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bypatient.Objective: • Facial maskof pain. • Guardingbehavior. • Reboundtenderness. • V/S taken asfollows:T: 37.3P: 80R: 18Bp: 110/90 • Acute painrelated toinflammationof tissues. • Appendicitis isinflammation ofthe vermiformappendixcaused by anobstructionattributable toinfection,stricture, fecalmass, foreignbody or tumor.Appendicitiscan affecteither genderat any age, butis mostcommon inmales ages 10to 30.Appendicitis isthe mostcommondiseaserequiringsurgery. If leftuntreated,appendicitismay progressto abscess,perforation,subsequentperitonitis, anddeath. • After 4 hoursof nursinginterventions, the patientwilldemonstrateuse ofrelaxationskills, othermethods topromotecomfort. Independent: • Investigate painreports, notinglocation, duration,intensity (0-10scale), andcharacteristics(dull, sharp,constant). • Maintain semi-fowler’s position. • Move patientslowly anddeliberately. • Provide comfortmeasure likeback rubs, deepbreathing.Instruct inrelaxation orvisualizationexercises.Providediversionalactivities. • Provide frequentoral care.Remove noxiousenvironmentalstimuli. • Changes inlocation orintensity are notuncommon butmay reflectdevelopingcomplications. • Reducesabdominaldistention,therebyreducestension. • Reducesmuscle tensionor guarding,which may helpminimize painof movement. • Promotesrelaxation andmay enhancepatient’s copingabilities byrefocusingattention. • Reducesnausea andvomiting, whichcan increaseintra-abdominalpressure or • After 4hours ofnursinginterventions, thepatient wasable todemonstrateuse ofrelaxationskills, othermethods topromotecomfort. Collaborative: • Administeranalgesics asprescribed.pain. • Reducemetabolic rateand aids in painrelief andpromoteshealing.
but still rising in women. There is an increasing amount of advice and support material available to help these people. other environmental factors and genetic influences. smoking was heavily promoted and by 1950 the top five US brands sold over 300 billion cigarettes with 44-47% of all adult Americans smoking. Moving towards the medical aspects of lung cancer I look first at the clinical features and then what investigations are used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Understanding the effect that lung cancer has on a patient and their families is very important in helping to care for these people. 3 By the 1970s lung cancer had become the biggest killing cancer. In the first section I look at normal lung anatomy and physiology. In the next section I examine the options for prevention and the work ongoing in this area. There have been many attempts to find a cure for lung cancer.3 Today the rate of lung cancer in the UK is falling in Men. chemotherapy and palliative care. increased taxation and anti-smoking campaigns are being used to prevent uptake of smoking. therapies such as surgery. immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy have been subject to extensive research and improvement. with increasing numbers of children aged 1115 smoking.1 Smoking causes lung cancer. In the late nineteenth century tobacco companies developed machines to mass produce cigarettes and made smoking accessible to the masses. Lung cancer was extremely rare in the nineteenth century. Nicotine in Cigarette smoke is highly addictive and help is needed by people wishing to quit smoking. over 80% of lung cancers are attributable to smoking. In America we are increasingly seeing litigation cases .Introduction This dissertation looks at the different cancers arising from the cells in the tissue of the lungs. I next look at the process of tumour formation and metastasis and the classification of different types of lung cancer. Despite this. In lung cancer the normal process is interrupted. Banning tobacco advertising. radiotherapy. even as late as 1912. radiotherapy. After looking at the ways we can diagnose lung cancer I examine how these could be applied in screening programs. The increase in lung cancer coincides with the advent of smoking as a mass habit.5 The section on Management covers the options for treatment including surgery. In this section I look at the effect on the patient and family and look at two suggested models for coping with diagnosis of this illness. with little increase in survival rates after diagnosis. chemotherapy.2 The next section covers the aetiology of lung cancer and looks at the role of smoking. little progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer. We are increasingly looking at ways to stop the needless suffering caused by smoking and lung cancer.4 In the next section I look in more detail at the epidemiology of lung cancer. laser therapy. Smoking is the single biggest cause of preventable illness and premature death in the UK. Staging of lung cancer is important when assessing treatment options and a brief account of the staging classifications used in lung cancer is covered in the next section. In the UK the various types of lung cancer are the highest cancer killers in Men and second highest in Women. Adler could find only 374 cases.
Worldwide. If left untreated. Mississippi and Florida in attempts to recover healthcare costs for smokers under the ‘Medicaid’ schemes. and is responsible for 1. coughing (including coughing up blood). What is Lung Cancer? Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung. This is partly because SCLC often spreads quite early. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. and weight loss. Nonsmokers account for 15% of lung cancer cases. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women.3 million deaths annually. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath. are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells.brought against tobacco companies by American States including Texas. into other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in lung. whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Treatment and prognosis depend on the histological type of cancer. and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors. Lung cancer is also the most preventable cancer. as of 2004. Common treatments include surgery. lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women. measured by performance status. and causes such a great deal of pain. and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and. the stage (degree of spread). Estimated new cases and deaths from lung cancer (non-small cell and small cell combined) in the United States in 2008: Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. and radiotherapy. since most cases are related to tobacco use. asbestos. and air pollution including secondhand smoke. The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. . NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery. chemotherapy. also called oat cell cancer. eventually. known as primary lung cancers. and the patient's general wellbeing. radon gas. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). suffering and deaths is still so prevalent. This is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). usually in the cells lining air passages.5 I find it hard to believe that what is essentially a preventable illness. and these treatments are generally better at getting to cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.
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