn tin yu cu v gn nhn, mt
LSR thng bo cc a ch giao din ca n vi mt hay nhiu a ch giao
din. Bt c khi no mt LSR kch hot mt a ch giao din mi, n cn
thng bo a ch mi cng vi bn tin a ch. Khi n mun hy kch
hot a ch no , n cn thu hi a ch cng vi bn tin thu hi a ch.
Bn tin Label Mapping:
Cc bn tin Label Mapping c s dng qung b lin kt gia
FEC (tin t i ch) v nhn. Bn tin Label Withdrawal thc hin qu trnh
ngc li: n c s dng xo b lin kt va thc hin. Bn tin ny
c s dng khi c s thay i trong bng nh tuyn (thay i tin t a
ch) hay thay i trong cu hnh LSR lm tm dng vic chuyn nhn cc
gi trong FEC .
Bn tin Lable Realease:
Bn tin ny c LSR s dng khi nhn c chuyn i nhn m
n khng cn thit na. iu thng xy ra khi LSR gii phng nhn
thy nt tip theo cho FEC khng phi l LSR qung b lin kt
nhn/FEC .
ch hot ng gn nhn theo yu cu t pha trc, LSR s
yu cu gn nhn t LSR ln cn pha trc s dng bn tin Label
Request. Nu bn tin Label Request cn phi hu b trc khi c chp
nhn (do nt k tip trong FEC yu cu thay i), th LSR yu cu s
loi b yu cu nh bn tin Label Request Abort.
Pht hnh v s dng nhn
C mt vi cng c c s dng pht hnh v phn b nhn.
Cc c t kin trc MPLS thit lp cc th tc y cho nhng hot
ng ny. Nhng th tc ny c t chc nh sau.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 34
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Cc LSR ng xung nh ngha 5 th tc, trong c 4 th tc
phn b v 1 th tc thu hi. Cc th tc phn b l: (a) y khng iu
kin; (b) y c iu kin; (c) Ko khng iu kin; (d) Ko c iu kin.
Cc LSR ng ln nh ngha 9 th tc gm 4 loi l:
Cc th tc Yu cu gm: (a) th tc Khng bao gi yu cu, (b)
th tc Yu cu khi cn, (c) th tc Yu cu theo yu cu.
Cc th tc Khng kh dng gm: (a) th tc Yu cu c th li,
th tc Yu cu khng th li.
Cc th tc Gii phng gm: (a) th tc Gii phng khi thay i,
(b) th tc Gii phng khi khng thay i.
Cc th tc S dng nhn gm: (a) th tc S dng ngay, (b) th
tc S dng nu lp vng khng c pht hin.
Cc th tc LSR ng xung (Rd)
Hnh 1.7 minh ho cc th tc ca LSR ng xung.
Th tc y khng iu kin
y khng iu kin l trng hp phn b nhn ng xung
khng theo yu cu trong ch iu khin LSP c lp.
Gi s X l tin t a ch trong bng nh tuyn ca LSR-Rd v LSR-
Ru l thc th ngang cp phn b ca Rd. Nu iu kin ny tho mn,
LSR-Rd phi rng buc 1 nhn vi X v gi rng buc ny ti LSR-Ru.
Trch nhim ca Ru l phi lun cp nht rng buc ny v phi thng bo
cho Rd bit mi s thay i.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 35
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
LSR - Ru LSR - Rd
Rngbucnhnvi tintach X
(a) ykhngiukin
LSR - Ru LSR - Rd
(b) yciukin
LSR - Ru LSR - Rd
(c) Kokhngiukin
LSR - Rn
(d) Kociukin
Yucurngbucnhnvitinta
chX
1.Rngbucnhnvi
tintach X
2.Yucurngbucnhnvi
tintach X
Bngnhtuyn
Tintach X
Bngnhtuyn
Tintach X
RngbucnhnvitintachX
Bngnhtuyn
Tintach X
LSR - Ru LSR - Rd LSR - Rn
1.Rngbucnhnvi
tintach X
2.Yucurngbucnhnvi
tintach X
3.Rngbucnhnvi tint
ach X
Bngnhtuyn
Tintach X
3.Rngbucnhnvi tint
ach X
Hnh 1.7. Cc th tc LSR ng xung
Th tc y c iu kin
y c iu kin l trng hp phn b nhn ng xung khng
theo yu cu trong ch iu khin theo lnh.
Gi s X l tin t a ch trong bng nh tuyn ca LSR-Rd; LSR-Ru
l li ra ca LSP; chng tip theo ca Rd l Rn. Hn na, Rn rng buc
1 nhn vi X v phn b rng buc ti Rd. Trong tnh hung ny, Rd
nn rng buc 1 nhn vi X v gi n ti Ru.
S khc nhau gia y khng c iu kin v y c iu kin l
ch: y khng c iu kin thc hin phn b cc rng buc nhn cho tt
c cc tin t a ch trong bng nh tuyn, cn y c iu kin ch thc
hin phn b rng buc nhn cho cc tin t a ch m Rd nhn cc
rng buc t chng k tip ca LSP.
Th tc Ko khng iu kin
Ko khng iu kin l trng hp phn b nhn ng xung theo
yu cu, bng vic s dng ch iu khin LSP c lp.
Gi s X l tin t a ch trong bng nh tuyn ca LSR-Rd. LSR-Ru
yu cu LSR-Rd rng buc nhn vi X, v phn b rng buc nhn ny cho
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 36
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ti n. Rd phi tn trng yu cu rng buc ny, v nu n khng th
(chng hn, n khng l i tng ngang cp phn b nhn vi Ru), th n
cng phi thng bo cho Ru bit. Nu Rd gi mt rng buc, th n phi
gi mt rng buc mi. Rng buc c vn gi nguyn tc dng. Kt qu
cui cng l 2 nhn c kt hp vi cng 1 tin t a ch. Ti sao nh
iu hnh mng mun lm iu ny? MPLS hiu r iu ny. Chng cn
nh: Nu cc kha cnh khc ca FEC bn cnh tin t a ch c xem
xt, n s cho php rng buc cc nhn khc nhau vi cc FEC khc nhau
c cng tin t a ch.
Th tc Ko c iu kin
Ko c iu kin l trng hp phn b nhn ng xung theo yu
cu, bng vic s dng ch iu khin LSP theo lnh.
Gi s X l tin t a ch trong bng nh tuyn ca LSR-Rd. Ru yu
cu Rd rng buc 1 nhn vi X v phn b rng buc ny ti Ru. Rn l li
ra ca LSP, hay chng k tip lp 3 ca Rd ca X l Rn v Rn rng
buc 1 nhn vi X v phn b rng buc ti Rd. Nu nhng iu kin
ny tho mn, Rd phi rng buc 1 nhn vi X v phn b rng buc ti
Ru.
Th tc Thu hi nhn
Nu mt LSR quyt nh ph v rng buc nhn v tin t a ch,
bn tin hu rng buc nhn LDP phi c phn b ti tt c cc LSR m
rng buc nhn ny i qua lc u.
Cc th tc LSR ng ln (Ru)
Cc hot ng LSR ng ln l n gin hn nhng hot ng
LSR ng xung nh ni trn. Nhng hot dng ny c tm tt
ngn gn da vo phn 5.1.2 ca RFC 3031.
Cc th tc Yu cu
Th tc Khng bao gi yu cu
LSR khng bao gi yu cu 1 rng buc nhn. Chng hn, trong hnh
2.11a v 2.11b, LSR ng xung thc hin cc hnh ng cn thit
rng buc cc nhn vi cc tin t a ch. LSR ng ln khng cn thit
phi thc hin nhng nhim v ny. Th tc ny c th p dng khi 1 LSR
s dng phn b nhn ng xung khng theo yu cu v trong ch
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 37
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
duy tr nhn y , nhng khng nn c s dng nu Rd s dng cc
th tc Ko khng c iu kin hay Ko c iu kin.
Th tc Yu cu khi cn
Khi mt router tm mt tin t a ch mi hay khi 1 tin t mi c
cp nht, th th tc ny c thc hin - nu 1 rng buc nhn khng tn
ti. Th tc ny c thc hin bi 1 LSR nu ch duy tr nhn hn ch
c s dng.
Th tc Yu cu khi c yu cu
Hot ng ny sinh ra mt yu cu bt c khi no nhn c mt
yu cu, iu ny l khc vi sinh ra yu cu khi cn. Nu Ru l khng c
kh nng nh mt LSR li vo, n c th sinh ra mt yu cu ch khi n
nhn c 1 yu cu t router ng ln. Nu Rd nhn c 1 yu cu
nh vy t Ru v tin t a ch m Rd phn b nhn ti Ru, lc Rd
n nh mt nhn mi, rng buc n vi X, v phn b rng buc .
Cc th tc khng kh dng
Th tc khng kh dng xc nh Rd phn ng nh th no vi tnh
hung sau:
1. Ru v Rd tng ng l cc thc th ng cp phn b nhn vi
tin t a ch X.
2. Rd l chng k tip lp 3 ca Ru vi tin t a ch X.
3. Ru yu cu 1 rng buc vi X t Rd.
4. Rd tr li rng n khng th cung cp 1 rng buc ti thi im
ny bi v n khng c chng k tip ca X.
C 2 th tc iu khin hnh vi ca Ru l: Th tc Yu cu c th
li v Th tc Yu cu khng th li.
Th tc Yu cu c th li
Ru phn tn li yu cu ti mt thi im. Sau th tc ny nn
c s dng khi phn b nhn theo yu cu ng xung c s dng.
Th tc Yu cu khng th li
Ru khng bao gi phn tn li yu cu, thay vo n tha nhn
rng Rd s cung cp rng buc mt cch t ng khi n c th. iu ny l
c ch nu Rd s dng th tc y khng c iu kin, ngha l nu phn
b nhn ng xung khng theo yu cu c s dng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 38
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Cc th tc gii phng nhn
Cc th tc gii phng nhn c ngha n gin ch l rng buc nhn
vi FEC b xo ti LSR. Kch bn cho qu trnh gii phng l nh sau. Rd l
mt LSR rng buc 1 nhn vi tin t a ch X; n phn b rng
buc ti LSR Ru. Nu Rd khng l chng k tip ca Ru vi tin t a
ch X hay n khng s dng chng k tip ca Ru vi tin t a ch X,
lc Ru ang khng s dng nhn, v n khng c l do g m duy tr
nhn tr khi c kh nng l s rng buc ny xy ra sau . C 2 th tc
iu khin hnh vi ca Ru: Th tc Gii phng khi thay i v th tc
Khng gii phng khi thay i.
Th tc Gii phng khi thay i
Ru gii phng rng buc v thng bo vi Rd rng n gii phng.
Th tc ny c s dng thc hin ch duy tr nhn hn ch.
Th tc Khng gii phng khi thay i
Ru duy tr rng buc nhn n c th s dng li nu sau Rd tr
thnh chng k tip ca Ru vi tin t a ch X. Th tc ny c s dng
thc hin ch duy tr nhn y .
Cc th tc s dng nhn
Chng ta hy tha nhn rng Ru nhn c 1 rng buc nhn L
vi tin t a ch X t LSR Rd, v Ru l router ng ln ca Rd tng
ng vi tin t a ch X, v Rd l chng k tip ca Ru. Ru s s dng
rng buc nu Rd l chng k tip ca Ru. Nu ti thi im rng buc
nhn, Ru bit c rng Rd khng l chng k tip ca Ru, th Ru khng
s dng mi rng buc nhn ti thi im . Tuy nhin, Ru c th bt u
s dng rng buc nhn ny ti thi im sau nu Rd tr thnh chng
k tip ca Ru. Ru c th s dng 2 th tc: S dng ngay lp tc v S
dng nu lp vng khng c pht hin.
Th tc S dng ngay lp tc
Ru c th s dng rng buc nhn ngay lp tc. Ti mi thi im
khi Ru c rng buc nhn vi X t Rd v Rd l chng kt tip ca Ru, th
Rd cng s l chng k tip LSP ca Ru. Th tc ny c s dng khi
pht hin lp vng khng c s dng.
Th tc S dng nu lp vng khng c pht hin
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 39
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Th tc ny l ging nh th tc S dng ngay lp tc, tr khi Ru
pht hin 1 vng lp trong LSP. Nu 1 vng lp c pht hin, Ru s
khng tip tc s dng nhn L chuyn tip gi ti Rd. Th tc ny c
s dng khi pht hin lp vng c s dng
v s tip tc cho n khi chng k tip ca X thay i hay cho n khi lp
vng khng cn c pht hin.
b. Giao thc RSVP
Nh tn gi ca n, giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn (RSVP) dng
dnh trc cc ti nguyn cho mt phin lm vic (dng lu lng) trong
mng Internet. Kha cnh ny ca Internet l mt iu kh c bit v hi
khc nhng g chng ta c bit Internet cung cp cc dch v n lc
cao nht, khng lin quan n nhng yu cu xc nh trc cho ng dng
ngi dng.
RSVP cung cp s m bo hiu nng bng cch phc v cc ti
nguyn cn thit ti mi thit b nm trn ng kt ni h tr cho lung
lu lng (chng hn nh hi ngh video hay audio). Cn nh rng IP l
giao thc khng hng kt ni, n khng thit lp trc ng i cho cc
dng lu lng, trong khi RSVP thit lp trc nhng ng i ny v
m bo cung cp bng tn cho ng i .
RSVP khng cung cp cc hot ng nh tuyn nhng n ng dng
IPv4 hoc IPv6 nh mt k thut truyn ti theo cng mt cch ging nh
cch m giao thc bn tin iu khin Internet (ICMP) v giao thc bn tin
nhm Internet (IGMP) hot ng.
L S R b i n L S R l i L S R l i
P A T H
R E S V M y g i
M y n h n
Hnh 1.8. Th tc bo hiu trong RSVP.
RSVP l giao thc cho php cc ng dng thng bo cc yu cu v
QoS vi mng v mng s p ng bng nhng thng bo thnh cng
hoc tht bi, sau khi phn tch cc yu cu RSVP gi ti tt c cc node
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 40
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
trn tuyn cn truyn cc thng tin v thc t ca lung, bn tin RSVP
cha cc thng tin sau:
Thng tin phn loi, nh n m cc lung lu lng vi cc
yu cu QoS c th c th c nhn bit trong mng. Thng tin
ny bao gm a ch IP pha gi v pha nhn, s cng UDP.
Ch tiu k thut ca lung lu lng v cc yu cu QoS, theo
khun dng Tspec v Rspec, bao gm cc dch v yu cu (c
bo m hoc ti iu khin).
R rng l RSVP phi mang nhng thng tin ny t cc my ch ti
tt c cc tng i chuyn mch v cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng
truyn t b gi n b nhn. V vy tt c cc thnh phn mng phi tham
gia vo vic m bo cc yu cu QoS ca ng dng.
RSVP mang cc thng tin trong hai loi bn tin c bn l: PATH v
RESV. Cc bn tin PATH truyn t b gi ti mt hoc nhiu b nhn c
cha TSpec v cc thng tin phn loi do b gi cung cp. Mt l do cho
php c nhiu b nhn l RSVP c thit k h tr a hng. Mt bn
tin PATH bao gi cng c gi ti mt a ch c gi l a ch phin,
n c th l a ch unicast hoc multicast. Chng ta thng xem phin i
din cho mt ng dng n, n c xc nhn bng mt a ch ch v s
cng ch s dng ring cho ng dng.
Khi my nhn nhn c bn tin PATH, n c th gi bn tin RESV
tr li cho my gi. Bn tin RESV xc nhn phin c cha thng tin v s
cng dnh ring v RSpec xc nhn mc QoS m b nhn yu cu. N
cng bao gm mt s thng tin xem xt nhng b gi no c php s
dng ti nguyn ang c cp pht. Hnh 2.12 biu din trnh t bn tin
trao i gia b gi v b nhn. y chng ta lu rng cc cng dnh
ring l n cng. Nu cn s dng cc cng dnh ring sng cng (v d
nh phc v cho thoi truyn thng) th phi c cc bn tin b sung theo
chiu ngc li. Cng ch rng cc bn tin c nhn v chuyn tip bi
tt c cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn thng tin, nn vic cp pht
ti nguyn c th c thc hin ti tt c cc nt mng cn thit.
Khi cc cng dnh ring c thit lp, cc b nh tuyn nm gia
b gi v b nhn s xc nh cc gi tin thuc cng dnh ring no nh
kim tra 5 trng trong phn mo u ca IP v giao thc truyn ti l:
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 41
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
a ch ch, s cng ch, s giao thc (v d UDP), a ch ngun v cng
ngun. Chng ta gi tp cc gi tin c nhn dng theo cch ny gi l
lung dnh ring. Cc gi tin trong lung dnh ring thng b khng ch
(m bo cho lung khng pht sinh lu lng vt qu so vi thng bo
trong Tspec) v xp vo hng i ph hp vi yu cu v QoS. V d mt
cch c dch v bo m l s dng cc hng i c trng s (WFQ),
y mi cng dnh ring khc nhau c xem nh mt lung i vi cc
hng i, v trng s c n nh cho mi lung ph hp vi tc dch
v yu cu trong Rspec ca n.
i vi cc lung n hng th RSVP kh n gin. N phc tp
hn trong mi trng a hng, bi v c th c rt nhiu b nhn dnh
ring cng cho mt phin n v cc b phn khc nhau c th yu cu
cc mc QoS khc nhau. Hin nay MPLS ch yu tp trung vo cc ng
dng n hng ca RSVP, chng ta s khng i su vo kha cnh a
hng ca RSVP.
Cc bn tin PATH v RESV in y cc thng tin nhn dng lung
v cc yu cu cht lng dch v ca lung, cc yu cu ny ch th cc
dch v m bo nh l tc nh ca lung tin, kch thc ln nht khi
bng n lu lng, tc go dvv. Thay v mt dch v m bo, mt
iu hnh ti iu khin c th c thc hin. Vi tip cn ny, mng c
gng duy tr iu chnh tng lung lu lng m khng nh hng ti
cht lng dch v ca cc dng lu lng khc.
im cui cng phi ch v RSVP v y l giao thc trng thi
mm. c tnh phn bit giao thc trng thi mm vi cc giao thc
loi khc l trng thi s t ng ht hiu lc sau mt thi gian tr khi n
c lm ti lin tc theo chu k. iu c ngha l RSVP s nh k
gi i cc bn tin PATH v RESV lm ti cc cng dnh ring. Nu
chng khng c gi trong mt khong thi gian xc nh th cc cng
dnh ring t ng b hu b.
MPLS h tr RSVP
Mc tiu u tin ca vic b xung h tr RSVP vo MPLS l cho
php cc LSR da vo vic phn loi gi tin theo nhn ch khng phi theo
mo u IP nhn bit cc gi tin thuc cc lung ca cng dnh ring. Ni
cch khc, cn phi to v kt hp phn phi gia cc lung v cc nhn
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 42
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
cho cc lung c cc cng dnh ring RSVP. Chng ta c th xem mt tp
hp cc gi tin to ra bi cng dnh ring RSVP nh l mt trng hp
ring khc ca FEC.
iu ny tr nn kh d dng kt hp cc nhn vi cc lung
dnh ring trong RSVP, t nht l vi unicast (n hng). Chng ta nh
ngha mt i tng RSVP mi l i tng LABEL c mang trong bn
tin RSVP RESV. Khi mt LSR mun gi bn tin RESV cho mt lung RSVP
mi, LSR cp pht mt nhn t trong tp nhn ri, ti mt li vo trong LFIB
ca n vi nhn li vo c t cho nhn cp pht, v gi i bn tin
RESV c cha nhn ny. Ch l cc bn tin RESV truyn t b nhn ti
b gi l di dng cp pht nhn xui.
Khi nhn c bn tin RESV cha i tng LABEL, mt LSR thit
lp LFIB ca n vi nhn ny l nhn li ra. Sau n cp pht mt nhn
s dng nh l nhn li vo v chn n vo bn tin RESV trc khi gi
n i. R rng l, khi cc bn tin RESV truyn n LSR ngc th LSP
c thit lp dc theo tuyn ng. Cng ch l, khi cc nhn c
cung cp trong cc bn tin RESV, mi LSR c th d dng kt hp cc ti
nguyn QoS ph hp vi LSP. Hnh 2.13 minh ho qu trnh trao i ny.
Trong trng hp ny chng ta gi s cc my ch khng tham d vo
vic phn phi nhn. LSR-R3 cp pht nhn L cho cng dnh ring ny v
thng bo n vi LSR-R2. LSR-R2 cp pht nhn M cng cho cng dnh
ring ny v thng bo n ti LSR-R1. By gi c mt LSP cho lung
dnh ring t LSR-R1 ti LSR-R3. Khi cc gi tin tng ng vi cng dnh
ring ny (v d gi tin gi t H1 ti H2 vi s cng ngun, ch thch hp
v s giao thc giao vn thch hp) ti R1, R1 phn bit n bng cc thng
tin mo u IP v lp truyn ti to ra QoS thch hp cho cng dnh
ring v d nh c im v hng i cc gi tin trong hng i li ra. Ni
cch khc, n thc hin cc chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn tch hp dch
v s dng RSVP. Hn na, LSR-R1 a mo u nhn vo cc gi tin v
chn gi tr nhn li ra l M trc khi gi chuyn tip gi tin ti LSR-R2.
Khi LSR-R2 nhn gi tin mang nhn M, n tm kim nhn trong
LFIB v tm tt c cc trng thi lin quan n QoS xem kim sot
lung, xp hng i gi tin, v.v.. nh th no. iu ny tt nhin khng cn
kim tra tiu lp IP hay lp truyn ti. Sau R2 thay th nhn trn gi
tin vi mt nhn li ra t LFIB ca n (mang gi tr L) v gi gi tin i.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 43
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
L S R - R 3 L S R - R 1 L S R - R 2
P A T H
R E S V
M y g i
M y n h n
N h n = M N h n = L
H 1
H 2
Hnh 1.9. Nhn phn phi trong bng tin RESV
Lu rng, do vic to ra nhn kt hp c iu khin bi cc bn
tin RSVP v vy vic kt hp c iu khin nh trong cc mi trng
khc ca MPLS. y cng l mt v d chng t vic mang thng tin kt
hp nhn trn mt giao thc c sn khng cn mt giao thc ring nh
LDP.
Mt kt qu quan trng ca vic thit lp mt LSP cho mt lung vi
cng dnh ring RSVP l ch c b nh tuyn u tin trong LSP m trong
v d trn l LSR-R1 lin quan ti vic xem xt cc gi tin thuc lung dnh
ring no. iu ny cho php RSVP c p dng trong mi trng MPLS
theo cch m n khng th thc hin c trong mng IP truyn thng.
Theo qui c, cc cng dnh ring RSVP c th ch to cho nhng lung
ng dng ring l, tc l nhng lung c xc nh nh cc trng mo
u. Tuy nhin, c th t cu hnh LSR-R1 la chn cc gi tin da
trn mt s cc tiu chun. V d, LSR-R1 c th ly tt c cc gi tin c
cng mt tin t ng vi mt ch v y chng vo LSP. V vy thay v c
mt LSP cho mi lung ng dng ring, mt LSP c th cung cp QoS cho
nhiu lung lu lng. Mt ng dng ca kh nng ny l c th cung cp
ng ng vi bng thng m bo t mt im ny ti mt im khc.
Kh nng ny cng hu ch cho mc ch iu khin lu lng, y mt
lu lng ln cn c gi dc theo cc LSP vi bng thng ti lu
lng.
h tr mt s cch s dng tng cng RSVP, MPLS nh ngha
mt i tng RSVP mi c th mang trong bn tin PATH l: i tng
LABEL_REQUEST. i tng ny thc hin hai chc nng. Th nht, n
c s dng thng bo cho mt LSR ti pha cui ca LSP gi RESV
tr v thit lp LSP. iu ny hu ch cho vic thit lp cc LSP Site-to-
Site. Th hai, khi LSP c thit lp cho mt tp cc gi tin, khng ch l
mt lung ng dng ring, i tng cha mt trng xc nh giao
thc lp cao hn s s dng LSP. Trng ny c s dng tng t
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 44
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
nh m phn knh xc nh giao thc lp cao hn (IPv4, IPX, v.v..), v
vy s khng c trng phn knh trong mo u MPLS na. Do vy, mt
LSP c th cn c thit lp cho mi giao thc lp cao hn nhng y
khng gii hn nhng giao thc no c h tr. c bit, khng yu cu
cc gi tin mang trong LSP c thit lp s dng RSVP phi l cc gi tin
IP.
RSVP v kh nng m rng
Mt trong nhng iu chc chn v RSVP l n c th chu tn tht
v kh nng m rng mt mc no y. Trong thc t, c tnh ny
khng chnh xc hon ton. RSVP khi u c thit k h tr d tr
ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring v y l nhim v vi nhng
thch thc v kh nng m rng vn c.Ni chung thut ng ny c s
dng ch gii hn s dng ti nguyn tng nhanh nh th no khi mng
tng trng. V d, trong mng IP quy m ln nh mng xng sng nh
cung cp dch v Internet, chng ta c th quan tm n vic liu mt bng
nh tuyn s chim b nh ca b nh tuyn ln n mc no, kh nng
b x l v bng thng lin kt. V th, bng nh tuyn tng chm hn
nhiu so vi s ngi s dng kt ni vo mng.
D tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring r rng l nh
hng xu n kh nng m rng. Chng ta c th cho rng mi ngi s
dng s d tr ti nguyn ti mt vi tc trung bnh, v th s ti nguyn
d tr c to ra qua mng ln c kh nng tng nhanh bng s ngi
s dng ca mng. iu ny s dn n chi ph ln nu mi b nh tuyn
phi lu tr trng thi v tin trnh mt vi bn tin cho mi ti nguyn d tr
cho lung ng dng ring.
Ni tm li, s chnh xc hn nu ni rng mc d tr ti nguyn cho
cc lung ng dng l km hn so vi RSVP. S khc nhau ny c bit
quan trng khi chng ta xem xt rng RSVP khng nhng i hi cho vic
d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring m cn d tr ti nguyn
cho lu lng tng hp.
C. Giao thc CR-LDP
Giao thc CR-LDP c s dng iu khin cng bc LDP.
Giao thc ny l phn m rng ca LDP cho qu trnh nh tuyn cng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 45
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
bc ca LSP. Cng ging nh LDP, n s dng cc phin TCP gia cc
LSR ng cp gi cc bn tin phn phi nhn.
Mt h thng h tr nh tuyn cng bc cn m bo cc yu cu
sau: th nht, nt ngun cn bit cu hnh mng. Th hai, ngun cn bit
cc thuc tnh ca lin kt trong mng. Th ba, h thng c h tr nh
tuyn hin. Th t, ging nh tuyn c thit lp gia nt ngun v nt
ch, s dnh ring ti nguyn c th xy ra v trng thi thuc tnh ca
ng lin kt phi c cp nht lin tc. Nh vy, h tr nh tuyn
cng bc ngoi mt s iu kin khng ch v bng thng, khong cch
qun l cn cn c kh nng nh tuyn hin (hoc nh tuyn ngun).
xc nhn thng tin ti nguyn dnh ring theo LSR, CR-LDP to
thm i tng mi tham s iu khin lu lng gm 7 tham s: Tc
s liu nh, kch thc s liu bng pht, tc s liu ngu nhin, kch
thc ln qu hn, tn s v trng s. Hai tham s u nh ngha v s
lng ln nht ca lu lng trong LSP. Hai tham s sau nh ngha v s
lng lu lng. Tn s ch ra khong thi gian LSP t c cung cp
rng bng ca LDR v trng s c dng xc nh rng bng trn
CDR, phn chia theo LSP.
C hai l do s dng MPLS. Trc ht MPLS cho php tch cc
thng tin s dng chuyn tip (nhn) t cc thng tin c trong mo u
ca gi IP. Th hai l vic chuyn i gia FEC v LSP ch c gii hn
trong LSR ti mt u ca LSP. Ni mt cch khc, vic quyt nh gi IP
no s nh tuyn hin nh th no hon ton do LSR tnh ton xc nh
tuyn. V nh trnh by trn, y chnh l chc nng cn thit h
tr nh tuyn cng bc.
Cng nh cc chc nng khc ca MPLS, chc nng nh tuyn hin
ca MPLS cng c chia lm hai phn: iu khin v chuyn tip. Phn
t iu khin chu trch nhim thit lp trng thi chuyn tip nhn dc theo
tuyn hin. Phn t chuyn tip s dng trng thi chuyn tip c thit
lp bi phn t iu khin cng nh cc thng tin c trong cc gi tin
truyn cc gi tin dc theo tuyn hin.
D. Giao thc MPLS-BGP
MPLS m rng chc nng cho BGP mang cc nhn trong giao
thc cng bin gii BGP, MPLS-BGP cho php b nh tuyn chy BGP
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 46
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
phn phi nhn ti cc b nh tuyn bin khc mt cch trc tip thng
qua bn tin cp nht ca BGP. Tip cn ny m bo cho qu trnh phn
phi nhn v cc thng tin nh tuyn n nh v gim bt tiu ca bn
tin iu khin x l.Trong mng s dng cc b nh tuyn BGP nh l mt
b nh tuyn bin kt ni vi cc mng khc, n c th cho php cc b
nh tuyn khng c chc nng trao i trc tip bn tin BGP hot ng
ng thi vi cc b nh tuyn bin ny. Khi hai b nh tuyn bin khng
kt ni trc tip, cn phi thit lp mt ng dn chuyn mch nhn gia
hai b nh tuyn ny thng qua mt vi k thut phn phi nhn khc.
MPLS-BGP cng c th c s dng thit lp cc dch v mng
ring o VPN da trn nh tuyn BGP (RFC 2547), trong RFC 2547 nh
ngha cho kiu mng khng phn cp v cc yu cu v kh nng ca cc
b nh tuyn bin trong mng cung cp dch v:
Kh nng duy tr cc bng nh tuyn tch bit (theo tng
mng ring o) ti cc thit b g mng.
H tr cc kiu a ch thc hin trong cc VPN ti cc b nh
tuyn BGP cung cp dch v.
1.5. CNG NGH GMPLS
T chc tiu chun k thut quc t cho Internet IETF (International
Engineering Task Force) m rng b giao thc MPLS gi l MPLS tng
qut (GMPLS) cung cp mt phng (bo hiu v nh tuyn) cho cc
thit b m chuyn mch theo min gi, theo thi gian, theo bc sng (v
d DWDM Dense Wavelenght Division Multiplexing), theo si quang v
theo khng gian (v d OXC) qua GMPLS. Mt phng chung ny n gin
ho s hot ng v qun l mng bng vic cung cp cc kt ni im -
im, qun l ti nguyn mng mt cch t ng, cung cp mc QoS mi
v cc ng dng phc tp hn. iu ny cho php mng da trn GMPLS
tm v cung cp ng i ti u da trn nhng yu cu lu lng ngi
s dng cho lung khi to trn mng IP, sau c truyn ti bi mng
quang ng b SONET v tip theo c chuyn mch sang mt bc
sng c th trn mt si vt l c th.
Thch thc c bn vi giao thc iu khin chung l vic thit lp,
bo tr, v qun l cc ng k thut lu lng cho php mt phng d
liu truyn ti d liu ngi s dng mt cch hiu qu t ngun ti ch.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 47
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Lung ngi s dng c th truyn qua mt s nhp mng, v d nh mt
mng li vo hoc mng bin tp hp cc lung t nhiu ngi s dng (v
d nh cc ng dng doanh nghip) a vo mng trung tm m da
trn SONET hoc ATM. Cc mng ny li c kt hp nhiu lung t cc
mng bin khc nhau a vo mng c ly di. ng i t trc c
s dng a d liu ti ch ca n.
Cc mng ny v cc thit b in hnh c th hin trn hnh 1.10.

Database
Database
1.5.1. NHN TNG QUAN CA GMPLS
c th h tr cc thit b chuyn mch trong cc min khc nhau,
GMPLS a vo nhng b sung mi cho khun dng ca cc nhn. Khun
dng nhn mi gi l nhn tng qut , n cha thng tin cho php cc
thit b thu lp chng trnh chuyn mch v chuyn tip d liu bt k cu
trc ca n (gi, TDM, Lambda ..). Nhn tng qut c th biu din cho
mt bc sng n, mt si quang hoc mt khe thi gian. N cng th
hin cc nhn MPLS truyn thng, v d nh ATM, VCC hoc shim IP.
Thng tin c gn vo nhn tng qut gm:
1. Kiu m ho LSP m th hin loi nhn ang c mang (gi,
bc sng SONET).
2. Loi chuyn mch th hin nt c kh nng chuyn mch hoc
gi, khe thi gian, bc sng hoc si quang.
3. B nhn dng ti trng chung th hin loi ti ang c mang
bi LSP (v d nh nhnh o VT, DS-3, ATM, Ethernet, ..)
Ging nh MPLS, s phn b nhn bt u t LSR pha trc yu
cu mt nhn t LSR pha sau. GMPLS thc hin iu ny tt hn bng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 48
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
vic cho php LSR pha trc ngh nhn cho LSP m c th c u
tin bi LSR pha sau.
1.5.2. B GIAO THC GMPLS
Cuc cch mng ca MPLS sang GMPLS m rng cc giao thc
bo hiu (RSVP- TE, CR LDP) v cc giao thc nh tuyn (OSPF-TE, IS-
IS-TE). Cc m rng thch nghi vi nhng c tnh ca TDM/SONET v cc
mng quang.
Mt giao thc mi, giao thc qun l lin kt LMP (Link Management
Protocol) c a vo p dng qun l v bo tr hot ng mt
phng v d liu, iu khin gia hai nt ln cn. Giao thc qun l lin kt
LMP l giao thc da trn IP, bao gm RSVP m rng v CR-LDP m
rng.
Ngn xp giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS-TE ging vi OSPF-TE ngoi tr
thay v IP, mt giao thc mng phi kt ni (CLNP Connectionless Network
Protocol) c s dng mang thng tin IS-IS-TE.
text
LMP
IP
UDP OSPF-TE TCP
ATM FRAME-RELAY
PPP/Adaption LAYER
SONET
FIBER
Wavelength
switching
RSVP-TE CR-LDP BGP
MAC/GE
Hnh 1.10 : Ngn xp giao thc GMPLS
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 49
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
CHNG 2:
GII THIU BI TON NH TUYN V GN BC SNG
TRONG MNG QUANG
2.1. GII THIU
Qua mt vi nm gn y, DDWM (Dense Wavelenght Division
Multiplexing) tr thnh mt cng ngh ch o cho mng quang th h su.
Vic s dng DWDM a knh c phn bit bi cc bc sng khc
nhau c th c truyn trn mt si quang, vi mi knh hot ng tc
nh ca n. Mi bc sng ca mi si ca mt tuyn lin kt l mt
knh con hon ton c lp vi cc bc sng khc trn cng mt si. Mt
khi nim nh vy thng c gi l mng quang v mng quang thng
minh ION, l ni lp quang vt l tr nn nhn bit c cc kt ni
bng vic xc nh cc bc sng ca chng. Mt cng ngh in hnh ca
mng DWDM v cc knh lin kt khc ca n c bit n nh cc bc
sng c cho trn hnh 2.1.
text
text
text
text
text
text
text
text
H thng u
cui
Chuyn mch quang
Lung quang vi bc
sng 1
Lung quang vi bc
sng 2
Hnh 2.1. Mng DWDM nh tuyn bc sng
Trong mng nh tuyn, ngi s dng ny thng tin vi ngi s dng
khc qua knh ton quang, cc knh ny c xem nh l cc lung
quang. Mt lung quang c s dng h tr mt kt ni trong mng
inh tuyn bc sng v c th lin kt cc si quang. Trong trng hp
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 50
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
khng s dng b chuyn i, mt lung quang chim cng bc sng
trn tt c cc lin kt si m n i qua. c tnh ny gi l iu kin rng
buc bc sng lin tc. Gi s rng mi chuyn mch quang c ni ti
mt nt truy nhp nh l mt nt. Khi a ra mt tp kt ni, bi ton thit
lp cc lung quang bng nh tuyn v gn bc sng mi kt ni c
gi l bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng (RWA- Routing and
Wavelength Assignment).
2.2.CC LOI BI TON RWA
Thng thng, c hai loi lu lng mng l tnh hoc ng. Do vy bi
ton RWA gm hai loi tnh v ng. iu ny dn n hai kiu thit lp
lung quang: Bi ton thit lp lung quang tnh v thit lp lung quang
ng.
2.2.1 THIT LP LUNG QUANG TNH (SLE)
Trong bi ton ny tt c cc yu cu kt ni c bit trc v
khng thay i. l yu cu cho vic thit lp mt tp hp cc ng
quang c a ra u tin. Cc ng quang ny khng b gii phng
ngay khi chng c thit lp. Cc ng quang c gi s l cc lung
quang, l rng buc bc sng lin tc. Bi ton ti u l ti thiu s
bc sng cho mt cu hnh mng nht nh, s si quang, v tp hp cc
ng quang yu cu.
2.2.2. THIT LP LUNG QUANG NG (DLE)
Trong bi ton ny tt c cc yu cu kt ni n mt cch ng v
lung quang c gii phng sau mt thi gian hn nh. Bi ton ti u l
ti thiu xc sut tc nghn yu cu cho mt s bc sng nht nh v
hoc ti thiu gi thnh mng.
Bi ton thit lp lung quang tnh c th t c nhiu hn vi
cng ngh hin nay v s l gii php tng lai gn trong mng quang
thng minh ION. Nhng khi lu lng trong mng li s tr nn ng hn
th thit lp lung quang ng s phi c thc hin trong mng ION. Do
vy lun vn ny s tp trung ch yu vo vic gii quyt bi ton DLE.
2.3. CC PHNG PHP GII BI TON
Bi ton RWA lin quan n cc phn khc nhau, thng c gii
quyt ring bit n gin ho bi ton. Vi bi ton nh tuyn th c ba
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 51
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
phng php nh tuyn c bn: nh tuyn c nh, nh tuyn thay th c
nh v nh tuyn thch nghi.
Trong nh tuyn c nh, ch c mt tuyn c nh (v d nh ng
ngn nht) gia cp nt ngun v ch.
Trong nh tuyn thay th c nh, mi nt duy tr mt bng nh tuyn
m cha mt danh sch cc tuyn c nh c yu cu ti mi nt ch.
V d nh, cc tuyn ny c th bao gm tuyn ngn nht u tin, tuyn
ngn nht th hai, tuyn ngn nht th ba vv.. Tuyn thc t cho mt yu
cu kt ni ch c th c chn la t tp cc tuyn ny.
Trong nh tuyn thch nghi, nh tuyn da trn bc sng c th s
dng hin c trn mi tuyn lin kt. Bt k tuyn kh thi no t nt ngun
ti nt ch c th ng c nh tuyn thc t cho mt yu cu kt ni. Vic
la chn tuyn ph thuc vo chnh sch mng c s dng nh ng
u tin chi ph ngn nht hoc ng u tin tc nghn t nht.
Ni chung, nh tuyn c nh l n gin nht trong khi nh tuyn
thch nghi mang li c tnh tt nht. nh tuyn thay th c nh em li s
tho hip gia s phc tp v c tnh mng.
Bi ton gn bc sng l mt phn khc ca bi ton RWA. Ni
chung, n d dng hn nhiu so vi bi ton nh tuyn, nhng cng ph
thuc vo kt qu ca gii php nh tuyn. Tuy nhin n thng nh
hng ti kt qu hiu sut ca gii thut RWA.
2.4. C S L THUYT
2.4.1. GII THIU L THUYT TH
Trong l thuyt th, cu hnh mng c th c biu din nh
th G (V, E), V biu th tp cc nh (cc nt mng) v E l tp hp cc
bin (Cc tuyn lin kt mng). V th hin s nt trong th v thng
c gi l bin ca th. Mi tuyn lin kt (i, j) E c th c kt
hp vi mt hm trng W j i, m biu din bng mt phng php no
xc nh chi ph s dng tuyn lin kt (i, j). Bc ca nt i V l s nt
ln cn ca nt i.
Ta ch xt bi ton ng i ngn nht trong th. Cho th G(V,
E) bi ton t ra l tm ng i trong th m ti thiu tng trng lng
ca tt c cc tuyn lin kt din ra gia hai nh. L thuyt th cung cp
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 52
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
nhiu cch gii quyt bi ton . Gii thut ph bin nht l gii thut
Dijkstra v Bellman- Ford. Di y ch gii thiu v gii thut Dijkstra.
2.4.2. GII THUT DIJKSTRA
Gii thut Dijkstra c gii thiu vo nm 1959 cung cp mt gii
thut hiu qu nht cho vic gii quyt bi ton ng i ngn nht. N tm
ng i ngn nht t mt nh ngun s cho ti mi nh d trong V bng
vic trin khai cc ng i theo th t di ng i tng dn. Mi nt
c dn nhn bng khong cch ca n t nt ngun dc theo ng
c xem l tt nht. u tin khng ng i no c bit n do vy
tt c cc nt c dn nhn l . Khi gii thut tin hnh v cc ng i
c tm ra th cc nhn c th thay i tng ng vi cc ng i tt
hn. Nhn c th l thm d hoc c nh. Ban u tt c cc nhn l thm
d. Khi n c khm ph ra m nhn th hin ng i ngn nht c th
t ngun ti nt th n oc to c nh v khng bao gi oc thay i
sau .
2.5. BI TON RWA TRONG THIT LP LUNG QUANG TNH (SLE)
Bi ton SLE c th c gii nh bi ton quy hoch tuyn tnh
nguyn, n l bi ton NP y . gii bi ton ny d dng hn, bi
ton SLE c th chia thnh 2 bi ton nh
1. nh tuyn
2. Gn bc sng
Mi bi ton ny gii theo nhng cch khc nhau. Mt s gii thut
gn ng c dng gii bi ton SLE cho cc ng mng ln v
thut ton t mu th c dng gn bc sng ti cc lung quang
mt khi cc lung quang c nh tuyn ng.
i tng ca hm mc tiu l ti thiu s bc sng cn thit
thit lp
mt tp hp cc bc sng no cho mt cu hnh vt l a ra. Bi
ton thay th bi ton ti thiu s bc sng trong mng l bi ton vi
mc tiu l cc i s cc kt ni c th c thit lp (ti thiu s tc
nghn) cho mt s bc sng v cc yu cu kt ni a ra.
Bi ton SLE vi iu kin rng buc bc sng lin tc c th p
dng nh quy hoch lp tuyn tnh nguyn ILP (Integer Linear Program)
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 53
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
trong hm mc tiu l ti thiu lu lng trn mi lin kt, ln lt n
tng ng vi ti thiu s lung quang qua tng lin kt ring bit.
Thut ton heuristic cho bi ton gn bc sng cho mt tp lung
quang tnh thng thng lin quan n trnh t bc sng, v gn cng
bc sng cho cng nhiu lung quang cng tt trc khi chuyn sang
bc sng tip theo. Hn na tp cc lung quang c th c xp theo
th t theo di, cc bc sng c gn cho cc lung quang di
hn trc khi cc bc sng c gn cho lung quang ngn hn. Tt c
cc phng php heuristic chim rt nhiu CPU v chng l cc gii
php khng thit thc cho thc thi bi tnh phc tp thng thng ca n.
Tiu chun xc nh RWA l ti thiu s cc bc sng cho mt cu
hnh mng cho, s si quang, v tp cc ng quang yu cu.
Mc d tm ra cc gii php gii quyt bi ton SLE nhng
chng hu nh u da vo nhng phng php phc tp v do vy
khng thc s ph hp cho nhng thc thi thc t. Hn na, vn SLE
khng quan tm n lu lng ng. iu ny c th ph hp cho mng
ng trc ngy nay; nhng trong tng lai rt gn, vic qun l lung
quang t ng p ng cc nhu cu cho lu lng ng phi c cung
cp. y l mc tiu ca cc bi ton DLE m c gii thiu sau y.
2.6. BI TON RWA TRONG THIT LP LUNG QUANG NG (DLE)
Khi cc lung quang c thit lp v loi b mt cch ng th cc
quyt nh RWA phi c thc hin khi cc yu cu kt ni n mng. Vi
mt yu cu kt ni nht nh c th ti nguyn mng khng thit lp
mt lung quang, trong trng hp yu cu kt ni s b nghn. Vic kt
ni cng c th b nghn nu khng c bc sng chung c th s dng
trn tt c cc tuyn dc theo tuyn c chn (rng buc bc sng
lin tc - WCC). Do vy, mc tiu trong trng hp lu lng ng l chn
tuyn v bc sng m ti a kh nng thit lp kt ni cho, trong khi
cng lc n lc ti thiu tc nghn cho cc kt ni tng lai.
Cc thut ton RWA ng c c trng bi cc tham s v thc
o in hnh ph hp vi mi trng lu lng ng. Trong cc yu cu
n v i ra khi mng xut hin tng yu cu theo mt cch ngu nhin.
Thc o c tnh c s dng thng ri vo mt trong ba loi sau y:
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 54
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
- S bc sng yu cu;
- Xc xut tc nghn kt ni (lu lng a vo) c tnh bng t
s gia nhng kt ni b tc nghn trn tng s cc kt ni n
hoc i;
- S lng ti nguyn si quang c nm gi ti cc nt nh
tuyn (chi ph si quang).
Ging vi trng hp lung quang tnh, bi ton RWA ng cng c
th chia thnh bi ton nh tuyn v bi ton gn bc sng. Phng
php gii quyt bi ton nh tuyn c th phn loi theo hoc c nh
hoc thch nghi, v theo s dng thng tin trng thi mng hoc tng th
cc b.
Mt s phng php heuristic in hnh xut cho bi ton ny nh
sau:
2.6.1. BI TON NH TUYN
A.nh tuyn c nh
Cch tip cn n gin nh tuyn mt kt ni l lun la chn
mt tuyn c nh nh nhau cho mt cp ngun ch. Mt v d in hnh
ca cch tip cn ny l nh tuyn ng ngn nht c nh. ng ngn
nht tnh cho mi cp ngun ch c tnh trc (offline) s dng thut
ton ng ngn nht chun nh Dijkstra hoc Bell Ford. Do nt
mng khng cn thit lu gi ton b trng thi mng. Bt k kt ni no
gia cp cc nt ring c thit lp s dng tuyn c xc nh trc.
Trong hnh 2.2 ng ngn nht c nh minh ho t nt 0 n nt 2. Cch
tip cn ny l nu ti nguyn (bc sng) dc theo cc ng tc nghn,
n c th dn n cc xc xut tc nghn cao trong trng hp lu lng
ng hoc dn n mt s lng ln cc bc sng ang s dng trong
mng trong trng hp lu lng tnh. nh tuyn c nh cng khng th
iu khin cc tnh hung sai hng trong mt hay nhiu cc lin kt no
trong mng hng. iu khin cc sai hng lin kt, vic t chc nh
tuyn hoc phi xem xt cc ng la chn ti ch hoc phi c kh
nng tm thy mt tuyn ng. Trong hnh 2.2, mt yu cu kt ni t nt 0
n nt 2 s b kho nu mt bc sng chung khng th s dng trn c
hai lin kt trong tuyn c nh
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 55
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
0
1
2
3
4 5
HNH 2.2: ng ngn nht c nh
B. nh tuyn thay th c nh
Mt cch tip cn xem xt nh tuyn l nh tuyn thay th c
nh. Trong nh tuyn thay th c nh, mi nt trong mng c yu cu
duy tr mt bng nh tuyn cha danh sch ch th ca mt s cc tuyn
c nh ti mi nt ch. V d, nhng nt ny c th bao gm tuyn u
tin ngn nht, tuyn th hai ngn nht, tuyn th ba ngn nht .. Mt
tuyn chnh gia mt nt ngun s v mt nt ch d c nh ra l tuyn
u tin trong danh sch cc tuyn ti nt d trong bng nh tuyn ti nt s.
Mt tuyn thay th gia nt s v nt d l bt k tuyn no m n khng
dng chung bt k lin kt no (l lin kt c lp) vi tuyn u tin trong
bng nh tuyn ti nt s. Thut ng tuyn thay th cng thc hin m
t tt c cc tuyn (bao gm c tuyn chnh) t mt nt ngun ti mt nt
ch. Hnh 2.3 m t tuyn kt ni nt chnh (ng lin) t nt 0 n nt 2,
v tuyn thay th (ng chm) t nt 0 n nt 2.
0
1
2
3
4 5
Hnh 2.3. Tuyn chnh (nt lin) v tuyn thay th (nt
chm)
Khi mt kt ni yu cu n, nt ngun th thit lp kt ni lin tip
trn mi tuyn t bng nh tuyn n khi mt tuyn ni mi bc sng gn
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 56
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
hp l tm thy. Nu khng c tuyn no c th dng c tm thy t danh
sch cc tuyn thay th th yu cu kt ni b kho hoc mt. Trong hu ht
cc trng hp, cc bng nh tuyn ti mi nt c ch th bng s cc
on lin kt si quang (chng) ti ch. Nh vy ng ngn nht ti ch
l ng u tin trong bng nh tuyn. Khi c cc rng buc v khong
cch gia cc tuyn khc nhau, mt tuyn c th c la chn ngu
nhin. nh tuyn thay th c nh cung cp iu khin d dng cho thit
lp v gii phng cc lung quang v n cng c th c s dng vi mt
s mc li chp nhn c trn cc lin kt hng
C. nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin tng th
Phng php nh tuyn thch nghi tng kh nng xy ra thit lp kt
ni bng vic a vo tnh ton thng tin trng thi mng. Vi trng hp
thng tin tng th l c th s dng th cc quyt nh nh tuyn c th
thc hin vi thng tin y v mt cc bc sng c th s dng trn
mi tuyn lin kt trong mng. nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin tng
th c th thc hin hoc bng phng php tp trung hoc bng phng
php phn tn. C cc loi nh tuyn thch nghi sau y:
C.1. nh tuyn ng thay th c nh
nh tuyn ng thay th da vo tp cc tuyn c nh c quyt
nh trc gia nt ngun v nt ch. Khi yu cu kt ni n th mt
tuyn c la chn t tp cc tuyn quyt nh trc, v lung quang
c thit lp trn tuyn ny. Tiu chun la chn tuyn thng da trn
hoc di tuyn hoc tc nghn trn tuyn.
+ La chn tuyn da trn di
V d ca gii thut nh tuyn da trn di l gii thut K ng
ngn nht, trong K ng ngn nht c duy tr cho mi cp ngun
ch, v cc ng la chn theo th t chiu di t ngn nht ti di nht.
Kt ni ngn nht c th trn ng ngn nht. Nu ti nguyn khng
th s dng trn ng ny th ng ngn nht tip theo s c th.
+ nh tuyn da trn tc nghn ng i
Phng php la chn tuyn da trn tc nghn xc nh ti nguyn
c th s dng trn mi ng thay th, v chn la ng m trn s
lng ti nguyn ln nht c th c s dng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 57
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
La chn tuyn ng ngn nht chi ph ti nguyn mng t hn c
th dn ti ti trng cao trn mt s tuyn lin kt trong mng. Trong khi
la chn ng vi tc nghn t nht dn ti cc ng di hn, nhng
phn b ti u hn qua mng.
C.2. nh tuyn khng rng buc
Phng php nh tuyn thich nghi khc m s dng thng tin tng
th l nh tuyn khng rng buc. nh tuyn ny xem xt tt c cc
ng c th gia mt nt ngun v mt nt ch. la chn mt tuyn
ti u, mt chi ph c gn cho mi ng lin kt trong mng da trn
thng tin trng thi mng hin ti, nh bc sng c th s dng c trn
cc tuyn lin kt. Gii thut nh tuyn chi ph t nht sau c thc
hin tm tuyn chi ph t nht. Bt c khi no kt ni c thit lp hoc
gii phng, th thng tin trng thi mng phi c cp nht.
Hai v d v nh tuyn khng rng buc l nh tuyn trng thi lin
kt v nh tuyn vect khong cch.
+ inh tuyn trng thi lin kit
Trong phng php nh tuyn trng thi lin kt phn tn, mi nt
trong mng phi duy tr y thng tin trng thi mng. Mi nt sau c
th tm tuyn cho yu cu kt ni bng phng php phn tn. Bt c khi
no trng thi ca mng thay i th tt c cc nt phi c cung cp
thng tin. Do , vic thit lp hoc gii phng mt lung quang trong mng
c th dn ti qung b thng tin cp nht ti tt c cc nt trong mng.
Nhu cu qung b bn tin cp nht c th dn n tng chi ph iu khin
ng k. Hn na, mt nt c th c thng tin b li thi lm cho nt thc
hin quyt nh nh tuyn da trn thng tin ny khng ng.
Mt s khc phc c thc hin nng cao cc gii thut tuyn
chung ngn nht bng vic s dng inh tuyn trng thi lin kt. T
ch ra rng thc o da trn s dng chng trung gian thp nht v tng
hp ca tng s bc sng v bc sng c th s dng cho kt qu xc
xut tc nghn t nht.
Sau y gii thiu cc thc o hm trng c s dng trong mng
WDM c th c s dng bng gii thut Dijkstra.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 58
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Gi
a
j i,

l s bc sng c th s dng trn tuyn lin kt v


T
j i,
l tng s cc bc sng c th trn tuyn lin kt . Khi hm trng
da trn tng s bc sng c th s dng (Total Wavelength and
Avaiable TWA) c m t nh sau:
Gi W j i, l hm trng ca tuyn
( ) j i,
. Trong TWA, W j i, c nh
ngha nh sau:
W j i, = - log
1
1
]
1

,
_


a
j i
T
j i
a
j i
,
,
,
1 1


( ) j i,
E
2
Gi P l xc xut m mt bc sng c s dng trn mt tuyn
lin kt. Nu

a
j i,

v
T
j i,

bit, p c th c tnh:
P = 1 -
T
j i
a
j i
,
,

Khi xc sut m tt c cc bc sng s c s dng ti mt thi im


trong tng lai c th c vit l p
a
j i ,

. Khi xc xut m t nht mt


bc sng c th s dng c trn mt lin kt trong tng lai c a
ra bng (1 - P
a
j i ,

) . Vi mt tuyn bao gm nhiu lin kt, mc tiu l ti a


kh nng m mt bc sng c th s dng trong tng lai, tc l cc i
gi tr (1 - P
a
j i ,

) ca tt c cc lin kt c th to thnh tuyn. Chng ta


s dng log (1 - P
a
j i ,

) nh mt hm trng tng ng v thc hin ti


thiu gi tr ny. y l mt hm trng ng cho bc sng lun thay i.
nh tuyn vect khong cch
Phng php vc t khong cch c th nh tuyn vi thng tin
tng th. Phng php ny khng i hi mi nt duy tr y thng tin
trng thi lin kt mi nt, nhng thay v mi nt lu gi mt bng chuyn
tip dnh ring cho mi ch v mi bc sng, chng tip theo ti ch v
khong cch ti ch. Phng php ny da vo gii thut Bellman- Ford
phn tn duy tr cc bng nh tuyn. Ging vi nh tuyn trng thi lin
kt, bi ton cng yu cu cc nt cp nht thng tin bng nh tuyn ca
chng bt c khi no mt kt ni c thit lp hoc gii phng. Vic cp
nht ny c thc hin bng vic mi nt gi mt bn tin cp nht nh
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 59
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
tuyn ti cc nt ln cn chng theo chu k hoc bt c khi no trng thi
cc tuyn lin kt li ra ca nt thay i. Mc d mi nt duy tr thng tin t
hn nh tuyn trng thi lin kt v cp nht khng qung b ti tt c cc
nt nhng bi ton ny c th vn chu mc chi ph iu khin cao.
Gii thut vect cng rt hay ch, bng mt s cch n c th thc
hin nh tuyn rng buc da trn s chng v cc loi thc o khc
nhau. Thc vy, cc gii thut nh tuyn tiu chun thng ti u mt mc
tiu, tc l chng c th ti thiu s chng trung gian, hoc ti thiu loi
thc o khc no nhng khng th l c hai. Ti u mc tiu kp l
nhim v phc tp hn v ni chung n l mt bi ton kh gii.
Gii thut ng i ngn nht Bellman-Ford c dng cho vic tnh
ng i ca mt thc o ti thiu cho tt c cc chng trung gian. y l
mt tnh cht ca gii thut Bellman Ford m h ln lp li ca n, n xc
nh ng ti u gia ngun v ch, gia cc ng i hu ht h
chng. Tuy nhin, bi v gii thut Bellman-Ford tin hnh bng vic tng
chng s chng trung gian nn n cn cung cp cho chng trung gian ri
mt ng i nh mt tiu chun ti u th hai. y c th l mt tnh
nng c bit th v nu mc tiu l tm ng ngn nht (vi mt thc o
c th) trong khi vn tm mt ng tng i ngn, l ng cng
ti thiu chng trung gian.
+ So snh gia nh tuyn vect khong cch v nh tuyn
Trng thi lin kt trong bi ton RWA
nh tuyn trng thi lin kt v vct khong cch l hai kh nng
c th x l ton b tin tc v mng. Tuy nhin, vic la chn c hai gii
thut gy ra cc ch rt khc nhau khi xem xt vn RWA. Hiu sut
ca hai phng php cho vic thit lp lung quang ng th trng thi lin
kt lm tt hn vi ti trng thp. nh tuyn phn tn cho xc xut tc
nghn thp hn vi ti trng cao.
Tuy nhin, khuyt im c bn ca gii thut vect khong cch l
ch chng khng ph hp nhiu bng gii thut lin kt khi xem xt vn
x l lu lng. c bit, u im chnh ca gii thut trng thi lin kt l
mi nt c mt tin tc tng th v mng. iu ny lm cho n d dng tm
cc tuyn r rng t mt nt ngun ti mt nt ch, do vy tng xc xut
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 60
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
mc li hn cho mng. V d c th tng kh nng khi phc khi cc nt
y tin v mng.
Mc d bi ton nh tuyn da trn tin tc tng th phi gii quyt
nhim v duy tr mt s lng ln thng tin trng thi ang thay i lin
tip, nhng bi ton ny thng thc hin cc quyt nh tuyn ti u nht
nu thng tin trng thi l mi nht. Do vy, bi ton da trn thng tin tng
th c th rt ph hp cho cc mng m trong lung quang l kh tnh
v khng thay i nhiu theo thi gian.
D. nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin cc b
u im ca thng tin cc b l cc nt khng phi duy tr mt s
lng ln thng tin trng thi; tuy nhin, cc quyt inh nh tuyn c
khuynh hng km ti u hn so vi trng hp thng tin tng th. Hai v
d v bi ton nh tuyn thch nghi da trn thng tin cc b l nh tuyn
thay th vi thng tin cc b v nh tuyn lch.
D.1. nh tuyn thay th da trn thng tin cc b
Trong khi cc bi ton nh tuyn thay th thng da trn thng tin
tng th th khc vi hin nay ch dng thng tin cc b. Trong bi ton nh
tuyn thay th tc nghn t nht, vic la chn mt tuyn c xc nh bi
bc sng c th s dng dc theo tuyn thay th. Hai bi ton khc nhau
c xem xt: Trng hp trong thng tin bc sng c th s dng
c bit n dc theo ton b tuyn, v trng hp ch c thng tin
bc sng l c th s dng c bit n dc theo ton b tuyn, v
trng hp trong ch c thng tin cc b l c th s dng.
+ Nhn bit bc sng u cui - u cui
Trong phng php u tin, thc th thc hin nh tuyn nhn
thy thng tin bc sng c th s dng cho tt c cc tuyn lin kt trong
cc ng thay th. Trong trng hp ny, tuyn c chn l tuyn c
bc sng ln nht c th s dng dc theo ton b cc tuyn lin kt
trong ng i ca n. V d nh, trong hnh 2.4, nu hai tuyn thay th t
nt ngun A ti nt ch D c xem xt vi cc bc sng c th s dng
nh c ch trn mi tuyn lin kt, th hai bc sng (
1

v 3

) l c
th s dng dc theo ton b di ca tuyn 1, trong khi ch mt bc
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 61
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
sng (
2

) l c th s dng dc ton b chiu di tuyn 2; do vy tuyn 1


s c la chn.
Tuyn 2
Tuyn 1
A
B C
D
E F
Hnh 2.4: nh tuyn thay th
+ Nhn bit bc sng tng phn
Phong n da trn thng tin cc b l kt hp thng tin bc sng
c th s dng ch dc k chng ngn nht ca mi ng. Tuyn sau
c la chn da trn loi ng b tc nghn t nht dc theo k chng
ngn nht ca n. Trong hnh 2.4, nu k =2 th tuyn 2 s c la chn,
do n c ba bc sng c th s dng trn hai tuyn lin kt ngn nht (
1

,
2

, v
4

), trong khi tuyn 1 ch c hai bc sng c th s dng trn


hai tuyn lin kt ngn nht (
1

v 3

).
Mc d thng tin cc b c th cung cp mt s nh gi tt v tc
nghn dc theo ng i nhng n khng m bo bc sng c trng l
c th s dng dc ton b ng i; do vy, c th sau khi chn la mt
tuyn, mt kt ni vn s b tc nghn
do thiu cc bc sng c th s dng.
D.2. nh tuyn lch
Mt phng php khc cho nh tuyn thch nghi vi thng tin hn
ch l nh tuyn lch, hoc nh tuyn lin kt thay th. Bi ton nh tuyn
ny chn la t cc tuyn thay th trn c s theo chng hn l chn la
t cc tuyn trn c s u cui - u cui. nh tuyn c thc hin bi
mi nt duy tr mt bng nh tuyn th hin i din cho mi ch, mt hay
nhiu tuyn lin kt li ra thay th tin ti ch . Cc tuyn lin kt li ra
thay th ny c th ra c iu khin yu cu kt ni s u tin la
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 62
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
chn cc tuyn lin kt no min l ti nguyn bc sng c th s
dng trn cc tuyn lin kt ny.
Khc vi bng nh tuyn tnh, mi nt s duy tr thng tin v trng
thi ca bc sng s dng trn cc tuyn lin kt li ra ca chnh n. Khi
la chn mt tuyn lin kt li ra cho nh tuyn, th quyt nh c th xc
nh trn c s ng ngn nht hoc tc nghn t nht.
+ Bi ton nh tuyn lch vi ng i ngn nht
Di tiu chun ng i ngn nht, bi ton nh tuyn s c gng
ngn nht la chn tuyn lin kt li ra m cho kt qu ng ngn nht
ti ch. Nu khng c bc sng c th s dng trn tuyn lin kt th bi
ton nh tuyn s c gng la chn mt tuyn lin kt li ra thay th m
dn ti ng ngn nht tip theo ti ch. Bi ton nh tuyn tip tc
bng phng php ny cho n khi ch n c tin ti hoc kt ni b
tc nghn
Hnh 2.5 minh ho bi ton nh tuyn lch cho yu cu kt ni t nt
A ti nt D. ng i ngn nht ngm nh trong v d ny l dc ng A
B C D. Khi yu cu tin ti nt C, n khng th tip tc qua tuyn
lin kt CD, do khng c bc sng chung c th s dng trn tuyn lin
kt AB, BC, v CD. Do yu cu b lch ti nt F, n c th tip tc
ti ch dc theo tuyn lin kt FD. Bc sng c la chn cho lung
quang s l
1

A
B C
D
E F
Hnh 2.5: Bi ton nh lch ng i ngn nht
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 63
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
+ Bi ton nh tuyn lch vi tc nghn t nht
Trong phng php nh tuyn lch tc nghn t nht th bi ton
nh tuyn la chn trong s cc tuyn lin kt li ra thay th tuyn lin kt
c s bc sng kh thi ln nht bao gm tp cc bc sng c th s
dng trn tt c cc chng trc cng nh tuyn lin kt li ra tip theo.
A
B C
D
E F
Hnh 2.6: Bi ton nh tuyn lch vi tc nghn t nht
nh tuyn lch tc nghn t nht c minh ho trn hnh 2.6 cho
mt kt ni t nt A ti nt D. Trn chng gn nht tuyn lin kt AB c
la chn, do n c ba bc sng c th s dng, trong khi tuyn lin kt
AE ch c hai bc sng c th s dng.
Khi yu cu kt ni n t nt B, n s nh tuyn ti nt E, do c ba bc
sng kh thi (
1

,
2

, v
4

) c th s dng trn tuyn lin kt BE, v ch


c mt bc sng kh thi (
1

) c th s dng trn tuyn lin kt BC.


Phng php nh tuyn tc nghn t nht thng cho kt qu cc
ng di hn phng php nh tuyn lch ng i ngn nht: tuy
nhin, nh tuyn lch tc nghn t nht s cho php mt lung quang c
nh tuyn li xung quang khu vc b tc nghn trong mng, ti cn bng
hn khi quang qua mang.
+ Cc vn nh tuyn lch
Mt s vn ny sinh khi thc hin bi ton nh tuyn lch. l
vn vng lp, trong mt bn tin yu cu kt ni quay tr li nt m n
n. Vic pht hin vng lp c th c gii quyt bng vic c bn tin
yu cu kt ni duy tr mt vc t ng i cha danh sch cc nt n.
Nu nt nhn bn tin yu cu kt ni ch ra rng bn tin n nt ny, th
n lc kt ni s b chn li. Thay i vi vic duy tr vec t ng i l s
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 64
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
dng trng thi gian sng, iu ny s ngn cn bn tin yu cu kt ni
c vng lp v hn trong mng.
Mt vn khc na c th xy ra l yu cu kt ni c th b lch
mt lng ln thi gian dn n mt tuyn di v l cho lung quang. Gii
php c th cho vn ny bao gm hn ch chiu di ti a ca cc
chng trong mt lung quang, hoc gii hn lch m mt tuyn c th
mc. Khi mt thng ip yu cu kt ni tin ti gii hn ca n vi s
chng ti a hoc lnh ti a th n lc kt ni s b chn.
2.6.2. BI TON GN BC SNG
Ni chung, nu c nhiu bc sng kh thi gia nt ngun v nt
ch th gii thut gn bc sng c yu cu la chn bc sng cho
lung quang nht nh. Vic la chn bc sng c th thc hin hoc sau
khi tuyn c xc nh hoc sng sng vi vic tm kim tuyn. Cc
bc sng c la chn bng cch ti thiu tc nghn cho chui cc kt
ni.
A. Thut ton gn bc sng theo th t bc sng
Mt v d v thut ton gn bc sng n gin nhng hiu qu l
gn bc sng theo th t bc sng. Trong thut ton ny, cc bc
sng c nh ch s v lung
quang s c gng la chn bc sng vi ch s thp nht trc khi la
chn bc sng vi mt ch s cao hn. Bng vic la chn bc sng
theo phng php ny, cc kt ni hin ti s c gi thnh tng cc
bc sng nh hn, loi b cc bc sng ln hn c th s dng cho cc
lung quang.
B. Thut ton gn bc sng ngu nhin
Phong php khc la chn cc bc sng khc nhau l la
chn n gin mt trong cc bc sng ngu nhin. Ni chung, thut ton
gn bc sng theo th t bc sng s lm tt hn gn bc sng ngu
nhin khi thng tin y v trng thi mng c th s dng. Tuy nhin,
nu vic la chn bc sng c thc hin bng phng php phn tn
ch vi thng tin hn ch v li thi th gn bc sng ngu nhin c th
lm tt hn gn theo th t bc sng. L do cho c tnh ny l ch,
trong phng php gn theo th t bc sng nu nhiu kt ni ang
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 65
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ng thi c gng thit lp mt lung quang th rt c th chng s la
chn bc sng ging nhau dn n mt hoc nhiu kt ni b chn.
C. Thut ton gn bc sng da trn bc sng s dng nhiu
nht v t nht
Thut ton gn bc sng n gin khc bao gm thut ton gn
bc sng da trn bc sng s dng nhiu nht v t nht. Trong gn
bc sng c s dng nhiu nht th bc sng c s dng nhiu
trong phn cn li ca mng c la chn. Phng php ny n lc cung
cp ti a bc sng s dng li trong mng. Phng php gn bc sng
c s dng t nht n lc tri rng ti trng bng nhau qua tt c cc
bc sng bng vic la chn bc sng c s dng t nht xuyn xut
mng. C hai phng php gn bc sng da trn bc sng s dng t
nht v s dng nhiu nht i hi tin tc tng th.
2.6.3 BO HIU V T TRC TI NGUYN
thit lp lung quang th giao thc bo hiu c yu cu trao
i thng tin iu khin gia cc nt v t trc ti nguyn dc ng
i. Trong nhiu trng hp, giao thc bo hiu c kt hp cht ch vi
cc gii thut RWA.
Cc giao thc bo hiu v t trc c th c phn loi da trn
hoc ti nguyn c t trc sng sng trn mi tuyn lin kt, c t
trc theo chng dc ng i theo hng tin hoc c t trc theo
chng dc ng ngc li. Cc gii thut cng s khc nhau ph thuc
vo thng tin tng th c th s dng hoc khng th s dng.
A. t trc song song
Bi ton da trn nh tuyn trng thi lin kt cho rng mi nt duy
tr thng tin tng th v cu hnh mng v trng tha hin ti ca mng bao
gm thng tin v cc bc sng ang c s dng trn mi tuyn lin kt.
Da trn thng tin tng th ny nt c th tnh ton tuyn ti u ti ch vi
bc sng nht nh. Nt ngun sau c gng t trc bc sng mong
mun trn mi tuyn lin kt trong tuyn bng vic gi bn tin iu khin
ring ti mi nt trong tuyn. Mi nt m nhn bn tin yu cu t trc s
c gng t trc bc sng xc nh, v s gi hoc tn hiu chp
nhn hoc khng chp nhn quay tr li ngn Nu nt ngun nhn tn hiu
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 66
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
chp nhn t tt c cc nt th n c th thit lp lung quang v bt u
truyn thng vi ch.
u im ca bi ton t trc song song l n rt ngn thi gian
thit lp lung quang bng vic cc nt x l cc yu cu t trc song
song. N cng n gin hn thc hin cc bi ton t trc khc nh
t trc theo chng c nu chi tit trong phn sau. Tuy nhin, khng
thun li ch n i hi tin tc tng th do c hai ng i v bc sng
phi bit sm hn ch i.
B. t trc theo chng
Khc vi t trc song song l t trc theo chng trong bn
tin iu khin c gi dc theo tuyn la chn tng chng k tip
nhau. mi nt trung gian, bn tin iu khin c x l trc khi chuyn
tip ti nt tip theo. Khi bn tin iu khin tin ti ch, n c x l v
gi li nt ngun. Vic t trc ti nguyn tuyn lin kt thc t c th
thc hin hoc trong khi bn tin ang i theo hng tin ti ch, hoc
trong khi bn tin iu khin ang i theo hng ngc li tr v ngun
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 67
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
CHNG 3
PHNG PHP NH TUYN V GN BC SNG
TRONG MNG QUANG DA TRN K THUT GMPLS
3.1. MPLS V MNG QUANG THNG MINH
3.1.1. TM BAO QUT RNG LN CA MPLS
Cng ngh MPLS l kt qu pht trin ca nhiu cng ngh chuyn
mch IP s dng c ch hon i nhn ca ATM tng tc truyn gi
tin m khng cn giao thc nh tuyn ca IP. MPLS tch chc nng ca IP
lm hai phn ring bit: Chc nng chuyn gi tin v chc nng iu khin.
MPLS c da trn nhng tng sau.
+ Thng tin chuyn tip nhn tch ra t ni dung ca mo u IP
+ M hnh chuyn tip n (hon i nhn), cc m hnh nh tuyn
bi
+ Thc hin ring bit lin kt bi m hnh chuyn tip hon i nhn
tn nhn dng ng / knh ni o, khe tn s, khe thi gian.
+ Tnh linh hot cho vic to cc lp chuyn tip tng ng
+ Phn cp chuyn tip qua ngn xp nhn
Vic tch thng tin chuyn tip t ni dung mo u IP cho php
MPLS c s dng vi cc thit b nh OXCs (b u ni cho quang)
m mt phng d liu khng th nhn ra mo u IP. Cc b nh tuyn
chuyn mch nhn chuyn tip d liu bng vic x dng nhn uc mang
bi d liu. Nhn ny kt hp vi cng m d liu c thu, c s dng
xc nh cng li ra v nhn li ra cho d liu. Mt phng iu khin
MPLS hot ng di dng hon i nhn v rt ra kiu chuyn tip. ng
thi, mt phng d liu MPLS cho php thc hin ring bit lin kt bi nt
ra ny. V d nh, mt bc sng c th xem nh mt nhn r rng.
Cui cng, khi nim phn cp chuyn tip qua ngn xp nhn cho
php tng tc vi cc thit b m ch c th h tr mt khng gian nhn
nh. Tnh cht ny ca MPLS l cn thit trong khi nim v OXCs v
DWDMs do s bc sng l khng ln lm
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 68
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
3.1.2. CC GIAO THC NH TUYN V PHN PHI NHN TRONG
MPLS.
Nn tng MPLS bao gm cc ng dng quan trng nh nh tuyn
da trn rng buc. nh tuyn da trn rng buc l tng hp ca nhng
m rng cho cc giao thc nh tuyn trng thi IP hin c chng hn nh
OSPF v IS-IS vi RSVP hoc CR- LDP nh mt phng iu khin MPLS
v thut ton ng i ngn nht c rng buc. Nhng m rng vi OSPF
v IS-IS cho php cc nt trao i thng tin v cu hnh mng, ti nguyn
c th s dng v thm ch c thng tin chnh sch.
Thng tin ny c s dng bi phng php CSPF giao thc tm
ng ngn nht c rng buc tnh cc ng dn tu thuc vo ti
nguyn dnh ring hoc chnh sch rng buc. V d nh, hoc RSVP-TE
hoc CR-LDP c s dng thit lp trng thi chuyn tip nhn theo
cc tuyn c tnh bi gii thut da trn CSPF, iu ny to ra LSP. Mt
phng d liu MPLS c s dng chuyn tip d liu dc theo LSP
thit lp. nh tuyn da trn rng buc ngy nay c s dng cho hai
mc ch chnh: X l lu lng v ti nh tuyn nhanh.
3.1.3 HNG TI NGN XP GIAO THC N GIN HN: IP/MPLS
QUA DWDM.
Vi mng thit k ph hp, nh tuyn da trn rng buc ca
IP/MPLS c th thay th ATM nh c cu cho x l lu lng. Cng nh
vy c cu ti nh tuyn nhanh a ra mt s thay i vi SONET nh
mt c cu cho vic bo v / khi phc. C x l lu lng v nh tuyn
nhanh l v d v nng cao c cung cp bi MPLS cho nh tuyn IP lm
cho n c th vt qua ATM v SONET/ SDH bng cc chc nng di tr
c cung cp bi cc cng ngh ny cho mt phng iu khin IP/MPLS.
3.1.4. TNG QUAN GIA MPLS V MNG QUANG
Cuc cch mng ca cng ngh MPLS ang ni ln mt s hip tr
gia b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn s dng trong MPLS v cc chuyn
mch quang gia LSP v ng quang hoc lung quang. Mt lung
quang l mt kt ni u cui u cui trong sut gia cc nt ch gm cc
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 69
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
linh kin quang, khng c s chuyn i quang hoc in no. Tng t
nh cc nhn chuyn mch trong LSR, chuyn mch quang cht cc bc
sng t cng li vo ti cng li ra. Vic thit lp LSP lin quan ti vic nh
cu hnh mi LSR trung gian nh x nhn v cng li vo c trng ti
nhn v cng li ra. Tng t, qu trnh thit lp mt lung quang lin quan
ti vic nh cu hnh mi chuyn mch quang trung gian nh x buc
sng v cng li vo ti bc sng v cng li ra.
LSR v cc chuyn mch quang cn giao thc nh tuyn nh OSPF
va IS-IS trao i cu hnh trng thi lin kt v thng tin ti nguyn
quang c th s dng cho vic tnh ton ng i. Chng cng cn nhng
giao thc bo hiu nh RSVP va LDP t ng x l thit lp ng dn.
c bit MPLS cho php tch mng thnh mt phng iu khin v
mt phng chuyn tip mt cch logic. Mt phng chuyn tip p ng
thng tin chuyn mch bng vic s dng bng chuyn tip rt n gin.
Mt khc nhim v mt phng iu khin l qun l ngun ti nguyn ca
mng. c bit mt phng iu khin l t trc ti nguyn trn c s
u cui - u cui gia cc nt li vo v li ra; bao gm thit lp v loi
b ng quang. Tng kt cc bi ton khc nhau c s dng trong cc
lp khc nhau c cho trong bng 1.
text
Mt phng iu khin Mt phng d liu
IP
MPLS
OTN
Lp nh tuyn : OSPF, IS-IS v BGP
Lp lin kt : CR-LDP hoc RSVP -TE
Lp chuyn tip : IP
Lp chuyn tip : MPLS
Lp chuyn tip :
Bc sng
Lp nh x : LMP hoc GMPLS hoc
tng hp c hai
3.1.5. LIN KT V QUN L BA MT PHNG IU KHIN
Kt hp kh nng cung cp gii thng ca chuyn mch quang vi
kh nng k thut ca MPLS s cho php cc b nh tuyn, chuyn mch
ATM v b ghp knh xen k ADM SONET / SDH yu cu ni v khi cn
gii thng.
iu dn ti xut hin tng kt hp ba mt phng iu khin
bng vic b sung thm lp na nh l mt phng qun l. Tuy nhin,
cha c s ng chung v vic cc mt phng khc nhau s tng tc
vi nhau nh th no, tc l cha t c s nht tr v vic hot ng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 70
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ca OSPF m rng, IS-IS, BGP m rng, RSVP TE, CR LDP, LMP,
GMPLS, OIF, UNI v NNI s c thc hin nh th no.
Tuy nhin, cng ng IP v cng ng mng quang ng rng
mt phng iu khin p ng vic qun l lp mng quang s c da
trn nn tng GMPLS.
3.2. Bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong mng quang t chc
trn k thut GMPLS.
Bi ton RWA hin nay l mt phn cng vic ca mt s nhm lm
vic IETF nh mt phng o lng v iu khin chung, chuyn mch
nhn a giao thc MPLS, giao thc nh tuyn OSPF v internet IP. Sau
y trnh by tng quan v xu hng trong cng nghip lm cho mng
quang thc s nh mng ton quang. ng c thc y v cc xut ca
nn tng GMPLS c gii thch v c lin kt vi bi ton RWA.
3.2.1. TNG QUAN V K THUT GMPLS
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS cng c gi l
chuyn mch nhn lamba a giao thc n h tr khng ch cc thit b
thc hin chuyn mch gi m cn thc hin chuyn mch theo thi gian,
theo bc sng, theo khng gian.
Hin nay c mt s quan tm ln vo vic thit lp v gii phng
lung quang t ng trong mng truyn ti quang. Mt xu hng ang ni
ln trong cng nghip l s dng mt phng iu khin lp quang nhiu
hn so vi mt phng qun l nh ang thc hin theo truyn thng
cung cp cc lung quang.
Mt phng iu khin lp quang thng minh c mong ch mang li mt
s li ch bao gm. Cung cp chuyn mch nhanh, dch v linh hot nh
cc dch v gii thng theo yu cu, thao tc gia cc thnh phn ca
mng c nng cao t cc nh cung cp khc nhau v tnh nng phc v
c nng cao bng vic cung cp kh nng nh tuyn ng khi xy ra li.
Phng php chung l nh tuyn v bo hiu cho lp quang s da
vo vic s dng li v nng cao cc giao thc mt phng iu khin mt
phng hin c gim chu trnh pht trin sn phm v khuyn khch pht
trin nhanh cc thnh phn lp mng quang mi.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 71
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Gn y nn cng nghip ht theo GMPLS mt cch r rng (trc
c gi l MPS thay cho chuyn mch nhn lamba a giao thc)
do gii php mt phng iu khin cho mng quang th h sau. GMPLS l
mt s m rng cho MPLS m cho php cc ng chuyn mch nhn
tng qut nh l cc lung quang c thit lp hoc loi b mt cch t
ng nh giao thc bo hiu. iu ny i hi nh ngha nhn MPLS c
tng qut ho mt nhn c th c m ho nh mt khe thi gian, mt
bc sng hoc mt b nhn dng khng gian. Bng vic li dng u im
ca nh ngha mi v nhn tng qut, r rng MPLS cng c th c m
rng iu khin v nh cu hnh TDM DXC, lambda hoc si OXC
Sau y gii thiu c trng v cc bi ton nh tuyn trong mng
truyn ti quang OTN
3.2.2. THIT LP V KHI PHC LUNG QUANG
Mt trong cc mc ch chnh ca mng quang l cung cp v thit
lp vic khi phc lung quang u cui - u cui nhanh. i ny c
thc hin bi 3 thnh phn khc nhau:
+ Khm ph ti nguyn: Bng khm ph ti nguyn nhn c thng
tin trng thi nh tnh nng kt ni mng, kh nng lin kt v cc rng
buc c bit. Ni chung, iu ny c thc hin bng vic m rng giao
thc nh tuyn trong min IGP nh OSPF hoc IS-IS mang thng tin b
sung trong LSA.
+ La chn tuyn: La chn tuyn c s dng la chn mt
tuyn thch hp qua mng ION cho lung quang yu cu. iu ny
thng c thc hin bng vic a vo gii thut nh tuyn da trn
rng buc, m tnh ton tuyn mong mun di cc rng buc lp vt l v
cc rng buc hot ng.
+ Qun l tuyn: Bao gm thit lp v loi b tuyn, bo tr tuyn v
phn b nhn. iu ny c thc hin ch yu bng vic s dng cc m
rng ca RSVP TE hoc CR- LDP.
Bi ton RWA lin quan hu ht n khm ph ti nguyn v la
chn tuyn. Tuy nhin, nh ni trn bi ton RWA c th b lin quan
rc ri vi qu trnh qun l tuyn n khng th xc nh c kt qu
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 72
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ca gii thut RWA thc hin theo cch thng thng m khng b
sung thm loi giao thc qun l no.
3.3. CC IU KIN RNG BUC TRONG NH TUYN QUANG.
Mc d c s ging nhau theo kha cnh nh tuyn gia mng IP v
mng ION, mng ION phc tp hn bi v n cha cc rng buc c b
sung trong quyt nh nh tuyn. S khc nhau nh vy v d nh sau:
+ Mng gi d liu tri vi mng chuyn mch knh. Trong mng IP
vic chuyn tip cc gi c thc hin da trn c s theo chng. Tri li
trong mng ION mt kt ni, hoc lung quang phi c thit lp theo cc
rng buc da trn ti nguyn mng v cu hnh mng.
+ Ngn cch cu hnh mt phng iu khin v cu hnh mt phng
d liu. Tri vi cc mng IP, mng ION c th cung cp tnh bo mt cao
hn bng vic qun l mt mt phng iu khin ngoi di bng; khc bit
hon ton vi cu hnh mt phng d liu.
Gia cc rng buc chnh c b xung lp mng ION l cc rng
buc lp vt l m thng thng gii quyt cc tn hiu quang.
3.3.1. IU KIN RNG BUC TRONG LP VT L.
Mt s rng buc vt l nh hng ti kt qu tnh ton lung quang
phi c a vo tnh ton. Qu cng xut nt ngun, PMD (Tn sc
mt phn cc). Tn sc mu, ASE xuyn m gia cc knh v cc yu t
phi tuyn khc l tt c rng buc ti hn tnh ton lung quang.
C th cc rng buc khc, c bit vic cc tn hiu ti to 3R c
xem xt n bi nt li vo thc hin gii thut RWA khi tnh ton tuyn ti
u cho nt li ra. V d nh, b nh tuyn GMPLS HIKARI c da trn
nn ton quang vi vic b sung cc chc nng 3R v chuyn i bc
sng nu tn hiu b suy gim bi suy hao si quang cng nh cc hiu
ng phi tuyn nh l PMD hoc ASE th chc nng 3R c kch hot.
Ngoi ra, vic chuyn i bc sng cng c s dng khi bo hiu b
nghn bi chim trc qu nhiu bc sng.
3.2.2. CC RNG BUC BC SNG
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 73
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Trong mng ton quang, nu khng s dng chuyn i bc sng
c th bc sng lin tc phi c bo ton dc lung quang. iu ny
lm phc tp quyt nh nh tuyn v c gi l rng buc bc sng
lin tc. C ngha l bn tin qung b tuyn phi cha thng tin v bc
sng c th s dng mi tuyn lin kt si quang trong mng ION. Gii
php nh vy c th t ra cc vn quan trng lin quan n kh nng
m rng cp bi v mt s bc sng trong mng ION c chiu hng
quan trng. Mt s gii php a ra bc sng c th s dng trong tuyn
lin kt si quang c tho lun. Tuy nhin, cc gii php ny u c
nhng thay i quan trng vi cc giao thc nh tuyn.
3.3. KIN TRC GMPLS
Cc m rng vi IGPs nh OSPF, IS-IS cho php cc nt trao i
thng tin v cu hnh mng quang, ti nguyn c th s dng v cc rng
buc qun tr. c tnh nh tuyn GMPLS li c th s dng bng ba phn:
+ Miu t chc nng nh tuyn
+ Cc IGP m rng nh l OSPF-TE m rng.
+ IS-IS m rng
Bo hiu GMPLS m rng cc chc nng c bn vn c ca bo
hiu RSVP-TE v CR-LDP v trong mt s trng hp b sung thm tnh
nng. Nhng thay i v b sung ny tc ng mnh n cc tnh cht c
bn ca LSP, cc li c truyn nh th no, v thng tin c cung cp
cho vic ng b cc nt li vo v li ra nh th no. c tnh bo hiu
GMPLS li c th c s dng bng ba phn:
+ Miu t chc nng bo hiu
+ RSVP-TE m rng
+ CR-LDP m rng.
nh tuyn lung quang ng trong mng IP qua WDM c da
trn m hnh nh tuyn da trn rng buc GMPLS. V d nh, OSPF l
giao thc trng thi lin kt trong trng thi ca mi lin kt trong mng
c qung b mt cch nh k ti tt c cc nt to nn LSAs. Thng tin
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 74
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
ny c s dng nh u vo cho gii thut thng thng hoc gii thut
tnh ton ng i da trn rng buc
M tnh ton ng i tu thuc vo cc rng buc cu hnh, ti
nguyn, cc rng buc qun tr. Tiu chun GMPLS khng xc nh m
cng khng bt buc bt k kiu bi ton nh tuyn no. iu ny c
thc thi khc nhau gia cc nh cung cp.
Ngay khi mt lung quang thch hp c la chn. Mt giao thc
bo hiu nh CR-LDP hoc RSVP TE c gi ra thit lp kt ni.
Trong khi hin nay t chc IETF tp trung vo mt vi giao thc c th th
bn thn GMPLS khng hn ch vi bt k giao thc nh tuyn hay bo
hiu ring no. Hn na, cc giao thc nh OSPF, CR-LDP v RSVP-TE
mm do v thch hp vi thc hin cc bi ton nh tuyn v bo hiu
khc nhau cho thit lp lung quang.
3.4. B NH TUYN GMPLS THC T: B NH TUYN HIKARI
Mt phng php rt hay gii quyt bi ton RWA c thc hin
bng b nh tuyn HIKARI. Trong thit b ny, cc b chuyn i bc
sng ch c s dng khi c tc ngn do thiu cc bc sng c th s
dng tho mn rng buc bc sng lin tc. B nh tuyn HIKARI bao
gm mt b nh tuyn IP, mt b nh tuyn bc sng v mt b qun l
b nh tuyn GMPLS nh minh ho trong hnh 3.1
G M P L S - r o u t e r
m a n a g e r
S
W
3 R
c
o
n
v
Photonic link
state
IP link state
IP traffic monitor with
low-pass filter
Multiplayer topology
design algorthm
OSPF
extension
RSVP-TE
extension
GMPLS controller
Hardware manager
Hnh 3.1: Cu trc b nh tuyn Hikari vi TE a lp trn
gim st lu lng IP
gii quyt bi ton RWA, b nh tuyn HIKARI thc hin giao
thc nh tuyn OSPF m rng v RSVP-TE m rng t c inh
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 75
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
tuyn la chn hiu qu cng nh ti thiu s ln yu cu chuyn i bc
sng. OSPF m rng cho php xy dng hai c s d liu trng thi lin
kt khc nhau phn nh kh nng lin kt ca mng. C s d liu lin kt
trng thi thng thng cha thng tin trng thi lin kt IP trong khi c s
d liu c k thut lu lng TED (Traffic Engginering Database) cha
thng tin trng thi lin kt quang.
u tin, qung b tuyn th OSPF m rng c s dng. Mi
b nh tuyn HIKARI qung b tng s bc sng c s dng v khng
c s dng ca n. Nt bin s dng thng tin ny phn bit trng
thi lin kt GMPLS v c th la chn ng i t tn km nht. Nhng
thay i bao gm thng tin ti nguyn 3R v ti nguyn chuyn i bc
sng. Thng tin ny thng s dng cho nh tuyn ngun da trn tng
hp ng u tin ngn nht v thng tin ti.
nng cao chc nng bo hiu, RSVP-TE m rng c xut.
u tin b nh tuyn HIKARI t thng tin bc sng khng s dng
bng vic s dng khun dng bitmap trong bo hiu RSVP. Mi b nh
tuyn HIKARI qu giang ghi thng tin ny bng vic And gia bitmap
bc sng khng c s dng bo hiu n v cc bc sng khng
c s dng ca n. Nu khng c bc sng khng th c s dng
th vic chuyn i bc sng c s dng.
B nh tuyn m cung cp chuyn i bc sng to bitmap bc
sng khng th c s dng mi v gi n ti b nh tuyn tip theo. K
thut bo hiu v nh tuyn gim thiu tn s chuyn i bc sng trong
mng v do vy c th cung cp cc mng quang rt hiu qu kinh t.
Phng php c s dng thit lp lung quang ng c
miu t trong b nh tuyn HIKARI c c bit quan tm. N l trng
hp tt nht thc hin thit lp lung quang ng DLE t tiu chun.
Tuy nhin, n khng cung cp thm cht thng tin no v vic thng tin
c hp li nh th no bi cc bn tin qung b lin kt c x l thc
t bng thut ton RWA. c bit, nh ngha thc o lin kt khng c
a ra. Do vy vic s dng th ng chuyn i bc sng s lm cho tc
nghn yu cu kt ni nhiu hn.
Vi nh gi , vic chuyn i bc sng vn rt tn km v
khng hon ton c gi tr v mt thng mi. Do vy, rt c th nhu cu
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 76
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
thc t cho thut ton RWA s thc hin ch yu di iu kin rng buc
bc sng lin tc.
3.5.Kt lun chng
Chng ny ch ra rng bi ton RWA l mt bi ton rt phc
tp. Mt khc, gn y tr nn r rng GMPLS l gii php mt phng
iu khin tt nht cho mng th h sau. Trong GMPLS, nhn MPLS c
tng qut ho nhn c th c m ho nh thi gian, bc sng, hoc
b nhn dng khng gian.
GMPLS bao qut rt rng v bi ton RWA ch l mt nn tng tng
i nh ca nn tng GMPLS. iu quan trng l bi ton RWA phi c
a ra vi cc kin ngh khc nhau ca IETF cho GMPLS. Tuy nhin, nn
tng GMPLS l tng i mi v nhng thc thi rt mi ca n c
thc hin. Cn c mt nghin cu trong vic m hnh ho cc bi ton thit
lp lung quang (Gii thut RWA tng ng) trong mt mng da trn
GMPLS nh gi hiu nng ca cc gii php c tn thnh bi cc
d tho v cc tiu chun ca IETF. c bit n l iu quan trng u tin
nh gi hiu nng ca mt s bi ton RWA khi xy dng vi cc gii
thut nh tuyn trng thi lin kt trong mng ION da trn GMPLS.
CHNG 4:
XY DNG M HNH BI TON NH TUYN V GN BC SNG
TRONG MNG QUANG S DNG K THUT GMPLS
4.1. TNG QUAN V OMNET ++
4.1.1 GII THIU CHUNG
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 77
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
OMNeT++ l vit tt ca cm t Objective Modular Network Testbed
in C++.
OMNeT++ l mt ng dng cung cp cho ngi s dng mi trng
tin hnh m phng hot ng ca mng. Mc ch chnh ca ng dng
l m phng hot ngmng thng tin, tuy nhin do tnh ph cp v linh
hot ca n, OMNeT++ cn cs dng trong nhiu lnh vc khc nh
m phng cc h thng thng tin phc tp, ccmng kiu hng i
(queueing networks) hay cc kin trc phn cng...
OMNeT++ cung cp sn cc thnh phn tng ng vi cc m hnh
thc t. Cc thnh phn ny (cn c gi l cc module) c lp trnh
theo ngn ng C++, sau c tp hp li thnh nhng thnh phn hay
nhng m hnh ln hn bng mt ngn ng bc cao (NED). OMNeT++ h
tr giao din ho, tng ng vi cc m hnh cu trc ca n ng thi
phn nhn m phng (simulation kernel) v ccmodule ca OMNeT++ cng
rt d dng nhng vo trong cc ng dng khc.
4.1.2. CC THNH PHN CHNH CA OMNET++
Th vin phn nhn m phng (simulation kernel)
Trnh bin dch cho ngn ng m t hnh trng (topology description
language)- NED (nedc)
Trnh bin tp ho (graphical network editor) cho cc file NED
(GNED)
Giao din ho thc hin m phng, cc lin kt bn trong cc file
thc hinm phng (Tkenv)
Giao din dng lnh thc hin m phng (Cmdenv)
Cng c (giao din ho) v th kt qu vector u ra (Plove)
Cng c (giao din ho) m t kt qu v hng u ra
(Scalars)
Cng c ti liu ho cc m hnh
Cc tin ch khc
Cc ti liu hng dn, cc v d m phng
4.1.3. NG DNG
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 78
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
OMNeT++ l mt cng c m phng cc hot ng mng bng cc
module c thit k hng i tng. OMNeT++ thng c s dng
trong cc ng dng ch yu nh:
M hnh hot ng ca cc mng thng tin
M hnh giao thc
M hnh ho cc mng kiu hng i
M hnh ho cc h thng a b vi x l (multiprocesser) hoc cc
h thng phn cng theo m hnh phn tn khc (distributed
hardware systems)
nh gi kin trc phn cng
nh gi hiu qu hot ng ca cc h thng phc tp...
4.1.4. M HNH TRONG OMNET++
Mt m hnh trong OMNeT++ bao gm cc module lng nhau c cu
trc phn cp. su ca ca cc module lng nhau l khng gii hn, iu
ny cho php ngi sdng c th biu din cc cu trc logic ca cc h
thng trong thc t bng cc cutrc m hnh. Cc module trao i thng
tin vi nhau thng qua vic gi cc message(message). Cc message ny
c th c cu trc phc tp tu .
Cc module c th gi cc message ny theo hai cch, mt l gi
trc tip ti a ch nhn, hai l gi i theomt ng dn c nh sn,
thng qua cc cng v cc kt ni.
Cc module c th c cc tham s ca ring n. Cc tham s ny c
th c s dng chnh sa cc thuc tnh ca module v biu din
cho topology ca m hnh.Cc module mc thp nht trong cu trc phn
cp ng gi cc thuc tnh. Cc module ny c coi l cc module n
gin, v chng c lp trnh trong ngn ngC++ bng cch s dng cc
th vin m phng.
4.1.5. LP TRNH THUT TON
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 79
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Cc module n gin c th cha cc thut ton nh cc hm ca
C++. S linh hotv sc mnh ca C++, kt hp vi cc th vin m phng
ca OMNeT++ to iukin d dng cho ngi s dng. Cc lp trnh vin
m phng c th chn la vic m t theo s kin hay theo tin trnh, c
th d dng s dng nhng khi nim ca lp trnh hng i tng (nh
a hnh, k tha) v thit k cc mu th (pattern) m rng chc nng
ca qu trnh m phng.
Cc i tng m phng (message, module, queue...) c th hin
qua cc lp caC++. Mt s lp c bn trong th vin m phng ca
OMNeT++:
Module, cng, lin kt...
Cc tham s
Message
Cc lp Container (mng, hng i...)
Cc lp Data Collection
Cc lp ny c th c s dng nh nhng cng c cho php
ngi s dng c thduyt qua tt c cc i tng khi chy th m hnh
ng thi hin th thng tin vchng nh tn ca i tng, tn lp, cc
bin trng thi v ni dung bn trong. cim ny cng cho php to ra
cc m hnh m phng c giao din ho (GUI) viphn cu trc bn
trong c che i.
4.1.6. S DNG OMNET++
A. Xy dng v chy th cc m hnh m phng
Mt m hnh OMNeT++ bao gm nhng phn sau:
Ngn ng m t topology - NED (file c phn m rng.ned): m t
cu trcca module vi cc tham s, cc cng... Cc file.ned c th
c vit bng btk b son tho hoc s dng chng trnh
GNED c trong OMNeT++.
nh ngha cu trc ca cc message (cc file c phn m
rng.msg): Ngis dng c th nh ngha rt nhiu kiu messsage
v thm cc trng d liu cho chng. OMNeT++ s dch nhng nh
ngha ny sang cc lp C++ y .
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 80
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
M ngun ca cc module n gin. y l cc file C++ vi phn
m rng l.h hoc.cc.
H thng m phng cung cp cho ta cc thnh phn sau:
Phn nhn m phng. Phn ny cha code qun l qu trnh m
phng vcc th vin lp m phng. N c vit bng C++, c
bin dch v c t cng dng vi cc file th vin (cc file c
phn m rng l.a hoc.lib).
Giao din ngi s dng. Giao din ny c s dng khi thc
hin qu trnh m phng, to s d dng cho qu trnh sa li, biu
din (demonstration)hoc khi thc hin m phng theo tng khi
(batch execution of simulations).C mt vi kiu giao din trong
OMNeT++, tt c u c vit bng C++,c bin dch v t
cng nhau trong cc th vin (cc file c phn m rngl.a hoc.lib).
Thc hin m phng v phn tch kt qu
Cc chng trnh thc hin m phng (the simulation executable) l
cc chng trnh c lp, tc l n c th chy trn cc my khc khng
ci t OMNeT++ hay cc file m hnh tng ng. Khi chng trnh khi
ng, n bt u c file cu hnh (thng thng l file omnetpp.ini). File
ny cha cc thit lp iu khin qu trnh m phng thc hin, cc bin
cho cc tham s ca m hnh... File cu hnh cng c thc s dng
iu khin nhiu qu trnh m phng, trong trng hp n ginnht l cc
qu trnh m phng ny s c thc hin ln lt bi mt chng
trnhm phng (simulation program). u ra ca qu trnh m phng l cc
file d liu. Cc file ny c th l cc file vector,cc file v hng hoc cc
file ca ngi s dng. OMNeT++ cung cp mt cng c ho Plove
xem v v ra ni dung ca cc file vector. Tuy nhin chng ta cngnn hiu
rng kh m c th x l y cc file kt qu m ch dng ring
OMNeT++; cc file ny u l cc file c nh dng c th c c bi
cc gix l ton hc ca cc chng trnh nh Matlab hay Octave, hoc
c th c a vo bng tnh ca cc chng trnh nh OpenOffice Calc,
Gnumeric hay Microsoft Excel. Tt c cc chng trnh ny u c chc
nng chuyn dng trong vic phn tch s ho, v biu din (visualization)
vt qua kh nng ca OMNeT++.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 81
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Cc file v hng cng c th c biu din bng cng c Scalar. N
c th v c cc biu , cc th da vo tp hp cc to (x, y) v
c th xut d liu vo clipboard c th s dng trong cc chng trnh
khc nhm a nhng phn tch chi tit hn.
Giao din ngi s dng
Mc ch chnh ca giao din ngi s dng l che nhng phn
phc tp bn trong cu trc ca cc m hnh i vi ngi s dng, d
dng iu khin qu trnh m phng, v cho php ngi s dng c kh
nng thay i cc bin hay cc i tng bn trong ca m hnh. iu ny
l rt quan trng i vi pha pht trin v sa li trong d n. Giao din
ho cng c th c s dng trnh din hot ng ca m hnh.
Cng mt m hnh ngi s dng c th trn nhiu giao din khc
nhau m khng cn phi thay i g trong cc file m hnh. Ngi s dng
c th kim th v sa li rt d dng qua giao din ho, cui cng c
th chy n da trn mt giao din n gin v nhanh chng c h tr thc
hin theo khi (batch execution).
Cc th vin thnh phn
Cc kiu module c th c lu ti nhng v tr c lp vi ch m
chng thc s c s dng. c im ny cung cp cho ngi s dng
kh nhm cc kiu module li vi nhau v to ra cc th vin thnh phn.
Cc chng trnh m phng c lp
Cc chng trnh thc hin qu trnh m phng c th c lu
nhiu ln, khng ph thuc vo cc m hnh, s dng cng mt thit lp
cho cc module n gin. Ngi s dng c th ch ra trong file cu hnh
m hnh no s c chy. iu ny to kh nng cho ngi s dng c
th xy dng nhng chng trnh thc hin ln bao gm nhiu qu trnh
m phng, v phn phi n nh mt cng c m phng c lp. Kh nng
linh hot ca ngn ng m t topology cng h tr cho hng tip cn ny.
4.1.7. H thng file
Sau khi ci t OMNet++, th mc omnetpp trn h thng my ca
bn nn cha cc th mc con di y.
H thng m phng:
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 82
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
omnetpp/ th mc gc ca OMNeT++
bin/ cc cng c trong OMNeT++ (GNED, nedtool...)
include/ cc file header cho m hnh m phng
lib/ cc file th vin
bitmaps/ cc biu tng ho
doc/ cc file hng dn, readme...
manual/ file hng dn dng HTML
tictoc-tutorial/ gii thiu s dng OMNeT++
api/ API tham chiu dng HTML
nedxml-api/ API tham chiu cho th vin NEDXML
src/ m ngun ca ti liu
src/ m ngun ca OMNeT++
nedc/ nedtool, trnh bin dch message
sim/ phn nhn m phng
parsim/ cc file dnh cho vic thc hin phn tn
netbuilder/ cc file dnh cho vic c ng cc file NED
envir/ m ngun cho giao din ngi s dng
cmdenv/ giao din ngi dng dng lnh
tkenv/ giao din ngi s dng da trn Tcl/tk
gned/ cng c son tho file NED
plove/ cng c v v phn tch u ra dng vector
scalars/ cng c v v phn tch u ra dng v hng
nedxml/ th vin NEDXML
utils/ cc tin ch khc...
test/ b kim th li
core/ b kim th li cho th vin m phng
distrib/ b kim th li
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 83
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
...
Cc qu trnh m phng mu c cha trong th mc samples
samples/ th mc cha cc m hnh m phng mu
aloha/ m hnh ca giao thc Aloha
cqn/ Closed Queue Network
...
Th mc contrib cha cc chng trnh c th kt hp vi OMNeT++
contrib/
octave/ script ca Octave dng x l kt qu
emacs/ b nh du c php NED cho Emacs
Ngoi ra bn cng c th tm thy cc th mc khc nh msvc/, cha
cc thnh phn tch hp cho Microsoft Visual C++...
4.2. PHNG PHP THC LUN NGHIM
Phn ny lun vn s trnh by cc gi thuyt c t ra cho bi
ton m phng.
4.2.1.CC GI THUYT
A. nh ngha bi ton
Cho tp cc lung quang c la chn ngu nhin ng cn c
thit lp trong mng ION v cho rng buc vi tng s bc sng trong si
quang. Bi ton RWA phi xc nh cc tuyn m cc lung quang ny s
c thit lp qua v xc nh cc bc sng s c gn cho cc lung
quang ny s lung quang ti a c th c thit lp.
Mc d cc tuyn ngn nht c th a chung nht nhng c th
khng c la chn cho php nhiu lung quang hn c thit lp.
Cc lung quang m khng th c thit lp do cc rng buc trn cc
tuyn v cc bc sng c xem l b tc nghn, do vy vn ti u
mng tng ng l ti a kh nng thit lp cho yu cu hin ti trong khi
ti thiu xc xut tc nghn cho cc yu cu kt ni tng lai.
B. Xem xt thi gian thit lp yu cu
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 84
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Khi bng inh tuyn sn sng th thi gian thit lp yu cu l thi
gian c thc hin bi qu trnh t trc. Nu bi ton t trc theo
chng c la chn th thi gian thit lp t l vi s nt v s tuyn lin
kt m bn tin t trc s bt gp. Gii thut nh tuyn s phi t b
chn cc tuyn ngn nht v s thng bo cc tuyn khng phi l ngn
nht nhng cho hiu sut s dng bc sng tt nht trong mng. Nu qu
trnh x l mi nt l quan trng th thi gian thit lp s tng ln.
Tuy nhin, RWA c thc thi s khng xem xt thi gian thit lp
nh mt tham s thc thi. Bi v bi ton thit lp lung quang khng c
xem xt ton b.
Hn na, cha c tng chung chp nhn kin trc mt phng
iu khin cho cc mng ton quang. Tt c cc loi bo hiu c th thc
hin l bo hiu trong gii, bo hiu ngoi di hoc bo hiu knh chung. V
d nh, bo hiu ngoi di s dn n s dng mt bc sng cho bo
hiu ca ton mng. Kh nng ny l rt hay bi v n cho php mang mt
cch an ton s lng ln bn tin qung b tuyn c th m c phn
pht bi giao thc nh tuyn v c cc bn tin t trc.
C. Yu cu n
Trong phn ny, ch xt bi ton DLE. Bi ton DLE phc tp hn bi
ton SLE. Tuy nhin, nu gi thit rng MPLS c s dng vi lp cao
hn th c th coi tc ca ng n c phn tng i thp. Ngha l
cc phng php ngn xp nhn MPLS cho php cc yu cu n t mt
h thng u cui da trn MPLS c b vo cng ngn xp nhn ti
thiu ti trng gy ra bi cc yu cu lung quang ng. V d nh, ATM l
s dng mt ngn xp nhn mc 2 (VPI / VCI) n gin ho kin trc
mng. Tuy vy trong vn ny th MPLS v theo GMPLS mnh hn
ATM nhiu bi v n cho php ngn xp nhn mc v cng.
D.Xem xt kin trc ca mng quang thng minh Ion
Bi ton RWA s c kim tra trn mt mng mt li. y l
trng hp trong cc mng ton quang c th c mt s tuyn d
tha gia mi nt ca mng
Mi nt bao gm mt OXC c iu khin bi mt b iu khin
GMPLS bng vic s dng cc dch v ca b nh tuyn IP. Thng thng
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 85
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
cc nhin v khc nhau ca b iu khin c th l qun l ti nguyn
quang cu hnh v qun l dung lng, a ch, nh tuyn, khm ph cu
hnh mng, k thut lu lng v khi phc.
Gi thit rng b iu khin GMPLS thc hin chc nng hon ton
nh b iu khin cho lp quang v mang lu lng d liu khng phi IP.
Cc b iu khin in thng tin vi nhau qua mng iu khin ngoi di
hoc trong di. Gi thit rng tn ti giao thc truyn ti tin cy trong mng
iu khin m bo bn tin gia cc b iu khin c phn pht mt
cch tin cy v lin tc
M hnh s c kim tra trn mng m phng l mng mt li.
Mng m phng ny da trn mng Abilene. y l mt mng ng trc
cao cp h tr pht trin s dng cc ng dng mi ang c pht trin
vi cng ng internet 2 M
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Hnh 4.1: Mng m phng
Trong mng trn bc ca mi nt l gia 1 v 4 vi bc trung bnh l
3. Tng s cc nt ln ca V l 12.
D. Cc iu kin rng buc vt l
Cc tham s khng phi l rng buc da trn bc sng khng
c a vo tnh ton.
E.1. Rng buc bc sng lin tc.
Bi v vic chuyn i bc sng ton quang l mt cng ngh tn
km v vn cha chin mui nn gi thit rng khong OXCs no c kh
nng chuyn i bc sng. Do tip theo gii php s phi cp n
iu kin rng buc bc sng lin tc WCC
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 86
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
WCC l rng buc duy nht m khng tm thy trong mng chuyn
mch in thoi thng thng. Do , rt c th gii thut lin quan ti
WCC s chu xc sut tc nghn cao hn v d trong hnh di y, hai
lung quang c
thit lp trong mng: (1) gia nt 1 v nut 2 bng lambda1 v (2) gia nt 2
v nt 3 bng lambda2. By gi gi s rng lung quang phi c thit
lp gia nt 1 v nt 3 iu ny l khng th v s dn n tc nghn cho
lung quang thit lp bi v hai bc sng c th s dng cui cng
(lambda 2 gia nt 1 v nt 2 v lambda 1 gia nt 2 v nt 3 l khc nhau)
text text text
Node 1
Node 2 Node 3
1
2
1
2
Hnh 4.2: Tc nghn do rng buc lin tc bc sng
Gii thut thit lp ng u cui - u cui gia nt li vo A no
v nt li ra B no trong mng ton quang phi ng. u tin, khng
xem xt kha cnh TE, mc ch chnh l ti thiu tc nghn trong mng.
C ngha l ng ti u s khng phi l ng ti u ca giao thc nh
tuyn trong min IGP. c c kt qu nh vy, cc thc o khc
nhau ca cc tuyn lin kt phi c thay i theo mc ch ny. Cc
thc o khc nhau cho cc gii thut nh tuyn ng phi c kim tra.
E.2. S bc sng cho mi tuyn lin kt
Xt tuyn lin kt gia hai nt ngay cnh nhau. Mi tuyn lin kt c
th c to nn t vi si quang, bn thn mi si bao gm vi bc
sng WDM. Trong hnh 4.3, tuyn lin kt bao gm 3 si, mi si cha mt
s bc sng xc nh. Gi j i,

l s bc sng i trong si quang j.


inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 87
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Hnh 4.3: Gi thit v trung k si quang
Gi thit di bc sng hot ng l di 1,550 nm, thng c gi
l di thng thng hoc di C bi t chc tiu chun quc t ITU-T. Di
cc bc sng trong di C l 1,530 nm ti 1,565 nm. Mi bc sng c
gn mt bc sng pht x c th c xc nh bi ITU-T.
Gi thit c ti a 44 bc sng trn mt si quang. Bc sng
c t nh sau
: i , 1 = 1,530 nm ti 1,565 nm, vi j l s si quang c s dng.
Tm li, cc bc sng da trn vt l sau y c xt:
j i,

= Bc sng i trong si j
i (1, 44)
j i,

= 1,5330,33 nm; j , 44

= 1,564.68 nm Di C
V mt thut ton th bi ton RWA a si tng ng vi mng
quang da trn si quang n. Do vy, tip theo danh sch bc sng
c yu cu ch vi mt si quang c xem xt.
Hn na, trn thc t khng th xy ra 44 bc sng ca di C s
hon ton c s dng pht i. Thng thng th ch c mt s bc
sng c pht i; iu ny ph thuc vo nh thit k mng quang. Ni
chung, mt khe thi gian WDM c gii hn vi bi ca 8 bc sng,
ti 32 hoc 40.
4.2.2. XY DNG HM MC TIU
Gii thut RWA s s dng li cc gii thut thng thng ph
bin v c th s dng. N cng n gin thc hin cng tt. iu ny
gim thiu bi ton tnh ton c th xy ra.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 88
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Gii thut RWA phi c kh nng xc nh ti a cc tuyn r rng
trong mng ION tho mn cc yu cu ng. Mc tiu l ti thiu tc
nghn cc lung quang yu cu trong mng trong khi lin quan ti iu
kin rng buc bc sng lin tc WCC.
Gii thut RWA s chia thnh cc c cu t trc, gn bc sng
v nh tuyn. Mt khc ch yu tp trung vo nghin cu tuyn r rng
trong mng p ng cc rng buc vt l trong mng ION.
Gii thut RWA s xc nh tuyn li ra r rng trong mng ION.
Tuyn r rng ny s xc nh mi nt c truyn qua bi lung quang.
Ngoi ra, gii thut gn bc sng cho php xc nh bc sng tho mn
WCC s phi c t trc trn lung quang. Tuyn r rng v bc
sng sau s c x l nh li vo ca giao thc t trc thit lp
mch trong mng.
Phn mm c vit phi c xu hng s dng li. iu ny c bit
quan trng, bi v bi ton RWA c th s tr nn phc tp hn khi c thm
cc rng buc vt l mi.
4.2.3. M T BI TON RWA
Cng vic t ra l pht trin mt m hnh mng Ion da trn GMPLS
vi nh tuyn trng thi lin kt bng vic s dng tin tc mng tng th.
La chn ny c gii thch nh sau.
A. Gii thut nh tuyn.
C ba loi bi ton nh tuyn chnh l nh tuyn c nh, nh tuyn
thay th c nh v nh tuyn ng. Nguyn l nh tuyn c nh v thay
th c nh l rt n gin. Tuy nhin, chng c kh nng khim tn khi gii
quyt cc kh nng t sa cha v c th cho xc xut tc nghn rt cao
khi xem xt DLE
Do vy, nh tuyn ng s c xem xt. Bt li chnh ca nh
tuyn ng l tng chi ph c th cao do vic qung b cc tuyn. Hn na,
cc gii thut nh tuyn ng c th chim nhiu CPU khi xem xt mt s
rng buc. Tuy nhin, vic la chn gii thut lun l bc ngot gia hiu
nng v tng chi ph lu lng. Cc i tng nghin cu trc c
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 89
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
miu t trong lun vn ny m nh tuyn ng c xem nh l cch tt
nht gii quyt bi ton RWA.
Trong phng php u tin, c hai bi ton nh tuyn thch nghi l
nh tuyn trng thi lin kt v nh tuyn vc t khong cch c
cp. Tri vi gii thut nh tuyn da trn trng thi lin kt lm trn cc
gi ln mng th gii thut vc t khong cch gi cc bn tin qung b
tuyn ca chng ch ti nhng b nh tuyn ln cn ca n.
Gii thut vc t khong cch c th ti thiu tng chi ph lu lng
trong ton mng trong khi vn m bo xc xut tc nghn tng i thp
vi ti trng cao. Gii thut vc t khong cch cng rt hay khi xem xt
nh tuyn rng buc. N l tnh cht ca gii thut Bellman Ford m
php lp th h ca n, n xc nh ng ti u (s bc sng ti a) gia
ngun v mi ch, gia cc ng ca nhiu nht h chng. iu ny c
khuyn ngh cho thc hin nh tuyn theo cht lng dch v QoS.
Bi v gii thut Bellman Ford tin hnh bng vic tng chng trung
gian nn n cn cung cp cho chng trung gian ri ca ng i nh tiu
chun ti u th hai. Tnh cht ny rt hay khi p dng cho mng ton
quang. Thm ch ng ngn nht s c tho mn cho tuyn di hn
trong cc chng, lung quang khng nn qu di bi v iu ny c th dn
n thng tin quang km hiu qu v t tin.
Giao thc bo hiu IP thi gian thc RIP l thc hin hay duy nht
ca giao thc da trn vc t khong cch. N tip tc pht trin do n n
gin v ph hp cho cc mng nh. Tuy nhin, Rip c mt s thiu st lm
cho n c bit khng ph hp vi mng ION. c bit, RIP khng ph hp
cho cc cu hnh ln v nhiu vn khc na. Bin php khc phc tt
nht l thc hin cc gii thut trng thi lin kt.
Trong phm vi mng ION, tnh mt tuyn r rng th s dng gii
thut
inh tuyn da trn mng lin kt cng d dng hn nhiu. Thc vy, lung
quang c thit lp s ti u hn nu mi nt c thng tin y v
mng. N cng l mt c tnh ca gii thut Dijkstra tm tuyn r rng
trong mng ION trong khi ti thiu xc xut tc nghn cc yu cu trong
mng ION.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 90
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Trong nh tuyn trng thi lin kt, thng tin ch c gi khi xy ra
nhng thay i. Nt xy dng nn hnh dng cu hnh mng u tin. Sau
n c th s dng bt k gii thut nh tuyn no xc nh tuyn.
Ngc li, phng php vc t khong cch cn s dng gii thut phn
tn nh l gii thut Bellman Ford.
Thc t cc gii thut trng thi lin kt c th s dng gii thut nh
tuyn no l c bit quan trng. Gii thut nh tuyn nng cao hn
no c th c b sung cho gii thut RWA mt cch an ton m
khng tri qua nhng thay i ln. iu ny c bit quan trng cho s
dng phn mm. V d nh, cc gii thut RWA khc nhau c th c
thc thi, da trn cc bi ton ti u khc nhau (tin tc tng th hoc tng
phn).
Giao thc OSPF phin bn 2 l giao thc trng thi lin kt c ph
bin rng ri nht. N ngy cng c ph bin hn so vi RIP, bi v n
ph hp nht cho cc mng ln. OSPF l gii thut ngun m c th c
tm thy vi cc ngn ng khc nhau, bao gm C++. y l thun li ln
cho s dng li phn mm. Bi v chng trnh m phng (OMNET ++)
c s dng da trn C++.
Phn trc gii thch ti sao gii thut trng thi lin kt c la
chn. N c la chn, bi v tiu chun GMPLS chp nhn n m ch
cc gii thut trng thi lin kt s c s dng. l ti sao ch nhng
m rng cho OSPF hoc IS-IS c a ra trong cc d tho MPLS.
B. M t bi ton nh tuyn
B.1.1 Qung b tuyn
Bn tin qung b tuyn c xy dng theo OSPF m rng cho
GMPLS. Mc ch l m rng gi tr chiu di tuyn TLV (Type Length
Value) lin quan n trng ISCD (b m t kh nng chuyn mch giao
din) ca GMPLS OSPF m rng.
Thc t cc bn tin ROUTING c lm trn trn ton b mng
bi nt thay i cc kh nng lin kt ca n. V c bn chng cha a ch
ca cc u lin kt m kh nng bc sng ca n thay i v trng
thi ca bc sng thay i.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 91
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
C s d liu lin kt bao gm cc bn ghi, mi bn ghi miu t
mt tuyn lin kt ca mng. Mi bn ghi cha cc a ch ca cc tuyn
lin kt nt, trng kh nng bc sng v trng thc o. Trng
thc o l chi ph s dng tuyn lin kt ny khi thc hin tnh ton ng
ngn nht. Trong lun vn ny hai thc o khc nhau s c thc hin.
Chng l hai hm ca tng s bc sng v s bc sng c th s dng
trn tuyn lin kt.
B.2. Thc o lin kt
Thc o lin kt th hin chi ph s dng tuyn lin kt no trong
mng. Chi ph lin kt l hm tng s bc sng v s cc bc sng c
th s dng. Bc sng c th s dng cng nhiu chi ph lin kt s thp
hn.
Bi ton nh tuyn c kim tra vi cc thc o khc nhau: TWA
(tng s bc sng v bc sng c th s dng) trn tuyn lin kt (i,j) v
T
j i,

l tng s bc sng c th trn tuyn lin kt . Thc o TWA


n gin th hin ti c gn cho tuyn lin kt v c xc nh bi:
W j i. = 1 -
T
j i
a
j i
,
,

(i, j) E
2
Thc o TWA nng cao kim tra thc o m ti thiu xc sut
tc nghn trn tuyn r rng:
W j i. = - log
1
1
]
1

,
_


a
j i
T
j i
a
j i
,
,
,
1 1

(i, j) E
2
So snh cc hm trng khc nhau cho
a
j i,

= 32 c th hin trn
th:
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 92
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Hnh 4.4: Cc thc o lin kt cho si 32 bc sng
B.3. Tnh ton ng i
C s d liu lin kt c cp nht mi bi b nh tuyn GMPLS
p ng c s tnh ton d ng da trn gii thut Dijkstra. Tnh ton
ng ny c thc hin bi mi nt trong mng khi n nhn bn tin
ROUTING, l cp nht kh nng lin kt no trong mng.
Gii thut nh tuyn thng cho php mi nt xy dng c s d
liu ca mnh. C s d liu cha N bn ghi, N l s nt ca mng.
Mi bn ghi c da trn cu trc sau:
+ a ch nt ch: Xc nh bn ghi; n l nt tin ti.
+ Chi ph tng cng cho nt ch ny: y l chi ph tng cng khi
thc hin tuyn ngn nht ti nt ch.
+ Kh nng bc sng c th s dng u cui - u cui: Trng
ny xc nh r rng cc bc sng c th c gn nu c trn tuyn
ngn nht.
+ Tuyn r rng: y l danh sch lit k tt c cc a ch ca cc
nt c yu cu trn tuyn ngn nht.
Vi c s d liu lin kt ngn nht th ba trng u tin thc t l
u ra trc tip ca gii thut ng ngn nht. Hai trng cui cng l kt
qu ca mt th tc nh ca gii thut Dijkstra. Thc vy, n l tnh cht
ca gii thut Dijkstra m c th tm danh sch cc nt ca mi ng
ngn nht bng php gi quy n gin.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 93
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
B.4. Gn bc sng
C mt s ln bi ton gn bc sng c th thc hin c. Cc
bi ton kh d c kim tra trong lun vn ny l gn bc sng theo th
t bc sng v ngu nhin. Gn theo th t bc sng chn bc sng
c th s dng u tin trong danh sch cc bc sng yu cu. Gn theo
ngu nhin la chn bc sng mt cch ngu nhin gia cc bc sng
c th s dng khc nhau. Hai bi ton c s dng trc tip li ra
ca gii thut tnh ton ng xc nh bc sng c t trc trn
ng ti mi ch trong mng t nt ngun.
B.5. Bi ton t trc.
Giao thc t trc da trn t trc song song (ng thi) thc
hin kim tra cc bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng thc hin.
Vic t trc c n gin ho bi v n khng xem xt cc gi c th b
mt, khng cho php xem xt bt k c cu truyn li no. Hn na, n
c gi thit rng dch v ca giao thc nh tuyn (nh OSPF) t chng
ti chng gia cc b nh tuyn khc nhau c cung cp.
Bi ton t trc s dng cc loi gi sau: REQUEST, RESERVE,
RESPONE, TAKEDOWN. Qu trnh trao i bn tin cho t trc nh sau:
+ B pht ca h thng u cui nt pht bn tin REQUEST (yu
cu) cho kt ni mi ti nt khc c la chn ngu nhin trong mng
ION. N truyn yu cu ny ti b nh tuyn GMPLS lin kt ca n. Nh
c s d liu quang ca n c xy dng bi gii thut nh tuyn bc
sng m m un b nh tuyn GMPLS c th xc nh nu (1) tuyn r
rng c th s dng ti ch c yu cu; (2) vi tuyn r rng ny, chn
bc sng vi ti a kh nng khng tc nghn.
+ Nu tuyn r rng v bc sng c th s dng cho ch th router
GMPLS t trc ng thi tuyn v bc sng c gn cho kt ni .
l, n gi ng thi bn tin RESERVE (t trc) ti mi nt ca tuyn
r rng chp nhn n.
+ Khi nt trn tuyn r rng nhn bn tin RESERVE th n kim tra
liu bc sng ca n c th s dng trn tuyn lin kt ang lin kt nt
c xem xt vi vic lm trc trong tuyn r rng hay khng. Sau n
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 94
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
gi bn tin RESPONE tr li m un con router GMPLS gi bn tin
RESRVE.
S ca qu trnh t trc minh ho cc bn tin REQUEST,
RESERVE, v RESPONE c cho trong hnh 4.5. H thng u cui gn
vo nt S gi bn tin REQUEST ti b nh tuyn GMPLS (1). Sau ng
thi 3 bn tin RESERVE ti nt 1, 2 v D (2). Cui cng, mi nt tr li mt
cch c lp ti nt S (3)
text
H thng u cui yu cu
- Tuyn r rng S-1-2-D
- Bc sng 3
Bn tin Reserve
Bn tin Request
Bn tin Respone
Kim tra 3 c th s dng
t trc 3 trn tuyn
lin kt S - 1
- Kim tra 3 c th s dng
- t trc 3 trn tuyn lin kt
1 - 2
- Kim tra 3 c th s dng
- t trc 3 trn tuyn lin kt 2
- D
text
text
text
text
Hnh 4.5: C cu t trc sng sng cc bn tin
Request, Resrve, Respone
Trong trng hp bc sng c t trc khng th c s
dng trong mt hoc vi nt ca tuyn r rng th m un b nh tuyn
GMPLS gi bn tin TAKEDOWN ti tt c cc nt ca tuyn r rng
khuyn co chng thit lp li khi bc sng c th s dng c t
trc
S qu trnh t trc minh ho bn tin TAKEDOWN c cho
trn hnh 4.6. Nt 2 kim tra cc bc sng c th s dng ca n trn
tuyn lin kt 1-2; bc sng c yu cu bi S khng c kh nng s
dng. Sau n khuyn co S bng vic gi bn tin RESPONE t chi t
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 95
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
trc bc sng (3). Ngay lp tc, S gi tr li cc nt khc ca tuyn r
rng bn tin TAKEDOWN (4) m thit lp li bc sng c yu cu c
th s dng.
text
H thng u cui yu cu
- Tuyn r rng S-1-2-D
- Bc sng 3
Bn tin Reserve
Bn tin Request
Bn tin Respone
Bn tin Take Down
Kim tra 3 c th s dng
t trc 3 trn tuyn
lin kt S - 1
- Kim tra 3 c th s dng
- t trc 3 trn tuyn lin kt
1 - 2
- Kim tra 3 c th s dng
- t trc 3 trn tuyn lin kt 2
- D
text
text
text
text
Hnh 4.6: Minh ho s dng bn tin Take Down
4.3. XY DNG M HNH
M hnh c thc hin bng vic s dng phn mm m phng
OMNET++. N ang dn tr nn ph bin trong lnh vc khoa hc thng tin
v cnh tranh tt trong nhng lnh vc ny vi cc cng c thng mi c
uy tn nh OPNET. N ang c s dng mt s trng i hc cho
vic nghin cu cc mng truyn thng.
C mt s l do s dng OMNET ++. u tin, y l phn mm
min ph. Hin nay n ngy cng c nhiu ngi s dng nh cng c
m phng cho cc cng vic khc nhau, bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn.
OMNET ++ cng cho php s dng li nhng thc thi trc hiu qu
bi v n s dng C++, mt ngn ng hng i tng cho cc m un
n gin.
4.3.1. NG LI THC THI
A. M hnh mng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 96
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
M hnh mng ION bao gm cc m un n gin nh b nh tuyn
GMPLS v cc m un a hp Endsystem. M un GmplsRouter cha tt
c cc gii thut RWA v gii thut t trc, trong khi m un EndSystem
chu trch nhim to v phn tch p ng cho cc bn tin yu cu kt ni.
M un con EndSystem bao gm m un pht n gin v m un
thu n gin. Nhim v ca m un pht l pht mt s yu cu kt ni ti
cc nt ch c la chn mt cch ngu nhin trong mng ION. M un
b thu nhn cc p ng cho mi yu cu kt ni c pht i bi m un
pht ging ht ca n. Nguyn l nhim v m un thu l phn tch cc p
ng v xy dng bng thng k.
ng ch l m un a hp Endsystem m t thc t mt h thng
u cui trong mng ION. M un Endsystem th hin cho mt hoc vi h
thng u cui nh cc chuyn mch hoc cc b nh tuyn. V d nh,
rt c th cc h thng m un nh vy s l chuyn mch ATM hoc cc
b nh tuyn IP vi phn mm da trn MPLS. Mt lnh vc nghin cu
hin nay l tiu chun ho giao din vt l gia cc khch hng (cc h
thng u cui) v mng truyn ti (mng ION). Giao din ny c thit
k nh giao din UNI.
Mi m un GMPLS ch c lin kt vi mt m un EndSystem.
Cc m un c a ch ging nhau. M hnh n gin nh sau:
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 97
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
text B thu B pht
GMPLS ROUTER
Ti cc m
un
Gmpls
Router khc
Ti cc m
un
Gmpls
Router khc
M un a
hp End
System
Hnh 4.7: Cc m un a hp Endsystem v Gmpls khc
M hnh mng da trn mng mt li ging nh mng Abiene M.
N gm 12 m un GmplsRouter c phn tn cc GigaPop khc nhau;
mi m un GmplsRouter c lin kt vi m un Endsystem ca n.
B. Cc tham s h thng.
Lu lng mng c pht i di dng cc yu cu kt ni. Yu
cu kt ni l yu cu thit lp lung quang t nt ngun ti nt ch c
la chn mt cch ngu nhin. Cc yu cu kt ni n mi b nh tuyn
gi s l hm phn phi m trung bnh trn mt n v thi gian.
Cc tham s h thng c thay i l
T
j i,

tng s bc sng trn


mi tuyn lin kt v cc yu cu kt ni n.
T
j i,

c thay i gia 8,
16,24. Cc
tham s thc hin c xem xt l xc sut tc nghn P v tuyn lin kt
s dng U.
Gi P l xc sut yu cu kt ni b tc nghn do cc bc sng
khng th s dng lung quang. Khng th a ra nh ngha v mt gii
tch cho P.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 98
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
Trung bnh tuyn lin kt s dng U c cho bi phn trm thi
gian tt c cc bc sng ca mi tuyn lin kt trong mng c s dng
hon ton.
U=

<
<

,
_

j i j i
j i
j i j i
j i
T
j i
a
j i
,
,
,
,
,
,
1
1

4.4.KT QU V SO SNH
Mt trong nhng mc tiu ca lun vn ny l nh gi gii thut
RWA trnh by thc hin lin quan ti nghn cc yu cu trong mng
nh th no. Bi v chuyn i bc sng khng c s dng nn rng
buc bc sng lin tc dn n mc tc nghn cao khi ti trng tng ln.
u tin l so snh cc bi ton gn bc sng. Tip n l phn tch v
nh gi v tc nghn trong mng theo trung bnh tuyn lin kt s dng.
4.4.1.SO SNH CC BI TON GN BC SNG
Gn bc sng theo th t bc sng v ngu nhin thc hin bng
cc cch rt ging nhau, hoc khi tc nghn i vi trung bnh tuyn lin
kt s dng hoc i vi trung bnh lu lng nt. Thc t khng c s
khc nhau v hiu sut gia hai bi ton. Di y l cc kt qu m
phng s dng bi ton gn bc sng theo th t bc sng.
4.4.2.TC NGHN V TRUNG BNH TUYN LIN KT S DNG.
Xc sut tc nghn P l hm ca tuyn lin kt s dng U vi tng s
bc sng
T
j i,

trong si quang.
T
j i,

c thay i gia 8, 16, 24 bi mt


s bi ton khc nhau bao gm thc o TWA n gin, thc o TWA
nng cao, gn bc sng theo th t bc sng v ngu nhin c kim
tra.
Cc th biu din tc nghn i vi trung bnh tuyn lin kt s
dng vi cc gi tr
T
j i,

khc nhau c cho trong hnh 4.8. th a), b),


c) th hin tc nghn i vi trung bnh tuyn lin kt s dng tng ng
vi
T
j i,

= 8,
T
j i,

= 16,
T
j i,

= 24. Trong mi th, tc nghn i vi trung


inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 99
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
bnh tuyn lin kt s dng biu th cho hai thc o l TAW n gin v
TAW nng cao.

inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 100
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
4.4.3. NHN XT CHUNG V TC NGHN TRONG MNG ION
Cc th trn th hin s ging nhau mt phn no v c im
tc nghn trong mng ION. Vi tuyn lin kt s dng thp, t hn mt na
s bc sng c s dng th xc sut tc nghn l cc thp (hu ht l
0). Khi nhiu hn mt na bc sng c s dng, trn trung bnh cc
tuyn lin kt trong mng th tc nghn tng ln t ngt v tin ti 100
phn trm tc nghn khi 100 phn trm trung bnh tuyn lin kt s dng.
Mc tc nghn thp l di 5 phn trm. Tc nghn cao hn l ln
hn hoc bng 5 phn trm. Nu ngng ny c s dng th ta c
nhng nhn xt:
+ Khi
T
j i,

= 8: Ngng tc nghn thp t c vi TWA n gin


vi 33 phn trm tuyn lin kt s dng trong khi TWA nng cao l 42
phn trm
+ Khi
T
j i,

= 16: Ngng tc nghn thp t c vi TWA n


gin vi 47 phn trm tuyn lin kt s dng trong khi TWA nng cao l 47
phn trm.
+ Khi
T
j i,

= 24: Ngng tc nghn thp t c vi TWA n


gin vi 33 phn trm tuyn lin kt s dng trong khi TWA nng cao l 47
phn trm.
Theo kt qu th bt k thc o no c s dng th dng nh
tc nghn cao xut hin tuyn lin kt s dng cao hn khi nhiu bc
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 101
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
sng hn c s dng. Tuy nhin kh xc nh c trng thi thc s
bi v ch c 3 bc sng khc nhau c s dng.
Tuy nhin ngay c vi 24 bc sng th hiu sut cng hi ngho
nn. Thc vy, tc nghn tng i cao xut hin nhanh tuyn lin kt s
dng cao hn khong 50 phn trm. Hiu sut ngho nn ny hu ht do
gi thuyt t ra. c bit l khng a vo s dng chuyn i bc
sng; rng buc bc sng lin tc dn n tc nghn cao hn tuyn lin
kt s dng tng i trung bnh.
4.4.4 SO SNH GIA CC THC O TAW N GIN V NNG CAO.
Trong phn ny so snh hiu sut hai thc o TAW n gin v
TAW nng cao. l nh gi hiu sut tng ng vi tc nghn mc s
dng cao.
Ut c nh ngha nh ngng lin kt s dng tc nghn
bng 5 %
Khi ta c bng so snh sau:
TAW n
gin
TAW
nng cao
So snh hiu sut
(trung bnh tc nghn khc
nhau)
U
t
U<U
t
U>U
t

T
i,j
= 8 33% 42% 1% 7%

T
i,j
= 16 47% 47% 2% 4%

T
i,j
= 24 33% 47% 1% 3%
C th kt ln nh sau:
+ tuyn lin kt s dng thp, TAW n gin v TAW nng cao
thc hin cng mt cch. Tc nghn trong trng hp ny rt thp (di 5
%).
+ tuyn lin kt s dng cao, thc o TAW nng cao thc hin
tt hn nhiu thc o TAW n gin. iu ny c bit ng khi rt t
bc sng c s dng.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 102
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
+ Khi s bc sng tng ln th tc nghn hn 5 % xut hin tuyn
lin kt s dng cao hn.
Ni chung, thc o TAW nng cao thc hin tt hn thc o TAW
n gin tuyn lin kt s dng cao hn. L do l thc o nng cao c
gng ti thiu trng lng ca tuyn r rng trong khi vn c gng ti thiu
xc sut tc nghn cho cc yu cu cao hn. Ngc li, thc o TAW
n gin khng a vo tnh ton cc kh nng. N ch c gng ti thiu
tng tuyn lin kt s dng trn tuyn r rng c th t nt li vo ti nt li
ra.

KT LUN
Vn RWA hin nay rt c quan tm nghin cu vi mt s
lng cng trnh ng k c cng b. Vi cng mt cu trc vt l,
bng cc phng php nh tuyn v gn bc sng hp l trong cu trc
mng quang cho ta truyn c lu lng cao v mang li hiu qu s
dng bng tn cng nh cht lng dch v.
Lun vn trnh by tng qut v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
MPLS v chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS. khng ch
l mt cng ngh bng rng hin i v nng cao m cn l ct li hoc l
mi nhn ca mng. GMPLS cho php cc nh khai thc vin thng gim
bt chi ph vn hnh, n gin ho vic qun l lu lng v h tr cc
dch v IP lin kt vi nhau.
Trong lun vn cng kho st, nghin cu mt s phng n gii
quyt in hnh cho vic nh tuyn v gn bc sng trong mng ghp
knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM ton quang. c bit l lun vn
trnh by phng php s dng nn chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
GMPLS cho vic thit lp lung quang trong mng ton quang.
Trn c s mt s gii php in hnh cho bi ton RWA xut
trong lun vn ny xy dng c m hnh m phng cc bi ton
xut bng OMNET ++. M hnh ny c kim tra vi mng mt li
di cc tham s khc nhau bao gm tng s bc sng cho mi si
quang v cc bi ton khc nhau nh: TAW n gin v TAW nng cao
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 103
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
cho bi ton nh tuyn v gn bc sng theo th t bc sng v ngu
nhin.
Cc kt lun rt ra t m phng m hnh l:
+ Xc sut yu cu b tc nghn P l rt thp v n nh (< 5 %) vi
tuyn lin kt s dng thay i t 0 % ti ngng U t thay i gia 33 %
v 47 %. tuyn lin kt s dng cao hn Ut (U > Ut ) th tc nghn tng
ln rt nhanh khi tuyn lin kt s dng tng ln.
+ Thc o T AW nng cao thc hin tt hn th c o T AW n
gin tuyn lin kt s dng cao, c bit khi s bc sng cho mi si
thp. Ngc li, tuyn lin kt s dng thp (U < Ut ) th c hai thc o
c kt qu ging nhau bt k s bc sng c s dng.
Cc bi ton gn bc sng theo th t bc sng v ngu nhin
cho hiu sut ging nhau khi kt hp vi bt k bi ton nh tuyn v t
trc no.
Trong thi gian lm lun vn em c gng tm hiu v cng ngh
chuyn mch MPLS v GMPLS. Nhng do thi gian c gii hn nn em
cha th i su vo vn ny. Trong thi gian ti em s c gng tm hiu
v i su vo ti ny. Em cng thc c rng mc d c gng
nhng vn khng th trnh c nhng thiu st trong bn lun vn ny.
V vy em mong nhn c nhiu s gp ca cc thy cc c.
Em hy vng rng trong tng lai cng ngh GMPLS s c a
vo v trin khai nc ta. Mt ln na em xin chn thnh cm n cc
thy c v cc bn gip em rt nhiu hon thnh ti lun vn
ny.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 104
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Ashowood-Smith, P.., et al.., Generalized Multi-protocol Label
Switching (GMPLS) Architecture draft-ietf-ccamp-gmpls-architeture-
02.txt.2002.
2. Beger, L., et al.., Generalized MPLS Signaling Functional Description
draft-ietf-mpls-generalized-signaling-08.txt.2002.
3. Black, U., Optical networks, Third Generation Transport
systems.2002: Prentice Hall PTR.
4. Bruce Davie and Yakov Rekhter, MPLS Technology and Applications,
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, SanDiego, CA-USA,20USD.
5. Neil Jerram, MPLS in Optical Network, Data Connection Limited,
Enfield, UK
6. Stallings, W., Multi Protocol Label Switching. Sept.2001, Cisco.
7. Varga, A., Omnet++. 2002
8. Zang , H.,et al., Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength
routed WDM network. IEEE Communications Magazine, Sept. 2001.
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 105
Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS
9. Nguyn B Hng, nh tuyn v gn bc song trong mng WDM,
Vin khoa hc k thut Bu in.
10.Vin khoa hc k thut Bu in, Nghin cu cng ngh chuyn
mch nhn a giao thc MPLS v xut cc kin ngh p dng
cng ngh MPLS trong mng th h sau (NGN) ca tng cng ty.
11.Tng hp cc ti liu t Internet
www.iec.rog
www.ietf.org
www.IPinfusion.com
inh Mnh Hi - Lp K49B 106