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VEL TECH MULTI TECH Dr.RANGARAJAN Dr.

SAKUNTHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(AN ISO 9001-2000 CERTIFIED INSTITUTION) (OWNED BY VEL TRUST 1997) (APPROVED BY AICTE & AFFILIATED TO ANNA UNIVERSITY) N0.62, AVADI-VEL TECH ROAD, CHENNAI- 600 062

GE 2321-COMMUNICATION SKILLS LAB

NAME: REGISTER NO: ROLL NO: BRANCH: YEAR: SEMESTER:

C U ASHOK KUMAR 11809105005 VM4343 BE (EEE) III YEAR 5TH SEMESTER

VEL TECH MULTI TECH Dr.RANGARAJAN Dr.SAKUNTHALA

ENGINEERING COLLEGE (AN ISO 9001-2000 CERTIFIED INSTITUTION) (OWNED BY VEL TRUST 1997) N0.62, AVADI-VEL TECH ROAD, CHENNAI- 600 062

CERTIFICATE Name : Year: University Register No: Semester: Branch: BE (EEE) College Roll No. :

Certified that this is the bonafide record of work done by the above student in the COMMUNICATION SKILLS LAB GE 2321during the academic year 2009 2010. _____________________________ Signature of Head of the Department _____________________ Signature of Lab Incharge

Submitted for the University Practical Examination held on ... at VEL TECH MULTI TECH Dr.RANGARAJAN Dr.SAKUNTHALA ENGINEERING
COLLEGE, N0.62,AVADI-VEL TECH ROAD,CHENNAI- 600 062.

Signature of Examiners: Internal: External:..

Date:..

INTRODUCTION: Letter writing is an art. Even though letters have transformed into e-mails and SMS, the art still remains, only the medium has changed. Letters can be broadly classified into 1. FORMAL LETTERS and 2. INFORMAL LETTERS. ELEMENTS OF A GOOD LETTER The most important element of writing a good letter is your ability to identify and write to your audience. If you are addressing your letter to the department of human resources, avoid using highly technical terms that only engineers would understand, even if your letter is addressed to an engineering company, chances are that the personnel in human resources does not have an engineering background. The next element is that you make sure your present your objective in a clear and concise manner. Don't be vague about your objective, most people will not have the patience to sit there and guess at the meaning of your letter or the time to read a long-winded letter, just get to the point without going into unnecessary details. Another important element to remember is to remain professional. Even if you are writing a complaint letter, remain polite and courteous, simply state the problem(s) along with any other relevant information and be sure to avoid threats and slander. FORMAL LETTER: As the name suggests, formal letters include business letters, official letters, applications, complaints, letter to editors, letters written to people whom we want to convey certain important information. INFORMAL LETTER: On the other hand, informal letters include personal letters, letters that are written to our friends and family. While formal letters follow certain format, one can be flexible while writing informal letters. Nonetheless, letter writing is a skill that needs to be honed over time with practice The whole format of the letter should be to the left side of the page. No commas in the From, To, or salutation or signing off. Punctuation marks to be observed in the content of the letter. No indenting required i.e., there is no need to leave space to indicate the beginning of a paragraph. A little space between paragraphs is to be maintained.

FORMAT OF FORMAL LETTER


Return Address Line 1 1 Return Address Line 2 Date (Month Day, Year) 2 Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient. 3 Title/Position of Recipient. Company Name Address Line 1 Address Line 2 Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name: 4 Subject: Title of Subject 5 Body Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... ........................... Body Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... ........................... Body Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... ...........................6 Closing (Sincerely...), 7 Signature 8 Your Name (Printed) 9 Your Title Enclosures (2) 10 Typist Initials. 11

Ex.no:1(a) Date: Topic:

FORMAL LETTER

LETTER TO THE HEALTH OFFICER

Letter to the Health officer of your town about the dirty condition of roads and drains in your colony Plot no1,Alli street , Saraswathi Nagar,J.B.Estate Avadi-54 July 5,2011 The Health Officers 15 cross st. Tirchy road T-Nagar, Chennai-18 Sir Sub: Letter to the Health officer to tell about the dirty conditions of road in our colony I want to bring to your notice the insanitary condition of colony.The sweeper of the colony does not perform his duty regularly. The drains are not flushed daily.Water stands and stagnates. Mosquitoes breed there and spread Malariya Heaps of rubbish are lying here and there.The people who tether their cows,do not clean the dung for many days. Some epidemics can break out. The matter has been bought to the notice of the sanitary inspector.But he has paid no attention. I therefore,request you to look into the matter personally Yours faithfully C U Ashok kumar

FORMAT OF INFORMAL LETTER

Dear Name of Recipient, 3

Return Address Line 1 1 Return Address Line 2 Date (Month Day, Year) 2

Body Paragraph 1.................................................................... ...................................................................... .............. Body Paragraph 2.................................................................... ...................................................................... .............. Body Paragraph 3.................................................................... ...................................................................... ..............4

Closing (Sincerely...), 5 Signature 6

Ex.no:1(b) Date:

INFORMAL LETTER

Topic:

LETTER TO THE FRIEND

Letter to Friend inviting him to spend a part of the summer vocation with you Plot No.1,Alli Street, JB Estate,Avadi-54 August 2,2011 Dear Ramesh, How are you? I wish to same from me. My examinations are over and now. I have a holiday for one month. You would also have holiday these day. I invite you to spend a part of your holiday with me. I have a programme to go to Shimla, Which is the capital of Himachal Pradesh. We both will have pleasant time there. The cool weather will give us relief from the heat of Chennai. We will get our health improved, I hope you will like me programme and will certainly come over here Pay my best regards to your parents Yours sincerely C U Ashok Kumar

REPORT WRITING

INTRODUCTION:
Formal report writing in professional, technical and business contexts has

evolved certain conventions regarding format, style, referencing and other characteristics. These will vary in detail between organisations, so the information given below should be treated as general guidelines which hold good in the absence of any more specific `house styles'. The format will depend upon the type and purpose of the report, its intended readers, and the conventions of presentation and layout prescribed by the organisation in which you are operating. In general, there are two broad types of format which are differentiated by whether the summary and/or recommendations are placed after the main body of the report, or are placed earlier, before the main body. The eventual format chosen might be a combination or a condensed version of these two formats.

A format where the findings/recommendations follow the main body


Cover sheet Title page Abstract Table of contents Introduction The body of the report Conclusion (and recommendations if applicable) References / Bibliography Glossary (if needed) Appendices

TITLE PAGE

title writer organisation date person/group who commissioned the report

TABLE OF CONTENTS

accurate, clear layout section numbering system and indentation complete page numbers list of illustrations if applicable

ABSTRACT

appropriate length complete summary of key information informative, not descriptive, in form impersonal tone connected prose

INTRODUCTION

relating topic to wider field necessary background information purpose of report scope of report explanation of arrangement of report sections

BODY FORMAT

main headings indicating equal level of importance all subheadings relating to section heading choice of levels indicating hierarchy of importance hierarchy of importance shown by careful and consistent use of features such as capitals, different fonts, underlining, bold, italics indenting numbering/letter system space between sections to enhance readability and layout when using charts, statistics and illustrations check for suitability, captions, reference in text and positioning acknowledgement of all sources, including material referred to indirectly, direct quotations, copied diagrams, tables, statistics ensure a systematic link between references in the text and the reference list and bibliography

EXPRESSION

correct own words concise clear to intended reader formal and factual

CONTENT

logical development of ideas from one section to another, and within each section citing evidence relevant objective specific

CONCLUSION(S)

arising out of the facts convincing a substantial basis for the recommendations

RECOMMENDATIONS (if applicable)


based on the conclusions practical specific well organised, with the most important first

LIST OF REFERENCES

sources in the text listed by the Harvard system

BIBLIOGRAPHY

texts consulted but not referred to directly in the report

GLOSSARY (if included)

arranged alphabetically

APPENDIX (appendices)

placed at end of a report if included arranged in the order referred to in the report

Ex.no:2 (a) Date:

Report Writing

Topic:

EVENT REPORT

CHENNAI SUPER KINGS (CSK) VS ROYAL CHALLENGERS BANGLALORE (RCB) (SPORTS)

Chennai, May 2: In the Indian Premier League T20 Cricket Final 2011, Chennai super kings captain cool MS Dhoni have won the toss and elected to bat first in this final. Batting first CSK made 205 runs for the loss of 5 wickets in the allotted 20 overs. Three batsman made half centuries. The local boy Murali Vijay with 95 runs of just 42 balls was the top scorer. Australian Star Michael Hussy has the great support with Murali Vijay and also he score 55 runs. These two have build a solid century partnership of 155 runs in 15th over of the match. Vinay Kumar claims 2 wickets, captain Daniel Vettory claims 2 wickets. But they conceded too many runs. But last ball Bravo hit the six outs the position would have been very bad. Set to score 206 for a win in final match, RCB open with rocking star Chris Gayle and Manish Pandey. Both the openers and captain Daniel Vettory fell cheaply to the CSK medium pacer and spinners, Ravichandra Ashwin who taken the Chris Gayle wicket get the turning point of the match. Virat Kholi and Sorabh Tiwary were involved in half century partnership. With Virat Kholi Exits,RCB defeat was imminent. The tail-enders could not put enough resistance to Sorabh Tiwary and score required runs Finally RCB manage to score only 154 for the loss of 8 wickets in the allotted 20 overs. As a result, Chennai Super Kings won the IPLT20 2011 for the second time in the history of cricket. And also book their place in Champion League T20. Murali Vijay declare a Man of the Match and Chris Gayle declare the player of the series and also Top scorer in IPLT20 2011.

Ex.no:2 (b)

PROJECT REPORT

Date: Topic: RESOURCE ALLOCATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT :
This project emphasizes upon introducing the memory management concept using Kerberos in the client server network (intranet). Server does not have any control over the resources after the client has gained access to the resources .So there may be chance for improper usage of the resources. Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol which allows individuals communicating over an insecure network to prove their identity and ensures the integrity of data. In this project, Kerberos has been implemented to provide authentication and memory management service. This project concentrates on providing access to authorized users as well as managing the use of resource by the client in a user-friendly manner . The simulator at the client monitors each and every operation of the client .If the client exceeds the allocated memory, he can send request to the server stating a valid reason . The Administrator at the server validates the client request and may decide to extend the memory or deny the request. The Memory status option of the simulator enables the client to view his current usage statistics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

SERIAL NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

CONTENT INTRODUCTION BODY OF THE REPORT CONCLUSION APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY REFERENCE

PAGE NO

INTRODUCTION:
Kerberos is a practical authentication service tool.

Kerberos Requirements: a. Security: opponents should not be able to gain access. b. Reliability (availability): Kerberos server or its substitute should be available all the time. c. Scalability: system should be able to support large amount of users. d. Transparency: Users should see the system as a username/password system.
Socket core concept is vitally used which is one of the end-point of a two-way communication link between two programs running on the network. Socket classes are used to represent the connection between a client program and a server program. The java.net package provides two classes--Socket and Server Socket--that implement the client side of the connection and the server side of the connection. For a Socket connection normally, a server runs on a specific computer and has a socket that is bound to a specific port number. The server just waits, listening to the socket for a client to make a connection request. On the client-side: The client knows the hostname of the machine on which the server is running and the port number to which the server is connected. To make a connection request, the client tries to rendezvous with the server on the server's machine and port.

BODY OF THE REPORT :


In the existing system, the server can allocate the resource and monitor the client activities but cannot control the clients` usage of resources .Hence the client can misuse the allocated resources. Also there is no intimation about allocated memory and the amount used either to the server or client. Here the server does not have any control over the resources after the client has gained access to the resources .So there may be chance for improper usage of the resources. In Intranet the memory management has not been introduced due to the complexity involved in authentication of users and implementation in granting the privileges .Hence this project emphasizes upon introducing the memory management concept in intranet to the authenticated users. To overcome the difficulties of the existing system this proposed project-Memory Allocation at the Client Using Kerberos introduces the authentication and memory management service in the intranet .the prime motive is the memory management that efficiently maintain the memory resources particularly in a network campus and to provide suitable authentication to the clients. The project is designed to work in large network areas and administer the memory usage from the server side. The user is first allowed to register himself at the client side. The Server authenticates indirectly every client who login to the network .Also for each system, the administrator allocates startup-memory thereby overcoming the misuse of memory resource by the client. This project concentrates on providing access to authorized users as well as managing the use of resource by the client in a user-friendly manner .The simulator at the client monitors each and every operation of the client .If the client exceeds the allocated memory, he can send request to the server stating a valid reason .The Administrator at the server validates the client request and may decide to extend the memory or deny the request. The Memory status option of the simulator enables the client to view his current usage statistics

SYSTEM SPECIFICATION :
SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION:OPERATING SYSTEM : WINDOWS XP PLATFORM : VISUAL STUDIO .NET 2005 LANGUAGES : JAVA.NET

HARDWARE CONFIGURATION:SYSTEM HARD DISK MONITOR MOUSE RAM KEYBOARD : : : : : : Pentium IV 160 GB 15 VGA colour monitor Logitech. 512 MB 110 keys enhanced.

CONCLUSION :
It is concluded that the application works well and satisfy the end users. The application is tested very well and errors are properly debugged. The application is simultaneously accessed from more than one system. Simultaneous login from more than one place is tested. Further enhancements can be made to the application, so that the application functions very attractive and useful manner than the present one. The speed of the transactions become more enough now.

APPENDIX :
1. 2. 3. 4. Server-Admin Module. Authentication Module. Client-Server Communication Module. Resource Usage Statistics Module.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :
1. Microsoft Visual Basic.NET Programmers Cook Book: MACDONALD 2. Grey Buczek, .NET developers guide 2002, Prentice-Hall India. 3. Benolt Marchal, VB.NET by example 2003 TataMcGraw- Hill. 4. System Analysis & Design Alenis Leon. 5. An Integral approach to software engineering Pankaj Jalole. -MATTHEW

REFERENCES :
BOOKS: 1)Alistair McMonnies, object-oriented programming in Visual Basic.NET, Pearson Education, and ISBN:81-297-0649-0. First Indian Reprint 2004. 2)Jittery R.Shapiro, The Complete Reference Visual Basic.NET Edition 2002, Tata McGraw-Hill, Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 3)Robert K.Schneider, Jettey R.Garbus, Optimizing SQL Server, Second Edition, Pearson Education Asia, ISBN:981-4035-20-3 WEBSITES: http://www.microsoft.com/dotnet/visual basic http://www.dotnetheaven.com, http://www.w3schools.com

RESUME WRITING

Exp no: 3 Date: Topic:

COVER LETTER

C U Ashok Kumar Plot no.1 Alli Street, SRM Garden, Sarawathi Nagar J B Estate, Avadi, Chennai-600054 28th Feb. 2011 The Managing Director Ramco Industries Pvt. Ltd., 10,Nehru Nagar Chengalput,Chennai-12 Sir, SUB application for the post of quality control manager -regarding. With reference to your advertisement The Hindu dated on 15 July apply for the post of quality control manager in your company. I should offer my service as quality control manager. I am a Under Graduate in Electrical and Electronics Engineering in Vel Tech Multi Tech College, Chennai with a three years experience in industrial field.I did my 12th in Chellammal Vidyalaya Matriculation Higher Seccondary School,Thiruvallur. I have enclosed my resume for my further consideration. If I appointed I assure you sir, I will do my job in entire satisfaction and put in hard work for the development of the company. Hence I request you to kindly consider my candidature for the post

Yours sincerely C U Ashok Kumar

RESUME C U Ashok kumar Plot no.1,Alli street(south),SRM garden , Saraswathi Nagar, J.B.Estate,Avadi Chennai-600054 Mobile : 7200290318

Email-id: ashokuday.07@gmail.com OBJECTIVE : To secure a job in the IT industry where I can utilize my knowledge for the organizations growth and to be associated with a progressive organization which can provide me with a dynamic work sphere to extract my inherent skills as a Professional in the current industry. ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION : ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS UG: BRANCH UNIVERSITY COLLEGE Year 4th year 3rd year 2nd year 1st year School: Standard 12TH School Year of Passing 2009 Percentage 88.88 Remarks Good : : : B. E (ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG.) Anna University, Chennai Vel tech multi tech SRSEngineering College Percentage 85 84 89 83 Remarks No arrear No arrear No arrear No arrear

10th

Chellammal Vidyalaya matriculation Hr.Sec.School, Thiruvallur-4(TN) Kendriya Vidyalaya 2007 No.2, Air force Station,Maharajpura, Gwalior (MP)

61.6

Good

TECHNICAL SKILLS : SKILLS TECHNICAL SKILLS Programming Languages Back End Tools Front End Tools Applications Operating Systems C, C++ MS Access, MS Power Plant,MS Excel Visual Basic Researching about the software in circuit design DOS, Windows

PERSONAL SKILLS Problem solving ability and deal with people diplomatically. Effective communication and positive thinking.

OTHER QUALIFICATION : Completed One-week Industrial Training in BSNL Training Institute, Meenambakkam about Wireless Communication Systems. Participated in Embedded Workshop,EPR Lab ,Ambathur,Chennai Participated in EMC2 WORK SHOP 2011 conducted by Computer Society of India (CSI)R AREA OF INTEREST : C, OOPs Concept in C++ Operating System (Memory Management & Process Management) WORKSHOP ATTENDED Workshop based on Embedded System. Workshop based on Soft Skills. TRAINING UNDERGONE THERMAL POWER PLANT ,Ennore, Chennai

PERSONAL DETAILS Name Fathers Name Date of Birth Gender Nationality Religion Languages Known Mother Tongue Permanent address Contact no : : : : : : : : : : C U Ashok kumar K.C.Udaiya Kumar 07-March-1992 male Indian Hindu Tamil,English,Hindi Tamil Plot No.1,Alli Street,Saraswathi Nagar JB Estate Avadi,Chennai-54 7200290318

DECLARATION : I hereby declare that all the information mentioned above is true to the best of my knowledge. Date: 25-7-2011 Place: Avadi,Chennai-54 CuAshokkumar SIGNATURE

Ex.no:4 Date: Topic: CURRENT AFFAIRS

Non-Technical Presentation

ANNA HAZARE He once contemplated suicide and even wrote a two-page essay on why he wanted to end his life. Anna Hazare was not driven to such a pass by circumstances. He wanted to live no more because he was frustrated with life and wanted an answer to the purpose of human existence.

The story goes that one day at the New Delhi Railway Station, he chanced upon a book on Swami Vivekananda. Drawn by Vivekananda's photograph, he is quoted as saying that he read the book and found his answer - that the motive of his life lay in service to his fellow humans. Today, Anna Hazare is the face of India's fight against corruption. He has taken that fight to the corridors of power and challenged the government at the highest level. People, the common man and well-known personalities alike, are supporting him in the hundreds swelling to the thousands. For Anna Hazare, it is another battle. And he has fought quite a few, Including some as a soldier for 15 years in Indian Army. He enlisted after the 1962 Indo-China war when the government exhorted young men to join the Army. In 1978, he took voluntary retirement from the 9th Maratha Battalion and returned home to Ralegaon Siddhi, a village in Maharashtra's drought-prone Ahmadnagar. He was 39 years old. He found farmers back home struggling for survival and their suffering would prompt him to pioneer rainwater conservation that put his little hamlet on the international map as a model village. The villagers revere him. Thakaram Raut, a school teacher in Ralegaon Siddhi says, "Thanks to Anna's agitations, we got a school, we got electricity, we got development schemes for farmers.'' Anna Hazare's fight against corruption began here. He fought first against corruption that was blocking growth in rural India. His organization - the Bhrashtachar Virodhi Jan Andolan (People's movement against Corruption). His tool of protest - hunger strikes. And his prime target - politicians. Maharashtra stalwarts like Sharad Pawar and Bal Thackeray have often called his style of agitation nothing short of "blackmail". But his weapon is potent. In 1995-96, he forced the Sena-BJP government in Maharashtra to drop two corrupt Cabinet Ministers. In 2003, he forced the CongressNationalist Congress Party (NCP) state government to set up an investigation against four ministers. In April this year, four days of fasting brought thousands of people out in support of his crusade against corruption. They also made the government realise it could not be dismissive about Anna Hazare and his mass appeal. His relationship with the UPA government continues to be uneasy. The truce of April was short-lived. An exercise to set up a joint committee made up of equal numbers of government representatives and civil society activists, including Anna Hazare came to naught when the two sides failed to agree and drafted two different Lok Pal Bills. The government has brought its version in Parliament and Team Anna is livid. The Gandhian is soldiering on. From one battle to another in his war against corruption. He fought from the front to have Right to Information (RTI) implemented.

He is now fighting for the implementation of the Jan Lokpal Bill, the anti-corruption bill drafted by his team of crusaders. This year, more than 30 years after Anna Hazare started his crusade, as the 74-year-old plans a second hunger strike in Delhi against large-scale corruption at the national level. Nothing really has changed except the scale of his battle.

Ex.no:5 Date: Topic:

Technical Presentation
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the power supply frequency and resulting rotating magnetic field which drives it.

Another way of saying this is that it does not rely on slip under usual operating conditions and as a result, produces torque at synchronous speed. Synchronous motors can be contrasted with an induction motor, which must slip in order to produce torque. They operate synchronously with line frequency. As with squirrel-cage induction motors, speed is determined by the number of pairs of poles and the line frequency. Synchronous motors are available in sub-fractional self-excited sizes to highhorsepower direct-current excited industrial sizes. In the fractional horsepower range, most synchronous motors are used where precise constant speed is required. In high-horsepower industrial sizes, the synchronous motor provides two important functions. First, it is a highly efficient means of converting ac energy to work. Second, it can operate at leading or unity power factor and thereby provide power-factor correction.

Types
There are two major types of synchronous motors: 'non-excited' and 'direct-current excited', which have no self-starting capability to reach synchronism without extra excitation means, such as electronic control or induction. Non-excited motors These are manufactured in permanent magnet, reluctance and hysteresis designs. Reluctance and hysteresis designs employ a self-starting circuit and require no external excitation supply. Permanent magnet designs require electronic control for practical operation. DC-excited motors Made in sizes larger than 1 hp, these motors require direct current supplied through slip rings for excitation. The direct current can be supplied from a separate source or from a dc generator directly connected to the motor shaft Slip rings and brushes are used to conduct current to the rotor. The rotor poles connect to each other and move at the same speed - hence the name synchronous motor.

Synchronous speed
The "synchronous speed" of a synchronous motor is determined by the following formula:

where v is the speed of the rotor (in rpm), f is the frequency of the AC supply (in Hz) and n is the number of magnetic poles. Different from all other synchronous motors, the synchronous brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine

operates from sub-synchronous to super-synchronous speeds or twice synchronous speed.

Parts
A synchronous motor is composed of the following parts: The stator is the outer shell of the motor, which carries the armature winding. This winding is spatially distributed for poly-phase AC current. This armature creates a rotating magnetic field inside the motor. The rotor is the rotating portion of the motor. It carries field winding, which may be supplied by a DC source. On excitation, this field winding behaves as a permanent magnet.Some machines use permanent magnets in the rotor. The slip rings on the rotor, to supply the DC to the field winding. The stator frame contains and supports the other parts and may include bearing housings.

Large machines may include additional parts for cooling the machine, supporting the rotor, lubricating and cooling the bearings, and various protection and measurement devices.

Operation
The operation of a synchronous motor is simple to imagine. The armature winding, when excited by a poly-phase (usually 3-phase) supply, creates a rotating magnetic field inside the motor. The field winding, which acts as a permanent magnet, simply locks in with the rotating magnetic field and rotates along with it. During operation, as the field locks in with the rotating magnetic field, the motor is said to be in synchronization. Once the motor is in operation, the speed of the motor is dependent only on the supply frequency. When the motor load is increased beyond the breakdown load, the motor falls out of synchronization i.e., the applied load is large enough to pull out the field winding from following the rotating magnetic field. The motor immediately stalls after it falls out of synchronization.

Starting methods
Synchronous motors are not self-starting motors. This property is due to the inertia of the rotor. When the power supply is switched on, the armature winding and field windings are excited. Instantaneously, the armature winding creates a rotating magnetic field, which revolves at the designated motor speed. The rotor, due to inertia, will not follow the revolving magnetic field. In practice, the rotor should be rotated by some other means near to the motor's synchronous speed to overcome the inertia. Once the rotor nears the synchronous speed, the field winding is excited, and the motor pulls into synchronization. The following techniques are employed to start a synchronous motor:

A separate motor (called pony motor) is used to drive the rotor before it locks in into synchronization. The field winding is shunted or induction motor like arrangements are made so that the synchronous motor starts as an induction motor and locks in to synchronization once it reaches speeds near its synchronous speed. Reducing the input electrical frequency to get the motor starting slowly, variable-frequency drives can be used here which have rectifier-inverter circuits or cycloconverter circuits.

Special Properties
Synchronous motors show some interesting properties, which finds applications in power factor correction. The synchronous motor can be run at lagging, unity or leading power factor. The control is with the field excitation, as described below: When the field excitation voltage is decreased, the motor runs in lagging power factor. The power factor by which the motor lags varies directly with the drop in excitation voltage. This condition is called under-excitation. When the field excitation voltage is made equal to the rated voltage, the motor runs at unity power factor. When the field excitation voltage is increased above the rated voltage, the motor runs at leading power factor. And the power factor by which the motor leads varies directly with the increase in field excitation voltage. This condition is called over-excitation. The most basic property of synchro motor is that it can be used both as a capacitor or inductor. Hence in turn it improves the power factor of system.

The leading power factor operation of synchronous motor finds application in power factor correction. Normally, all the loads connected to the power supply grid run in lagging power factor, which increases reactive power consumption in the grid, thus contributing to additional losses. In such cases, a synchronous motor with no load is connected to the grid and is run over-excited, so that the leading power factor created by synchronous motor compensates the existing lagging power factor in the grid and the overall power factor is brought close to 1 (unity power factor). If unity power factor is maintained in a grid, reactive power losses diminish to zero, increasing the efficiency of the grid. This operation of synchronous motor in over-excited mode to correct the power factor is sometimes called as Synchronous condenser.

Uses
Synchronous motors find applications in all industrial applications where constant speed is necessary. Improving the power factor as synchronous condensers. Low power applications include positioning machines, where high precision is required, and robot actuators. Mains synchronous motors are used for electric clocks. Record player turntables

Advantages
Synchronous motors have the following advantages over non-synchronous motors: Speed is independent of the load, provided an adequate field current is applied. Accurate control in speed and position using open loop controls, e.g. stepper motors. They will hold their position when a DC current is applied to both the stator and the rotor windings. Their power factor can be adjusted to unity by using a proper field current relative to the load. Also, a "capacitive" power factor, (current phase leads voltage phase), can be obtained by increasing this current slightly, which can help achieve a better power factor correction for the whole installation. Their construction allows for increased electrical efficiency when a low speed is required (as in ball mills and similar apparatus). They run either at the synchronous speed or they do not run at all.

Common Errors In English

EXNO:8 DATE:

COMMON ERRORS IN ENGLISH

1. I ride the bus every morning. My sister never (ride) the bus. Ans: I ride the bus every morning. My sister never rides the bus. 2.This old watch keeps perfect time. I (keep) it on a silver chain. Ans: This old watch keeps perfect time. I keep it on a silver chain.

3.Veronica seldom visits her mother. In fact, she never wants to (visit) anyone. Ans Veronica seldom visits her mother. In fact, she never wants to visit anyone. 4.Your excuse sounds familiar. It (sound) like the one you gave last week. Ans Your excuse sounds familiar. It sounds like the one you gave last week. 5.Both Charlie and Hurley enjoy music. Charlie also (enjoy) playing guitar. Ans Both Charlie and Hurley enjoy music. Charlie alsoenjoys playing guitar. 6.Edna lives by herself next door. Simon and Peter (live) downstairs. Ans Edna lives by herself next door. Simon and Peterlive downstairs. 7.I refuse to apologize to Leonard. He (refuse) to speak to me. Ans I refuse to apologize to Leonard. He refuses to speak to me. 8.Gus and Merdine sing in the church choir. Unfortunately, they (sing) out of key. Ans Gus and Merdine sing in the church choir. Unfortunately, they sing out of key. 9.This machine sorts the mail. It (sort) envelopes according to size and weight. Ans This machine sorts the mail. It sorts envelopes according to size and weight. 10.The BP station closes at midnight. The other stations never (close). Ans The BP station closes at midnight. The other stations never close.