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1. How does this set of data compare to the data you recorded for Activity 2? The MRV is 3075 and the breathing is not as strong 2. Is the respiratory system functioning better or worse than it did in the previous activity? Explain why. The breathing is more shallow and incomplete. The lungs are not able to inhale or exhale as much as in Activity 2 3. What is the effect of reducing the radius of the air flow tube on respiratory volumes? The air flow was decreasing, which decreased the respiratory volume. 4. What does the air flow tube simulate in the human body? The trachea 5. What could be some possible causes of reduction in air flow to the lungs? An allergic reaction could cause the trachea to swell which would restrict air flow or an obstruction could block some or the entire trachea causing the air flow to decrease as well. Respiratory Volumes Activity 2: Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes 1. Minute respiratory volume: 7,500 ml 2. Judging from the trace you generated, inspiration took place over how many seconds? 2 seconds 3. Expiration took place over how many seconds? 2 seconds 4. Does the duration of inspiration or expiration vary during ERV or FVC? Yes Activity 3: Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes 1. How does this set of data compare to the data you recorded for Activity 2? The MRV is 3075 and the breathing is not as strong. 2. Is the respiratory system functioning better or worse than it did in the previous activity? It is worse. Explain why. The breathing is more shallow and incomplete. The lungs are not able to inhale or exhale as much as in Activity 2 3. What is the effect of reducing the radius of the air flow tube on respiratory volumes? The air flow was decreasing, which decreased the respiratory volume. 4. What does the air flow tube simulate in the human body? The trachea 5. What could be some possible causes of reduction in air flow to the lungs? An

allergic reaction could cause the trachea to swell which would restrict air flow or an obstruction could block some or the entire trachea causing the air flow to decrease as well.

Factors Affecting Respiration Activity 4: Effect of Surfactant on Respiratory Volumes 1. When surfactant is added, what happens to the tidal volume? It increases the amount of air being inhaled. 2. As a result of the tidal volume change, what happens to the flow into each lung and total air flow? They all increased. 3. Why does this happen? Surfactant acts to decrease the surface tension of water in the fluid that line the walls of the alveoli. Activity 5: Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture 1. What happened to the left lung when you clicked on the valve button? It deflated. 2. Why? Because the pressure in the left lung was 0 and the right lung changed rapidly, the air moved into the intrapleural space through the opening, causing intrapleural pressure. 3. What has happened to the Total Flow rate? It was reduced by . 4. What is the pressure in the left lung? 0 5. Has the pressure in the right lung been affected? No 6. If there was nothing separating the left lung from the right lung, what would have happened when you opened the valve for the left lung? They would collapse. Why? Because the thoracic wall was punctured and the lungs would be in a single cavity 7. Now click the valve for the left lung again, closing it. What happens? The lungs did not re-inflate. Why? Because there is still excess air. 8. Describe the relationship required between intrathoracic pressure and atmospheric pressure in order to draw air into the lungs. Intrathoracic pressure must remain the same as atmospheric pressure to maintain homeostasis Intrathoracic pressure must remain greater than atmospheric pressure to force air out of the lungs. Intrathoracic pressure must remain less than atmospheric pressure to draw air into the lungs. 9. Design your own experiment for testing the effect of opening the valve of the right lung. Was there any difference from the effect of opening the valve of the left lung? No Variations in Breathing

Activity 6: Rapid Breathing 1. What happens to the PCO2 level during rapid breathing? PCO2 levels decrease during rapid breathing. 2. Why? Because more CO2 was removed from the blood than normal. Activity 7: Rebreathing 1. What happens to the PCO2 level during rebreathing? It increased. 2. Why? The air that was inhaled had increased amounts of exhaled CO2. 3. Did the total flow change? Yes 4. Why? Increased pump rate 5. How does the rebreathing trace compare to your baseline trace? The depth and rate of respirations increased during rebreathing. 6. Why? Increased CO2 in the blood causing stimulating of the respiratory centers in the brain stem. Activity 8: Breath Holding 1. What happens to the PCO2 level during breath holding? PCO2 increased dramatically during breath holding. 2. Why? Because CO2 cannot be released by cells undergoing cellular respiration. 3. What change was seen when you returned to Normal Breathing? The rate and depth of breathing increased slightly for a brief period when normal breath-ing resumed to allow PCO2 rates to decrease to the normal range.