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LI NI U

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Thi gian qua,lnh vc internet trn ton th gii c nhng bc t ph mnh m.Gp phn khng nh trong qu trnh pht trin ny l cng ngh ADSL.Vi kh nng truyn ti d liu gp nhiu ln so vi cng ngh quay s.ADSL mang internet n gn vi chng ta hn.Tuy nhin cng ngh ADSL sp phi nhng v tr c tn ca mnh cho mt cng ngh mi hn,hiu qu hn, l cng ngh truyn dn cp quang FTTx(Fiber to the x).Vi cng ngh ny ngi s dng s c cung cp mt ng truyn vi bng thng ln hn. Cun bo co thc tp tt nghip do em son vi s hng dn ca thy Nguyn Vn Lnh, cng cc anh Nguyn Duy Hi, L Quang Tr, Phm Hi Bng, Trng Vn Tip, Phm Hoi Nam, Nguyn Hng Quang phng qun l Mng Ngoi Vi. Mc d c nhiu c gng trong qu trnh bin son cun bo co nhng khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, hn ch em rt mong s thng cm v gp ca thy v cc anh hng dn. Qua y em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n thyNguyn Vn Lnh hng dn em hon thnh t thc tp tt nghip. V ban lnh o Cng Ty, ban lnh o Trung Tm in Thoi SPT (STC) v cc anh ti phng qun l Mng Ngoi Vi to iu kin gip v nhit tnh hng dn em trong thi gian thc tp.

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MC LC
LI NI U...................................................................................................................1

PHN I: KHI QUT CHUNG V C S THC TP.........................................2 PHN II: NI DUNG BO CO THC TP.....................................................8
CHNG 1:TM HIU MNG TRUYN DN QUANG CA SPT 1.1 Mng quang tch cc AON.........................................................................................8 1.2 Mng quang th ng PON.......................................................................................9 1.2.1 Cc chun trong mng PON...................................................................................9 1.2.1.1 Nhm truy nhp TDMA-PON............................................................................10 1.2.1.2 WDM-PON..........................................................................................................11 1.2.1.3 CDMA-PON........................................................................................................13

CHNG 2: TM HIU TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTx


II.TNG QUAN V FTTx.............................................................................................14 2.1 Gii thiu chung........................................................................................................14 2.2 So snh mng ADSL v FTTx..................................................................................16 2.2.1 Cp quang v cp ng..........................................................................................16 2.2.2 Mt s tiu ch v cht lng dch v gia ADSL v FTTx................................17

CHNG 3: CC DCH V TRIN KHAI TRN FTTH V XU HNG PHT TRIN CNG NGH CA SPT
III.CC DCH V TRIN KHAI TRN FTTH V XU HNG PHT TRIN. .19 3.1Cc dch v trin khai trn FTTH............................................................................19 3.1.1 Dch v DATA/INTERNET..................................................................................19 3.1.2 Kt ni nhiu nh cung cp dch v thoi VOIP ................................................21 3.1.3 Kt ni cho nhiu nh cung cp video (RF v IPTV) .........................................21 3.1.3.1 i vi RF video(truyn hnh cp) ....................................................................22 3.1.3.2 i vi IPTV .......................................................................................................22 3.1.4 Dch v knh thu ring ca SPT .........................................................................23
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3.2 Xu hng pht trin FTTH ca SPT .....................................................................24

CHNG 4: QU TRNH LP T V BO DNG MNG FTTH CA SPT


II. QU TRNH LP T V BO DNG ...........................................................24 4.1 Qa trnh lp t ......................................................................................................24 4.1.1 Nhng quy nh chung .........................................................................................24 4.1.2 Quy trnh lp t cp treo ....................................................................................26 4.1.3 Quy trnh lp t cp chn trc tip ...................................................................28 4.1.4 Quy trnh lp t cp ng cp ..............................................................................28 4.1.5 Quy trnh lp t cp trong hm cp ..................................................................33 4.1.6 Quy trnh lp t cp trong nh ..........................................................................33 4.2 hot ng qun l bo dng FTTH.......................................................................34

PHN IV: TNG KT..........................................................................................37

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PHN I: KHI QUT CHUNG V C S THC TP


I.LCH S HNH THNH
Cng ty C phn Dch v Bu chnh Vin thng Si Gn (SPT) thnh lp theo ch o ca Th tng Chnh ph ti Cng vn s 7093/MDN ngy 8/12/1995 vi s vn iu l 50 t ng. Cng ty chnh thc c UBND TP.H Ch Minh cp giy php thnh lp s 2914/GP.UB ngy 27/12/1995. SPT gm 6 thnh vin sng lp l cc cng ty c kinh nghim hot ng kinh doanh nhiu lnh vc khc nhau. Vt qua nhiu kh khn, th thch vi quyt tm cao, nm 1997 SPT chnh thc cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) vi thng hiu SaigonNet, tr thnh mt trong bn nh cung cp dch v Internet u tin ti Vit Nam. T nm 1999, SPT vn sang lnh vc sn xut, lin doanh vi Cng ty Spacebel (Vng quc B), Phn vin CNTT ti TP.HCM thnh lp Cng ty TNHH Pht trin Phn mm Si Gn (SDC) sn xut, gia cng phn mm v cung cp cc gii php cng ngh thng tin. Nm 2001, Cng ty bt u trin khai cc d n u t cung cp dch v vin thng nh in thoi c nh ti khu th mi Nam Si Gn, c bit dch v VoIP ng di trong nc v quc t vi thng hiu 177 nhanh chng chim c th trng v to c ngun vn ng k cho SPT. T to iu kin thun li cho Cng ty tip tc u t, pht trin mng li v lm tin cho cc dch v khc pht trin ng nh hng chin lc. Cui nm 2002, SPT tip tc a mng in thoi c nh u s 4 vo khai thc ti TP.H Ch Minh. y l mng in thoi c nh th 2 ca Vit Nam vo thi im .
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Giai on 2002-2003, SPT lin tip a ra nhng dch v mi tham gia th trng bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam t in thoi Internet gi r SnetFone, dch v truy nhp bng rng ADSL, knh thu ringn cc dch v gi tr gia tng. u thng 7 nm 2003, sau nhiu nm chun b, vt qua kh khn t nhiu pha, SPT chnh thc khai thc mng in thoi di ng s dng cng ngh CDMA 2000-1x ln u tin VN vi thng hiu S-Fone. y l d n hp tc kinh doanh vi SLD mt i tc Hn Quc c nhiu tim nng v uy tn. S-Fone l bc t ph trong lnh vc in thoi di ng ca th trng vin thng Vit Nam v c bnh chn l mt trong bn s kin c bit ni bt trong nm 2003 ca Ngnh. Mng di ng S-Fone ngy cng c cng c hon thin cung cp cho khch hng nhiu loi hnh dch v a dng, cht lng tt vi gi c cnh tranh. Thnh cng bc u ca SPT cng c khch l thm bi s ghi nhn t lnh o cp trn. T nm 2001 n nm 2004, Cng ty c Chnh ph v Thnh ph tng nhiu Bng khen, C n v xut sc v c bit nm 2005 c Ch tch nc tng Hun chng Lao ng Hng 3 Nm 2006, SPT ot gii Thng Hiu mnh 2006 trong Chng trnh Thng hiu mnh Vit Nam do Thi bo Kinh t Vit Nam phi hp Cc Xc tin Thng mi (B Thng mi) t chc ti Nh ht ln (H Ni) c truyn hnh trc tip trn VTV1. u nm 2007, SPT hp tc vi tp on Ericsson cung cp gii php v thit b nng cp mng li NGN v thit lp mng truyn dn Viba. y l mt trong nhng d n trng im ca SPT m rng v nng cp h tng mng trc vin thng quc gia vi tng gi tr hp ng 14 triu USD. Thng 4/2007 SPT k kt hp ng xy dng v bo dng h thng cp quang bin bng thng rng tc cao u tin ni trc tip ng Nam - M Asia America Gateway (AAG). y l h thng cp quang bin xuyn Thi Bnh Dng u tin c dung lng ln n 1.92 Tbps (gp 6 ln dung lng cp quang bin quc t ca Vit

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Nam hin nay). c tnh chi ph d n ln n 560 triu USD v s a vo hot ng cui nm 2008 Vi tng doanh thu bnh qun khong 1000 t /nm, SPT v ang ng gp kh tt cho ngn sch thnh ph. SPT ang tng bc m rng mng li cung cp cc loi hnh dch v ti 64 tnh thnh trong c nc k c chun b u t ra nc ngoi. Hin SPT ang cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v cho hng trm ngn thu bao; th phn ngy cng m rng; thng hiu SPT c th trng nhn din; vn iu l Cng ty tng nhiu ln so vi 50 t ban u. Nhng nm gn y, chia c tc t t 12% - 20% trn vn gp. SPT xy dng c i ng lao ng c chuyn mn k thut lnh ngh, thu nhp bnh qun c nng ln ng thi m bo thc hin cc ch chnh sch. Vi s gp mt ca SPT, th trng bu chnh - vin thng Vit Nam tr nn a dng v phong ph hn, to ra bc t ph trong ch trng xa b c ch c quyn cng ty, to mi trng cnh tranh lnh mnh, bnh ng, gp phn thc y Ngnh v nn kinh t c nc ni chung. Hin SPT c cp gn nh y cc giy php ch cht ca Ngnh Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam. Nhng thnh qu v kinh nghim tch ly trn ca chng ng hn 10 nm qua cng ch l hnh trang SPT bc vo nhng nm th 10 + nchc chn s gian kh, y sng gi, i hi SPT nhiu n lc, phn u mi t nhng thnh tu mi

II.C CU T CHC :B my t chc ca cng ty c minh ha bng


s sau

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PHN II: NI DUNG BO CO THC TP


CHNG I: TM HIU MNG TRUYN DN QUANG CA SPT
I.MNG TRUYN DN QUANG CA SPT 1.1 Mng quang tch cc AON :

Hnh 1: mng quang tch cc AON Mng AON l m hnh mng point-to-point, mi khch hng chim dng 1 ng quang xuyn sut khng chia s t phng my ca nh cung cp dch v ti tn gia nh hoc thit b trp trung ca khch hng. Mng quang tch cc s dng mt s thit b quang tch cc phn chia tn hiu l : switch, router v multiplexer ty khong cch t CO(center office) m nh cung cp s dng cp quang mt core hoc 2 core, i vi khch hng xa th ta dng switch 2 core , mt core truyn v mt core nhn d liu , i vi khch hng gn th dng switch 1 core, tn hiu truyn v nhn trn 1 ng quang, tuy nhin tc s thp hn truyn 2 core . AON c nhiu u im nh tm ko dy xa (ln n 70km m khng cn b lp (repeater) , tnh bo mt cao (do vic can thip nghe

ln trn ng truyn gn nh l khng th ), d dng nng cp bng thng thu bao khi cn , d xc nh li ... Tuy nhin , cng ngh AON cng c khuyt im l chi ph cao do vic vn hnh cc thit b trn ng truyn u cn ngun cung cp , mi thu bao l mt si quang ring , cn nhiu khng gian cha cp . Ngoi m hnh trn , trong thc t ty vo nhu cu bng thng thu bao , cc nh cung cp cng kt hp cp quang vi cp ng gim chi ph , c th nh cp quang chy t Access Node ti tng i DSLAM v t DSLAM cung cp cc dch v truy cp bng thng ph bin nh ADSL2+ , VDSL2..

1.2

Mng quang th ng PON :

Hnh 2: mng quang th ng PON PON (Passive Optical Network ) l kin trc mng im - nhiu im . gim chi phtrn mi thu bao, ng truyn chnh s i t thit trung tm OLT (Optical Line Termination ) qua mt thit b chia tn hiu (Splitter) v t thit b ny mi ko n nhiu ngi dng (c th chia t 32- 64 thu bao). Splitter khng cn ngun cung cp, c th t bt k u nn nu trin khai cho nhiu thu bao th chi ph gim ng k so vi AON. Do Splitter khng cn ngun nn h thng cng tit kim in hn v khng gian cha cp cng t hn so vi AON. Kiu mng PON thng gp hin nay l: EthernetPON(EPON), Giga-Ethernet-PON(GEPON), Gigabit-PON(GPON)Cc cng ngh ny u da trn chun IEEE 802.3 Ethernet. Chun GPON hin ti t ti tc download 2.5Gbps v upload 1.25Gbps ln mng core.Tuy nhin PON cng c nhiu khuyt im nh kh nng cp bng thng khi thu bao yu cu (do kin trc im n nhiu im s nh hng n nhng thu bao khc

trong trng hp dng ht bng thng ) , kh xc nh li hn do 1 si quang chung cho nhiu ngi dng , tnh bo mt cng khng cao bng AON

1.2.1 Cc chun trong mng PON:


1.2.1.1 Nhm truy nhp TDMA-PON: Cc chun mng PON c th chia thnh 2 nhm: nhm 1 bao gm cc chun theo phng thc truy nhp TDMA-PON nh l B-PON (Broadband PON), E-PON (Ethernet PON), G-PON (Gigabit PON) (c tnh cc ca chun TDMA-PON c so snh trong Bng 1.1); nhm 2 bao gm chun theo cc phng thc truy nhp khc nh WDM-PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON) v CDMA-PON (Code Division Multiple Access PON). Mng quang th ng bng rng B-PON c chun ha trong chui cc khuyn ngh G.938 ca ITU-T. Cc khuyn ngh ny a ra cc tiu chun v cc khi chc nng ONT v OLT, khun dng v tc khung ca lung d liu hng ln v hng xung, giao thc truy nhp hng ln TDMA, cc giao tip vt l, cc giao tip qun l v iu khin ONT v DBA. E-PON l giao thc mng truy nhp y dch v FSAN (Full Service Access Network) TDMA PON th nht c pht trin da trn khai thc cc u im ca cng ngh Ethernet ng dng trong thng tin quang. E-PON c chun ha bi IEEE 802.3. G-PON l giao thc FSAN TDMA PON th 2 c nh ngha trong chui khuyn ngh G.984 ca ITU-T. G-PON c xy dng trn tri nghim ca B-PON v E-PON. Mc d G-PON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c ch thch nghi ti tin mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet c gi l phng thc ng gi G-PON (GEM GPON Encapsulation Method). GEM l phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701 ngoi tr vic GEM ti u ha t mo u phc v cho ng dng ca PON, cho php sp xp cc d liu Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM.

Bng -So snh cc chun cng ngh TDMA PON

1.2.1.2 WDM-PON :

WDM-PON l mng quang th ng s dng phng thc a ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng. OLT s dng mt bc sng ring r thng tin vi mi ONT theo dng im-im. Mi mt ONU c mt b lc quang la chn bc sng tng thch vi n, OLT cng c mt b lc cho mi ONU. Nhiu phng thc khc c tm hiu to ra cc bc sng ONU nh l:

- S dng cc khi quang c th lp t ti ch la chn cc bc sng ONU - Dng cc laser iu chnh c. - Ct ph tn hiu. - Cc phng thc th ng m theo OLT cung cp tn hiu sng mang ti cc ONU. - S dng tn hiu hng xung iu chnh bc sng u ra ca laser ONU. Cu trc ca WDM-PON c m t nh trong Hnh 3.2.1.2. Trong WDM-PON c th c s dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau nh l FTTH, cc ng dng VDSL v cc im truy nhp v tuyn t xa. Cc b thu WDM-PON s dng k thut lc quang mng ng dn sng AWG (Array Waveguide Grating). Mt AWG c th c t mi trng trong nh hoc ngoi tri.

Hnh3: Cu trc ca WDM-PON

u im chnh ca WDM-PON l n kh nng cung cp cc dch v d liu theo cc cu trc khc nhau (DS1/E1/DS3, 10/100/1000 Base Ethernet) ty theo

yu cu v bng thng ca khch hng. Tuy nhin, nhc im chnh ca WDM-PON l chi ph kh ln cho cc linh kin quang sn xut b lc nhng bc sng khc nhau. WDM-PON cng c trin khai kt hp vi cc giao thc TDMA PON ci thin bng thng truyn tin.

1.2.1.3 CDMA-PON: Cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA cng c th trin khai trong cc ng dng PON. Cng ging nh WDM-PON, CMDAPON cho php mi ONU s dng khun dng v tc d liu khc nhau tng ng vi cc nhu cu ca khch hng. CDMA-PON cng c th kt hp vi WDM tng dung lng bng thng. CDMA-PON truyn ti cc tn hiu khch hng vi nhiu ph tn truyn dn tri trn cng mt knh thng tin. Cc k hiu t cc tn hiu khc nhau c m ha v nhn dng thng qua b gii m. Phn ln cng ngh ng dng trong CDMA-PON tun theo phng thc tri ph chui trc tip. Trong phng thc ny mi k hiu 0, 1 (tng ng vi mi tn hiu) c m ha thnh chui k t di hn v c tc cao hn. Mi ONU s dng tr s chui khc nhau cho k t ca n. khi phc li d liu, OLT chia nh tn hiu quang thu c sau gi ti cc b lc nhiu x tch ly tn hiu ca mi OUN. u im chnh ca CDMA-PON l cho php truyn ti lu lng cao v c tnhnng bo mt ni tri so cc chun PON khc. Tuy nhin, mt tr ngi ln trong CDMA-PON l cc b khuch i quang i hi phi c thit k sao cho m bo tng ng vi t s tn hiu/tp m. Vi h thng CDMA-PON khng c b khuch i quang th ty thuc vo tn hao b sung trong cc b chia, b xoay vng, cc b lc m h s t chia ONU/OLT ch l 1:2 hoc 1:8. Trong khi vi b khuych i quang h s ny c th t 1:32 hoc cao hn. Bn cnh cc b thu tn hiu trong CDMA-PON l kh phc tp v gi thnh tng i cao. Chnh v nhng nhc im ny nn hin ti CDMA-PON cha c pht trin rng ri.

CHNG 2:TM HIU TNG QUAN V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX
II.TNG QUAN V FTTx
2.1Gii thiu chung FTTx (Fiber to the x) l mt thut ng chung cho bt k kin trc mng bng rng s dng cp quang thay th tt c hay mt phn cp kim loi thng thng dng trong mch vng chng cui ca mng vin thng.Thut ng chung ny bt ngun nh mt s tng qut ha mt vi m hnh mng trin khai si quang (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB, FTTH, FTTP),tt c bt u bng FTT nhng kt thc bi cc k t khc nhau, c thay th bng x mang tnh cht tng qut ha. Ngnh cng nghip vin thng phn bit mt vi m hnh ring bit, r rng. Trong c s dng rng ri nht hin nay l: Fiber To The Home (FTTH): si quang c dn ti ranh gii khng gian sng, nh mt hp cp quang c t trn tng bn ngoi ca mt ngi nh. Fiber To The Building (FTTB): si quang c dn ti chn ca mt ta nh cao tng, t thng qua phng tin chuyn i (quang-in) u ni ti tng ngi s dng ring bit. Fiber To The Curb (FTTC): si quang c dn ti t cp t trn l ng cch khu vc khch hng gn hn 300m,t s dng cp ng u ni ti ngi dng. Fiber To The Node (FTTN): si quang c dn ti node, n cng tng t nh FTTC, nhng khong cch t node ti khu vc khch hng th xa hn, c th ti vi kilomet.

Hnh 4: cc m hnh FTTx

Nhu cu s dng h tng cp quang ti h gia nh FTTH (Fiber to the Home) xut hin t nhng nm 1980 khi m cc cng ty in thoi thy li ch mang li trong vic cung cp cc dch v bng rng ti cc thu bao. Nhng tin b nhanh chng trong lnh vc thu pht v cp si quang m ra mt tim nng ln trong vic pht trin h tng FTTH. FTTH c xem nh mt gii php hon ho trong vic thay th mng cp ng hin ti nhm cung cp cc dch v triple play (bao gm thoi, hnh nh, truy cp d liu tc cao) v cc ng dng i hi nhiu bng thng. Hin nay, Vit Nam c mt s nh cung cp dch v FTTH sau : Thng 8/2006 FPT Telecom chnh thc tr thnh n v u tin cung cp loi hnh dch v tin tin ny.

Ngy 1/5/2009, VNPT cung cp dch v Internet FTTH trn cp quang vi tc cao n 20Mbps/20Mbps. Ngy 15/05/2009, Viettel chnh thc trin khai cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet FTTH (Fiber To The Home) Cap quang siu tc nhm phc v

khch hng doanh nghip m dch v truy cp Internet hin ti (ADSL v Leased Line) cha p ng c v tc v chi ph s dng.

Hnh 5: Mng FTTx khi trin khai

2.2 So snh mng ADSL v FTTx 2.2.1Cp quang v cp ng Trn thc t, khc phc nhc im trong truyn dn thng tin ca cp ng, t lu ngi ta cho ra i cp quang cng vi nhng tnh nng u vit hn. Khng ging nh cp ng truyn tn hiu bng in, cp quang dng nh sng truyn tn hiu i. Chnh v s khc bit m cp quang t b nhiu, tc cao v c kh nng truyn xa hn. Tuy vy phi n giai on hin nay th cp quang mi c pht trin bng n, nht l trong lnh vc kt ni lin lc a, kt ni xuyn quc gia. V vic s dng cng ngh truyn dn hin i ny cng ang bt u thay th dn mng cp ng ADSL phc v trc tip n ngi s dng. Cp quang di, mng vi thnh phn ca thy tinh trong sut bng ng knh ca mt si tc. Chng c sp xp trong b c gi l cp quang v c s dng truyn tn hiu trong khong cch rt xa. Cp quang c cu to gm dy dn trung tm l

si thy tinh hoc plastic c tinh ch nhm cho php truyn i ti a cc tn hiu nh sng. Si quang c trng mt lp lt nhm phn chiu tt cc tn hiu. Cp quang gm cc phn sau: Core : Trung tm phn chiu ca si quang ni nh sng i Cladding : Vt cht quang bn ngoi bao bc li m phn x nh sng tr li vo li.

Buffer coating : Lp ph do bn ngoi bo v si khng b hng v m t

Jacket: Hng trm hay hng ngn si quang c t trong b gi l cp quang. Nhng b ny c bo v bi lp ph bn ngoi ca cp c gi l jacket. Khi pht tn hiu th mt it pht sng (LED) hoc laser s truyn d liu xung nh sng vo cp quang. Cn khi nhn th s s dng cm ng quang chuyn xung nh sng ngc thnh d liu. So vi cp ng, cp quang ch truyn sng nh sng (khng truyn tn hiu in) nn nhanh, khng b nhiu v b nghe trm (tn hiu nh sng t si quang khng b nhiu vi nhng si khc trong cng cp, iu ny lm cho cht lng tn hiu tt hn). suy dn thp hn cc loi cp ng (tn hiu b mt trong cp quang t hn trong cp ng) nn c th ti cc tn hiu i xa hng ngn km. Dung lng ti ca cp quang cao hn, v si quang mng hn cp ng, nhiu si quang c th c b vo vi ng knh cho hn cp ng. iu ny cho php nhiu knh i qua mt si cp. Cp quang cng s dng in ngun t hn, bi v tn hiu trong cp quang gim t, my pht c th s dng ngun thp hn thay v my pht vi in th cao c dng trong cp ng. Cn tn hiu s th cp quang rt l tng thch hp ti thng tin dng s m c bit hu dng trong mng my tnh. Cp quang cng khng chy, v khng c in xuyn qua cp quang, do khng c nguy c ha hn xy ra. Tuy vy, cp quang v cc thit b i km li rt t tin so vi cc loi cp ng. 2.2.2 Mt s tiu ch v cht lng dch v gia ADSL v FTTx Hin nay, cng ngh FTTH (Fiber-To-The-Home l mng vin thng bng thng rng bng cp quang c ni n tn nh cung cp cc dch v tc cao nh in thoi, Internet tc cao v TV) ang c trin khai kh mnh m trn th gii. Khi dng cng ngh FTTH, ng truyn dn hon ton bng cp quang ti tn phng my ca ngi s dng. Cht lng truyn dn tn hiu bn b n nh khng b suy hao tn hiu bi nhiu in t, thi tit hay chiu di cp nh i vi ADSL. bo mt rt cao. Vi

ADSL, kh nng bo mt thp hn v c th b nh cp tn hiu trn ng dy, cn vi FTTH th hu nh khng th b nh cp tn hiu trn ng dy. Vi cng ngh FTTH, nh cung cp dch v c th cung cp tc download ln n 10 Gigabit/giy, nhanh gp 200 ln so vi ADSL 2+ (hin ch c th p ng 20 Megabit/giy). Tc truyn dn vi ADSL l khng cn bng, c tc ti ln lun nh hn tc ti xung (Bt i xng, Download > Upload) v ti a 20 Mbps. Cn FTTH cho php cn bng, tc ti ln v ti xung nh nhau (i xng, Download = Upload) v cho php ti a l 10 Gbps, c th phc v cng mt lc cho hng trm my tnh. FTTH c bit hiu qu vi cc dch v: Hosting Server ring, VPN (mng ring o), Truyn d liu, Game Online, IPTV (truyn hnh tng tc), VoD (xem phim theo yu cu), Video Conferrence (hi ngh truyn hnh), IP Cameravi u th bng thng truyn ti d liu cao, c th nng cp ln bng thng ln ti 1Gbps, An ton d liu, n nh cao, khng b nh hng bi nhiu in, t trng... Bng : So snh ADSL v FTTx da trn mt s tiu ch Yu t so snh Mi trng truyn tn hiu n nh ADSL Cp ng FTTx Cp quang

D b suy hao do tn hiu Khng b nh hng in t, thi tit, chiu di cp bo mt thp, d b bo mt cao, khng nh cp tn hiu ng th nh cp tn hiu trn dy ng truyn Cho php cn bng : Upload = download

Bo mt

Tc truyn dn (Upload v Bt i xng : download ) Download > Upload

Tc ti a l 20 Mbps Tc cho php l 10Gbps Chiu di cp Ti a l 2,5 km t Ti a 10 km c s n nh

Kh nng p ng cc dch v Khng ph hp v tc Rt ph hp v tc rt bng rng: Hosting server ring, thp cao v c th ty bin VPN, hi ngh truyn hnh tc .

CHNG 3: CC DCH V TRIN KHAI TRN FTTH V XU HNG PHT TRIN CNG NGH FTTH CA SPT
III . CC DCH V TRIN KHAI TRN FTTH V XU HNG PHT TRIN 3.1 cc dch v trin khai trn FTTH
V o ic e o v e r I P In te rn e t A c c e ss V O IC E P C P h (L nAe N o p h o )n e

L e a s e d L in e

U CU I KHCH HNG
SPT F T T H n e tw o r k D A T A
F O M odem

I P C e n tr e x

D a t a T r a n s m is s io n

V P /M P L S N

W e b H o s t in g

C h v 1ki t n i d u yk n h h , hct h n g c th s d n g h u h t t t c c c d c h v v i n t h n g

V id e o o n D e m a n d W AN V ID E O IP T V G a m e O n lin e IP C am era S e r v ic e I P E xchan ge

V id e o C o n f e r e n c e
S es sions

Hnh 6: s trin khai trn FTTH 3.1.1Dch v DATA/INTERNET Edge200 c: 2 port 1Gigabit/s 2 port 100BT Edge2000 c 8 port Gigabit (2 port trn card SCM v 6 port trn Network cards)

C th gn trc tip cc lung tc cao t nh cung cp dch v n mi card trn b trung tm. Hoc c th gn thng qua mt router chia s cho nhiu nh khai thc hn na

Hnh 7: Mt ha tng kt ni nhiu nha cung cp dich vu DATA/INTERNET IP Unicast data c kt ni n b trung tm t nh khai thc c phn chia theo VLAN. QoS (Quality of Service) c Alloptic h tr bng cch cu hnh bi VLAN ID hoc Ethernet Type of Service (TOS) v Differential Service Code Points (Diffserv/DSCP) c thc hin ti pha ngi dng v thc hin bi b trung tm. QoS c duy tr bi ngi dng theo tng ng dng mong mun theo tng VLAN v mi VLAN s c b trung tm x l theo yu cu. Ngoi vic qun l thit b ONU d dng thng qua trnh qun l GigaVU, bo hiu trng thi thit b u cui, Alloptic cn cho php ISP qun l bng thng trn tng port ca ONU, qun l v cung cp cng nh hn ch dch v trn tng port: Khi ISP c nhu cu s dng 1 ONU cung cp dch v cho nhiu khch hng nh khc nhau trong cng mt khu vc, vic ny s ch lm vn cu hnh h thng. Phn mm qun l cho php gn bng thng theo tng cp nx64Kbps n mt port bt k ca mt ONU bt k. iu ny gip ISP c nhiu ty chn cho cc gi dch v ca mnh. Tn dng c ti a bng thng d tha khi nh cu dch v ca khch hng khng cn p ng vi bng thng cao.

Khi cn thit th vic thay i tc hoc thay i nh cung cp dch v trn mi cng c thc hin thng qua phn mm ti b trung tm m khng cn xung n khch hng. Khi khch hng khng cn s dng dch v na th thc hin vic ng/m cng ch cn vi thao tc nh t b trung tm. Vic qun l dch v trn tng cng cng mang li s tin li cho cc ISP khi nhu cu v dch v ca khch hng ngy cng kh khn, nhng mong mun i khi kh p ng c, khi trn cng mt khu vc, nhu cu v dch v ca mi khch hng li khc nhau. Giao din GigaVU cho php gn mc bng thng trn tng Port ca ONU.

Hnh 8: Giao din cu hinh quan ly bng thng

3.1.2 Kt ni nhiu nh cung cp dch v thoai VoIP Alloptic c th hot ng cng lc ng thi cho thoi TDM v thoi VoIP. Thoi VoIP c gn mt VLAN m thit b Alloptic ch ng vai tr truyn dn v khng c bt k s can thip no vo gi data. C nhiu nh cung cp dch v c kt ni n v khch hng c ty la chn hoc thay i.

3.1.3Kt ni cho nhiu nh cung cp Video (RF v IPTV): 3.1.3.1 - i vi RF video (truyn hnh cp): o Tn hiu truyn hnh cp (hoc v tinh) sau khi c ghp knh s c khuych i trc khi u ni vo b trung tm qua cng video quang. o Tn hiu video RF s s dng bc sng 1550nm ring bit khi truyn dn trn PON khng gy nhiu qua hai bc sng ca data 1490nm v 1310nm o n u cui khch hng s trch tn hiu RF video qua cng coax kt ni n TV truyn thng (hoc qua b chia/khuych i RF ni n nhiu tng/nhiu TV). 3.1.3.2 - i vi IPTV: o B trung tm hat ng nh mt proxy c tnh nng Multicast IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). Mi tn hiu video s c gn mt a ch Multicast IP v TCP port number. o Trong cng ngh IPTV hin nay khch hng phi s dng Set-Top-Box yu cu knh. Lc Alloptic s truyn dn tn hiu video theo yu cu v n ONU tng ng. o Mi ONU data port c gn mt VLAN cho IPTV v lin kt vi b lc MAC ID ca STB. o Alloptic s dng phng thc Multicast do t tn bng thng truyn dn n nh khai thc. Mi Multicast IPTV t nh khai thc u c pht trn cc knh ring cho STB chn knh v tnh cc, tt c cc tn hiu ny u c truyn dn thng qua mng Alloptic. o QoS c thc hin bi VLAN ID hoc TOS v DSCP o Dch v truyn hnh tng tc IPTV ca SPT cung cp trn 86 knh truyn hnh trong nc v quc t, trong c 09 knh HD c phn gii cc nt nh: VTV1VTV9, HBO, ESPN-HD, FASHION-HD, CCTV-HD, LUXE-TV-HD, STARMOVIE, MTV, VTC-HD1, VTC-HD2,. o Bn cnh c 02 chng trnh c bit l xem phim theo yu cu (VoD) v m nhc theo yu cu (MoD)/Karaoke vi hng trm phim l/b/ti liu v clip nhc hp dn c sp xp theo danh mc d tra cu s dng m khng cn ra ca hng CD thu mn. Cc knh truyn hnh v chng trnh xem theo yu cu lun c cp nht to s phong ph v hp dn ca dch v IPTV ca SPT s dng c dch v truyn hnh tng tc IPTV ca SPT cn nhng thit b sau: ng truyn Internet ca SPT cung cp (ADSL hoc FTTx) B gii m (Set-top-box) Tivi/LCD (tt nht c h tr Full HD)

Hnh 9: kt ni c minh ho 3.1.4 Dch v knh thu ring ca SPT: Gii thiu dch v: - Knh Thu Ring (Leased-Line) l dch v cho thu knh truyn dn vt l dng ring kt ni v truyn thng tin gia cc thit b u cui, mng ni b, mng vin thng dng ring ca khch hng ti hai a im c nh khc nhau. - Knh thu ring mang tnh c quyn s dng lin lc im ni im (point-topoint), c kh nng thng mch 100%, trnh c tnh trng nghn mch c th xy ra nu i qua tng i. - Knh thu ring phc v cc yu cu lin lc truyn thoi, hi ngh truyn hnh, in bo, fax, truyn s liu... c tnh dch v: - Ti a ha tc kt ni: L knh kt ni i xng, knh thu ring c tc ti xung v ti ln ngang bng nhau ti mi thi im. - Tit kim chi ph: Cc ph hng thng c qun l cht ch, khng cc ph tri. Vic nng cp ln tc cao hay thay i cu hnh h thng s tr nn d dng hn bi khch hng khng cn phi u t vo thit b mi hay lp t mt h thng cp quang mi. - Kt ni cng quc t: C th p ng c nhu cu a dng ca cc khch hng nh hi tho t xa (Video Conference), Mng ring o (VPN), dch v h tr t xa (Call Center) - H tr k thut: Khng ngng nng cao lng tn ty vi khch hng, chng ti cam kt m bo mang n qu khch hng dch v tt nht: o Truyn dn theo thi gian thc, khng b tr. o Tc p ng cc yu cu ca khch hng.

o o o

Cung cp cc kt ni theo tiu chun im- im, im - a im. Cung cp gii php kt ni gia cc mng LAN-WAN. H tr k thut 24/24.

3.2 Xu hng pht trin FTTH ca SPT: D kin FTTH s dn thay th ADSL trong tng lai gn mt khi bng thng ADSL khng sc cung cp ng thi cc dch v trc tuyn trong cng mt thi im. FTTH cung cp 1 IP tnh thch hp vi cc doanh nghip, t chc trin khai d dng cc dch v trc tuyn nh IP Camera, lu tr mail, truyn d liu tc cao... Theo mt bo co mi nht ca Heavy Reading, s h gia nh s dng kt ni bng rng FTTH trn ton th gii s tng trng hng nm trn 30% cho n nm 2012 v t 89 triu h khi . Hin Nht Bn, Trung Quc v M l cc quc gia i u trong lnh vc bng thng rng s dng cng ngh cp quang ny. Cng ngh FTTH c khong 20 triu kt ni ton cu, ch tnh ring 3 nc Nht Bn, Trung Quc v M c thm khong 6 triu thu bao, trong chu c nh gi l th trng c tim nng pht trin ln. Theo d on, vo cui nm 2012, ring chu s c 54 triu kt ni FTTH, tip theo l chu u/ khu vc Trung ng/ chu Phi vi 16 triu, ri n Bc M v Nam M vi 15 triu. Hin nay, qu trnh chuyn i sang FTTH ang c thc hin nhiu nc, gm an Mch, Php, Hng Kng, Nht Bn, Hn Quc, Thy in, i Loan v M. Hin nay th SPT vn ang ch yu dng cng ngh ftth aon cho cc h gia nh, FTTH dng cng ngh pon vn trin khai mt s ni nh khu ph m hng qun 7,v khu kim cng qun 2. Khi adsl bo ha th FTTh s pht trin mnh, tng lai cng ty SPT s trin khai FTTH dng mng quang th ng PON

CHNG 4:QU TRNH LP T V BO DNG MNG FTTH CA SPT


IV.QU TRNH LP T V BO DNG 4.1 Qu trnh lp t 4.1.1 Nhng quy nh chung :
1) Thi cng xy dng tuyn thong tin cp quang phi tun theo ng n thit k c ph chun v nhng tiu chun k thut, quy phm, quy chun xy dng, quy trnh thi cng.

2) Khi cha c n thit k chnh thc c cp c thm quyn ph duyt, nht thit khng c khi cng xy dng cng trnh. Ch u t cn t chc bn giao mt bng thi cng v tuyn thi cng gia cc bn: Ch u t, n v thi cng, v cc n v khc c lien quan. 3) Trc khi thi cng phi c y cc giy php xy dng. 4) n v thi cng phi lp k hoch thi cng ( phng n thi cng, thit k t chc thi cng) m bo thi cng ng theo thit k v tiu chun, quy trnh, quy phm, m bo thi cng ng khi lng, thi hn v gi thnh xy dng. 5) n v thi cng khng c t sa i thit k. 6) Cc vt liu s dng trong cng trnh phi tun th theo tng quy nh trong thit k. Trng hp cn thay i vt liu khc vi n thit k phi c s ng ca cp c thm quyn. 7) Tt c cc loi vt liu trc khi em dng vo cng trnh phi c nghim thu v cht lng v s lng. 8) Vt liu, thit b, dng c a ra hin trng thi cng phi c kho bo qun v phn cng ngi qun l theo ng quy trnh quy phm v bo qun vt t. 9) Phi o kim tra cp trc v sau khi thi cng. Kim tra cc hn mc cn thit khc ca tuyn cp. 10) Lc ko cp khng c ln hn khi lng ca 1 Km cp. 11) Bn knh cong phi nh hn bn knh congcho php ca cp (ln hn 20 ln ng knh cp). 12) Phi d cp ti thiu l 12m ti cc im ni mng song v 30m cp nhp trm cho mi u cp. Cp d phi c qun gn gang vi bn knh ln hn bn knh cong cho php ca cp. 13) Khi thi cng cn phi c phng n m bo an ton cng trnh, an ton lao ng, ch bo v ti sn ca nhn dn v ca Nh Nc ti nhng ni ng cp i qua. 14) Khi xy dng tuyn mi gn tuyn c ang s dng,hoc sa cha, lp t thm cp trn tuyn ang s dng phi lin h cht ch vi cc c s Bu in a phng, chnh quyn a phng v cc c s hu quan.

15) Vic thi cng phi nhanh, gn, m bo an ton giao thong v m bo v sinh mi trng, sinh thi. 16) Phi nh du tuyn cp, s cp, n v s dng bng cc cc mc, bin bo. C ba b cp cn c mt bin bo. Ngoi ra cn bo hiu nhng ni cp i hng, qua ng, qua cu v qua cc cng trnh khc. 4.1.2 Quy trnh lp t cp treo: 4.1.2.1 o h: a. Trc khi o h phi o li v tr cc mc. b. H ct phi ng quy cch thit k. c. o h phi li cc mc d kim tra theo di. d. Khi o h, t c em ln cn pha ngc vi pha dng ct. t phi cch xa ming h khong 20 cm. H o trong ngy cn dng ct ngay. e. H dy co ( h chn chng ) phi c o dch ra ngoi ct mc, theo hng ca dy co( hng ca chn chng) mt khong ty theo su ca mng dy co ( mng chn chng )v ty theo t s L/H ca ct. o thm mt mng xin cng dy co cho tht thng, lp dy co ( lp chn chng ) ng hng chu lc. Trong : L l khong cch chn dy co, chn chng n chn ct. H l cao ct. f. Khi o h cho ct v dy co pha ng ci thng c ngi qua li, trong trng hp o xong cha kp dng ct, chon dy co hoc chn chng th phi y vn, lm bo hiu ch dn ngn nga tai nn. 4.1.2.2 Lp t dy co: a. Cng dy co cn m bo ng t s L/H trong thit k. b. Cng dy co ct gc v ct u cui phi m bo ng ngn ct. Dy co phi nm trn ng phn gic ca gc hp thnh bi hai pha ca cp theo chiu ngc vi lc cng ca cp. Cc mi qun buc phi chc chn, gn v p. Dy co t ngn n gc thng, khng gy gp. c. B phn dy co qun vo ct, b phn qun buc bng dy dy st, b phn dy co t qun, b phn lp thm vo m dy co u phi sn chng r. B phn dy co chn di t v b phn tri ln khi mt t 30 cm tr xung phi c bin php chng r. d. Khi qun buc dy co nn dng dy st mm qun buc hoc c th dng cch t qun. Phi m bo k thut mi qun buc. e. Trng hp trn ct c hai dy co cng hng th ch ni lin gia thn ca hai dy co v chn dy co phi dng vng m dy co ring bit.

f. Khi chon dy co phi o mt rnh xin t y h ln n ch cc mc dy co lm cho chn dy co ni vi than dy co nm trn mt ng thng, chiu di tri ln khi mt t nn ly l 20-30 cm. 4.1.2.3 Lp t cp: a. Vic m bo an ton trong khi lp t phi c tnh n trc khi lp t cp. b. Phi tun th y cng tc chun b lp t cp quang treo: - Dn quang mt bng thi cng. - Lp rng rc trn ct. - Lp t ti ko c trang b cu ch ngt. - Treo dy ko. - Lm u ko. c. Ko cp: Tc ko phi nh hn 20m/phut. d. Cng cp: -Kim tra x l xon cp. -Dng ti iu chnh cng ca dy treo. - iu chnh vng ca cp theo thit k. -Khi kp dy treo dng dng c iu chnh tng dy tr gip kp dy treo. e. Mng sng cp, cp d tr c treo trc tip vo ct. f. Phi lp bin bo hiu ti nhng ch cn thit, ngoi ra c bit ch ni qua ng, qua cu, qua cc cng trnh khc v.v g. Trong trng hp lp t cp qua song, m ly, a hnh phc tpcp quang c treo trn dy gia cng chu lc. iu ny i hi phi c h thng rng rc c t trn mi u ct v dc theo ng dy gia cng treo cp. Ti ko cp c xu qua h thng ny v ni vi cp. Dng ti c cu ch ko cp ko cp t cun cp qua khong cch gia cc ct. 4.1.2.4 Cc trng hp treo cp c bit: a. Cp quang treo chung vi ng dy in lc. V khong ct ca in lc di hn khong ct ca bu in, khi thi cng cp quang trong trng hp phi p dng theo khong ct di v ct vt. Khi thi cng cp quang cng ng dy din lc phi ch tnh ton di cun cp ph hp vi khong ct, trnh trng hp phi ni cp khong gia hai ct, chn cp thi cng theo thit k. Trc khi thi cng phi lin h cht ch vi c quan qun l ng dy in lc, phi ct in

v c bo hiu thi cng tuyn cp quang, ng k thi gian lm vic hng ngy v khong thi gian thi cng. b. i vi cp quang lp p qua cu, cp phi c t trn mng cp hoc trong ng st bo v. Phi tnh ton sao cho khng c mi ni trn cu. Sauk hi lp t xong phi vit k hiu nh du CAP QUANG. 4.1.3 Quy trnh lp t cp chn trc tip: 1) Vic o rnh cn c thc hin theo quy nh v rnh chn cp v ph hp vi thit k. 2) Trc khi t cp phi lt y rnh mt lp cp hoc t vn dy 10 cm. 3) Cn phi lm sch rnh cp trc khi lp t, c bit ch khng rc ri, g v cc thnh phn l thc n ca mi. 4) Trc khi lp rnh cp ri tip ln trn mt lp ct hoc t vn dy 10 cm. 5) Bng bo hiu phi c t v tr ngay pha trn ca cp, pha trn cp 30 cm trong cc trng hp bnh thng. Trn bng bo hiu phi in ch BU IN VIT NAM-CP QUANG BN DI. 6) Phi t mc bo hiu ti nhng im theo thit k trn tuyn cp, ngoi ra ch t thm bin bo hiu ti ni c nhiu phng tin i li, qua sng, qua , qua ng.v.v 4.1.4 Quy trnh lp t cp trong cng cp: 1) Chng b dng c ko cp: a. Dy ti ko cp:dy ti dung ko cp hoc ng cp ph t trong ng ng chon sn phi l dy ti ko cp thch hp trnh lm t v ng cp. Ngoi ra dy ti phi m bo cc yu cu sau: -Mi mt mt phi c nh du xc nh chiu di. -Phi c bn ln hn lc cng c tnh ln nht. -Cc im ni dy ti ko cp v cp phi c khu li tng kh nng lin kt. -Phi c khi xoay gia dy ti ko cp v cp. b. Rng rc: Rng rc s dng gim ma st phi c ng knh ln hn bn knh cong cho php ca cp. c. Ti ko cp: Ti ko cp chnh phi c trang b cu ch ko cp. Ti ko cp ph c t ti b cp tr gip ko cho ti ko cp chnh. Ti ko cp ph phi c kch thc ph hp vi b cp. R ko cp c ang bng kim loi to thnh r li. R ko cp c gn vi mt khp xoay. d. Cc dng c cn thit khc nh: Kch cp, bao ti, phu .v.v

2) Lp t h thng cng cp: Kt cu cng cp khi thi cng phi c rng v su ng vi thit k, t o ln trn gn ming rnh phi m bo khng x xung rnh, khi o xong phi t ngay ng trnh b l t. Khong cch gia cc ng, khong cch lp ng gn y rnh nht phi tun theo thit k. a. Khi vn chuyn phi ch : -Sn xe khng ngn hn chiu di ng. -Khng dng xe ben t ng. -Khi bc xp phi c hai ngi, mi ngi mt u ng. b. Khi lu kho phi ch : -xp ng theo chiu cao khng qu 1,75m. -G ng phi thng. 3) Lp rp ng nha: a. Phi chng b y cc dng c lp ng bao gm: -Ca tay hoc ko ct ng. -Gia. -Bt khc kim loi. -Xng cng nghip. -Nha dn. -Gi lau kh. b.Ct ng bng ca tay hoc ko ct ng. c. Gt sch ba via, gia st mp ngoi. d. Lm sch bi du m bng gi kh sch ( vi xng cng nghip ). e.nh du phn ng s lp vo ph tng. 4) Xy dng b cp, h ni: Trc khi thi cng b cp,h ni ti ni c ngi qua li phi cng dy v lp cc bin bo.

Thi cng xy dng b cp, h ni trn cc a hnh khc nhau phi theo thit k v quy hoch sau: a. o h theo su xc nh ty thuc vo su ca b cp, h ni cn xy dng.t o ln phi vn chuyn i ngay, nu kt cu t cn ng cc th phi ng cc vi su so vi y b l 1,2m. Phi mt lp mng gch v, ct trc khi b tong. b. Cc tm b tong phi c c ng kch c va kht vi cc chi tit lp t. c. B cp, h ni phi c xy dng ng quy cch, kch thc theo quy nh v cng b do ngnh quy nh. H ni cp phi rng cha cp h, phi c ch g, t bo v mng sng cp. 5) Lp t cp: a. Cht bi trn phi c cc im u ca ng, tt c cc v tr a cp vo, nhng v tr ko cp trung gian. b. Cc t tnh ca cht bi trn cp quang phi m bo l: -Thch ng vi nhit ngoi tri. -Chng chy. -H s ma st thp ( < 0,25). -Cht lng khng i trong qu trnh lp t. -Khng nh hng n v cp. -c kim tra trc khi s dng. 6) Trc khi lp t, tt c cc b cp phi c kim tra m bo rng chng hon ton an ton v sch s. 7) Chng b cp, dy ti ko cp, r ko cp,cu ch ko cp, ti ( my ko cp ). 8) Xc nh cc ng cp c s dng cho lp t. 9) Phi m bo cc ng cp u sch s. Nu cn thit phi lm sch ng cp. 10) Nu trong ng cp c sn cp c, khi cn xc nh chng loi cp v ch s hu ca tuyn cp ny, phi bo cho ch s hu bit v hot ng lp t cp ang din ra v phi xc nh cc yu cu an ton cn thit.

11) Phi gim st khng cp b un cong qu mc khi ko cp qua nhng khc cong. 12) Phi t tt c cc thit b cn thit v tr thch hp. 13) Nu cp c t vo trong ng cp ph th phi lp t ng cp ph trc, c th l: a.nh v ti cho ng cp ph. b.Gn mt r ko cp c khp xoay vo bn trong v gn dy ti ko cp vo r ko cp. c.Phi m bo tt c cc ti v rng rc s dng tt. d.Trong qu trnh thao tc phi ch khng cho qun o, tay chn hay mt vt no khc vng vo b phn chuyn ng ca ti ( my ko ).Tt c mi ngi trong nhm thc hin cng vic phi c lin lc lin tc vi nhau bng cc thit b thng tin. e. t ng ph bn trong ng cp chnh trc khi ko cp. f. Khi ko ng cp ph phi s dng cp bi trn trong trng hp cn thit. S dng cc on ng c di ph hp trong trng hp cn thit v sau ni nhng on ny vi nhau bng cc b ni ng cp. Cc dy ti ko cp cng c th c ni tng t. g. nhng ni khng c kh nng khm bng tay th ta c th dng ti ko cc ng cp ph, nhng phi m bo an ton. h)Ton b chiu di ca ng cp ph v dy ti ko cp c ni vi nhau to ra mt chiu di lin tc phc v cho vic ko cp. k) Phi cho ng cp ph di ra mt on m bo s co dn ca ng. 14) Phi gn r ko cp v khp xoay mt cch thch hp vo vi cp. Phi m bo r ko cp v khp xoay c th lp t d dng vo tt c cc loi ng chnh v ph. 15) Khng s dng vi dt thay cho r ko cp. 16) Ni dy ti ko cp vo khp xoay phi m bo chc chn. 17) Hiu chnh rng rc v trc ti cho ph hp. 18) Cho cht bi trn vo u ng dn cp v vo tt c cc v tr yu cu phi c cht bi trn.

19) Nu qu kh khn khi ko cp bng tay c th chuyn sang ko cp bng ti nhng vi tc chm. Phi trnh git cc khi ko cp. Phi lun lun gi lc cng ca cp di lc cng ti a cho php. Khi ti cp ra khi ti phi m bo cp khng b xon. 20) Quay trc ti bng tay duy try chng gia cun ti v ng dn cp. 21) Phi trnh ko git cc, dng t ngt. 22) Trong qu trnh ko cp nu cu ch c phi kim tra tt nghn trn tuyn cp v c bin php x l kp thi, c th l: a. Kim tra cc on cong m bo l khng b tt nghn, gp khc qu ln, cc rng rc hot ng trn u. b .Phi m bo ti cp trn. c. Phi a cht bi trn vo trc mi ch un. d. Lm ngn tuyn cp cn ko. Chuyn v tr ko ti v tr im gia ca tuyn v bt u ko li. Ko cp ra khi b cp. S dng cch cun cp hnh s tm nm ngang gim xon ca cp. e. Chn v tr bt u ko cp thch hp v ko cp qua phn cn li ca tuyn cp. f. C th s dng mt ti ko th hai v tr trung gian h tr cho vic ko cp. g. Cn phi ko cp c th cun khong t mt n ba vng xung quanh ti. h. Lp thm cc rng rc b cp trung gian nu cn thit. i. Phi m bo lin lc gia cc nhm ko ti. j. Phi m bo cp d trn trc ti khi ko cp vo trong b cp t nht l 3m. k. Cun ti trung gian cn phi ko cp ng thi vi cun ti chnh trong khi vn duy tr c vng cn thit. l. Khi cp chuyn hng th thc hin xp ct cp hnh s tm nm ngang. 23) Phn cp qua b phi lun ng nha PVC hoc ng cao su bo v cp. Cp qua b khng c mi ni th khng cn d. 24) Sau khi lp t cp xong phi dng my o kim tra si m bo rng cp khng b h hi trong qu trnh ko.

4.1.5 Quy trnh lp t cp trong hm cp: 1) Trong hm cp c sn cp c th phi xc nh chng loi v ch s hu ca tuyn cp ny, phi bo cho ch s hu bit v hot ng lp t cp ang din ra v phi xc nh yu cu an ton cn thit. Ti nhng hm ln khi thi cng lp t cp phi c bin php cnh gii v ng k gi lm vic m bo an ton cn thit. 2) Phi t tt c cc thit b phc v lp t v tr ph hp. 3) Gim st cht ch vic ko cp ti cc on cong, phi m bo l cp khng b nghn, khng b un cong qu bn knh cong nh nht cho php ca cp, cp khng b xon, cc rng rc hot ng trn u. Nu b tt nghn th thc hin: Lm ngn tuyn cp cn ko, chuyn v tr ko ti im gia ca tuyn v bt u ko li. 4.1.6 Quy trnh lp t cp trong nh: 4.1.6.1 yu cu k thut: a. Cp quang lp t trong nh phi c t trong ng, cc h thng cu cp.v.v b. Trc khi lp t, tt c cc im un phi m bo nhn trn. c. Nu cp khc t chng ln cp quang th phi dng thm ng bo v cp. d. Khi lp cp dng thng ng phi m bo trng lng ca cp khng c vt qu ti cng ln nht ca cp khi lp t. e. Cp i thng ng c kp ph tr ti cc im trung gian gim ti ko cng ca cp. Lc cng ca cp phi m bo nh hn trng lng 1 km cp. f. Khng c cp bin dng, bp trong bt c on no. Kp gi cp phi thng, nhn trnh nh hng n cp. Dy nhy cp cn c lun trong ng nha mm ti nhng v tr cn thit. g. Nu khng dng kp cp th c th s dng b treo cp ti cui cp v on trung gian dc theo phng i ln treo cp. B treo cp phi khng c lm bin dng cp. Ti ch treo cp c th tht cht cp trnh trng hp cp b trt ra ngoi. Trng hp c b treo cp c gn ln x, tng th phi m bo chc chn rng ung cong ca cp khng vt qu quy nh. H. Tuyn cp nm ngang c treo ln trn nh, ng dn cp, cu cp.v.v u phi c dn nhn CAP QUANG. 4.1.6.2 Lp t cp:

a. Cp i trong nh lun c lp bng tay. Khi cp quang i cng vi loi cp khc hoc kh ko th cn phi c bi trn. b. Kim tra tt c cc hp x l cp, cc ng cha cp, cc cu cp .v.vm bo v tha mn yu cu k thut i vi cp v khng c yu cu tr ngi trong qu trnh thi cng. c. Phi m bo bn knh cong ca cp ln hn bn knh cong cho php ti tt c cc im. d. Phi cun cp trn sn trnh xon cp. e. Phi c d tr cp ti hp x l cp. 4.2 Hot ng qun l bo dng trong h thng FTTH tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng v p ng dch v cht lng cao, mng FTTH phi trin khai th tc hot ng qun l v bo dng ng tin cy. Th tc ny h tr vic tnh cc, bo mt, bo dng, cung cp v gim st hiu sut mng. N c th thc hin vic s dng cc chun hay dng c phn mm h thng h tr hot ng m rng trong h thng qun l mng. C nhiu chng trnh h tr hot ng c th cp quyn thng qua trnh duyt web v vic chn la cc ng dng rng ri, n cho php qun l mng cu hnh v iu khin hng trm phn t trong . Vic cung cp phn phi cc mc dch v cung cp v cu hnh khc nhau cho cc loi dch v thoi, d liu v video cho khch hng. Nh iu hnh mng cng nh c ch t ng cn xc nh nu thit b ti u cui khch hng c th cung cp cc dch v c yu cu. V d nh vic cung cp phi xc nh nu ONU c kh nng iu khin tc d liu ca mnh d c kh nng kt hp vi kim tra hay khng th n cng h tr hot ng t xa. iu ny th quan trng i vi nh cung cp dch v, vic qun l v xc nh cc vn t xa c th ngn nga vic yu cu cc dch v chi ph t . Chc nng bo dng hay qun l li trnh cc li tim n v s gim st trong mng FTTH. Nu li xy ra, tin trnh bo dng cn xc nh v lm r cng nhanh cng tt tha mn nhu cu khch hng. Kh nng kt hp vi kim tra thay i thng tin trng thi gia ONU v OLT bao gm chc nng loop-back iu khin t xa pht hin li trn mch hay cp, thng k li ONU v thot khi ngun trong trng hp c s c ti ONU. Hnh 3.34 m t tn hiu

iu khin trng thi mch vng, n c khi to OLT v truyn n ONU sau ONU bo co trng thi v truyn ngc v OLT. Vic bo co ny ch th mi th hot ng tt hay chng c th c dng xc nh nguyn nhn tc li bit cao.

Ngun: Gerd Keiser, FTTX Concepts and Applications,2006

Hnh 10 : OLT khi to loop-back iu khin t xa

PHN IV : TNG KT Qua 8 tun thc tp ti trung tm in thoi SPT ( STC), kt qu ca t thc tp ny chnh l nhng k nng lm vic thc t cho em sau ny, nhng kinh nghim m em hc hi c t s hng dn ch bo ca cc anh lm vic ti y.V nhng g lm c, hc c em ghi li, son li thnh cun bo co thc tp ny .V thi gian thc tp qu ngn nn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st cho quyn bo co thc tp.Em rt mong c s thng cm v gp ca qu thy c cng nh ban lnh o trung tm in thoi SPT . Mt ln na em xin chn thnh cm n.

TI LIU THAM KHO: 1.Ti liu hng dn FTTx ca SPT 2. Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home: Systems Technologies

and Deployment Strategies 2006-09 3. FTTx concept & Applications