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Asking the time What time is it? Whats the time? Can you tell me the time, please? SPELLING How do you spell that? Ff= double f F= capital f F=small f TELEPHONE NUMBERS 0= zero 77=double seven VOCABULARY. Days of the week. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Colors. Thursday Friday Saturday. classroom language. Whats this called in english? How do you say that in english? Can you repeat that? can you speak slowly, please? I dont understand. I cant see. I cant hear. What does that mean? Whats the answer to number one? How do you pronounce that?

Black Blue Brown Gray

green orange pink purple

red white yellow

MONTHS. January May September October November

February June March April July

August December

CLASSROOM OBJECTS Bag Board Book computer desk eraser pen pencil whiteout

CD player notebook Chair NUMBERS. One Two Three Four Five Six twenty twenty-one twenty-two thirty forty fifty paper

Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen

sixty seventy eighty ninety a/one hundred a/one thousand

Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen

Present simple: to be
Affirmative Im (=am) . Youre (=are) in room 5. Hes (=is) from Mexico. Shes (=is) from Brazil. Its (=is) Mia. Were (=are) American. Theyre (=are) from Costa Rica. Negative Im not (=am not) a student. You arent (=are not) in room 4. He isnt (=is not) from Canada. She isnt (=is not) twenty. It isnt (=is not) our class. We arent (=are not) Indian They arent (= are not) teachers.

We usually use the contraction when speaking. We use the full form in formal writing. You, is both singular and plural. Question Am i in this class? Are you American? Is your mom American? Is he from Spain? Is this room 5? Are we in this room? Are they the same age? Short answers Yes, you are/ no, you arent Yes, i am./ no, Im not. Yes, she is./no, she isnt. Yes, he is./ no, he isnt. Yes, it is./ no, it isnt. Yes, we are./ no, we arent. Yes, they are./ no, they arent.

Question forms with question word(s) Where am I? How old are you? Where is Sacramento?

To make questions with to be, we invert the subject and the verb: Where are you from? I am from the USA. We dont use the contracted form in affirmative short answers: Yes, I am. Yes, Im. X

Yes, he is.

Yes, hes. X

Subject pronoun I am American Youre in room 5. Shes a student Hes 21 Its my pet parrot Were from lowa University. Theyre from Quebec. Possessive adjective My names Rosario Your teacher is Mr. Fenton. Her names Mia. His birthday is in November. Its name is Marcel. Our school is great. Their first language is French.

His is used for a man and her is used for a woman. Youre and your sound the same: Youre in room 5. Your teacher is Ms. Gaines. Your is both singular and plural.

Meeting people and exchanging personal information. Hi. Whats your name? Where are you from? How old are you? Hello Mia./my names Mia. Im from Rio. Im nineteen.

E-mail language
Start an informal e-mail or letter whit: Hi! Finish an informal e-mail or letter with: Bye for now! Or Write soon! @=at =dot

Lower case UPPER CASE alone word.


Country and Nationality. Country Brazil Britain Canad India Italia Nationality Brazilian British Canadian Indian Italian Country Japan Mexico Spain the USA Nationality Japanese Mexican Spanish American

This, that, these, those.

This, that, these, tho Singular
This is a desk. That is a table. Plural Those are books. These are pens.


We use this and these to talk about things that are near to us. We use that and those to talk about things that are father away from us. We use its or theyre in answers: Its a desk. Theyre books. A / an and plurals. We use a and an to talk about one thing. We use a before consonants and an before vowels: I have a pencil and eraser. We dont use a or an to talk about more than one thing: Theyre bags. Parts of speech. Subject/pronoun It This They Verb Is Is Are article A An _ adjective Red English good Noun Pen . Class. Students.

Time expressions: in, on, at.

We use in with years, months and the morning/afternoon/evening: In 1897, in July, in the evening We use at with times and night: at four oclock, at night We use on with days and the weekend: on Monday, on the weekend.

We use the present simple to talk about habits and routines: I dont surf the net. My mom sends text messages. Affirmative I have a new cell phone You have a alptop He has a CD player She has a games console The school has 12 rooms We have math at 2 p.m. They have three brothers. Negative I dont have a camera You dont have my CD He doesnt have a DVD She doesnt have a dog My dog doesnt have fleas We dont have a laptop They dont have any CDs.

We add dont or doesnt to make negative sentences. Dont= do not and doesnt= does not. In formal writing, we use the full form. We usually use the contraction when speaking. The affirmative verb is the same with I, you, we and they. With he, she and it, we add- s to the verb. Send- sends
Play- plays The verb to have is irregular: Have- has


short answers

Do I have Mr. Duffy for English? Do you have a digital camera? Does she have a laptop? Does he have a games console? Does your school have a gym? Do we have math in this room? Do they have cell phones? Question forms with question word(s) Where do you live? What music does he like?

Yes, you do./no, you dont Yes, I do./ no, I dont Yes, she does./ no, she doesnt Yes, he does./no, he doesnt. Yes, it does./ no, it doesnt. Yes, we do./no, we dont. Yes, they do./ no, they dont.

*to make questions, we add do or does. The word order stays the same. I have a digital camera. Do you have a digital camera? USEFUL EXPRESSIONS. Comparing and agreeing I surf the net. I dont have a computer. Me, too! Me, neither! I don t. I do.

Technology CD player Cell pone Digital camera DVD player Game console Laptop To listen to music online

To play games online To surf the net To use e-mail To visit chat rooms

Anniversary Birthday Christmas.


Countable nouns singular Egg Hamburger Strawberry Pea plural Eggs Hamburgers Strawberries peas Uncountable nouns Rice Coffee Meat Pasta

EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY. Affirmative I have a banana She has some grapes We have some rice Negative I dont have an apple She doesnt have any Tomatoes. We dont have any pasta. Question Do you have a DVD player? Do they have any beans? Do you have any fish?

Singular Countable Plural Countable uncountable

We use some and any when the exact quantity is not important. We use some in affirmative sentences and we use any in questions and negatives. In affirmative sentences, we can use some, a lot of or nothing: It has some strawberries and some cream. It has a lot of nuts and a lot of butter. It has peas and fish. HOW MUCH?, HOW MANY? We use how much and how many to ask about quantity. We use how much with Uncountable nouns and how many with plural countable nouns: How much milk is there? How many eggs are there?

we also use how much to ask about prices: how much is it? Its $20.

A/AN, PER, EVERY. We can use a/an, per and every in the same way: I go swimming five times a week. I run three times per week. I go mountain biking once every month. USEFUL EXPRESSIONS. ORDERING A MEAL. What can I get you? And do drink? And for dessert? Ill have a hamburger and some French fries. Two coffees, please. Ill have some fruit salad.

Whats in the fruit salad? It has apples How much is it? VOCABULARY. FOOD AND DRINK. Apple Bean Bread Butter Candy Cheese Chicken main course meat milk nut orange juice pasta pea Its $19.50.

Coffee Cookie Dessert Egg Fish French fries Fruit Fruit salad Grape Hamburger

rice salad soup starter strawberry tomato vegetable lasagne water yogurt


Uncountable Singular countable Plural countable Affirmative Theres some cheese. Theres a supermarket. There are some bars. Negative There isnt any water. There isnt a pool. There arent any malls.

Uncountable Singular countable Plural countable

Question Is there any coffee? Is there a hotel? Are there any stores?

Short answers Yes, there is./ no, there isnt.

We dont use the contracted form in affirmative short answers: Yes, there is. Yes, theres. X

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE. We use prepositions of place to say where things are:


X is opposite Y. Y is opposite X.

X is in front of Y.

X is above Y. Y is below X.

X Y X is next to Y. Y is next to X.

second floor first floor.


Y is between X and Z.


We use a lot of and lots to talk about large quantities. We use a lot of and lots of with countable and uncountable nouns: The store has a lot of fresh fruit. There are lots of hotels downtown.

CUSTOMER SERVICE. Excuse me? Wheres the newsstand? Is there a florist? Thank you./thanks? VOCABULARY. City facilities: Bar Bus station stores and mall facilities: bookstore elevator Yes, maam. How can I help you? Its next to the elevator. Im sorry, sir, there isnt. Youre welcome. / Not al all.

Hotel Mall Market Movie theater Park Sports center Subway station Swimming pool

florist information desk newsstand phone store restaurant restrooms sports store supermarket Travel agency


We use a person s to talk about possession: Peters cell phone has a TV. My grandpas name is Horace. We usually use of before things and places: Grandpa is the director of a software company. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. PRESENT SIMPLE: We use present simple to talk about things that are generally true: My brother lives in Scotland. I dont speak any other language. I/you/we/they They take orders. We dont organize meetings. Do you call clients? Yes, I do. No, I dont. He/she/it She meets with clients in Asia. She doesnt take vacations. Does she speak Japanese? Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.

Affirmative Negative Yes/ No question Short answers

Does she speak Japanese? Yes, she does. Yes, she speaks. X

SPELLING: -S ON VERB WITH HE, SHE AND IT: We add s to the verb with the third person singular (he, she, it): She visits clients and organizes meetings.

Add s to most verbs With verbs that end in a consonant y, Take away the-y and add ies With verbs that end in, ch, sh, s, x, add es.

Callcalls Taketakes Studystudies Flyflies Watchwatches Washwashes

Interview language: Please take a seat. Whats the salary? How are you today? What are my duties? Tell me about yourself. Well be in touch. Do you have any questions? Thank you for your time. VOCABULARY: Family: Aunt Brother Cousin Daughter Father / dad Grandfather / grandpa Grandmother /grandma jobs company director doctor homemaker lawyer PA (personal assistant) police officer salesclerk job duties to answer the phone to call clients to organize meetings to sell products to speak another language to take orders to use a computer

Mother/mom Sister Son Uncle

salesperson teacher

to visit clients

A / AN
We use a or an to talk about one thing. We use a before consonants: I have a plate and a fork. We use an before vowels: Do you have an ice chest? We use some and any when the quantity is not important. We use some and any with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns. We use some in affirmative sentences: I have some apples and some cheese. We use any in most questions: Do you have any matches? We use some in questions when we expect that the answer is yes: Do you have some money? We use any in negatives: I dont have any bread and I dont have any matches.


RULE Add s to most nouns Add es to nouns ending in s. sh, x or ch. Add ies to nouns ending in consonant y Add ves to nouns ending in fe Irregular Singular Fork Flashlight Box Bus Match Family Dictionary Knife Life Man Woman Plural Forks Flashlights Boxes Buses Matches Families Dictionaries Knives Lives Men Women

Child person IMPERATIVES. We use imperatives to give instructions and advice. We use a verb to make affirmative imperatives: Follow me! Keep to the paths. We add dont to imperatives to make them negative: Dont sit there! We dont use a subject in imperatives: Sit down! You sit down!

Children People

Dont swim in the ocean. You dont swim in the ocean. USEFUL EXPRESSIONS: MAKING SUGGESTIONS: Lets eat! We could stay in a hotel. Why dont we go to a restaurant? Lets get started. VOCABULARY: Camping items. Backpack Boots First-aid kit Flashlight Fork Verb and noun phrases. to go home to go into forest to go to a restaurant to keep food in your tent to keep to the paths Good idea! I dont think so. No way! OK, why not?

Ice chest Knife Matches Plate Sleeping bag Spoon Tent

to make a campfire to make loud noises

Present continuous.
We use the present continuous to talk about actions happening now or around now. We form the present continuous with the verb to be ing form of the verb. Affirmative Im wearing a pink skirt. He/she/its working this week. You/we/theyre buying ice cream. Negative Im not wearing jeans. He/she/it isnt working. You/we/they arent buying a coke.

Question Am I helping? Are you taking photos? Is he/she/it working? Are we/they staying in this hotel? Question forms with question word(s) What is he/she/it doing? What are you /we/they wearing?

Short answers Yes, you are./No, you arent. Yes./no, Im not. Yes, he/she/it is./no, he /she/it isnt. Yes, we/they are. / no, we /they arent.

We dont use the contracted form in affirmative short answers: Yes, it is. Yes, its. X Yes, theyre.

Yes, they are.

SPELLING: -ING FORM OF VERB. Add ing to most verbs With verbs that end in a consonant e, take away the e and add ing. With verbs that end in consonant vowel consonant, double the final consonant and add ing. Standstanding Laughlaughing Taketaking Writewriting Makemaking Sitsitting Swim--swimming


We use the presents simple to describe actions that are usually true: I work in San Francisco. I have dark hair. We use the present continuous to describe actions that are happening now: Im watching the TV. Hes cutting my hair. WORD ORDER. We put adjectives before nouns: A red jacket. A fast car. A shirt blue. A class difficult.

PUNCTUATION AND LINKERS. We use commas(,) and to list things: Andy is wearing white shorts, a blue T-shirt and sandals. Ill have a hamburger, French fries, beans and some coffee. USEFUL EXPRESSIONS: Describing physical appearance. What does he look like? Is he tall? Does he have dark hair? Vocabulary: Action verbs clothes physical Hes really good-looking No, hes short. No, he has fair hair.

To buy To eat To laugh To look at To play To sit to stand To take (photos)

dress jacket jeans pants shirt shoes skirt Sweater Tennis shoes T-shirt

appearance dark hair fair hair good-looking long hair pretty short short hair tall

We use can and cant to talk about skills and abilities. Affirmative I can dance. You can sing really well. He can cook. She can paint. An ostrich can run fast. We can play volleyball. They can play the piano. Negative I cant sing. You cant dance. He cant drive. She cant speak Italian. It cant fly. We cant swim. They cant do first aid,

Question Short answers Can I sing? Yes, you can. / No, you cant. Can you dance? Yes, I can. / No, I cant. Can he drive? Yes, he can. / No, he cant. Can she speak French? Yes, she can. / No, she cant. Can an ostrich fly? Yes, it can. / No, it cant. Can we swim? Yes, we can. / No, we cant. Can they take photos? Yes, they can. / No, they cant. We dont add-s to the verb with he, she and it: He can drive. She can plays tennis.

VERB AND NOUN COLLOCATIONS: PLAY, DO, GO. We can combine verbs and nouns to make collocations. When you learn a sport or activity, try to learn the verb that goes with it. Use play with ball sports Use go with activities ending in- ing Use do with other sports and activities. Play golf play basketball Play hockey Go ice skating go swimming Go cycling Do karate do track and field Do gym

AND, BUT, OR: We use and, but and or to join ideas.

I can play tennis and basketball.

Useful expressions: Talking about ability. Im really bad at ice skating. Im not bad at swimming. Im pretty good at tennis. Im really good at volleyball. Vocabulary: Sports Basketball Cycling Golf Gym Hockey Ice skating Karate Track and field Volleyball recreational activities to cook to do first aid to draw to drive to paint to play basketball to play the piano to ride a bike to speak another language To swim

Adverbs of frequency and how often.

Adverbs of frequency describe how often we do things. They never Work late on Fridays 0% Hes sometimes Late for work. 25% She often has eggs for breakfast. 75% We usually go to the gym after work. 90% I always get up before seven oclock. 100%

We put adverbs of frequency before most verbs: We usually play tennis on Saturday morning. We put the adverbs after the verb to be: Im never late for school. We use how often to ask about frequency: How often do you arrive at work before nine? LIKE, LOVE, HATE ING. After like, love and hate, we use a noun or a verb ing: I love pizza and French fries! Do you like eating out at restaurants? He hates going clubbing.

I /you/we/they


Affirmative Negative Yes/no question Short answers

I hate watching TV. They dont like going out. Do you like shopping? Yes, I do. No, I dont

She loves listening to music. He doesnt like eating out. Does she like volleyball Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.

Indefinite pronouns:
100% 50-90% 10-50% 0% Everybody likes chocolate. Most people love ice cream. Some people hate fast food. Nobody likes fish ice cream.

Tell me about your typical day. What time do you get up? What do you do after that? How often do you go shopping? I get up at ten on the weekend/Saturdays. First I take a shower. Next I get dressed. Then we take the children to school. VOCABULARY: DAILY ROUTINIE ACTIVITIES: To arrive at work To eat breakfast FREE-TIME ACTIVITIES: eating out at restaurants going to clubs

To get dressed To get home To get up To go shopping To leave home To take a shower To take the children to school

going in-line skating going to the movies hanging out with friends having fun on the beach listening to music watching TV

We use who, where, what, what time, how and to ask questions. To ask about People Places Things Times The way you do things reasons We use Who is your favorite pop singer? Where is the train station? What music do you like? What time do you arrive home? How do you get there? Why does he have two cars?

Modifiers and How- adjective. We use how adjective to ask about degrees of a quality: How fast is your car? How far is it from London to Manchester? We use the modifiers really, very, pretty and not very to talk about the degrees of a quality.

How hot is it? 15c 25c 32c 40c

It isnt very hot in Britain.

Its pretty hot in Spain.

Its very hot brazil.

Its really hot in the Sahara.

Useful expressions. TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER AND SEASONS. Whats the weather like winter? How cold is it? Vocabulary: Its very cold, so wear warm clothes. Its really cold, around -10C.

FESTIVALS To celebrate To dress up in costumes To have a party To make food dry To play music To take part in parades To visit friends To watch fireworks

WEATHER ADJECTIVES. cloudy cold cool hot rainy snowy sunny warm Windy

SEASONS spring summer fall/autumn winter