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MC LC
Chng 1: GII THIU TNG QUAN V OFDM 1
1.1 Gii thiu chng: 1 1.2 Cc nguyn l c bn ca OFDM: ... 1 1.3 n sng mang: .. 6 1.4 a sng mang: 6 1.5 S trc giao: 8 1.5.1 Trc giao min tn s: ... .9 1.5.2 M t ton hc OFDM: ..10 1.6 Cc k thut iu ch trong OFDM: .15 1.6.1 iu ch BPSK: . 16 1.6.2 iu ch QPSK: .17 1.6.3 iu ch QAM: 19 1.6.4 M Gray:................................................................................................20 1.7 Cc c tnh ca OFDM: . 23 1.7.1 u im: .............23 1.7.2 Nhc im:....... 23 1.8 Kt lun chng:....24

Chng 2: CC C TNH CA KNH TRUYN V TUYN..........25


2.1 Gii thiu chng:............................................................................................. 25 2.2 t tnh knh truyn v tuyn trong h thng OFDM:......................................25 2.2.1 S suy gim tn hiu (Anttenuation):.......................................................25 2.2.2 Hiu ng a ng:.................................................................................26

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2.2.3 Dch Doppler:..........................................................................................29 2.2.4 Nhiu AWGN:.........................................................................................30 2.2.5 Nhiu lin k t ISI:................................................................................31 2.2.6 Nhiu lin sng mang ICI:.......................................................................31 2.2.7 Tin t lp CP:.........................................................................................32 2.3 Khong bo v:..................................................................................................34 2.4 Gii hn bng thng ca OFDM:......................................................................36 2.4.1 Lc bng thng:.......................................................................................37 2.4.2 phc tp tnh lc bng thng FIR:.....................................................38 2.4.3 nh hng ca lc bng thng n ch tiu k thut OFDM:................39 2.5 Kt lun chng:................................................................................................39

Chng 3:

MT S VN NG B TRONG H THNG OFDM......40

3.1 Gii thiu chng:... .40 3.2 S ng b trong h thng OFDM:...40 3.2.1 Nhn bit khung:... 41 3.2.2 c lng khong dch tn s:. .43 3.2.2.1 c lng phn thp phn: 43 3.2.2.2 c lng phn nguyn:...45 3.2.3 Bm ui li thng d:...46 3.3 ng b k t trong OFDM:48 3.3.1 ng b tn hiu da vo tn hiu pilot:.49 3.3.2 ng b k t da vo CP: 50 3.3.3 ng b k t da trn m ng b khung (FSC):... .51 3.3.3.1 Nhn bit FSC:. .52 3.3.3.2 Xc nh mc ngng Th1:.. 53 3.3.3.3 Xc nh mc ngng Th2:.. 54 3.4 ng b tn s trong h thng OFDM:.55

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3.4.1 ng b tn s ly mu:.55 3.4.2 ng b tn s sng mang:56 3.4.2.1 c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO da vo pilot:... .56 3.4.2.2 c lng tn s sng mang s dng CP:56 3.4.2.3 c lng CFO da trn d liu:. 57 3.5 nh hng ca li ng b ti hiu sut h thng OFDM:.. 58 3.5.1 nh hng ca li ng b thi gian:59 3.5.2 nh hng ca li ng b tn s:.60 3.6 Kt lun chng:... 61

Chng 4: CHNG TRNH M PHNG H THNG OFDM. 62


4.1 Gii thiu chng:.. 62 4.2 M phng h thng OFDM bng Simulink:......................................62 4.3 Mt s lu thut ton ca chng trnh:...............65 4.3.1 Lu m phng knh truyn:...............................................................65 4.3.2 Lu m phng thu pht tn hiu OFDM:............................................66 4.3.3 Lu m phng thu pht tn hiu QAM:..............................................67 4.3.4 Lu m phng thut ton BER:..........................................................69 4.4 Kt qu chng trnh m phng:.......................................................................69 4.4.1 So snh tn hiu QAM v OFDM:...........................................................69 4.4.2 So snh tn hiu m thanh:.......................................................................71 4.5 Kt lun chng:................................................................................................71 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI ............ .72 TI LIU THAM KHO.73 PH LC .74

Bng cc t vit tt

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BNG CC T VIT TT
A AM AWGN Amplitude Modulation Additive White Gaussian Noise B BER BPSK BS Bit Error Rate Binary Phase Shift Keying Base Station C CDMA CP Code Division Multiple Access Cyclic Prefix D DC DFT DPLL DS-CDMA DSP DVB Direct Current (0 Hz) Discrete Fourier Transform Digital Phase Look Loop Direct Sequence CDMA Digital Signal Processor Digital Video Broadcasting F FDM FEC FFT FIR FM FOE FSC FSK Frequency Division Multiplexing Forward Error Correcting Fast Fourier Transform Finite Impulse Response (digital filter) Frequency Modulation Frequency Offset Estimation Frame Synchronization Code Frequency Shift Keying

Bng cc t vit tt G GI Guard Interval I ICI ICI ISI IDFT IEEE IFFT IMD ISI InterChannel Interference InterCarrier Interference InterSymbol Interference Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

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Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engneers Inverse FFT Inter-Modulation Distortion InterSymbol Interference O

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing P Parallel to Serial Peak to Average Power Ratio Phase Modulation Pseudo Noise Phase-Shift Keying Q Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying S Serial to Parallel Single Carrier Signal to Noise Ratio W Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

P/S PAPR PM PN PSK

QAM QPSK

S/P SC SNR

Wimax

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Chng1: GII THIU TNG QUAN V OFDM


1.1 Gii thiu chng Chng ny s gii thiu v cc khi nim, nguyn l cng nh thut ton ca OFDM. Cc nguyn l c bn ca OFDM, m t ton hc, k thut n sng mang, a sng mang v cc k thut iu ch trong OFDM. Bn cnh cc ng dng v u nhc im ca h thng OFDM cng c a ra y. 1.2 Cc nguyn l c bn ca OFDM Nguyn l c bn ca OFDM l chia mt lung d liu tc cao thnh cc lung d liu tc thp hn v pht ng thi trn mt s cc sng mang con trc giao. V khong thi gian symbol tng ln cho cc sng mang con song song tc thp hn, cho nn lng nhiu gy ra do tri tr a ng c gim xung. Nhiu xuyn k t ISI c hn ch hu nh hon ton do vic a vo mt khong thi gian bo v trong mi symbol OFDM. Trong khong thi gian bo v, mi symbol OFDM c bo v theo chu k trnh nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI. Gia k thut iu ch a sng mang khng chng ph v k thut iu ch a sng mang chng ph c s khc nhau. Trong k thut a sng mang chng ph, ta c th tit kim c khong 50% bng thng. Tuy nhin, trong k thut a sng mang chng ph, ta cn trit xuyn nhiu gia cc sng mang, ngha l cc sng ny cn trc giao vi nhau. Trong OFDM, d liu trn mi sng mang chng ln d liu trn cc sng mang ln cn. S chng chp ny l nguyn nhn lm tng hiu qu s dng ph trong OFDM. Ta thy trong mt s iu kin c th, c th tng dung lng ng k cho h thng OFDM bng cch lm thch nghi tc d liu trn mi sng mang ty theo t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR ca sng mang .

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Ch.1

Ch.10

(a) Tit kim bng thng

Tn s

(b)

Tn s

Hnh 1.1: So snh k thut sng mang khng chng xung (a) v k thut sng mang chng xung (b). V bn cht, OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca phng thc pht a sng mang theo nguyn l chia dng d liu tc cao thnh tc thp hn v pht ng thi trn mt s sng mang c phn b mt cch trc giao. Nh thc hin bin i chui d liu t ni tip sang song song nn thi gian symbol tng ln. Do , s phn tn theo thi gian gy bi tri rng tr do truyn dn a ng (multipath) gim xung. OFDM khc vi FDM nhiu im. Trong pht thanh thng thng mi i pht thanh truyn trn mt tn s khc nhau, s dng hiu qu FDM duy tr s ngn cch gia nhng i. Tuy nhin khng c s kt hp ng b gia mi trm vi cc trm khc. Vi cch truyn OFDM, nhng tn hiu thng tin t nhiu trm c kt hp trong mt dng d liu ghp knh n. Sau d liu ny c truyn khi s dng khi OFDM c to ra t gi dy c nhiu sng mang. Tt c cc sng mang th cp trong tn hiu OFDM c ng b thi gian v tn s vi nhau, cho php kim sot can nhiu gia nhng sng mang. Cc sng mang ny chng lp nhau trong min tn s, nhng khng gy can nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI) do bn cht trc giao ca iu ch. Vi FDM nhng tn hiu truyn cn c

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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khong bo v tn s ln gia nhng knh ngn nga can nhiu. iu ny lm gim hiu qu ph. Tuy nhin vi OFDM s ng gi trc giao nhng sng mang lm gim ng k khong bo v ci thin hiu qu ph.
x(n) xf(n h(n)

D liu nh phn D liu ra

Sp xp Sp xp li

S/P

Chn pilot
Y(k)

IDFT

Chn di bo v
y(n)

P/S

Knh

yf(n

P/S

c lng knh

DFT

Loi b di bo v

S/P

AWG N

Hnh 1.2: S h thng OFDM u tin, d liu vo tc cao c chia thnh nhiu dng d liu song song tc thp hn nh b chuyn i ni tip/song song (S/P: Serial/Parrallel). Mi dng d liu song song sau c m ha s dng thut ton sa li tin (FEC) v c sp xp theo mt trnh t hn hp. Nhng symbol hn hp c a n u vo ca khi IDFT. Khi ny s tnh ton cc mu thi gian tng ng vi cc knh nhnh trong min tn s. Sau , khong bo v c chn vo gim nhiu xuyn k t ISI do truyn trn cc knh di ng v tuyn a ng. Sau cng b lc pha pht nh dng tn hiu thi gian lin tc s chuyn i ln tn s cao truyn trn cc knh. Trong qu trnh truyn, trn cc knh s c cc ngun nhiu gy nh hng nh nhiu trng cng AWGN, pha thu, tn hiu c chuyn xung tn s thp v tn hiu ri rc t c ti b lc thu. Khong bo v c loi b v cc mu c chuyn t min thi gian sang min tn s bng php bin i DFT dng thut ton FFT. Sau , ty vo s iu ch c s dng, s dch chuyn v bin v pha ca cc sng mang nhnh s c cn bng bng b cn bng knh (Channel Equalization). Cc symbol hn hp thu c s c sp xp ngc tr li v c gii m. Cui cng chng ta s thu nhn c dng d liu ni tip ban u.

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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S0
Serial data stream
S0, S1, , SN-1

Modulation at f0 Modulation at f1

Serial to Parallel convertor

Transmitter SN-1

Modulation at fN-1

Demodulation at f0 Demodulation at f1

S0 Parallel to serial convertor SN-1


Output

Receiver

Demodulation at fN-1

Hnh 1.3: H thng OFDM c bn


f0=1/T f1=2/T f2=3/T fN-1=N/T

f 2

N f=W

Hnh 1.4: Sp xp tn s trong h thng OFDM

Hnh 1.5: Symbol OFDM vi 4 subscriber

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Tt c cc h thng truyn thng v tuyn s dng s iu ch nh x tn hiu thng tin to thnh dng c th truyn hiu qu trn knh thng tin. Mt phm vi rng cc s iu ch c pht trin, ph thuc vo tn hiu thng tin l dng sng analog hoc digital. Mt s s iu ch tng t chung bao gm: iu ch tn s (FM), iu ch bin (AM), iu ch pha (PM), iu ch n bin (SSB), Vestigial side Band (VSB), Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC). Cc s iu ch sng mang n chung cho thng tin s bao gm kho dch bin (ASK), kho dch tn s (FSK), kho dch pha (PSK), iu ch QAM. K thut iu ch a sng mang trc giao da trn nguyn tc phn chia lung d liu c tc cao R (bit/s) thnh k lung d liu thnh phn c tc thp R/k (bit/s); mi lung d liu thnh phn c tri ph vi cc chui ngu nhin PN c tc Rc (bit/s). Sau iu ch vi sng mang thnh phn OFDM, truyn trn nhiu sng mang trc giao. Phng php ny cho php s dng hiu qu bng thng knh truyn, tng h s tri ph, gim tp m giao thoa k t ISI nhng tng kh nng giao thoa sng mang. Trong cng ngh FDM truyn thng, cc sng mang c lc ra ring bit bo m khng c s chng ph, do khng c hin tng giao thoa k t ISI gia nhng sng mang nhng ph li cha c s dng vi hiu qu cao nht. Vi k thut OFDM, nu khong cch sng mang c chn sao cho nhng sng mang trc giao trong chu k k t th nhng tn hiu c khi phc m khng giao thoa hay chng ph.

Hnh 1.6: Ph ca sng mang con OFDM .[2]

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


1.3 n sng mang (Single Carrier)

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H thng n sng mang l mt h thng c d liu c iu ch v truyn i ch trn mt sng mang.

Hnh 1.7: Truyn dn sng mang n.[9] Hnh 1.7 m t cu trc chung ca mt h thng truyn dn n sng mang. Cc k t pht i l cc xung c nh dng bng b lc pha pht. Sau khi truyn trn knh a ng. pha thu, mt b lc phi hp vi knh truyn c s dng nhm cc i t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) thit b thu nhn d liu. i vi h thng n sng mang, vic loi b nhiu giao thoa bn thu cc k phc tp. y chnh l nguyn nhn cc h thng a sng mang chim u th hn cc h thng n sng mang. 1.4 a sng mang (Multi-Carrier) Nu truyn tn hiu khng phi bng mt sng mang m bng nhiu sng mang, mi sng mang ti mt phn d liu c ch v c tri u trn c bng thng th khi chu nh hng xu ca p tuyn knh s ch c mt phn d liu c ch b mt, trn c s d liu m cc sng mang khc mang ti c th khi phc d liu c ch.

Hnh 1. 8: Cu trc h thng truyn dn a sng mang.[9]

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Do vy, khi s dng nhiu sng mang c tc bit thp, cc d liu gc s thu c chnh xc. khi phc d liu mt, ngi ta s dng phng php sa li tin FFC. my thu, mi sng mang c tch ra khi dng b lc thng thng v gii iu ch. Tuy nhin, khng c can nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI) phi c khong bo v khi hiu qu ph km. OFDM l mt k thut iu ch a sng mang, trong d liu c truyn song song nh v s sng mang ph mang cc bit thng tin. Bng cch ny ta c th tn dng bng thng tn hiu, chng li nhiu gia cc k t, lm c iu ny, mt sng mang ph cn mt my pht sng sin, mt b iu ch v gii iu ch ca ring n. Trong trng hp s sng mang ph l kh ln, iu ny l khng th chp nhn c. Nhm gii quyt vn ny, khi thc hin chc nng bin i IDFT/DFT c dng thay th hng lot cc b dao ng to sng sin, b iu ch, gii iu ch. Hn na, IFFT/FFT c xem l mt thut ton gip cho vic bin i IDFT/DFT nhanh v gn hn bng cch gim s php nhn phc khi thc hin php bin i IDFT/DFT v gip tit kim b nh bng cch tnh ti ch. Mi sng mang trong h thng OFDM u c th vit di dng [9]: Vi h thng a sng mang OFDM ta c th biu din tn hiu dng sau:
S (t ) = 1 N

a
l k =0

N- 1

l,k e

j 2 k ( t lT s ( N + L ))

Trong ,

al,k N L

: l d liu u vo c iu ch trn sng mang nhnh th k : s sng mang nhnh : chiu di tin t lp (CP)
1 1 = T NTs

trong symbol OFDM th l

Khong cch sng mang nhnh l

Gii php khc phc hiu qu ph km khi c khong bo v (Guard Period) l gim khong cch cc sng mang v cho php ph ca cc sng mang cnh nhau

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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trng lp nhau. S trng lp ny c php nu khong cch gia cc sng mang c chn chnh xc. Khong cch ny c chn ng vi trng hp sng mang trc giao vi nhau. chnh l phng php ghp knh theo tn s trc giao. T gia nhng nm 1980, ngi ta c nhng tng v phng php ny nhng cn hn ch v mt cng ngh, v kh to ra cc b iu ch a sng mang gi thnh thp theo bin i nhanh Fuorier IFFT. Hin nay, nh ng dng cng ngh mch tch hp nn phng php ny c a vo ng dng trong thc tin. 1.5 S trc giao (Orthogonal) Orthogonal ch ra rng c mt mi quan h chnh xc gia cc tn s ca cc sng mang trong h thng OFDM. Trong h thng FDM thng thng, cc sng mang c cch nhau trong mt khong ph hp tn hiu thu c th nhn li bng cch s dng cc b lc v cc b gii iu ch thng thng. Trong cc my nh vy, cc khong bo v cn c d liu trc gia cc sng mang khc nhau. Vic a vo cc khong bo v ny lm gim hiu qu s dng ph ca h thng. i vi h thng a sng mang, tnh trc giao trong kha cnh khong cch gia cc tn hiu l khng hon ton ph thuc, m bo cho cc sng mang c nh v chnh xc ti im gc trong ph iu ch ca mi sng mang . Tuy nhin, c th sp xp cc sng mang trong OFDM sao cho cc di bin ca chng che ph ln nhau m cc tn hiu vn c th thu c chnh xc m khng c s can nhiu gia cc sng mang. c c kt qu nh vy, cc sng mang phi trc giao v mt ton hc. My thu hot ng gm cc b gii iu ch, dch tn mi sng mang xung mc DC, tn hiu nhn c ly tch phn trn mt chu k ca symbol phc hi d liu gc. Nu mi sng mang u dch xung tn s tch phn ca sng mang ny (trong mt chu k , kt qu tnh tch phn cc sng mang khc s l zero. Do , cc sng mang c lp tuyn tnh vi nhau (trc giao) nu khong cch gia cc sng l bi s ca 1/. Bt k s phi tuyn no gy ra bi s can nhiu ca cc sng mang ICI cng lm mt i tnh trc giao.

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Hnh 1.9: Cc sng mang trc giao Phn u ca tn hiu nhn bit tnh tun hon ca dng sng, nhng li d b nh hng bi nhiu xuyn k t (ISI). Do , phn ny c th c lp li, gi l tin t lp (CP: Cycle Prefix). Do tnh trc giao, cc sng mang con khng b xuyn nhiu bi cc sng mang con khc. Thm vo , nh k thut a sng mang da trn FFT v IFFT nn h thng OFDM t c hiu qu khng phi bng vic lc di thng m bng vic x l bng tn gc. 1.5.1 Trc giao min tn s Mt cch khc xem tnh trc giao ca nhng tn hiu OFDM l xem ph ca n. Trong min tn s, mi sng mang th cp OFDM c p tuyn tn s sinc (sin (x)/x). l kt qu thi gian symbol tng ng vi nghch o ca sng mang. Mi symbol ca OFDM c truyn trong mt thi gian c nh (TFFT). Thi gian symbol tng ng vi nghch o ca khong cch ti ph 1/TFFT Hz. Dng sng hnh ch nht ny trong min thi gian dn n p tuyn tn s sinc trong min tn s. Mi ti ph c mt nh ti tn s trung tm v mt s gi tr khng c t cn bng theo cc khong trng tn s bng khong cch sng mang. Bn

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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cht trc giao ca vic truyn l kt qu ca nh mi ti ph. Tn hiu ny c pht hin nh bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT). 1.5.2 M t ton hc ca OFDM M t ton hc OFDM nhm trnh by cch to ra tn hiu, cch vn hnh ca my thu cng nh m t cc tc ng khng hon ho trong knh truyn. V mt ton hc, trc giao c ngha l cc sng mang c ly ra t nhm trc chuNn (Orthogonal basis). Phng php iu ch OFDM s dng rt nhiu sng mang, v vy tn hiu c th hin bi cng thc:

1 S s (t ) = N

N 1 n=0

A c ( t ). e

j [ n t + c ( t ) ]

(1.1)

Trong , = 0 + n. N u tn hiu c ly mu vi tn s ly mu l 1/T (vi T l chu k ly mu), th tn hiu hp thnh c th hin bi cng thc:

S s ( kT ) =

1 N

N 1 n=0

A n .e

j [(

+ n )kT + n

(1.2)

im ny khong thi gian tn hiu c phn thnh N mu c gii hn thun li cho vic ly mu mt chu k ca mt symbol d liu. Ta c mi quan h: = N .T Khi 0 = 0 th ta c:

1 S s ( kT ) = N

N 1 n=0

An e

j n

.e

j ( n ) kT

(1.3)

So snh (1.3) vi dng tng qut ca bin i Fourier ngc ta c:

g ( kT ) =

1 N

G NT
n=0

N 1

n j 2 nk / N e

(1.4)

10

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


Biu thc (1.3) v (1.4) l tng ng nu:
f = 1 NT = 1

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y l iu kin yu cu tnh trc giao. Do kt qu ca vic bo ton tnh trc giao l tn hiu OFDM c th xc nh bng php bin i Fourier. Cc thnh phn ca mt mng trc giao th c lp tuyn tnh vi nhau. C th xem tp hp cc sng mang pht i l mt mng trc giao cho bi cng thc:
k (t ) = exp( j k t )

k = 0 = 2

k t

(1.5)

N u tp hp cc sng mang ny trc giao th mi quan h trc giao trong biu thc (1.1):
j [2 ( p q ) t / ] dt = ( b a ) p (t ) q (t )dt = e a a b b

khi p = q

e j [2 ( pq)b / ]dt =0 j 2 ( p q) /

khi p =q v (b-a) =

(1.6)

( p,q l hai s nguyn) Cc sng mang thng tch ring ra tn s 1/, t n yu cu ca tnh trc giao th chng c tng quan trn mt thi on . N u tn hiu gi l trc giao nu chng c lp vi nhau. S trc giao cho php truyn tn hiu hon ho trn mt knh chung v pht hin chng m khng c can nhiu. N hng ti ph trong OFDM c t gn nhau, gn nht theo l thuyt trong khi duy tr tnh trc giao ca chng. OFDM t c trc giao bi vic sp xp mt trong cc tn hiu thng tin ring bit cho cc ti ph khc nhau. Cc tn hiu OFDM c to thnh t tng cc hiu hnh sin, mi hnh sin tng ng vi mt di ph. Di tn s c bn ca mt ti ph c chn l s nguyn ln thi gian symbol. Kt qu l cc ti ph c mt s nguyn cc chu k trong mt symbol v chng trc giao vi nhau.

11

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Di bo v ( CP) Tcp

Phn hu ch ca tn hiu Tg = N /W
T

Hnh 1.10: Thm CP vo symbol OFDM V dng sng l tun hon v ch c m rng bng Tcp. Lc ny tn hiu c biu din trong khong m rng [0,T) l:
N 1 k =0

s (t ) = xk . k (t )
y k(t) to thnh tp hp cc hm c s trc giao.

(1.7)

Lc ny,

(t ) = A k e
w 1 = N T TCP

j 2 kf 1 t

f1 =

Mt s la chn hp l cho bin /pha:

Ak =
Do ,

1 T T CP

j 2 kf 1 T CP

1 e j 2 kf 1 ( t T CP ) t [0, T ) k ( t ) = T T CP t [0, T ) 0

(1.8)

V tn hiu cui cng: S ( t ) =

l = k = 0

N 1

x k , l k ( t lT )

(1.9)

N h vy, trong ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao, khong cch sng mang tng ng vi tc bit ca bn tin.

12

Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Vic x l (iu ch v gii iu ch) tn hiu OFDM c thc hin trong min tn s, bng cch s dng cc thut ton x l tn hiu s DSP (Digital Signal Processing). N guyn tc ca tnh trc giao thng c s dng trong phm vi DSP. Trong ton hc, s hng trc giao c c t vic nghin cu cc vector. Theo nh ngha, hai vector c gi l trc giao vi nhau khi chng vung gc vi nhau (to thnh gc 90o) v tch ca hai vector l bng 0. im chnh y l nhn hai tn s vi nhau, tng hp cc tch cho kt qu bng 0.

Hnh 1.11: T ch ca hai vector trc giao bng 0 Hm s thng thng c gi tr bng 0. V d: Gi tr trung bnh ca hm sin sau:
2 k

sin( t ) dt
0

= 0

Qu trnh tch phn c th c xem xt khi tm ra din tch di dng ng cong. Do , din tch sng sin c th c vit nh sau:

Hnh 1.12: Gi tr ca sng sine bng 0 N u chng ta cng v nhn (tch phn) hai dng sng sin c tn s khc nhau, kt qu cng s bng 0.

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Hnh 1.13: Tch phn ca hai sng sine c tn s khc nhau. iu ny gi l tnh trc giao ca sng sine. N cho thy rng min l hai dng sng sin khng cng tn s, th tch phn ca chng s bng 0. y l c s hiu qu trnh iu ch OFDM.

Hnh 1.14: Tch hai sng sine cng tn s.

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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N u hai sng sin c cng tn s nh nhau th dng sng hp thnh lun dng, gi tr trung bnh ca n lun khc khng. y l vn rt quan trng trong qu trnh iu ch OFDM. Cc my thu OFDM bin i tn hiu thu c t min tn s nh dng k thut x l tn hiu s gi l bin i nhanh Fourier (FFT). N hiu l thuyt chuyn i c thc hin bng chui trc giao. T phn tch trn, ta c th rt ra kt lun: khc phc hin tng khng bng phng ca p tuyn knh cn dng nhiu sng mang, mi sng mang ch chim mt phn nh bng thng, do vy nh hng khng ln ca p tuyn knh n d liu ni chung. S sng mang cng nhiu cng tt nhng phi c khong bo v trnh can nhiu gia cc sng mang. Tuy nhin, tn dng tt nht th dng cc sng mang trc giao, khi cc sng mang c th trng lp nhau vn khng gy can nhiu.

1.6 Cc k thut iu ch trong OFDM


Trong h thng OFDM, tn hiu u vo l dng bit nhi phn. Do , iu ch trong OFDM l cc qu trnh iu ch s v c th la chn trn yu cu hoc hiu sut s dng bng thng knh. Dng iu ch c th qui nh bi s bit ng vo M v s phc dn = an + bn ng ra. Cc k t an, bn c th c chn l { 1,3} cho 16 QAM v {1} cho QPSK. M 2 4 16 64 Dng iu ch BPSK QPSK 16-QAM 64-QAM an, bn
1 1
1 , 3 1 , 3 , 5 , 7

M hnh iu ch c s dng ty vo vic dng ha gia yu cu tc truyn dn v cht lng truyn dn.

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


1.6.1 iu ch BPSK

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Trong mt h thng iu ch BPSK, cp cc tn hiu s1(t), s2(t) c s dng biu din cc k hiu c s hai l "0" v "1" c nh ngha nh sau:[7]
S i (t ) = 2 Eb cos[ 2 f c t + ( t ) + ] Tb

( t ) = ( i 1 ) ; 0 t T b ; i = 1, 2

(1.10)

Hay:

S1 ( t ) =

2 Eb cos[ 2 f c t + ] Tb

S 2 (t ) = Trong ,

2 Eb 2 Eb cos[ 2 f c t + + ] = S1 (t ) = cos[ 2 f c t + ] Tb Tb Tb Eb (t) : rng ca 1bit : N ng lng ca 1 bit : gc pha, thay i theo tn hiu iu ch

(1.11)

: gc pha ban u c gi tr khng i t 0 n 2 v khng

nh hng n qu trnh phn tch nn t bng 0 i = 1 : tng ng vi symbol 0 i = 2 : tng ng vi symbol 1 Mi cp sng mang hnh sine i pha 1800 nh trn c gi l cc tn hiu i cc. N u chn mt hm nng lng c s l:

(t ) =
Khi ,
S1 (t ) =

2 cos( 2f c t ); 0 t Tb Tb
E b (t ) E b (t )

S 2 (t ) =

(1.12)

Ta c th biu din BPSK bng mt khng gian tn hiu mt chiu (N =1) vi hai im bn tin (M=2) : S1 =
Eb

, S2 = -

Eb

nh hnh sau:

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Hnh 1.15 : Biu khng gian tn hiu BPSK Khi tn hiu iu ch BPSK c truyn qua knh chu tc ng ca nhiu Gauss trng cng (AWGN ), xc sut li bit gii iu ch c xc nh theo cng thc sau:
2Eb Pe = Q N 0

(1.13)

Trong , Eb : N ng lng bit N0 : Mt nhiu trng cng


1.6.2 iu ch QPSK

y l mt trong nhng phng php thng dng nht trong truyn dn. Cng thc cho sng mang c iu ch PSK 4 mc nh sau:[7]
2E S i ( t ) = T . cos( 2 t + ( t ) + ) 0 0tT t 0; t T

(1.14)

Vi pha ban u ta cho bng 0


(t ) = (2i 1)
4

(1.15)

Trong , i = 1,2,3,4 tng ng l cc k t c pht i l "00", "01", "11", "10" T = 2.Tb (Tb: Thi gian ca mt bit, T: thi gian ca mt k t) E : nng lng ca tn hiu pht trin trn mt k t. Khai trin s(t) ta c:

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


2E S i (t ) = T cos[( 2 .i 1). ] cos( 2 f c t ) 4 0

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2E sin[( 2i 1)] . sin( 2f c t ) ( 0 t T ) T 4 T < t; t < 0

(1.16) Chn cc hm nng lng trc chuNn nh sau:


1 (t ) = 2 sin( 2 f c .t ) T 0 t T

(1.17a)

2 (t ) =
Khi ,
s i ( t ) = 1 ( t )

2 sin( 2 f c .t ) T

0 t T

(1.17b)

E sin[( 2 i 1 )

] + 2 (t )

E cos[( 2 i 1 )

(1.18)

Vy, bn bn tin ng vi cc vector c xc nh nh sau:

E sin[( 2 i 1) 4 ] s i1 = si = si2 E cos[( 2 i 1) 4


trong tn hiu khng gian c cho trong bng sau:
Cp bit vo Pha ca tn hiu QPSK

4 3 4 5 4
7 4

( i = 1, 2 ,3, 4 )

(1.19)

Quan h ca cp bit iu ch v ta ca cc im tn hiu iu ch QPSK

im tn hiu Si

Ta cc im bn tin 1
E 2 E 2 E 2

2
E 2 E 2 E 2

00 01 11 10

S1 S2 S3 S4

E 2

E 2

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Ta thy mt tn hiu PSK 4 mc c c trng bi mt vector tn hiu hai chiu v bn bn tin nh hnh v.

Hnh 1. 16 : Biu tn hiu tn hiu QPSK Xem bng ta thy, mc '1' thay i vo E , cn logic '0' th bin i vo
E . V cng mt lc pht i mt symbol nn lung vo phi phn thnh hai tng

ng v c bin i mc ri nhn ri nhn vi hai hm trc giao tng ng.[7]


1.6.3 iu ch QAM

Trong h thng PSK, cc thnh phn ng pha v vung pha c kt hp vi nhau to thnh mt tn hiu ng bao khng i. Tuy nhin, nu loi b loi ny v cho cc thnh phn ng pha v vung pha c th c lp vi nhau th ta c mt s iu mi gi l iu bin cu phng iu ch bin sng mang QAM (iu ch bin gc) . s iu ch ny, sng mang b iu ch c bin ln pha. iu ch QAM l c u im l tng dung lng truyn dn s.[7] Dng tng qut ca iu ch QAM, 14 mc (m-QAM) c xc nh nh sau:

S1 (t ) =

2 E0 ai cos( 2f c t ) T

2 E0 bi sin( 2f c t ); ( 0 t T ) T

(1.20)

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


Trong , E0

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: nng lng ca tn hiu c bin thp nht

ai , bi : cp s nguyn c lp c chn ty theo v tr bn tin. Tn hiu sng mang gm hai thnh phn vung gc c iu ch bi mt tp hp bn tin tn hiu ri rc. V th c tn l " iu ch tn hiu vung gc". C th phn tch Si(t) thnh cp hm c s:[7]

1 ( t ) = 2 (t ) =

2 bi sin( 2 f c.t ) T 2 a i sin( 2 f c.t ) T

0tT

0t T

(1.21)

Hnh 1.17: Chm tn hiu M-QAM

1.6.4 M Gray.

Gin IQ(Inphase Quadrature) cho s iu ch s ch ra vector truyn cho tt c cc lin hp t d liu. Mi lin hp t d liu phi c phn phi mt vector IQ duy nht. M Gray l mt phng php cho s phn phi ny, sao cho cc im canh nhau trong vm sao ch khc nhau mt bit n. M ny gip gim thiu t l li bit ton b v n gim c hi nhiu li bit xy ra t mt li symbol n.

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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M Gray c th c s dng cho tt c cc s iu ch PSK ( QPSK, 8PSK, 16-PSK) v QAM(16-QAM,64-QAM,256-QAM...).

Bng M Gray

Hnh 1.18: Gin IQ ca 16-PSK khi dng m Gray. Mi v tr IQ lin tip ch thay i mt bit n.

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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Hnh 1.19: Gin IQ cho cc dng iu ch s dng trong OFDM

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM


1.7 Cc c tnh ca OFDM

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Qua bn cht ca OFDM, ta c th tm tt nhng u im v nhc im ca OFDM nh sau:


1.7.1 u im

- OFDM tng hiu sut s dng bng cch cho php chng lp nhng sng mang con. - Bng cch chia knh thng tin ra thnh nhiu knh con fading phng bng hp, cc h thng OFDM chu ng fading la chn tn s tt hn nhng h thng sng mang n. - OFDM loi tr nhiu symbol (ISI) v xuyn nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI) bng cch chn thm vo mt khong thi gian bo v trc mi symbol. - S dng vic chn knh v m knh thch hp, h thng OFDM c th khi phc li c cc symbol b mt do hin tng la chn tn s ca cc knh. - K thut cn bng knh tr nn n gin hn k thut cn bng knh thch ng c s dng trong nhng h thng n sng mang. - S dng k thut DFT b sung vo cc chc nng iu ch v gii iu ch lm gim chc nng phc tp ca OFDM. - Cc phng php iu ch vi sai (differental modulation) gip trnh yu cu vo b sung b gim st knh. - OFDM t b nh hng vi khong thi gian ly mu (sample timing offsets) hn so vi h thng n sng mang. - OFDM chu ng tt nhiu xung vi v nhiu xuyn knh kt hp. N goi nhng u im trn th OFDM cng c nhng hn ch.
1.7.2 Nhc im

- Symbol OFDM b nhiu bin vi mt khong ng ln. V tt c cc h thng thng tin thc t u b gii hn cng sut, t s PARR cao l mt bt li nghim trng ca OFDM nu dng b khuch i cng sut hot ng min bo ha u khuch i tn hiu OFDM. N u tn hiu OFDM t s PARR ln hn th s

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Chng 1: Gii thiu tng quan v OFDM

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gy nn nhiu xuyn iu ch. iu ny cng s tng phc tp ca cc b bin i t analog sang digital v t digital sang analog. Vic rt ngn (clipping) tn hiu cng s lm xut hin c mo nhiu (distortion) trong bng ln bc x ngoi bng. - OFDM nhy vi tn s offset v s trt ca sng mang hn cc h thng n sng mang. Vn ng b tn s trong h thng OFDM phc tp hn h thng n sng mang. Tn s offset ca sng mang gy nhiu cho cc sng mang con trc giao v gy nn nhiu lin knh lm gim hot ng ca cc b gii iu ch mt cch trm trng. V vy, ng b tn s l mt trong nhng nhim v thit yu cn phi t trong b thu OFDM .
1.8 Kt lun

N i dung ca chng ch a ra cc khi nim c bn v mt s vn lin quan v OFDM. Trong thc t cn phi xt nh hng ca knh truyn v tuyn ln tn hiu trong qu trnh truyn i. V nh hng, tn hiu thu c th b suy gim bin , c th b mt thng tin mt s ch, mt mt cng sutChng sau s cp n cc c tnh knh truyn v mt s vn k thut trong OFDM.

24

Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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CHNG 2 CC C TNH CA KNH TRUYN V TUYN


2.1 Gii thiu chng Knh truyn tn hiu OFDM l mi trng truyn sng gia my pht v my thu. Trong knh truyn v tuyn l tng, tn hiu nhn c bn thu c truyn theo tm nhn thng. Tuy nhin trong thc t, knh truyn tn hiu v tuyn b thay i. Vic nghin cu cc c tnh ca knh truyn l rt quan trng v cht lng ca h thng truyn v tuyn l ph thuc vo cc c im ny. 2.2 c tnh knh truyn v tuyn trong h thng OFDM 2.2.1 S suy gim tn hiu (Attenuation) S suy gim tn hiu l s suy hao mc cng sut tn hiu trong qu trnh truyn t im ny n im khc. iu ny c th l do ng truyn di, do cc ta nh cao tng v hiu ng a ng. Hnh 2.1 cho thy mt s nguyn nhn lm suy gim tn hiu. Bt k mt vt cn no trn ng truyn u c th lm suy gim tn hiu.

Hnh 2.1 nh hng ca mi trng v tuyn

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn


2.2.2 Hiu ng a ng Rayleigh fading

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Trong ng truyn v tuyn, tn hiu RF t my pht c th b phn x t cc vt cn nh i, nh ca, xe csinh ra nhiu ng tn hiu n my thu (hiu ng a ng) dn n lch pha gia cc tn hiu n my thu lm cho bin tn hiu thu b suy gim. Hnh 2.2 ch ra mt s trng hp m tn hiu a ng c th xy ra.

ng phn x

Pht ng i thng

Thu

Hnh 2.2 Tn hiu a ng Mi quan h v pha gia cc tn hiu phn x c th l nguyn nhn gy ra nhiu c cu trc hay khng c cu trc. iu ny c tnh trn cc khong cch rt ngn (thng thng l mt na khong cch sng mang), v vy y gi l fading nhanh. Mc thay i ca tn hiu c th thay i trong khong t 10-30dB trn mt khong cch ngn. Hnh 2.3 m t cc mc suy gim khc nhau c th xy ra do fading.

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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Mc tn hiu (dB)

Khong cch di chuyn Hnh 2.3 Fading Rayleigh khi thit b di ng di chuyn ( tn s 900MHz) Phn b Rayleigh c s dng m t thi gian thng k ca cng sut tn hiu thu. N m t xc sut ca mc tn hiu thu c do fading. Bng 2.1 ch ra xc sut ca mc tn hiu i vi phn b Rayleigh. Bng 2.1 S phn b ly tch i vi phn b Rayleigh Mc tn hiu (dB) 10 0 -10 -20 -30 Fading la chn tn s Trong bt k ng truyn v tuyn no, p ng ph khng bng phng do c sng phn x n u vo my thu. S phn x c th dn n tn hiu a ng ca cng sut tn hiu tng t nh tn hiu trc tip gy suy gim cng sut tn Xc sut ca mc tn hiu nh hn gi tr cho php (%) 99 50 5 0.5 0.05

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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hiu thu do nhiu.Ton b tn hiu c th b mt trn ng truyn bng hp nu khng c p ng tn s xy ra trn knh truyn.C th khc phc bng hai cch : - Truyn tn hiu bng rng hoc s dng phng php tri ph nh CDMA nhm gim bt suy hao. - Phn ton b bng tn thnh nhiu knh bng hp, mi knh c mt sng mang, mi sng mang ny trc giao vi cc sng mang khc (tn hiu OFDM). Tn hiu ban u c tri trn bng thng rng, khng c ph xy ra ti tt c tn s sng mang. Kt qu l ch c mt vi tn s sng mang b mt. Thng tin trong cc sng mang b mt c th khi phc bng cch s dng cc k thut sa li thun FEC . Tri tr (Delay Spread) Tn hiu v tuyn thu c t my pht bao gm tn hiu trc tip v tn hiu phn x t cc vt cn nh cc ta nh, i niTn hiu phn x n my thu chm hn so vi tn hiu trc tip do chiu di truyn ln hn. Tri tr l thi gian tr gia tn hiu i thng v tn hiu phn x cui cng n u vo my thu. Trong h thng s, tri tr c th dn n nhiu lin k t ISI. iu ny do tn hiu a ng b tr chng ln vi k hiu theo sau, v n c th gy ra li nghim trng cc h thng tc bit cao, c bit l khi s dng ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian TDMA
Tn hiu trc tip

Tn hiu tr

Tn hiu thu c

Hnh 2.4: Tri tr a ng

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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Hnh 2.4 cho thy nh hng ca tri tr gy ra nhiu lin k t. Khi tc bit truyn i tng ln th mt lng nhiu ISI cng tng ln mt cch ng k. nh hng th hin r rng nht khi tri tr ln hn khong 50% chu k bit (bit time). Bng 2.2 a ra cc gi tr tri tr thng dng i vi cc mi trng khc nhau. Tri tr ln nht mi trng bn ngoi xp x l 20s, do nhiu lin k t c th xy ra ng k tc thp nht l 25Kbps. Bng 2.2 Cc gi tr tri tr thng dng
Mi trng Trong nh Bn ngoi Tri tr 40ns 200ns 1s 20s Chnh lch qung ng i ln nht ca tn hiu 12m 60m 300m 6km

Nhiu ISI c th c ti thiu ha bng nhiu cch: Gim tc k t bng cch gim tc d liu cho mi knh ( nh chia bng thng ra nhiu bng con nh hn s dng FDM hay OFDM). S dng k thut m ha gim nhiu ISI nh trong CDMA.

2.2.3 Dch Doppler Khi ngun tn hiu v bn thu chuyn ng tng i vi nhau, tn s tn hiu thu khng ging bn pha pht. Khi chng di chuyn cng chiu (hng v nhau) th tn s nhn c ln hn tn s tn hiu pht, v ngc li khi chng di chuyn ra xa nhau th tn s tn hiu thu c l gim xung. y gi l hiu ng Doppler. Khong tn s thay i do hiu ng Doppler ty thuc vo mi quan h chuyn ng gia ngun pht v ngun thu v c tc truyn sng. dch Doppler c th c tnh theo cng thc:
f f o

(2.1)

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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Trong f l khong thay i tn s ca tn s tn hiu ti my thu


l tc thay i khc nhau gia tn s tn hiu v my pht
f o l tn s tn hiu, c l tc nh sng.

Dch Doppler li l mt vn nan gii nu nh k thut truyn sng li nhiu vi dch tn s sng mang (nh OFDM chng hn) hoc l tc tng i gia thu v pht cao nh trong trng hp v tinh quay quanh tri t qu o thp.

2.2.4 Nhiu AWGN Nhiu tn ti trong tt c cc h thng truyn dn. Cc ngun nhiu ch yu l nhiu nn nhit, nhiu in t cc b khuch i bn thu, v nhiu lin (intercellular interference). Cc loi nhiu ny c th gy ra nhiu lin k t ISI, nhiu lin sng mang ICI v nhiu lin iu ch IMD (Inter-Modulation Distortion). Nhiu ny lm gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu SNR, gim hiu qu ph ca h thng. V thc t l ty thuc vo tng loi ng dng, mc nhiu v hiu qu ph ca h thng phi c la chn. Hu ht cc loi nhiu trong cc h thng c th c m phng mt cch chnh xc bng nhiu trng cng. Hay ni cch khc tp m trng Gaussian l loi nhiu ph bin nht trong h thng truyn dn. Loi nhiu ny c mt ph cng sut l ng u trong c bng thng v bin tun theo phn b Gaussian. Theo phng thc tc ng th nhiu Gaussian l nhiu cng. Vy dng knh truyn ph bin l knh truyn chu tc ng ca nhiu Gaussian trng cng. Nhiu nhit (sinh ra do s chuyn ng nhit ca cc ht ti in gy ra) l loi nhiu tiu biu cho nhiu Gaussian trng cng tc ng n knh truyn dn. c bit, trong h thng OFDM, khi s sng mang ph l rt ln th hu ht cc thnh phn nhiu khc cng c th c coi l nhiu Gaussian trng cng tc ng trn tng knh con v xt trn tng knh con ring l th c im ca cc loi nhiu ny tha mn cc iu kin ca nhiu Gaussian trng cng.

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn


2.2.5 Nhiu lin k t ISI

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Nhiu ISI v ICI l hai loi nhiu thng gp nht do nh hng ca knh truyn ngoi nhiu Gaussian trng cng. Nh gii thiu trn, ISI gy ra do tri tr a ng. gim ISI, cch tt nht l gim tc d liu. Nhng vi nhu cu hin nay l yu cu tc truyn phi tng nhanh. Do gii php ny l khng th thc hin c. ngh a ra gim ISI v c a vo ng dng thc t l chn tin t lp CP vo mi k t OFDM. Ngoi nhiu ISI, nhiu ICI cng tc ng khng nh n cht lng tn hiu thu c, do vic tm hiu n cng rt quan trng nng cao cht lng ca h thng OFDM. Trong mi trng a ng, k t pht n u vo my thu vi cc khong thi gian khc nhau thng qua nhiu ng khc nhau. S m rng ca chu k k t gy ra s chng ln gia k t hin thi vi k t trc v kt qu l c nhiu lin k t (ISI). Trong OFDM, ISI thng cp n nhiu ca mt k t OFDM vi k t trc .Trong h thng OFDM, gim c nhiu ISI, phng php n gin v thng dng nht l a vo tin t lp CP.

2.2.6 Nhiu lin sng mang ICI Trong OFDM, ph ca cc sng mang chng ln nhng vn trc giao vi sng mang khc. iu ny c ngha l ti tn s cc i ca ph mi sng mang th ph ca cc sng mang khc bng khng. My thu ly mu cc k t d liu trn cc sng mang ring l ti im cc i v iu ch chng trnh nhiu t cc sng mang khc. Nhiu gy ra bi cc d liu trn sng mang k cn c xem l nhiu xuyn knh (ICI) nh hnh 2.5. ICI xy ra khi knh a ng thay i trn thi gian k t OFDM. Dch Doppler trn mi thnh phn a ng gy ra dch tn s trn mi sng mang, kt qu l mt tnh trc giao gia chng. ICI cng xy ra khi mt k t OFDM b nhiu ISI. S lch tn s sng mang ca my pht v my thu cng gy ra nhiu ICI trong h thng OFDM.

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn


A(f) f=0

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Cc sng mang ph vn trc giao vi nhau

fn-1 A(f)

fn

fn+ f 0

Cc sng mang ph b dch tn s gy ra nhiu lin sng mang ICI

fn-1+ f fn+ f fn+1+ f

Hnh 2.5 Li dch tn s gy nhiu ICI trong h thng OFDM 2.2.7 Tin t lp CP Tin t lp (CP) l mt k thut x l tn hiu trong OFDM nhm hn ch n mc thp nht nh hng ca nhiu xuyn k t (ISI), nhiu xuyn knh (ICI) n tn hiu OFDM, m bo yu cu v tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang ph . thc hin k thut ny, trong qu trnh x l, tn hiu OFDM c lp li c chu k v phn lp li pha trc mi k t OFDM c s dng nh l mt khong thi gian bo v gia cc k t pht k nhau.Vy sau khi chn thm khong bo v, thi gian truyn mt k t (Ts) lc ny bao gm thi gian khong bo v (Tg) v thi gian truyn thng tin c ch TFFT (cng chnh l khong thi gian b IFFT/FFT pht i mt k t).

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn


copy

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K t OFDM hu ch K t OFDM khi m rng vng Tn hiu trc tip Tn hiu tr Tn hiu tr cui cng

TFFT

Hnh 2.6 M t tin t lp Ta c: K t OFDM lc ny c dng:


n = , + 1,... ,1 x(n + N ) xT ( n ) = n = 0, 1,... , N 1 x ( n)

Ts = Tg + TFFT

(2.2)

(2.3)

T l ca khong bo v Tg v thi khong k t hu ch TFFT b hn ch nhm m bo hiu sut s dng di tn v n cn ph thuc vo tng loi hnh ng dng khc nhau. Nu t l ln tc l Tg tng lm gim hiu sut h thng. Tuy nhin, n phi bng hoc ln hn gi tr tri tr cc i max (the maximum delay spread) nhm duy tr tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang nhnh v loi b c cc

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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xuyn nhiu ICI, ISI. y, gi tr tri tr cc i l mt thng s xut hin khi tn hiu truyn trong khng gian chu nh hng ca hin tng a ng (multipath effect), tc l tn hiu thu c ti b thu khng ch n t ng trc tip m cn n t cc ng phn x khc nhau, v cc tn hiu ny n b thu ti cc thi im khc nhau. Gi tr tri tr cc i c xc nh l khong thi gian chnh lch ln nht gia thi im tn hiu thu qua ng trc tip v thi im tn hiu thu c qua ng phn x. Tin t lp (CP) c kh nng loi b nhiu ISI, nhiu ICI v n cho php tng kh nng ng b (ng b k t, ng b tn s sng mang) trong h thng OFDM. Ngoi khi nim tin t lp CP cn c khi nim hu t lp cyclic postfix. Hu t cng tng t nh tin t, mt khong bt u ca tn hiu ly IFFT c sao chp v a ra pha sau ca tn hiu. Thm vo hu t cng c th chng c nhiu ISI v ICI nhng thng ch cn s dng tin t l c v n lm gim hiu sut bng thng. Nu ch s dng tin t lp th chiu di ca n phi ln hn tri tr ln nht. Cn nu s dng c tin t v hu t lp th tng chiu di ca chng phi ln hn tri tr ln nht ca knh truyn. 2.3 Khong bo v Thnh phn ISI ca vic truyn tn hiu OFDM c th b sai do iu kin ca qu trnh x l tn hiu, bi v my thu khng thu nhn c thng tin ca symbol c truyn tip theo. iu ny c ngha l my thu cn mt khong thi gian c di xc nh bng thi gian symbol c ch c th xc nh c symbol OFDM. Khong thi gian ny gi l Orthogonality Interval. Mt trong nhng l do quan trng nht s dng k thut OFDM l k thut ny c kh nng gii quyt mt cch hiu qu vn tri tr a ng (multipath delay spread). Bng cch chia lung d liu thnh Ns lung song song iu ch sng mang ph, chu k mt symbol c tng ln Ns ln, do s lm gim t l gia tri tr a ng vi chu k symbol xung Ns ln. loi b ISI mt

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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cch gn nh trit , khong thi gian bo v c thm vo cho mi symbol OFDM. Khong thi gian c chn sao cho ln hn tri tr cc thnh phn tr (do multipath) t mt symbol khng th gy nhiu ln symbol k cn. Khong thi gian c th khng cha mt tn hiu no c. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp th ICI xut hin gy nhiu gia cc sng mang ph lm cc sng mang ph khng cn trc giao na. Nhiu la chn tn s cng l mt vn gy nh hng ln n cht lng truyn thng tn hiu. Tuy nhin, OFDM cng mm do hn CDMA khi gii quyt vn ny. OFDM c th khi phc li knh truyn thng qua tn hiu dn ng (Pilot) c truyn i cng vi dng tn hiu thng tin. Ngoi ra, i vi cc knh ph suy gim nghim trng v tn s th OFDM cn c mt la chn na gim t l li bit l gim bt s bit m ha cho mt tn hiu iu ch ti knh tn s . c th gim bt s phc tp ca vn ng b trong h thng OFDM s dng khong bo v (GI). S dng chui bo v GI, cho php OFDM c th iu chnh tn s thch hp mc d vic thm GI cng ng ngha vi vic lm gim hiu qu s dng tn s. Ngoi ra, OFDM chu nh hng ca nhiu xung. Tc l mt xung tn hiu nhiu c th tc ng xu n mt chm tn hiu thay v mt s k t nh trong CDMA v iu ny lm tng t l li bit ca OFDM so vi CDMA. i vi mt bng thng h thng cho tc symbol ca tn hiu OFDM thp hn nhiu tc symbol ca s truyn sng mang n. V d i vi tn hiu iu ch n sng mang BPSK tc symbol tng ng vi tc bit. Tuy nhin, i vi OFDM bng thng h thng c chia cho Nc ti ph, to thnh tc symbol nh hn Nc ln so vi truyn sng mang n. Tc symbol thp ny lm cho OFDM chu ng c tt cc can nhiu gia can nhiu ISI gy ra bi truyn lan nhiu ng.

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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Hnh 2.7: OFDM c khong bo v v khng c khong bo v. C th gim nh hng ISI ti OFDM bng cch thm vo khong bo v trc ca mi symbol. Khong bo v ny l bn sao tun hon theo chu k, lm m rng chiu di ca dng sng symbol. Symbol ca OFDM cha c b sung khong bo v, c chiu di bn kch thc IFFT (c s dng to tn hiu) c mt s nguyn ln cc chu k. Vic a vo cc bn sao ca symbol ni ui nhau to thnh mt tn hiu lin tc, khng c s gin on ch ni. Nh vy vic sao chp u cui ca symbol v t n u vo to ra mt khong thi gian di hn.

2.4 Gii hn bng thng ca OFDM Trong min thi gian, OFDM l tng ng vi tng cc sng mang hnh sine iu ch. Mi symbol nm trong thi gian xc nh vi hm ca s hnh ch nht. Ca s ny xc nh bin ca mi symbol OFDM v xc nh p tuyn c

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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to ra. Thi gian truyn OFDM khi dng kha dch pha PSK, bin ti ph l c nh v pha thay i t symbol ny sang symbol khc truyn d liu. Pha ti ph th khng i i vi ton b symbol, dn n nhy bc pha gia cc symbol. Nhng thay i t bin gia cc symbol dn n s m rng trong min tn s.

Hnh 2.8: Ph ca tn hiu OFDM gm 52 ti ph khng c hn ch bng thng

2.4.1 Lc bng thng Lc bng thng c s dng khi tn hiu c bin i t min tn s thnh dng sng tng t v ngc li ngn nga s chng ph (aliasing). Trong OFDM, lc bng thng loi b hiu qu mt s bp sng trn OFDM. Gi tr loi b bp sng bn ph thuc vo dng b lc c s dng. Nhn chung b lc s cung cp linh hot, chnh xc v t l ct (cut of rate) ln hn nhiu lc tng t, do chng hu ch trong vic hn ch bng thng ca tn hiu OFDM. p tuyn tn s OFDM khng lc. Tn hiu OFDM c lc bng thng. Cc tn hiu ny c lc bng p tuyn xung hu hn FIR c pht trin khi dng phng php ca s (Windowing). Do s ti ph c dng trong cc hnh l

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn

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nh c th thy roll off ca b lc FIR. Trong thc t, loi b tt c cc bp sng bn, nhng tnh ton b lc phc tp v gi thnh cao v n lm gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu hiu dng SNR ca knh OFDM. B lc cng nh hng n mt phn nng lng ca cc ti ph pha bn ngoi, lm mo dng tn hiu, v gy can nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI. B lc c dng dc ng cho php tch bit cc khi OFDM t chng rt gn nhau trong min tn s ci thin hiu qu ph, tuy nhin n cng lm gim t s SNR hiu dng.

2.4.2 phc tp tnh lc bng thng FIR Vic dng b lc bng thng s l phng php rt hiu qu loi b cc bp sng bn do tn hiu OFDM to ra. thc hin b lc bng thng FIR s tap cn thit tng ng vi:
W .IFFT N taps = ceil. t Ft

(2.4)

Trong , Ntaps : S tp trong b lc FIR Wt : rng qu ca hm ca s c dng to b lc FIR. IFFT: l kch thc FFT c s dng to tn hiu. Ft : rng qu ca b lc chuNn ha cho khong cch ti ph.

Ceil : Php lm trn v pha ln hn. V d: (1.1) = 2 V d to tn hiu cn lc vi b lc 24 tap. iu ny c th tnh t c im k thut tn hiu. Tn hiu c to ra khi dng kch thc IFFT l 64, do vy IFFT = 64. Hm ca s Kaiser vi rng qu 3 c s dng, dn n suy gii chn (stop band) l 89 dB. Cng sut bp sng bn ca tn hiu OFDM khng c lc l 20 dBc v sau khi lc l 109 dBc. rng qu ca hm ca s c s dng l 3.0 nn s tap cn thit l:

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Chng 2 Cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn


3.0 64 N taps = ceil. = 24 8

www.4tech.com.vn
(2.5)

Mi tap ca b lc FIR yu cu hai thut ton nhn v tch ly MAC (Multiply And Accumulate) nh cc kt qu mu phc. V nh vy i vi tn s ly mu 20 MHz s php tnh s l 20 x 106 x 24 x 2 = 960 triu MAC. Trong cc ng dng m s tap cn thit trong b lc l ln (>100), vic thc hin b lc FIR nh dng FFT c th hiu qu hn.

2.4.3 nh hng ca lc bng thng ti ch tiu k thut OFDM Trong thi gian symbol OFDM c dng hnh ch nht, tng ng vi suy gim dng sine trong min tn s. N u dng b lc bng thng n tn hiu OFDM th tn hiu s c dng hnh ch nht c trong min tn s, lm cho dng sng trong min thi gian c suy gim dng sinc gia cc symbol. iu ny cho ISI lm gim ch tiu k thut. C th loi b ISI do vic lc gy ra bng cch dng khong bo v c di. Bng vic chn offset thi gian ng b gia cc khong bo v, do vy hu ht nng lng ISI b loi b.

2.5 Kt lun chng Chng ny gii thiu mt vi c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn nh hng n tn hiu khi truyn i trong khng gian. ng thi cc loi nhiu thng gp trong h thng OFDM cng c cp n. hn ch nhiu v nh hng ca knh truyn a ng th chng sau cp n mt s k thut c ng dng trong OFDM.

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Chng 3: Vn ng b trong h thng OFDMwww.4tech.com.vn

Chng 3: VN NG B TRONG H THNG OFDM


3.1 Gii thiu chng. trong chng ny, chng ta s i tm v cc ni dung chnh ca vn ng b trong h thng OFDM. C th l tm hiu v cc li gy nn s mt ng b, vn nhn bit khung; c lng v sa cha khong dch tn s; iu chnh sai s ly mu. y s kho st cc loi ng b ng vi cc li l: ng b symbol, ng b tn s ly mu, ng b tn s sng mang v xt s nh hng ca sai li ng b n hiu sut h thng. 3.2 S ng b trong h thng OFDM. H thng OFDM yu cu kht khe v vn ng b v s sai lch v tn s, nh hng ca hiu ng Doppler khi di chuyn v lch pha s gy ra nhiu giao thoa tn s (ISI). Trong bt k mt h thng OFDM no, hiu sut cao ph thuc vo tnh ng b ha gia my pht v my thu, lm mt tnh chnh xc nh thi dn n nhiu ISI v ICI khi mt chnh xc tn s. Cc h thng s dng OFDM d b nh hng bi li do ng b, c bit l ng b tn s do lm mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang ph. gii iu ch v nhn bit tn hiu OFDM chnh xc yu cu cc sng mang ph phi c tnh trc giao. Khi cc ng h tn s ly mu pha pht v pha thu chnh xc th hai yu t chnh nh hng n s mt ng b l khong dch tn s sng mang v khong thi gian symbol. Khong dch tn s sng mang gy nn nhiu ICI, cn dch khong thi gian symbol gy nn nhiu ISI. Trong h thng OFDM, nhiu ICI tc ng n s mt ng b ln hn nhiu ISI nn tn s sng mang yu cu chnh xc nhiu hn khong thi gian symbol. Qu trnh ng b c 3 bc: Nhn bit khung, c lng khong dch tn s (pha), bm ui pha (Hnh 3.1)

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Nhn bit khung

c lng khong dch tn s

FFT

Bm ui pha

c lng knh

Gii m

Hnh 3.1: Qu trnh ng b trong OFDM Qu trnh nhn bit khung c thc hin bng cch s dng chui PN vi phn min thi gian. c lng khong dch tn s, cn s dng mi tng quan trong min thi gian ca cc symbol pilot k nhau c lng phn thc ca khong tn s offset, cn phn o c thc hin bng cch s dng chui PN vi phn min tn s. S dch pha do c lng khong dch tn s cng nh nhiu pha c ti u bng cch dng kha pha s (DPLL). Trong qu trnh iu ch v truyn tn hiu trn cc knh thng b nh hng bi nhiu. Do qu trnh iu ch v xuyn nhiu knh nn cc tham s tn s sng mang v khong thi gian symbol khng cn chnh xc. Do , cn phi c lng v ng b chng. Nh vy, pha thu ngoi vic gii quyt s gii m d liu ( bn ngoi) cn phi gii quyt vn ng b ha ( bn trong). 3.2.1 Nhn bit khung. Nhn bit khung nhm tm ra ranh gii gia cc symbol OFDM. a s cc s nh thi hin c s dng s tng quan gia nhng phn tn hiu OFDM c lp li to ra mt s nh thi n nh. Nhng s khng th cho v tr nh thi chnh xc, c bit l khi SNR thp. nhn bit khung, chng ta s dng chui PN min thi gian c m ha vi phn. Nh c im t tng quan, chui PN cho php tm ra v tr nh thi chnh xc. Chui PN c pht nh l mt phn ca phn ca u gi OFDM. Ti pha thu, cc mu tn hiu thu c s c lin quan vi chui bit. Khi chui PN pht ng b vi chui PN thu c th suy ra ranh gii gia cc symbol OFDM bng vic quan st nh tng quan. Trong knh a ng, nhiu nh tng quan PN c quan st ph thuc vo tr a ng (c o trong chu k ly mu tn hiu). nh tng quan ln

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nht xut hin ti nh nng lng ca tr a ng. V tr ca nh tng quan ln nht ny dng nh v ranh gii symbol OFDM. Do nhn bit khung c thc hin trc khi c lng khong dch tn s s ph v nh tng quan ca chui PN. iu ny dn n s phn phi nh tng quan ging dng hnh sine. Khi khng c c lng khong dch tn s, iu ch vi phn c s dng, ngha l chui PN c th c iu ch vi phn trn nhng mu tn hiu ln cn. Ti pha thu, tn hiu c gii m vi phn v c tnh tng quan vi chui PN bit. Gii thut nhn bit nh s dng mt b m c kch thc c nh lu kt qu tnh ton tm thi l cc gi tr metric nh thi kt qu |M(g)|. S nhn bit khung thnh cng khi phn t trung tm ca b m ln nht v t l ca gi tr phn t trung tm v trung bnh b m vt qu ngng nht nh. xc nh mc ngng ny, s m phng c thc hin qua knh AWGN, i vi chui c chiu di l 63, b m metric cng chn theo kch thc l 63. Hnh 3.2 cho thy xc sut nhn bit mt mt v nhn bit sai lch ti cc mc ngng khc nhau.

Hnh 3.2[4]: Xc sut nhn bit mt mt v nhn bit sai ti cc mc ngng PAPR khc nhau ng cong nhn bit sai to ra t s tch ly nhiu trong module nhn bit khung v sau o nh tng quan (PAPR) ca b metric nh thi. Cc ng cong nhn bit trt to ra t php o PAPR ca b m metric nh thi khi chui PN c pht i.

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Ngng ti u ca SNR l im pht giao gia ng cong nhn bit sai v ng cong nhn bit trt ca SNR mong mun. Mt chui PN di hn c th c s dng tng khong trng gia cc ng nhn bit sai v cc ng nhn bit trt v gim xc sut li ti ngng ti u. 3.2.2 c lng khong dch tn s. Khong dch tn s gy ra do s sai khc tn s sng mang gia pha pht v pha thu. Khong dch tn s l vn quan trng trong h thng OFDM a sng mang so vi h thng n sng mang. BER gim khng ng k, ln khong dch tn s phi trong khong 1% ca khong cch sng mang. iu ny s khng kh thi khi h thng OFDM s dng cc b dao ng tinh th thch anh cht lng thp m khng p dng bt k k thut b khong dch tn s no. c lng khong dch tn s s dng hai symbol dn ng OFDM, vi symbol th hai bng symbol th nht dch sang tri Tg (Tg l di tin t lp CP). Cc tn hiu cch nhau khong thi gian T ( di symbol FFT) th ging ht nhau ngoi tr tha s pha e
j 2 ( fC T )

do khong dch tn s.

Khong dch tn s c phn thnh phn thp phn v phn nguyn:

f cT = A +

(3.1)

y phn nguyn A v phn thp phn (-1/2, 1/2). Phn thp phn c c lng bng cch tnh tng quan gia cc mu tn hiu cch nhau mt khong thi gian T. Phn nguyn c tm bng cch s dng chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph ln cn ca hai symbol dn ng. 3.2.2.1 c lng phn thp phn. Khi khng c nhiu ISI, cc mu tn hiu thu c tn hiu nh sau:
y ( l ) = s ( l ) .e
j 2 ( f C T ) l N + z (l )

(3.2)

Trong ,

l y(l)

: s mu (min thi gian) : mu tn hiu thu

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N z(l) : tng s sng mang ph : mu nhiu

V tn hiu s(l) c biu din nh sau:


s (l ) = 1 N

U (k ) C (k ) e
l =0

N 1

j 2 k

l N

(3.3)

Trong ,

: ch s sng mang ph

U(k) : d liu iu ch trn sng mang ph C(k) : p ng tn s sng mang ph Tnh tng quan gia cc mu cch nhau khong T (tc N mu) ta c:
J =
N 1 l=0

y (l ).y

(l + N )

(3.4)

V phn thp phn ca khong dch tn s c c lng nh sau:


=

1 arg J 2

[ ]

(3.5)

Nu SNR cao v b qua mi xuyn nhiu nh (3.4). J c th c trin khai sp xp li thnh phn tn hiu v phn nhiu Gaussian. nh ngha phn li c lng phn thp phn:

=
lch chuNn c tnh nh sau:
2 E [ ] =

(3.6)

1 2 N SNR

(3.7)

Hnh 3.3 so snh lch chuNn ca li c lng FOE gia m phng v tnh ton ti cc gi tr SN R khc nhau. S m phng trong knh AWGN ti tn s sng mang fc= 2.24 GHz, vi tn s sng mang ph N= 64, chu k ly mu Ts=50ns, v sai lch dao ng ni thch anh l 100 ppm. Khong dch tn s l fc.T = 0,7808 vi phn nguyn l A = 1, v phn thp phn l = -0,2192. S khc nhau gia hai ng cong ti SN R thp l do b qua xuyn nhiu trong (3.4).

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Hnh 3.3: lch chun c lng phn thp phn CFO ti cc gi tr SNR khc nhau T (3.6) ta c th tnh xp x gim SN R do khong dch tn s trong h OFDM, kt hp kt qu vi (3.7) v gi thuyt c lng phn nguyn lun ng. S gim SN R sau khi c lng v b khong tn s c tnh nh sau:
D (dB) = 10 1 x 12 ln 10 10

(3.8)

iu ny l khng ng k trong h thng c N ln. 3.2.2.2 c lng phn nguyn i vi c lng phn nguyn, 2N mu tn hiu lin tip ca k hiu FOE di l phn thp phn u tin c b:

y ' (l ) = e

j 2

l N

y (l )

l [0,2 N )

Gi s s c lng phn c lng thp phn l hon ho, cc mu tn hiu c b c th c tch thnh hai k hiu FFT:
y1 = [ y ' (0), ..., y ' ( N 1) = s + z1 ]
y2 = [y' ( N ), ..., y' (2 N 1) = s + z2 ]

Vector c cc thnh phn:

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j 2A l N

s ( l ). e

l [0, N )

V hai k hiu FFT c cng vector tn hiu, mt k hiu FFT mi c th c to ra bng cch cng chng vi nhau tng SN R ln gn 3dB, tc l:

y = y1 + y2 = 2s + z1 + z2
S dng y/2 v nhiu cng t l theo .FFT cho y/2:
Y (n) = 1 s ( l ). e N l=0
N 1 l j 2 n l N + z (l ) e N

j 2 A

= { U(k) C(k)} k = mod( n A , N ) + Z(n) Mt chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph ln cn c lng xoay quanh phn nguyn A. Gii m vi phn cc Y(n) ri tnh tng quan gia kt qu vi cc phin bn xoay vng ca chui PN ta s tm c mt nh bin duy nht xc nh A. 3.2.3 Bm ui li thng d FOE Xt mt h thng OFDM vi mt chu k k hiu: TD= Tg+T hoc ND=Ng+N biu din s mu tn hiu. Tha s pha ca khong dch tn s trong N mu tn hiu FFT ca k hiu OFDM c biu din:
ND l + ) N N ND l + ) N N

j ( 2 f C T )( m

= e

j 2 ( A + )( m

(3.9)

Trong ,

: ch s symbol,

: ch s mu

Cho FOE ng, khi tha s pha sau khi b khong dch tn s l:

j 2

(m

ND l + ) N N

=e

j 2 m

ND N

.e

j 2

l N

(3.10)

Gi tr s hng cn s hng

j 2

N D N

trong (3.10) gy ra li pha tn hiu,

j 2

l N

gy ra nhiu ICI.

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V tha s l khng i trn ton b symbol nn n c th c b trong min tn s sau b FFT. Tn hiu FFT c biu din:
Y (m, k ) = e
j 2 m ND N U (m, k ) C (m, k ) + Z (m, k )

(3.11)

k : ch s sng mang ph b qua ICI Li pha ( 2 m


ND ) tng tuyn tnh trn cc symbol. N

C th bm ui li pha bng cch dng vng kha pha s DPLL. Hm truyn t ca DPLL l:

H (z) =
Trong ,

2 n ( z 1) + n2 ( z 1) 2 + 2 n ( z 1) + n2
: h s tt dn : tn s ca DPLL

(3.12)

DPLL bc hai thng s dng thay cho DPLL bc mt v do yu cu li trng thi l n nh i vi u vo tuyn tnh, tc l ( 2 Min n nh cho DPLL l:
> 1 hoc 0 < n < 2 2 n < n + 1 4

ND N

).

1 0 < n < 2

(3.13)

iu ny phi tha mn khi chn cc tham s DPLL. thc hin tch sng pha, phi c lng h s li pha. V h s li pha l chung cho cc sng mang ph nn c c lng s dng J.
N 1 k =0

J =

(m , k ) C (m, k ) Y (m, k )

(3.14)

tnh J phi bit c d liu U(m,k) v cc p ng knh C(m,k). Tch sng pha c thc hin:
e ( m ) = arg [ J ] ( m )

(3.15)

Trong ,

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Chng 3: Vn ng b trong h thng OFDMwww.4tech.com.vn


e(m) : gi tr ra ca b tch sng
(m ) : gi tr ra ca DPLL

arg[J] : c lng nhiu v c lch chuNn l

1 2N SNR

Hnh 3.4: Bm ui pha DPLL Hnh (3.4) cho thy kt qu m phng ca h thng s dng DPLL vi SN R l 3dB v li FOE l = - 0.017. ng vung biu th li pha khng c bm ui. Pha c gii hn trong on [- , ]. ng trn biu th li pha sau DPLL, gn nh khng ng k. DPLL c n = 6,25x10-2 v = 1,25 . 3.3 ng b k t trong OFDM Vic ng b k t phi xc nh c thi im k t bt u. Vi vic s dng tin t lp (CP) th vic thc hin ng b tr nn d dng hn nhiu. Hai yu t c ch khi thc hin ng b k t l li thi gian v nhiu pha sng mang. C hai loi li thi gian l li nh thi trong ly mu symbol OFDM do s tri nhp (Clock drift) v li nh thi do symbol t sinh ra do s sai lch thi gian ca thi im bt u k t thu. S mt ng b do ly mu c th

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khc phc nh s dng ng h ly mu c chnh xc cao. Do , vn lc ny l li nh thi symbol. N u li nh thi symbol nh sao cho p ng xung ca knh vn cn nm trong khong ca thnh phn CP trong tn hiu OFDM th n s khng gy nh hng n cht lng h thng. Trong trng hp li ny ln hn khong thi gian ca CP s xy ra nhiu ISI. Khi s ng b c yu cu cht ch hn. N hiu pha sng mang l hin tng xoay pha ca cc sng mang do s khng n nh ca b to dao ng bn pht hay bn thu. C hai phng php chnh ng b symbol. l phng php ng b da vo tn hiu pilot v phng php da vo CP. N goi ra, cn c mt phng php l ng b khung symbol trn m ng b khung. 3.3.1 ng b tn hiu da vo tn hiu Pilot Phng php c s dng cho cc h thng thng tin OFDM/FM, ngha l cc h thng OFDM c truyn di dng iu tn. My pht s s dng m ha mt s cc knh ph vi tn s v bin bit trc. Sau ny th phng php ny c iu chnh c th s dng cho truyn dn tn hiu OFDM iu ch bin . Thut ton ng b gm 3 bc: N hn bit cng sut (Power Detection), ng b "th" (Coarse Synchronization) v ng b "tinh" (Fine Synchronization). N him v ca vic nhn bit cng sut l xc nh xem tn hiu truyn c phi l OFDM hay khng bng cch o cng sut thu v so snh vi mc ngng. Trong bc ng b "th", tn hiu s c ng b lc u vi chnh xc thp bng mt na khong thi gian ly mu. Mc d chnh xc trong bc ny khng cao nhng n s lm n gin thut ton d tm ng b trong bc tip theo. thc hin c s ng b "th", ngi ta tnh tng quan gia tn hiu thu c vi bn sao ca tn hiu pht (c xc nh trc) ri tm nh tng quan. Tn s c lng ca cc im phi gp khong 4 ln tc tn hiu m bo tnh chnh xc trong c lng nh tng quan.

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Trong bc ng b "tinh", do thi gian ng b chnh xc nh hn mu tn hiu nn nh hng ca li ng b v p ng xung knh chc chn nm trong khong ca CP (v khong thi gian ca CP phi ln hn khong thi gian p ng xung knh t nht l mt mu). V vy, li pha cc sng mang ca cc knh ph chc chn l do li thi gian gy nn. Li ny c th c c lng bng cch s dng hi quy tuyn tnh. Khi , tn hiu ti cc knh pilot s c cn bng. Cc symbol pilot c chn vo tn hiu OFDM theo mt trt t hp l. Thng thng symbol pilot c chn vo phn u tin ca gi OFDM (Hnh 3.5).

a) k nh fading phng tn s.

b)Knh fading chon lc tn s Hnh 3.5: Pilot trong gi OFDM 3.3.2 ng b k t da vo CP Xt hai tn hiu thu cch nhau N bc: d(m) = r (m) r (m + N), Vi N l sng mang ph. N bng s im ly mu tng ng vi phn c ch ca symbol OFDM, chng phi l bn sao ca nhau nn d(m) thp. N u r(m) v r(m-N) tng ng vi cc mu pht nm trong thi khong ca cng mt symbol OFDM, d(m) l hiu ca hai bin ngu nhin khng tng quan. Cng sut ca d(m) trong trng hp ny bng hai ln cng sut trung bnh ca symbol OFDM. N u s dng mt ca s trt c rng thi gian bng khong thi gian ca CP (im cui ca ca s trng vi im bt u ca symbol OFDM) th khi ca s ny trng vi thnh phn CP ca symbol OFDM s c mt cc tiu v cng

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sut trung bnh ca cc mu d(m) trong ca s ny. Do , c th c lng c thi im bt u ca symbol OFDM, v ng b thi gian c thc hin. 3.3.3 ng b khung k t da trn m ng b khung (FSC) ng b khung k t nhm nhn bit v tr bt u ca khung k t tm thy v tr chnh xc ca ca s FFT. Cc thut ton ng b khung symbol truyn thng (dng symbol pilot, dng CP,) da vo quan h gia khong bo v GI v phn sau ca symbol. N hng cc thut ton ny khng th pht hin chnh xc v tr bt u ca k t do nhiu ISI trong knh fading a ng. Cu trc khung c th c chia thnh vng m ng b khung FSC cho ng b khung symbol v vng d liu cho truyn dn symbol OFDM (Hnh 3.6).

Hnh 3.6: Mt kiu cu trc khung symbol OFDM C th biu din tn hiu khung OFDM nh sau:

frame

(t ) = S

FSC

(t ) + S

data

( t T FSC )

(3.16)

Trong , TFSC : Khong thi gian symbol FSC Ti pha pht, chui cc mu dng s c pht gm c chui CA(n) ca FSC v cc mu d liu khng c GI qua FFT l:
s ( n ) = C A ( n) nk j 2 1 N 1 s m ( n) = X m ( k )e N N k =0 n = 1, 2, ..., C L : FSC k = 0, 1, ..., N 1 : da ta

(3.17)

Trong ,

CL

: di bit ca FSC thi gian khi khng thm GI.

sm(n) : Chui cc mu ca symbol OFDM th m trong min xm(k) : Symbol truyn dn phc th m trong min tn s.

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N
A

: S sng mang ph

Cc mu C (n) c ng dng trc tip s(n) l s bt u khung Tn hiu FSC l mt chui tun t cc mu, s (n) = C A (n) , vi n = 1,2, CL c to thnh t vector FSC C(n) = {C(1), C(2), ..., C( C L )} gm cc CL gi tr nh phn. i vi m C(n) c gi tr "1" , chng ta thc hin o cc tnh lun phin to ra tn hiu 3 mc C A (n) . V d: Cho C(n) = {1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1} th C A (n) = {1, 0, 0, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1}. Bng cch ny, ta c th duy tr s gi tr '1' v '-1' bng nhau ti pha pht hn ch khong dch DC v duy tr mt mc c nh cho di ng. Cu trc ng b khung symbol OFDM gm: B nhn bit cng sut, b nhn bit bit '0'/ '1' , thanh ghi dch CL, b cng Modulo -2 c gim bt, b tng, b nhn bit nh. Thut ton ng b khung symbol nh FSC gm c 3 bc: N hn bit FSC, xc nh cc mc ngng ti u Th1 v Th2 tng cng xc sut nhn bit v tr u khung symbol.

Hnh 3.7: ng b khung k t dng FSC 3.3.3.1 Nhn bit FSC u tin, b ng b khung symbol s nhn bit cng sut bng cch dng mi mu thu. Gi s nu chui mu tn hiu ti u th i sau knh a ng v AWGN l s ( i ) , chng ta c th biu din mt tn hiu vi khong dch tn s v pha thnh cc knh I v Q ring r nh sau:
~

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y ( i ) = ( s I ( i ) + s Q ( i )). e j
~ ~

= ( s I ( i ) cos s Q ( i ) sin ) + j ( s Q ( i ) cos + s I ( i ) sin )

(3.18)

Trong ,

s I ( i ) : Knh I ca s(i)
s Q ( i ) : Knh Q ca s(i)
~

: Biu din tng pha 2 i N + 0 , gm khong dch tn s ( = fT ) v khong dch pha 0 .

N u chng ta thc hin nhn bit cng sut cho chui mu trn ng b khung symbol nh trong Hnh 3.7, chng ta c th thu c cng sut m khng ph thuc vo khong dch tn s v pha nh sau;
y (i ) + y (i ) = s I (i ) + s Q (i )
2 I 2 Q ~ 2 ~ 2

(3.19)

3.3.3.2 Xc nh mc ngng Th1 Theo php phn tch, chng ta s thu c mt mc ngng ti u Th1 trong mi trng AWGN xc nh '0' v '1' t cng thc (3.19). thu c mt mc ngng ti u trong mi trng a ng l rt kh khi n ph thuc vo kiu FSC.

Hnh 3.8: Ngng ti u Th1 vi gi tr SNR

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Cc ngng Th1 c th c vit:
Th 1 =
4 1 P / 2 2 ) I 0 (e

2P

(3.20)

I 01 (.) : Hm ngc ca Bessel bc 0: I 0 (.) ,

: Phng sai ca cc bin ngu nhin Gaussian trong cc knh I v Q : Gi tr bin c nh ngha trong tn hiu

Hnh 3.8 so snh gia m phng v phn tch t cng thc (3.20) gi tr ca ngng ti u vi cc SN R khc nhau. Cc gi tr '0' v '1' c xc nh ri a n u vo thanh ghi dch ca b nhn bit FSC ph hp vi tc ly mu Ts v b php ton cng modulo-2 thc thi CL thi im vi kiu FSC bit. y, u ra b cng modulo-2 sa i l '1' nu cc bit ging nhau ti v tr hin ti, nu khng s c gi tr '-1'. Cc gi tr tng quan ny s c cng tt c cc khi tng v kt qu c so snh vi ngng Th2 ca b nhn bit nh d tm FSC. 3.3.3.3 Xc nh mc ngng Th2 N u gi tr nh chnh xc ca u ra b nhn bit nh l nh hn ngng Th2 m thit lp cho b nhn bit nh, FSC khng c pht hin. y gi l s nhn bit trt PM. N u thit lp Th2 thp, tng quan u ra ca cc vng d liu khc c th trn Th2 v c xem nh l FSC, gi l xc sut d phng sai PF . i vi ng b khung symbol, xc sut nhn bit trt PM kh nng pht hin li chnh xc PC . PC l xc sut nhn bit FSC khi s lng li trong FSC tr nn ging nhau hoc t tng s li cc i (vi = (C L Th2 ) / 2 ) ca qu trnh nhn bit nh. V vy, kh nng nhn bit FSC ng PC c th c tm bng cch cng xc sut ca cc li bit FSC di ngng li . Xc sut nhn bit trt c th c tm bng cch tr tt c cc xc sut nhn bit ng ra khi ton b cng sut. Khi ngng li v chiu di CL ca FSC tng, xc sut nhn bit trt gim. Gi s nu chiu di FSC l C L bit, mi kh nng kt hp d liu ngu nhin l 2CL . N u = 0, kh nng pht hin li l 1/ 2
CL

. y l kh nng pht hin ngu

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nhin chnh xc vi kiu FSC. PF c th c gim bng cch tng s bit FSC, CL hoc gim ngng nhn bit . N h vy, PM v PF c th trao i vi nhau khi cho CL c nh v bin i gi tr hoc Th2. Trong trng hp tng qut PM l rt nh cn PF l rt ln. iu ny c th khc phc bng k thut ca s. Trong k thut ny, qu trnh nhn bit FSC ch trong mt khong c bit, s tnh ton trc cao c xem nh l mt nh. Vic thc hin tng i n gin v cho hiu qu tt. N h vy, thut ton ng b khung symbol c th chn chiu di v kiu FSC. iu ny ph thuc vo mi trng knh v hiu sut h thng. Khi mi trng knh xu, ta c th m rng chiu di v gim PFW v PM . 3.4 ng b tn s trong h thng OFDM Trong k thut ng b tn s cn quan tm n li tn s v thc hin c lng tn s. Li tn s y l s lch tn s nguyn nhn do s sai khc gia hai b to dao ng bn pht v bn thu, dch tn Doppler v nhiu pha do knh khng tuyn tnh. Hai nh hng li tn s lm gim bin tn hiu (do tn hiu c dng hnh sine) c ly mu khng phi ti nh v to ra xuyn nhiu knh ICI gia cc knh ph do mt tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang ph . Vn ng b tn s trong h thng OFDM gm c ng b tn s ly mu v ng b tn s sng mang. 3.4.1 ng b tn s ly mu Ti bn thu, tn hiu thu lin tc c ly mu theo ng h my thu. S chnh lch nhp ng h gia my pht v my thu gy ra xoay pha, suy hao thnh phn tn hiu c ch, to ra xuyn nhiu knh ICI. khc phc vn ny, gii php th nht l s dng thut ton iu khin b dao ng iu chnh bi in p VCO; gii php th hai l thc hin x l s ng b tn s ly mu trong khi gi c nh tn s ly mu.

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3.4.2 ng b tn s sng mang ng b tn s l vn quyt nh i vi h thng thng tin a sng mang. N u vic thc hin ng b khng bo m, hiu sut ca h thng cng nh u im ca h thng ny so vi h thng thng tin n sng mang gim i ng k. thc hin ng b tn s sng mang phi c lng khong dch tn sng mang CFO. Cng nh ng b thi gian (symbol), c th chia cc gii php c lng tn s thnh cc loi : da vo tn hiu d liu, da vo tn hiu pilot, da vo CP,.. 3.4.2.1 c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO da vo pilot Trong thut ton ny, mt s sng mang c s dng truyn dn tn hiu pilot. Tn hiu thng c chn l cc tn hiu PN . Bng cch s dng mt thut ton thch hp, bn thu s xc nh c gi tr xoay pha ca tn hiu gy ra bi sai lch tn s. N u sai lch tn s nh hn mt na khong cch tn s gia hai sng mang ph k nhau, nh x gia gi tr xoay pha v lch tn s l nh x 1-1 nn c th xc nh duy nht chnh lch tn s. 3.4.2.2 c lng tn s sng mang s dng CP Xt sng mang ph c iu ch bng mt dng d liu:
nk N

u ( n) =

1 N

S ( k )e
k =0
n

N 1

j 2

n = L + 1, ..., N 1

Tn hiu pha pht: x(t ) = u (n) g ( g nTs ) Tn hiu pha thu: y (t ) = u (n) h( g nTs ) + n(t ) , vi h(t) l p ng knh;
n

n(t) l p ng nhiu. Tn hiu CP vi chiu di L (Hnh 3.9), tn hiu pha thu s l:

y m (i ) = e j 2i / N u (i ) + n (i )
2 s2 + n i vi I = { L + 1, ..., 0}, i I hm E y m (i ) y (i + l ) = 2 j 2 s e

l=0 l=N

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Chng 3: Vn ng b trong h thng OFDMwww.4tech.com.vn

n = L + 1

n=0

n = N 1

Hnh 3.9: CP trong mt symbol OFDM


0

Hm c lng: =

1 y , vi y = 2

i = L +1

(i ) y m (i + N )

Gi tr c lng ch tha mn khi 0 , 5 , khi > 0 , 5 phi thc hin li mt gi nh ban u. 3.4.2.3 c lng CFO da trn d liu Tn hiu pha thu c biu din:
ym (n) = 1 N

S (k ) H
1 N

ke

j 2 n ( k + ) / N

; n = 0 ,1, 2 N 1

Ta c th tch hai phn sau khi qua FFT:


Y1 ( k ) =

N 1

y m (n ) e

j 2 nk

n =0

Y2 (k ) =

1 N

2 N 1 n= N

y m (n ) e

j 2 nk

1 N

N 1

y m (n + N ) e
N 1

j 2 nk

n = 0

= Hm c lng:

e j 2

ym (n ) e

j 2 nk

n = 0

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Chng 3: Vn ng b trong h thng OFDMwww.4tech.com.vn


1 tan 1 = 2
S =[s[0],, s[N 1]]T

( k )] k=0 N 1 0 Re[ Y 2 ( k ) Y 1 ( k )] k=

N 1

Im[ Y 2 ( k ) Y

CP
n=N 1

n = N 1
S

n=2N1

Hnh 3.10: Tn hiu OFDM Gi tr ch tha mn c lng khi thc hin ti mt gi nh ban u. 3.5 nh hng ca li ng b ti hiu sut h thng OFDM N gi ta thng nh gi nh hng ca s sai li ng b da trn vic xc nh suy gim ca SN R Bng 3.1: Suy hao SNR theo li ng b Loi/ lng li ng b Li tn s sng mang 1 , knh AWGN suy gim SNR (dB) D
E 10 ( ) 2 S NO 3 ln 10
0 ,5

, khi > 0 , 5 phi c

Li tn s sng mang 1 , knh fading

E 1 + 0.5947 S sin( ) NO D 10 log sin e 2

N hiu pha sng mang, rng 2 Li ng b tn s ly mu f s3 , ti sng mang ph th n Li thi gian

E 11 (4 ) S 6 ln 10 NO

ES () 1 + 3N O

D 10 log

Khng ng k

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Da vo bng c th a ra mt s nhn xt: - S ng b tn s sng mang gia my pht v my thu nh hng n ch tiu cht lng h thng nhiu nht (k c knh fading ln knh AWGN ). Suy hao SN R [dB] t l bnh phng vi sai lch tn s sng mang. - rng nhiu pha sng mang t l thun vi s lng sng mang. V vy, suy hao SN R [dB] theo nhiu pha tng ln khi tng s lng sng mang. - Suy hao SN R [dB] theo li ng b tn s ly mu ph thuc vo bnh phng dch tn s ly mu tng i. - nh hng ca li thi gian s b trit tiu nu dch thi gian nh sao cho khng lm p ng xung ca knh vt ra ngoi khong thi gian ca CP. 3.5.1 nh hng ca li ng b thi gian OFDM chu c li thi gian v c khong bo v gia cc symbol. i vi knh khng c multipath, lch thi gian c th bng khong bo v m khng lm mt tnh trc giao, ch c s quay pha trong cc ti ph. S quay pha c sa nh mt cn bng knh do vy khng dn n suy gim hiu sut, v mt phn symbol p dng php bin i FFT cha mt phn symbol bn cnh dn n can nhiu gia cc symbol. Hnh 3.11 m t SN R hiu dng ca OFDM nh l hm offset thi gian. im khng v thi gian c tnh so vi phn FFT ca symbol. Offset thi gian dng dn n mt phn ca symbol tip theo nm trong FFT. Do khong bo v l s m rng tun hon ca symbol nn s khng c ISI. Trong knh phn tp di khong bo v b gim bi tr ca knh dn n gim tng ng offset thi gian cho php. Gc thi gian t im phn u FFT ca symbol , ngay sau khong bo v. Li thi gian dng cho bit FFT trong my thu nhn mt phn ca symbol tip theo, li thi gian m cho bit my thu nhn c khong bo v.

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Hnh 3.11: SNR hiu dng ca tn hiu OFDM vi li offset thi gian 3.5.2 nh hng ca li ng b tn s OFDM nhy vi offset thi gian nn d nh hng ti ch tiu k thut. Vic iu ch tn hiu OFDM c offset thi gian c th dn ti t l li bit cao. iu ny do mt tnh trc giao ti ph dn ti can nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI) v chm sa quay pha cc vect thu c..

Hnh 3.12: SNR hiu dng cho QAM kt hp c lch tn s. SNR hiu dng cho cc symbol th nht, th 4, th 16 v th 64 v cn bng knh u frame

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Cc li tn s thng do 2 nguyn nhn chnh. l cc li ca b dao ng ni v tn s Doppler. S sai khc bt k v tn s ca b dao ng ni my pht v my thu s dn n lch v tn s, tuy nhin cc li ti ch lm cho hiu sut h thng gim. S dch chuyn my pht so vi my thu dn ti Doppler trong tn hiu. iu ny xut hin nh offset tn s. Vic iu ch FM trn cc kenh ph c khuynh hng ngu nhin v mt s ln phn x a ng xy ra trong cc mi trng in hnh. Vic b khong Doppler rt kh dn n gim tn hiu. Hnh 3.12 m t nh hng ca li tn s SN R hiu dng ca OFDM khi dng iu ch QAM kt hp. Mt lch bt k dn n s quay pha cc vector ti ph thu c. lch tn cng ln th s quay pha cng ln. N u knh ch thc hin u mi frame th cc li tn s s khng c gii quyt, do hiu sut ca h thng s gim dn. Symbol u tin sau khi b knh s c SN R hiu dng cc i, SN R s gim b cui frame. Trn hnh v SN R hiu dng ca symbol th nht, th 4, th 16, th 64 khi ch c b knh u frame. lch tn s phi c duy tr trong gii hn 24% phng nga tn hao. Trong mi trng di ng nhiu ngi s dng th vn ny cng phc tp hn v tn hiu truyn t mi ngi s dng c tn s offset khc nhau. N u ngi s dng c ng b tt vi mt BS th vn c lch tn do lch tn Doppler. lch tn trong kt ni OFDM mt ngi s dng khng phi l vn quan trng v n c th c b vi s gia tng ti thiu phc tp ca my thu. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp nhiu ngi s dng th vn sa li tn l khng n gin. 3.6 Kt lun chng S ng b ha trong mt h thng l cn thit c c hiu sut lm vic tt nht cho h thng. Trong chng ny trnh by mt s phng php ng b cho h thng OFDM. Tt c cc sng mang ph trong tn hiu OFDM khi c ng b v thi gian v tn s vi nhau, s cho php kim sot can nhiu gia cc sng mang. Vic xt n cc nh hng ca sai li ng b n ch tiu cht lng h thng OFDM s gip chng ta nhn bit c vai tr ca cc loi ng b v t s thc hin s ng b c hiu qu ti u nht.

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Chng 4: CHNG TRNH M PHNG H THNG OFDM


4.1 Gii thiu chng hiu hn nhng vn l thuyt c trnh by trong nhng chng trc. Trong chng cui cng ny, chng ta gii thiu chng trnh m phng h thng ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDM: orthogonal frequency division multiplex). y l chng trnh c vit bng Matlab, chng trnh bao gm s khi m phng s pht v thu OFDM, m phng knh truyn, so snh tn hiu OFDM v QAM, s khi m phng h thng OFDM bng simulink ca Matlab. 4.2 M phng h thng OFDM bng simulink

Hnh 4.1 S khi b pht v thu tn hiu OFDM

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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u tin, b pht nh phn Bernoulli s to chui tn hiu. Chui d liu u vo c m ho bi b m Reed-Solommon v c iu ch bi b Mapping QPSK. IFFT l hu ch cho OFDM v n pht ra cc mu ca dng sng c thnh phn tn s tho mn iu kin trc giao. D liu sau khi c bin i s c chn thm CP v chui hun luyn gip cho qua trnh c lng knh v ng b my thu. M phng knh truyn a ra cc c trng ca knh truyn v tuyn chung nh nhiu, a ng v xn tn hiu. Dng hai khi trong Matlab: Multipath Rayleigh fading, AWGN Tn hiu thu sau khi loi b CP v chui hun luyn s c a vo IFFT chuyn cc mu min thi gian tr li min tn s. a vo b c lng knh v b knh gim nh hng knh truyn n tn hiu. Cui cng, tn hiu c gii iu ch v gii m RS

Hnh 4.2 Ph tn hiu OFDM truyn

Hnh 4.3 Ph tn hiu OFDM nhn


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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Hnh 4.4 Dng sng tn hiu OFDM truyn

Hnh 4.5 Dng sng tn hiu OFDM nhn

Hnh 4.6 Chm sao QPSK trc CE

Hnh 4.7 Chm sao QPSK sau CE

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Hnh 4.2 v 4.3 cho thy tc ng ca knh truyn n ph tn hiu OFDM. V knh truyn l mt knh fading chn lc tn s nn ph tn hiu OFDM nhn nhng tn s khc nhau chu s tc ng khc nhau. Hnh 4.4 v 4.5 cho thy bin tn hiu OFDM nhn nh hn bin tn hiu OFDM truyn i. Hnh 4.6 v 4.7 cho thy tc dng ca b c lng v b knh. Hnh 4.6 chm sao QPSK trc khi c lng knh c bin v pha rt khng n nh. Hnh 4.7 chm sao QPSK sau khi c lng knh nhng im ch dao ng nh quanh mt v tr c nh tc l bin v pha gn nh n nh. 4.3 Mt s lu thut ton ca chng trnh 4.3.1 Lu m phng knh truyn Bt u

ChuNn ha tt c cc d liu trc khi s dng knh so snh

Thit lp v tnh ton hiu ng xn tn hiu

Thit lp v tnh ton hiu ng a ng

Thit lp v tnh ton nhiu

Kt thc Hnh 4.8 Lu m phng knh truyn


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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Tham kho m ngun Matlab ti file chng trnh: ch.m, ch_clipping.m, ch_noise.m ch_multipath.m, 4.3.2 Lu m phng thu pht tn hiu OFDM

Bt u

Bt u

c d liu vo

Chia d liu thnh tp hp song song

Chuyn i d liu nh phn {0,1} thnh phn cc {-1,1}

Thc hin FFT

Thc hin IFFT

Chuyn i d liu phn cc {1,1} thnh nh phn {0,1}

Chuyn tn hiu song song thnh chui ni tip

Khi phc dng bit bi t d liu min tn s thnh chui ni tip

Kt thc Hnh 4.9 Lu m phng pht k t OFDM

Ghi d liu

Kt thc Hnh 4.10 Lu m phng thu k t OFDM

Vi lu thut ton pht k t OFDM tham kho m ngun ti file: tx.m, read.m, tx_chunk.m, tx_dechunk.m

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Vi lu thut ton thu k t OFDM tham kho m ngun ti file: rx.m, write.m rx_chunk.m, rx_dechunk.m, 4.3.3 Lu m phng thu pht tn hiu QAM

Bt u

c d liu vo

Chuyn i d liu nh phn {0,1} thnh phn cc {-1,1}

N hp li.S sng mang phi l ly tha ca 2

N hp s sng mang

S sng mang = ly tha ca 2 Chuyn d liu phn cc {-1,1} thnh 4 mc {-3,-1,1,3}

Pht 16-QAM

Kt thc Hnh 4.11 Lu m phng pht tn hiu QAM Vi lu thut ton m phng pht tn hiu QAM tham kho m ngun ti file chng trnh: QAM.m, read.m

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Bt u

Khi to mc 0 cho tc

Tng s lng sng mang cho d liu gc v thi hn tn s cao

Khi phc d liu thnh dng ni tip

Sp xp chnh xc gia cc mc {-3,-1,1,3}

Chuyn d liu phn cc {-1,1} thnh nh phn {0,1}

Ghi d liu ra

Kt thc Hnh 4.12 Lu m phng thu tn hiu QAM Vi lu thut ton m phng thu tn hiu QAM tham kho m ngun ti file chng trnh: QAM.m, write.m

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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM


4.3.4 Lu m phng thut ton tnh BER

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Bt u

S lng bit li = 0 i=1 Li = | D liu vo(i) - D liu ra(i)|

Li>0

S bit li = s bit li + 1 i=i+1

i<= di d liu vo

BER = 100*s bit li/ di d liu (%)

Kt thc Hnh 4.13 Lu m phng thut ton tnh BER 4.4 Kt qu chng trnh m phng 4.4.1 So snh tn hiu QAM v OFDM
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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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Hnh 4.14: Tn hiu QAM v OFDM pht min tn s

Hnh 4.15: Tn hiu QAM v OFDM thu min tn s


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Chng 4 Chng trnh m phng h thng OFDM

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4.4.2 So snh tn hiu m thanh c iu ch bng QAM v OFDM

Hnh 4.16 So snh tn hiu m thanh c iu ch bng phng thc QAM v OFDM Hnh 4.17 cho chng ta thy ph ca tn hiu OFDM rt ging vi ph tn hiu ca m thanh ban u. Chng t phng thc iu ch OFDM tt hn so vi QAM. 4.5 Kt lun chng Trong chng cui cng ny m phng h thng OFDM bng simulink ca Matlab, vi nhng scope hin th tn hiu gip cho vic phn tnh nh gi tc ng ca knh truyn n tn hiu, tc dng ca b c lng v b knh. Tuy nhin, simulink ny ch dng li mc n gin, tc l ch m phng h thng OFDM bng gc vi phng thc iu ch QPSK. Trong chng cng so snh tn hiu OFDM v tn hiu QAM, file m thanh ca chng thy r nhng u im ca OFDM.

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Kt lun v hng pht trin ti

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


Cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao - OFDM l mt cng ngh hin i cho truyn thng tng lai. Hin nay vic nghin cu v ng dng OFDM khng ngng c nghin cu v m rng phm vi ng dng bi nhng u im trong vic tit kim bng tn v kh nng chng li fading chn lc tn scng nh xuyn nhiu bng hp. n tm hiu, trnh by nhng vn c bn ca k thut OFDM cng nh mt s vn k thut cho cng ngh OFDM v kh nng ng dng OFDM vo cc cng ngh tng lai ny. ng b l mt vn quan trng khng ch trong h thng OFDM m cn c trong cc h thng khc cng vy. H thng OFDM yu cu kht khe v vn ng b v s sai lch v tn s, nh hng ca hiu ng Doppler khi di chuyn v lch pha s gy ra nhiu giao thoa tn s (ICI). Trong bt k mt h thng OFDM no, hiu sut cao ph thuc vo tnh ng b ha gia my pht v my thu, lm mt tnh chnh xc nh thi dn n nhiu ISI v ICI khi mt chnh xc tn s Chng trnh m phng tn hiu OFDM n ny ch mi thc hin c bc u l m phng tng quan v v m phng so snh tn hiu. C th thit k h thng OFDM vi Simulink trong Matlab v i vo m phng cc thut ton, cc phng php c th trong tng vn . Ngoi ra, nng cao ch tiu cht lng h thng OFDM, ngi ta s dng m ha tn hiu OFDM. Do chng ta c th b sung vn m ha vo trong n ny. Vic tm hiu tng quan v OFDM v gii quyt cc vn k thut trong h thng OFDM, chng ta c th hng n ng dng ca OFDM trong tng lai nh: Nghin cu, tm hiu mt s h thng OFDM nng cao nh VOFDM (Vector OFDM), COFDM (Coded OFDM), WOFDM (Wideband OFDM),... Kt hp OFDM vi cc cng ngh khc nh FDMA, TDMA v CDMA to thnh cc k thut a truy cp trong thng tin di ng. ng dng OFDM trong DVB-T, WLAN, OFDMA, ... ng dng cng ngh OFDM trong WiMAX.

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Ti liu tham kho

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, Phm Khc K, H Vn Cu, "ng dng k thut

iu ch a sng mang OFDM trong thng tin di ng CDMA", Tp ch Bu chnh Vin thng & Cng ngh Thng tin, s 12 thng 8 nm 2004, trang 33. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5] [6] Nguyn Vn c,L thuyt v cc ng dng ca k thut OFDM, Nh Ramjee Prasad OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems Artech Ye(Geoffrey) Li, Gordon Stuber Orthogonal Frequency Division xut bn khoa hc v k thut H Ni, 2006. House, 2004. Multiplexing for Wireless Communications ,Springer , 2006 . Hui Liu, Guoqing Li OFDM- Based Broadband Wireless Networks Wiley L.Hanzo, M.Munster, B.J.Choi and T.Keller OFDM and MC-CDMA for All of Interscience, 2005. Broadband Multi-User Communications, WLANs and Broadcasting Univesity of Southampton,UK, IEEE Press/ Wiley 2003. [7] [8]. [9]. [10]. Juha Heikala, John Terry, Ph.D. OFDM Wireless LANS : A Theoritical and Henrik Schulze and Christian Luders, Theory and Application of OFDM L.HANZO,W.WEBB,and T.KELLER,"Single-and Multi-Carrier Quadrature Richard van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, " OFDM for wireless multimedia R.S. Bahai, Burton R. Saltzberg, Multicarier Digital Practical Guide ISBN :0672321572. and CDMA, Fachhochschule Sudwestfalen Meschede, Germany-2005. Amplititude Modulation". New York: IEEE Press/ Wiley, Apr.2000. communications", Artech House, 2000. [11]. Ahmad Communications Theory and Applications of OFDM, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

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Ph lc

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PH LC
******************ChuNn ha d liu trc khi s dng******************* if channel_on == 1 disp('Simulating Channel') norm_factor = max(abs(recv)); recv = (1/norm_factor) * recv; ch_clipping ch_multipath ch_noise recv = norm_factor * recv; end **********************M phng hiu ng xn tn hiu************** for i = 1:length(recv) if recv(i) > clip_level recv(i) = clip_level; end if recv(i) < -clip_level recv(i) = -clip_level; end end ************************M phng hiu ng a ng******************* copy1=zeros(size(recv)); for i=1+d1:length(recv) copy1(i)=a1*recv(i-d1); end copy2=zeros(size(recv)); for i=1+d2:length(recv) copy2(i)=a2*recv(i-d2); end recv=recv+copy1+copy2;

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Ph lc

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*******************Tnh ton nhiu ( thc hin phi thu) *********** if already_made_noise == 0 % only generate once and use for both QAM and OFDM noise = (rand(1,length(recv))-0.5)*2*noise_level; already_made_noise = 1; end recv = recv + noise; % khi phc bin d liu ****************** Pht symbol OFDM *********************** disp('Transmitting') read % c d liu vo data_in_pol = bin2pol(data_in); lieu phan cuc tx_chunk *******Thuc hien IFFT de tao dang song mien thoi gian bieu dien du lieu***** td_sets = zeros(num_chunks,fft_size); for i = 1:num_chunks td_sets(i,1:fft_size) = real(ifft(spaced_chunks(i,1:fft_size))); end tx_dechunk % Chuyen doi du lieu nhi phan thanh du

**************i d liu nh phn (0,1) thanh du lieu cuc (-1,1)************ y = ones(1,length(x)); for i = 1:length(x) if x(i) == 0 y(i) = -1; end end **********************i d liu nh phn thnh hexa******************* y = 0; k = 0; for i = 1:8 y = y + x(8-k)*2^k; k = k+1; end

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Ph lc

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******************* % Simulation of digital M-PSK modulation schemes over an AWGN channel % November 2004. Robert Morelos-Zaragoza. San Jose State University. % Needs the Communications toolbox. clear Fd = 1; Fs = 1; N = 100000 ; method='psk'; set(1) = 2; set(2) = 4; set(3) = 8; for j=1:1:3 M = set(j); i=1; for esno=0:1:18 sigma = sqrt(10^(-esno/10)/2); x = floor(M*rand(N,1)); y = modmap(x,Fd,Fs,method,M); ynoisy = y + sigma*randn(N*Fs,2); z = demodmap(ynoisy,Fd,Fs,method,M); s = symerr(x,z); ber(j,i) = (s/N)/log2(M); snr(i) = esno; i=i+1; end j end semilogy(snr,ber(1,:),'-b^',snr,ber(2,:),'-bo',snr,ber(3,:),'-bs'); grid on; ylabel('BER'); xlabel('E/N_0 (dB)'); legend('BPSK', 'QPSK', '8PSK',1); title('Simulated error performance of M-PSK. SJSU - Fall 2004.'); *************************** % Simulation of digital M-QAM modulation schemes over an AWGN channel % November 2004. Robert Morelos-Zaragoza. San Jose State University. % Needs the Communications toolbox. clear Fd = 1; Fs = 1; N= 100000 ; method='qask'; set(1) = 4; set(2) = 16; set(3) = 64;

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Ph lc

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for j=1:1:3 M = set(j); l=1:1:M; aux = sum(abs(modmap(l-1,Fd,Fs,method,M)).^2)/M; energy(j) = aux(1)+aux(2); i=1; for esno=0:2:26; sigma = sqrt(10^(-esno/10)/2)*sqrt(energy(j)); x = floor(M*rand(N,1)); y = modmap(x,Fd,Fs,method,M); ynoisy = y + sigma*randn(N*Fs,2); z = demodmap(ynoisy,Fd,Fs,method,M); s = symerr(x,z); ber(j,i) = (s/N)/log2(M); snr(i) = esno; i=i+1; end j end semilogy(snr,ber(1,:),'-b^',snr,ber(2,:),'-bo',snr,ber(3,:),'-bs'); grid on; ylabel('BER'); xlabel('E/N_0 (dB)'); legend('QPSK', '16-QAM', '64-QAM',1); title('Cac kieu dieu che M-QAM khac nhau trong kenh truyen AWGN'); ************************ function y = eight2bin(x) % eight2bin % % Converts eight bit data (0-255 decimal) to a binary form for processing. y = zeros(1,8); k = 0; while x > 0 y(8-k) = rem(x,2); k = k+1; x = floor(x/2); end

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Ph lc

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********************** % Run OFDM simulation tic % Start stopwatch to calculate how long QAM simulation takes disp(' '),disp('------------------------------------------------------------') disp('OFDM Simulation') tx ch rx % Stop stopwatch to calculate how long QAM simulation takes OFDM_simulation_time = toc; if OFDM_simulation_time > 60 disp(strcat('Time for OFDM simulation=', num2str(OFDM_simulation_time/60), ' minutes.')); else disp(strcat('Time for OFDM simulation=', num2str(OFDM_simulation_time), ' seconds.')); end ********************* function y = pol2bin(x) % pol2bin % % Chuyen doi cac so phan cuc (-1,1) thanh cac so nhi phan (0,1) % Chap nhan mot mang 1-D cua cac so phan cuc % Loai bo cac zeros, khi chung khong hop le % % Loai bo cac zeros - Khong can cho giai ma y = ones(1,length(x)); for i = 1:length(x) if x(i) == -1 y(i) = 0; end end ***************************** % QAM.m So sanh OFDM (Da song mang) voi QAM da muc (Don song mang) % Khi chung ta phat cung mot so luong bit giong ngau tren mot chu ky thoi % gian

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Ph lc

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read % Doc du lieu cho QAM - Khong anh huong den OFDM data_in_pol = bin2pol(data_in); % Chuyen doi du lieu nhi phan thanh du lieu phan cuc % Kiem tra so song mang co phai la luy thua cua 2 is_pow_2 = num_carriers; temp_do_QAM = 0; if is_pow_2 ~= 2 while temp_do_QAM == 0 temp_do_QAM = rem(is_pow_2,2); is_pow_2 = is_pow_2/2; if is_pow_2 == 2 temp_do_QAM = -99; end end else temp_do_QAM = -99; % 2 la luy thua cua 2 end if temp_do_QAM ~= -99 do_QAM = 0; % Khong the thuc hien disp(' '),disp('ERROR: Cannot run QAM because num_carriers is not valid.') disp(' Please see "setup.m" for details.') end if do_QAM == 1 tic % Bat dau de tinh toan thoi gian mo phong thuc hien QAM disp(' '), disp('------------------------------------------------------------') disp('QAM simulation'), disp('Transmitting') ****** Them cac muc zeros de du lieu duoc chia thanh cac phan bang nhau data_length = length(data_in_pol); r = rem(data_length,num_carriers); if r ~= 0 for i = 1:num_carriers-r data_in_pol(data_length+i) = 0; %Them dau vao voi cac zeros vao tap hop du lieu end %Toc do co the duoc cai thien end data_length = length(data_in_pol); %Cap nhat sau khi them

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Ph lc

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num_OFDM_symbols = ceil(data_length / (2*num_carriers)); % So ky hieu QAM duoc bieu dien bang so luong cua du lieu tren mot ky % hieu OFDM num_QAM_symbols = num_carriers / 2; % So mau tren ky hieu QAM num_symbol_samples = fft_size / num_QAM_symbols; **** *Chuyen doi du lieu phan cuc [-1, 1] thanh du lieu 4 muc [-3, -1, 1, 3]**** data_in_4 = zeros(1,data_length/2); for i = 1:2:data_length data_in_4(i - (i-1)/2) = data_in_pol(i)*2 + data_in_pol(i+1); end % Dinh ro diem lay mau giua 0 va 2*pi ts = linspace(0, 2*pi*QAM_periods, num_symbol_samples+1); % Phat du lieu 16-QAM % Tong do dai cua truyen dan 16-QAM tx_length = num_OFDM_symbols * num_QAM_symbols * num_symbol_samples; QAM_tx_data = zeros(1,tx_length); for i = 1:2:data_length/2 for k = 1:num_symbol_samples QAM_tx_data(k+((i-1)/2)*num_symbol_samples) = data_in_4(i)*cos(ts(k)) + data_in_4(i+1)*sin(ts(k)); end end % Do channel simulation on QAM data xmit = QAM_tx_data; % ch dung du lieu 'xmit' va tra ve 'recv' ch QAM_rx_data = recv; % Luu du lieu QAM sau khi mo phong kenh clear recv voi OFDM clear xmit voi OFDM disp('Receiving') QAM) cos_temp = zeros(1,num_symbol_samples); sin_temp = cos_temp; % % %Loai bo 'recv' sao cho no khong nhieu % Loai bo 'xmit' sao cho no khong nhieu % Khoi phuc du lieu nhi phan (Giai ma

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Ph lc

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xxx = zeros(1,data_length/4); khong cho toc do yyy = xxx; QAM_data_out_4 = zeros(1,data_length/2);

% Khoi tao muc % %

for i = 1:2:data_length/2 % "cheating" for k = 1:num_symbol_samples ************Tang so song mang de tao tan so cao va du lieu goc********** cos_temp(k) = QAM_rx_data(k+((i1)/2)*num_symbol_samples) * cos(ts(k)); sin_temp(k) = QAM_rx_data(k+((i1)/2)*num_symbol_samples) * sin(ts(k)); end % LPF va xac dinh - chung ta se rat don gian LPF bang phep trung % binh xxx(1+(i-1)/2) = mean(cos_temp); yyy(1+(i-1)/2) = mean(sin_temp); ************ Khoi phuc du lieu thanh dang noi tiep******************** QAM_data_out_4(i) = xxx(1+(i-1)/2); QAM_data_out_4(i+1) = yyy(1+(i-1)/2); end ********************** %Tinh toan giua cac muc khong zeros_between = ((fft_size/2) - (num_carriers + num_zeros))/(num_carriers + num_zeros); spaced_chunks = zeros(num_chunks,fft_size); %Them vao giua cac muc khong i = 1; for k = zeros_between +1:zeros_between +1:fft_size/2 spaced_chunks(1:num_chunks,k) = padded_chunks(1:num_chunks,i); i = i+1; end % Gap du lieu de tao ra mot ham le cho dau vao IFFT for i = 1:num_chunks % Chu y: chi muc = 1 that ra la tan so mot chieu de ifft -> no khong % tao ban sao len truc y do thi spaced_chunks(i,fft_size:-1:fft_size/2+2) = conj(spaced_chunks(i,2:fft_size/2)); end

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Ph lc

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********Thuc hien xac dinh giua cac muc [-3, -1, 1, 3]****** for i = 1:data_length/2 if QAM_data_out_4(i) >= 1, QAM_data_out_4(i) = 3; elseif QAM_data_out_4(i) >= 0, QAM_data_out_4(i) = 1; elseif QAM_data_out_4(i) >= -1, QAM_data_out_4(i) = -1; else QAM_data_out_4(i) = -3; end end ******Chuyen doi du lieu 4 muc [-3, -1, 1, 3] ve du lieu phan cuc [-1, 1]****** QAM_data_out_pol = zeros(1,data_length); % "cheating" for i = 1:2:data_length switch QAM_data_out_4(1 + (i-1)/2) case -3 QAM_data_out_pol(i) = -1; QAM_data_out_pol(i+1) = -1; case -1 QAM_data_out_pol(i) = -1; QAM_data_out_pol(i+1) = 1; case 1 QAM_data_out_pol(i) = 1; QAM_data_out_pol(i+1) = -1; case 3 QAM_data_out_pol(i) = 1; QAM_data_out_pol(i+1) = 1; otherwise disp('Error detected in switch statment - This should not be happening.'); end end QAM_data_out = pol2bin(QAM_data_out_pol); % Chuyen doi ve du lieu nhi phan

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