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The China Quarterly tertiary courses are needed, vocational training via sub-degree courses does not get the attention it merits. The chapter on organizational commitment by Aimee Wheaton is an interesting empirical piece of research, looking at this phenomenon amongst Chinese, Hong Kong and Western employees. The chapter on Hong Kong retail firms by May M. L. Wong and Chris Hendry is a sound comparative case-study on Japanese department stores, Yaohan and Jusco, in Hong Kong and their contrasting fortunes. The final summary by the co-editors on Hong Kong's prospects concentrates on human resources upgrading and flexible specialization as a possible solution. Whilst this is an informed and clearly written collection, a number of caveats remain. Several long-term strategic matters which are of enormous significance - such as the ex-colony's future economic viability in the emerging, global internet-based sectors, its ability to keep its business identity looking over its shoulder at its Chinese Big Brother, and its competition with Shanghai as China's main commercial and financial bridge to the world economy - are not as fully treated as they might have been. Otherwise, this work will clearly be useful for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as teachers and researchers interested in Asian economic and management issues.
MALCOLM WARNER

The Bible in China: The History of the Union Version or The Culmination of Protestant Missionary Bible Translation in China. By JOST OLIVER ZETZSCHE. [Monumenta Serica Monograph Series XLV. Sankt Augustin, Germany: Institut Monumenta Serica, 1999. 456 pp. DM90.00. ISBN 3-8050-0433-8.] The Bible has burst upon the China studies field. Within the past year, three major books have appeared: Bible in Modern China: The Literary and Intellectual Impact, edited by Irene Eber, Sze-kar Wan and Knut Waif, Irene Eber's The Jewish Bishop and the Chinese Bible: S.I.J. Schereschewsky (1831-1906), and now this well executed study. Zetzsche's primary purpose is to provide a narrative analysis of the production of the Union Version of the Bible, from the 1890 missionary conference which authorized it until the Mandarin (i.e. colloquial, as opposed to classical) version appeared in the spring of 1919, only days before the May Fourth Movement erupted. The 1919 Mandarin translation quickly became revered as the only "authorized" version of the Bible for the overwhelming majority of Chinese Protestants, and remains so to the present day. Only very minor revisions have been carried out, even in the 1990s. The original focus of Zetzsche's study was the Union Version itself. But he also wanted to provide a context within which to understand the evolution of personal and committee politics, translating principles, linguistic issues, the key role of the national Bible societies (British, American and Scottish) and a host of other social and cultural factors

Book Reviews surrounding the three translations making up the Union Version (originally an "easy" classical version and a more pure classical version, in addition to the Mandarin). The result is, in effect, a comprehensive history of all Protestant Bible translation efforts from the arrival in Canton of Robert Morrison in 1807 to the present. This is a fascinating story, and in my opinion a significant one. Remarkably, while the Roman Catholic Church had its first complete Bible translation only in 1961, almost 400 years after the start of a continuous Catholic presence in China, the first complete Protestant Chinese Bible appeared only 16 years after Morrison arrived, and it was immediately followed by a second! This indicates the importance of the endeavour to the Protestants and the large amount of human and economic resources they were willing to devote to a succession of translation projects, all of which Zetzsche cogently recounts. For example, during the 30 years' work on the Mandarin Union Version, 16 foreign missionaries, including distinguished pillars of the missionary establishment such as Calvin Mateer and Chauncey Goodrich, served on the committee, along with an even larger number of Chinese colleagues. Interestingly, in the 1890s, the Chinese "assistants," although crucial to the entire enterprise, generally remained unnamed in the accounts of committee work and even in the photos, as they had been throughout the 19th century. But by 1919 they were much more respected and active, having equal votes with the foreign missionaries on the committee; two of them went on to make their own translations in the decades after 1919. Zetzsche was extremely assiduous in archival work in Europe, North America, Hong Kong, Taiwan and China, and makes fine use of detailed primary documentation. This rich base of information, and the extensive appendices and bibliography, along with the use of Chinese characters both in text and footnotes, makes this book a reference work for this topic over the last two centuries. His own extensive translations, and comparisons of translations, are also judicious. In short, this is a fine work not excitingly written, but careful and solid, with a wealth of information on many aspects of the Protestant presence in China since 1807. It will be a valuable addition to all China studies libraries.
DANIEL H. BAYS

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Christianity in China: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Edited by DANIEL H. BAYS. [Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. vii + 483pp. $65.00. ISBN 0-8047-2609-4.] Despite the presence of at least 20 million Christians in China today, recent religious studies have focused predominantly on Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism and popular religion. Whilst scholars such as John King Fairbank, Paul Cohen. K. C. Liu and Leslie Marchant have studied Christianity in China, they have explored it mainly as a foreign injection into Chinese society. This book, inspired by John Fairbank, came out of a growing concern about the lack of comprehensive coverage on the