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Chapter 3 Matter 3.1 What is Matter? 3.2 The Three States of Matter 3.3 Density of Matter 3.4 Using the States of Matter and Density in Everyday Life Definition of matter
1. 2. 3. 4. Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space. Plants, animals and the non-living things around us are matter. Solids, liquids and gases are matter. Sound, light and heat are not matter.

The states of matter

1. Matter is made up of many fine and tiny small discrete particles. 2. We may determine the state of matter by their arrangement of particles. Experiments : To show that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles.

3. Matter exists in three states. Solid Liquid Gas

Characteristic Arrangement of particles




Shape Volume Mass Compressibility


Arrangement of particles Force between particles Movement of particles Kinetic energy of particles Density

Experiment (I) : Arrangement of particle in solid

There are spaces between the solid particle (gel). These allow the potassium permanganate to move around the gel particles in gel tube.

Experiment (II) : Arrangement of particle in liquid

Water and alcohol are liquid form of particles, therefore the particle of water and alcohol fill the empty spaces of each other.

Experiment (III) : Arrangement of particle in gas

The gas particle can move very fast and freely in the jar because there are lots of spaces between the gas particles that allowed the gas particle in air to move very far apart one another.


Brownian motion
Brownian motion is the movement of particles without direction and this can be seen by viewing a smoke cell under microscope.

Density of matter
1. Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

2. Density is usually measured in g cm-3. 3. A solid is usually denser than a liquid or gas. This is because the particles in a solid are arranged very close together. (smaller volume) 4. A gas is very light because its particles are very far apart. (larger volume) 5. The density of substance increase if Examples 1. A piece of zinc has a mass of 71g and a volume of 10cm3. What is the density of zinc?

2. Iron has a density of 7.9 gcm-3. What is the mass of 150 cm3 of iron?

3. Gold has a density of 19.3 gcm-3. Find the volume of a piece of gold which weighs 28.95g.

Density and the ability to float 1. An object which is denser than a liquid sinks in that liquid. 2. An object which is less dense than a liquid floats on that liquid. 3. If two liquids do not mix, the less dense liquid floats on the denser liquid. 4. A gas is less dense than a liquid. Gas bubbles rise through a liquid to the surface. 5. An object which sinks in a liquid can be made to float by changing its shape.


The use of properties of matter in everyday life

1. Gases can be compressed and transported in the form of liquid. 2. Petroleum gases are liquefied under high pressure and stored in gas cylinder which is more economical and easily transported to our homes.

Applying the concept of density (ship and boat)

1. The air space in ships and boats enables it to float on the water surface regardless os its weight. 2. Therefore, the density of a ship or boat is lower than water.

Hot air balloon

1. Fill the balloon with helium which is less dense than the air outside the balloon. 2. To raise the hot air balloon, heated the air in the balloon. Air temperature increases when heated and become less dense than the air outside. 3. To lower the balloon, reduce the air temperature in the balloon and the cooled air will become denser than the air outside.

Buoy and float

1. Buoy filled with air will float on the surface of sea to act as a guide to sailors for safe journey. 2. A float is used to keep someone to float stay at their position in the sea and avoid drowning.

Transporting logs
1. Logs (timbers) transported by river, since timber are less dense than water. 2. They float on water.