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MC TIU TI ........................................................................................................................ 1 NGHA KHOA HC THC TIN .............................................................................................. 2 PHM VI NGHIN CU ............................................................................................................... 3 LI M U ................................................................................................................................

.. 4 CHNG I : TNG QUAN V MNG NGN ............................................................................... 1 1.1 GII THIU MNG NGN ............................................................................................. 1 1.2 S RA I CA MNG NGN ..................................................................................... 1 1.3 NG LC THC Y S PHT TRIN CA MNG NGN ..................................... 2 ng lc ca cng ngh .............................................................................................. 2 ng lc ca th trng ............................................................................................... 2 ng lc ca hi t v kt hp mng .......................................................................... 2 ng lc ca dch v ................................................................................................... 2 CHNG II : MNG TH H SAU - NGN ................................................................................. 3 2.1 KHI NIM V C IM CA NGN.......................................................................... 3 2.1.1 Khi nim ................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2 c im : ............................................................................................................... 3 2.2 TM HIU CC CNG NGH TRONG NGN ............................................................... 4 2.2.1 Cng ngh truyn dn ............................................................................................. 4 2.2.2 Cng ngh mng truy nhp ..................................................................................... 5 2.2.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch......................................................................................... 6 2.3 KIN TRC NGN ......................................................................................................... 7 2.3.1 Lp truyn dn v truy nhp.................................................................................... 8 2.3.2 Lp truyn thng ..................................................................................................... 9 2.3.3 Lp iu khin ......................................................................................................... 9 2.3.4 Lp ng dng ........................................................................................................ 10 2.3.5 Lp qun l ............................................................................................................ 11 2.4 CC PHN T TRONG MNG NGN ........................................................................ 12 2.5 CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN ......................................................... 15 CHNG III: GIAO THC NH TUYN .................................................................................. 17 3.1 GII THIU V NH TUYN ................................................................................... 17 3.2 CC LP THUT TON NH TUYN ..................................................................... 18 3.2.1 Thut ton vector khong cch (Distance Vector Algorithm) ................................ 18 3.2.2 Thut ton trng thi kt ni (Link-state Algorithm) .............................................. 19 3.2.3 So snh cc thut ton nh tuyn ........................................................................ 19 3.3 CC GIAO THC NH TUYN C BN ................................................................. 20 3.3.1 Giao thc nh tuyn RIP ...................................................................................... 20
3.3.1.1 3.3.1.2 3.3.1.3 Khi nim .................................................................................................................. 20 Thut ton v v d minh ha.................................................................................... 20 u & nhc im ..................................................................................................... 22 Khi nim .................................................................................................................. 23 Thut ton v v d minh ha.................................................................................... 23 u v nhc im .................................................................................................... 25 Khi nim .................................................................................................................. 25 Chc nng ................................................................................................................ 26 Bi ton nh tuyn QoS ........................................................................................... 27 u v nhc im .................................................................................................... 27

3.3.2

Giao thc nh tuyn OSPF .................................................................................. 23

3.3.2.1 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3

3.3.3

Giao thc nh tuyn Qos ...................................................................................... 25

3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4

CHNG IV: THUT TON V M PHNG .......................................................................... 29 4.1 GII THIU V THUT TON .................................................................................. 29 4.1.1 Thut ton Forward-search (Dijkstra).................................................................... 29 4.1.2 Thut ton Backward-search (Bellman-Ford) ....................................................... 30 4.2 V D MINH HA ....................................................................................................... 30 4.2.1 Thut ton Dijkstra ................................................................................................ 30 4.2.2 Thut ton Bellman-Ford ....................................................................................... 31 4.2.3 Kt lun v nh gi .............................................................................................. 32 - THUT TON FORD-BELLMAN TM NG I NGN NHT T NH U TI TT C CC NH CN LI, C TH S DNG TONG TRNG HP TRNG S M. ............... 33 - THUT TON DIJKSTRA CH TM NG I NGN NHT GIA HAI NH C TH (T U N V) ..................................................................................................................................... 33 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN ........................................................................................ 1 TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................................................ 2

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MC TIU TI
Mi trng kinh doanh ngy cng mang tnh cnh tranh v phc tp hn bao gi ht. Cht lng dch v ngy cng tr thnh cha kho c th dn ti thnh cng. Song song vi xu th ny, nhu cu cng ngy cng gia tng i vi cc dch v truyn thng mi, kh nng p ng vic cung cp dch v hoc tng tnh cnh tranh. Trung tm ca nhng dch v mi l mng th h tip theo (Next Generation Network - NGN) NGN l bc tip theo trong lnh vc truyn thng th gii, truyn thng c h tr bi 3 mng li: mng thoi PSTN, mng khng dy v mng s liu (Internet). NGN hi t c 3 mng trn vo mt kt cu thng nht hnh thnh mt mng chung, thng minh, hiu qu cho php truy xut ton cu, tch hp nhiu cng ngh mi, ng dng mi v m ng cho cc c hi kinh doanh pht trin. ti s tp trung vo vic tm hiu mng th h sau, cc thnh phn cng nh cc gii php v m hnh NGN. T nm bt c nhng khi nim, hiu c th no l mng th h sau, vai tr ca tng b phn cu thnh. Ngoi ra sau khi hon thnh ti bn thn sinh vin thc hin s hiu thm v cc giao thc nh tuyn,cc thut ton p dng nh tuyn v ng dng ca n.

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NGHA KHOA HC THC TIN


Trong nhiu nm gn y, nn cng nghip vin thng vn ang trn tr v vn pht trin cng ngh cn bn no v dng mng g h tr cc nh khai thc trong bi cnh lut vin thng ang thay i nhanh chng, cnh tranh ngy cng gia tng mnh m. Khi nim mng th h mi (hay cn gi l mng th h tip theo - NGN) ra i cng vi vic ti kin trc mng, tn dng tt c cc u th v cng ngh tin tin nhm a ra nhiu dch v mi, mang li ngun thu mi gp phn gim chi ph. Mng th h sau c t chc da trn cc nguyn tc c bn sau : - p ng nhu cu cung cp cc loi hnh dch v vin thng phong ph, a dng, a dch v, a phng tin. - Mng c cu trc n gin. - Nng cao hiu qu s dng, cht lng mng li v gim thiu chi ph khai thc v bo dng. - D dng m rng dung lng, pht trin cc dch v mi. - linh hot v tnh sn sng cao, nng lc tn ti mnh.

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PHM VI NGHIN CU
Tm hiu tng quan v mng th h sau gm c nhng phn : Khi nim v s ra i NGN ng lc pht trin mng Ngin cu v mng NGN hiu c nhng phn : nh ngha v c im ca mng Kin trc mng v cc phn t trong mng Cu trc vt l Cc giao thc v cng ngh c s dng trong mng th h sau Tm hiu mt vi giao thc nh tuyn nh : RIP OSPF nh tuyn m bo cht lng QoS

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LI M U
S cnh tranh gay gt trong lnh vc mng thng tin cng nh mng vin thng ang din ra trong nhng nm gn y. Khi s cnh tranh gia tng, iu c bit quan trng i vi cc cng ty l xc nh v tr thch hp mang li thun li cho bn thn mnh, v chun b cho mi trng truyn thng mi ang ni ln. Trong mi trng ny, s ha nhp, lin kt v cnh tranh ca cc thnh vin mi tham gia vo th trng phi hot ng tch cc tm ra phng thc mi, nhm gi v thu ht hu ht cc khch hng c tim nng. Cc nh cung cp dch v hin nay ang c gng tm ra li i ring cho mnh to ra s khc bit vi cc nh cung cp khc, chng hn nh tm kim phng thc mi ng nhn v ng gi dch v, thc hin gim cc chi ph hot ng, Mng th h mi NGN l bc k tip ca th gii vin thng, c th c hiu l mng da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, ni m cc chuyn mch v cc phn t truyn thng (nh cc b nh tuyn, cc b chuyn mch v gateway) c phn bit mt cch lun l v vt l theo kh nng iu khin thng minh dch v hoc cuc gi. Kh nng iu khin thng minh ny thng h tr cho tt c cc loi dch v trn mng truyn thng, t dch v thoi c bn (Basic Voice Telephony Services) cho n cc dch v d liu, hnh nh, a phng tin, bng rng tin tin (Advanced Broadband), v cc ng dng qun l (Management Application). Trong khi gi thnh phi tr cho kh nng x l v truyn dn ang gim rt nhanh th gi thnh phi tr cho cc phn t c kh nng vn hnh, qun l, v hiu chnh li mng li c xu hng tng ln. S thay i ny s lm nh hng n chi ph sa cha, phn phi v bo dng mng, do mng n nhng yu cu mi v vic thit lp cc k hoch v trin khai cc k thut mi. Vic nh tuyn trong mng NGN sao cho ph hp vi yu cu t ra ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic nh hng mang tnh chin lc a ra cc quyt nh pht trin v trin khai cng ngh mi. c s hng dn v gip ca c gio TS. Nguyn Th Bch Hnh, ging vin ca khoa in T Vin Thng i Hc Duy Tn em nm bt http://www.ebook.edu.vn

c nhng kin thc c bn v cu trc v nhng phng php nh tuyn c s dng trong mng. Cho n nay, em hon thnh n vi ti Tm hiu v mng NGN v nh tuyn. Ni dung ca bn n ny c chia thnh 4 chng: Chng 1: TNG QUAN V MNG NGN Chng 2 : MNG TH H SAU - NGN Chng 3: GIAO THC NH TUYN Chng 4: THUT TON & M PHNG Do ni dung kin thc ca ti tng i rng v mi m, iu kin v thi gian cng nh trnh kin thc c hn nn vic nghin cu, tm hiu chc chn khng th trnh khi nhng sai st. Em rt mong nhn c s thng cm, ch dn v gp ca cc thy gio, c gio cng nhng ngi quan tm. Em xin chn thnh cm n c gio Nguyn Th Bch Hnh v cc thy c gio trong khoa in T Vin Thng, nhng ngi gip em trong thi gian qua. nng, thng 10 nm 2010 SVTH V Th Lan Hng

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

CHNG I : TNG QUAN V MNG NGN


1.1 GII THIU MNG NGN Mng th h sau (Next Generation-Network-NGN) c th c hiu l mng chuyn mch gi ni m chuyn mch gi v cc phn t truyn thng (nh cc b nh tuyn, chuyn mch v cng) c phn bit mt cch logic v vt l theo kh nng iu khin thng minh dch v hoc cuc gi. Kh nng iu khin thng minh ny thng h tr cho tt c cc cc loi dch v trn mng vin thng chuyn mch gi, bao gm mi dch v t dch v thoi c bn n dch v cc dch v d liu, a phng tin, bng rng tin tin (advanced broadcast), v cc ng dng qun l (management applications), phn t c bn trong mng NGN l chuyn mch mm (Softswitch). c xy dng trn tiu ch m, cc giao thc chun v giao din thn thin, NGN p ng c hu ht cc nhu cu ca nhiu i tng s dng: doanh nghip, vn phng, lin lc gia cc mng my tnh v.v... NGN thng nht mng hu tuyn truyn thng v chun truyn ti m thanh, hnh nh, d liu khng dy. Cng ngh mng NGN chnh l cha kho gii m cho cng ngh tng lai, p ng c y cc yu cu kinh doanh trn vi c im quan trng l cu trc phn lp theo chc nng v phn tn cc tim nng trn mng, lm cho mng mm ho v s dng rng ri cc giao din m a truy nhp, a giao thc kin to cc dch v m khng ph thuc qu nhiu vo cc nh cung cp thit b v khai thc mng. 1.2 S RA I CA MNG NGN Mng PSTN ca VNPT c xy dng v pht trin kh ton din, cung cp dch v thoi truyn thng cht lng tt ti khch hng. Tuy nhin, sau nhiu nm hot ng, PSTN bc l mt s hn ch hu nh khng th khc phc c. Chuyn mch da trn cng ngh TDM cng nhc trong vic phn b bng thng (Nx64kb/s) v gp nhiu kh khn khi a ra cc dch v mi, nht l khi trin khai mng NGN. Mng PSTN cn s u t ln, gi thnh thit b cao v chi ph vn hnh mng ln. Hn na, mng PSTN c nhiu cp SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 1

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

khc nhau (Gateway quc t, Toll, tandem, Host) nn rt phc tp trong vic phi hp h thng bo hiu, ng b v trin khai dch v mi. Trong khi , nhu cu v cc dch v d liu pht trin mnh: Internet ngy cng ph bin, nhng i hi v dch v IP, xu th tch hp IP/ATM/MPLS cho mng ng trc...cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin v vin thng th gii dn n s cn thit phi thay i cng ngh mng. Mng mi ra i phi c bng tn rng, hiu sut cao, h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v, n gin v cu trc v qun l, d dng pht trin dch v v nhanh chng cung cp cho khch hng. Nh vy, dp ng cc yu cu t ra, cc nh qun tr mng c 2 s la chn, hoc l xy dng mt c s h tng hon ton mi hoc l xy dng mt mng c kh nng cung cp cc dch v IP bng cch nng cp trn h tng mng PSTN hin c. H tng mng ca th k 20 khng th c thay th ch trong mt sm, mt chiu v v th phng n th hai l s la chn ng n l mng th h sau (NGN Next Generation Network). Do vy, mng NGN c hnh thnh v pht trin. S hi t ca cc mng l yu cu cn thit, mang li nhiu li ch cho nh khai thc dch v. i vi nh hng NGN mang li nhiu tnh nng c th p ng c nhiu yu cu ca khch hng nht l cc dch v bng rng nh: Tng thm tnh mm do Tp trung kh nng iu khin cuc gi thng qua chuyn mch mm Tit kim bng thng Cung cp dch v multi-media 1.3 NG LC THC Y S PHT TRIN CA MNG NGN ng lc ca cng ngh ng lc ca th trng ng lc ca hi t v kt hp mng ng lc ca dch v

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

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CHNG II : MNG TH H SAU - NGN


2.1 KHI NIM V C IM CA NGN Cho ti hin nay, mc d cc t chc vin thng quc t v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii u rt quan tm v nghin cu v chin lc pht trin NGN. Do , nh ngha NGN nu ra y khng th bao hm ht ngha ca mng th h mi nhng l khi nim chung nht khi cp n NGN. Bt ngun t s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin, cng ngh chuyn mch gi v cng ngh truyn dn bng rng, NGN ra i l mng c c s h tng thng tin da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, p ng s hi t gia thoi v s liu, c nh v di ng. Nh vy, c th xem NGN l s tch hp mng PSTN da trn k thut TDM v mng chuyn mch gi da trn k thut IP/ATM. N c th truyn ti tt c cc dch v vn c ca PSTN, ng thi c th cung cp cho mng IP lu lng d liu ln, nh gim ti cho mng PSTN. Tuy nhin, NGN khng ch n thun l s hi t gia thoi v d liu m cn l s hi t gia truyn dn quang v cng ngh gi, gia mng c nh v di ng. 2.1.2 c im : NGN c bn c im chnh : Trc ht, do p dng c cu m m: Cc khi chc nng ca tng i truyn thng chia thnh cc phn t mng c lp, cc phn t c phn theo chc nng tng ng v pht trin mt cch c lp. Giao din v giao thc gia cc b phn phi da trn cc tiu chun tng ng. Vic phn tch chc nng lm cho mng vin thng truyn thng dn dn i theo hng mi, nh kinh doanh c th cn c vo nhu cu dch v t t hp cc phn t khi t chc mng li. Vic tiu chun ha giao thc gia cc phn t c th thc hin lin kt gia cc mng c cu hnh khc nhau. Tip n, vic tch dch v c lp vi mng nhm thc hin mt cch linh hot v c hiu qu vic cung cp dch v. Thu bao c th t b tr v xc SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 3 2.1.1 Khi nim

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

nh c trng dch v ca mnh, khng quan tm n mng truyn ti dch v v loi hnh u cui. iu lm cho vic cung cp dch v v ng dng c tnh linh hot cao hn. Th ba, NGN da trn c s mng chuyn mch gi v cc giao thc thng nht. Mng thng tin hin nay, d l mng vin thng, mng my tnh hay mng truyn hnh cp, u khng th ly mt trong cc mng lm nn tng xy dng c s h tng thng tin. Nhng my nm gn y, cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh IP, ngi ta mi nhn thy r rng l mng vin thng, mng my tnh v mng truyn hnh cp cui cng ri cng tch hp trong mt mng IP thng nht, l xu th ln m ngi ta thng gi l dung hp ba mng. Giao thc IP lm cho cc dch v ly IP lm c s u c th thc hin lin kt cc mng khc nhau; con ngi ln u tin c c giao thc thng nht m ba mng ln u c th chp nhn c, t c s vng chc v mt k thut cho h tng c s thng tin quc gia. Giao thc IP thc t tr thnh giao thc ng dng vn nng v bt u c s dng lm c s cho cc mng a dch v, mc d hin ti vn cn nhiu khuyt im v kh nng h tr lu lng thoi v cung cp cht lng dch v m bo cho s liu. Tuy nhin, chnh tc i mi nhanh chng trong th gii Internet, m n c to iu kin bi s pht trin ca cc tiu chun m s sm khc phc nhng thiu st ny. 2.2 TM HIU CC CNG NGH TRONG NGN Trong cu trc mng th h mi, truyn dn l mt thnh phn ca lp kt ni (bao gm chuyn ti v truy nhp). Cng ngh truyn dn ca mng th h mi l SDH, WDM vi kh nng hot ng mm do, linh hot, thun tin cho khai thc v iu hnh qun l. Cc tuyn truyn dn SDH hin c v ang c tip tc trin khai rng ri trn mng vin thng l s pht trin ng hng theo cu trc mng mi. Cn tip tc pht trin cc h thng truyn dn cng ngh SDH v WDM, hn ch s dng cng ngh PDH. Cp quang: SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 4 2.2.1 Cng ngh truyn dn

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

+ Hin nay trn 60% lu lng thng tin c truyn i trn ton th gii c truyn trn mng quang. + Cng ngh truyn dn quang SDH cho php to trn ng truyn dn tc c cao (n*155 Mb/s) vi kh nng bo v ca cc mch vng c s dng rng ri nhiu nc v Vit Nam. + WDM cho php s dng rng bng tn rt ln ca si quang bng cch kt hp mt s tn hiu ghp knh theo thi gian vi di cc bc sng khc nhau v ta c th s dng c cc ca s khng gian, thi gian v di bc sng. Cng ngh WDM cho php nng tc truyn dn ln 5Gb/s, 10Gb/s v 20Gb/s. V tuyn: + Vi ba: Cng ngh truyn dn SDH cng pht trin trong lnh vc vi ba, tuy nhin do nhng hn ch ca mi trng truyn dn sng v tuyn nn tc v cht lng truyn dn khng cao so vi cng ngh truyn dn quang. + V tinh: V tinh qu o thp (LEO Low Earth Orbit), v tinh qu o trung bnh (MEO Medium Earth Orbit). Th trng thng tin v tin trong khu vc c s pht trin mnh trong nhng nm gn y v s cn tip tc trong nhng nm ti. Cc loi hnh dch v v tinh rt pht trin nh: DTH tng tc, truy nhp Internet, cc dch v bng rng, HDTV Ngoi cc ng dng ph bin i vi nhu cu thng tin qung b, vin thng nng thn, vi s kt hp s dng cc u im ca cng ngh CDMA, thng tin v tin ngy cng c xu hng pht trin c bit trong lnh vc thng tin di ng, thng tin c nhn, 2.2.2 Cng ngh mng truy nhp Cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn Hin nay trn th trng nhng nh khai thc vi c s h tng khc nhau a ra nhng dch v truy nhp da trn cng ngh khc nhau : Dial up, xDSL, ISDN da trn cp ng xon CM trn mng cp truyn hnh CATV PLC trn mng cp in lc Truy nhp quang trn CATV, PLC Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Vi s xut hin ca Wimax, cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cho thy s hi t mt cch r rng, v mng truy nhp v tuyn s tin ti cung cp dch v kt ni c tc cao hn, v s c s tha hip gia tnh di ng v tc cht lng dch v. 2.2.3 Cng ngh chuyn mch Chuyn mch cng l mt thnh phn trong lp mng chuyn ti ca cu trc NGN nhng c nhng thay i ln v mt cng ngh so vi cc thit b chuyn mch TDM trc y. Cng ngh chuyn mch ca mng th h mi l IP, ATM, ATM/IP hay MPLS th hin nay vn cha xc nh r, tuy nhin ni chung l da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, cho php hot ng vi nhiu tc v dch v khc nhau. Cng ngh chuyn mch quang: cc kt qu nghin cu mc th nghim ang hng ti vic ch to cc chuyn mch quang. Trong tng lai s c cc chuyn mch quang phn loi theo nguyn l sau: chuyn mch quang phn chia theo khng gian, chuyn mch quang phn chia theo thi gian, chuyn mch quang phn chia theo di bc sng.

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Khoa in T Vin Thng 2.3 KIN TRC NGN

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Cho n nay, mng th h sau vn l xu hng pht trin mi m, cha c mt khuyn ngh chnh thc no ca Lin minh Vin thng th gii ITU v cu trc ca n. Nhiu hng vin thng ln a ra m hnh cu trc mng th h mi nh Alcatel, Ericssion, Nortel, Siemens, Lucent, NEC, Bn cnh vic a ra nhiu m hnh cu trc mng NGN khc nhau v km theo l cc gii php mng cng nh nhng sn phm thit b mi khc nhau. Cc hng a ra cc m hnh cu trc tng i r rng v cc gii php mng kh c th l Alcatel, Siemens, Ericsions.

Hnh 2.2 : Cu trc mng NGN Kin trc mng NGN s dng chuyn mch gi cho c thoi v d liu. N phn chia cc khi vng chc ca tng i hin nay thnh cc lp mng ring l, cc lp ny lin kt vi nhau qua cc giao din m tiu chun. S thng minh ca x l cuc gi c bn trong chuyn mch ca PSTN thc cht l c tch ra t phn cng ca ma trn chuyn mch. By gi, s thng minh y nm trong mt thit b tch ri gi l chuyn mch mm (softswitch) cng c gi l mt b iu khin cng truyn thng (Media Gateway Controller) hoc l mt tc nhn cuc gi (Call Agent), ng vai tr phn t iu khin trong kin trc mng mi. Cc giao din m hng ti cc ng dng mng thng minh (IN- Intelligent Network) v cc server ng dng SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 7

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

mi to iu kin d dng cho vic nhanh chng cung cp dch v v m bo a ra th trng trong thi gian ngn. Ti lp truyn thng, cc cng c a vo s dng lm thch ng thoi v cc phng tin khc vi mng chuyn mch gi. Cc media gateway ny c s dng phi ghp hoc vi thit b u cui ca khch hng (RGW- Residental Gateway) vi cc mng truy nhp (AGW- Access Gateway) hoc vi mng PSTN (TGW- Trunk Access). Cc server phng tin c bit rt nhiu chc nng khc nhau, chng hn nh cung cp cc m quay s hoc thng bo. Ngoi ra, chng cn c cc chc nng tin tin hn nh : tr li bng ting ni tng tc v bin i vn bn sang ting ni hoc ting ni sang vn bn. Cc giao din m ca kin trc mi ny cho php cc dch v mi c gii thiu nhanh chng. ng thi chng cng to thun tin cho vic gii thiu cc phng thc kinh doanh mi bng cch chia tch chui gi tr truyn thng hin ti thnh nhiu dch v c th do cc hng khc nhau cung cp. T m hnh cu trc NGN v gii php ca cc hng khc nhau trn th trng hin nay, c th a ra m hnh cu trc NGN gm 4 lp chc nng :

Hnh 2.3 : Phn lp theo chc nng Trong cc lp trn, lp iu khin hin nay ang rt phc tp vi nhiu loi giao thc, kh nng tng thch gia cc thit b ca hng l vn ang c cc nh khai thc quan tm. 2.3.1 Lp truyn dn v truy nhp Phn truyn dn: p dng k thut ghp knh phn chia theo mt bc sng. DWDM lp vt l nhm m bo cung cp cht lng dch v (QoS) SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 8

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

theo yu cu ca ng dng. Lp truyn dn c kh nng h tr cc mc QoS khc nhau cho cng mt dch v v cho cc dch v khc nhau. N c kh nng lu tr li cc s kin xy ra trn mng (kch thc gi, tc gi, tr hon, t l mt gi v Jitter cho php, i vi mng chuyn mch gi; bng thng, tr hon i vi mng chuyn mch knh TDM). Phn truy nhp: Hng ti s dng cng ngh quang cho thng tin hu tuyn v CDMA cho thng tin v tuyn. Thng nht s dng cng ngh IP. Cung cp cc kt ni gia thu bao u cui v mng ng trc (thuc lp truyn dn) qua cng giao tip MGW thch hp. Mng NGN kt ni vi hu ht cc thit b u cui chun v khng chun nh cc thit b truy xut a dch v, in thoi IP, my tnh PC, tng i ni b PBX, in thoi POTS, in thoi s ISDN, di ng v tuyn, di ng v tinh, v tuyn c nh, VoIP, 2.3.2 Lp truyn thng Lp truyn thng c kh nng tng thch cc k thut truy nhp khc vi k thut chuyn mch gi IP hay ATM mng ng trc. Hay ni cch khc, lp ny chu trch nhim chuyn i cc loi mi trng (chng hn nh PSTN, FramRelay, LAN, v tuyn,) sang mi trng truyn dn gi c p dng trn mng li v ngc li. Nh , cc nt chuyn mch (ATM + IP) v cc h thng truyn dn s thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn cuc gi gia cc thu bao ca lp truy nhp di s iu khin ca cc thit b thuc lp iu khin. Thit b chnh trong lp truyn thng l cc cng (Gateway) lm nhim v kt ni gia cc phn ca mng v gia cc mng khc nhau. 2.3.3 Lp iu khin Lp iu khin c nhim v kt ni cung cp cc dch v thng sut t u cui n u cui vi bt k loi giao thc v bo hiu no. nh tuyn lu lng gia cc khi chuyn mch. Thit lp yu cu, iu chnh v thay i cc kt ni hoc cc lung, iu khin sp xp nhn (label mapping) gia cc giao din cng. Phn b lu lng v cc ch tiu cht lng i vi mi kt ni (hay mi lung) v thc hin gim st iu khin m bo QoS. SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 9

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Bo hiu u cui t cc trung k, cc cng trong kt ni vi lp media. Thng k v ghi li cc thng s v chi tit cuc gi, ng thi thc hin cc cnh bo. Thu nhn thng tin bo hiu t cc cng v chuyn thng tin ny n cc thnh phn thch hp trong lp iu khin. Qun l v bo dng hot ng ca cc tuyn kt ni thuc phm vi iu khin. Thit lp v qun l hot ng ca cc lung yu cu i vi chc nng dch v trong mng. Bo hiu vi cc thnh phn ngang cp. Cc chc nng qun l, chm sc khch hng cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin. Nh cc giao din m nn c s tch bit gia dch v v truyn dn, iu ny cho php cc dch v mi c a vo nhanh chng v d dng. 2.3.4 Lp ng dng Lp ng dng cung cp cc dch v c bng thng khc nhau v nhiu mc . Mt s loi dch v s thc hin lm ch vic thc hin iu khin logic ca chng v truy nhp trc tip ti lp ng dng, cn mt s dch v khc s c iu khin t lp iu khin nh dch v thoi truyn thng. Lp ng dng lin kt vi lp iu khin thng qua cc giao din m API. Nh m cc nh cung cp dch v c th pht trin cc ng dng v trin khai nhanh chng trn cc dch v mng. Mt s v d v cc loi ng dng dch v c a ra sau y: Cc dch v thoi Cc dch v thng tin v ni dung VPN cho thoi v s liu Video theo yu cu Nhm cc dch v a phng tin Thng mi in t Cc tr chi trn mng thi gian thc. .

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Hnh 2.4 : S ng dng dch v 2.3.5 Lp qun l Lp qun l l mt lp tc ng trc tip ln tt c cc lp cn li, lm nhim v gim st cc hot ng ca mng. Lp qun l l mt lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp t lp kt ni cho n lp ng dng. Tuy nhin cn phn bit cc chc nng qun l vi cc chc nng iu khin. V cn bn NGN s da trn cc giao din m v cung cp rt nhiu loi hnh dch v trong mt mng n, cho nn mng qun l phi lm vic trong mt mi trng a nh u t, a nh khai thc, a dch v. Lp qun l l mt lp tc ng trc tip ln tt c cc lp cn li, lm nhim v gim st cc hot ng ca mng. Lp qun l phi m bo hot ng c trong mi trng m, vi nhiu giao thc, dch v v cc nh khai thc khc nhau.

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Khoa in T Vin Thng 2.4 CC PHN T TRONG MNG NGN

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Hnh 2.5 : Cc thnh phn chnh ca mng NGN 2.4.1 Cng phng tin (MG Media Gateway) Media Gateway cung cp phng tin truyn ti thng tin thoi, d liu, fax v video gia mng gi IP v mng PSTN. Trong mng PSTN, d liu thoi c mang trn knh DS0. truyn d liu ny vo mng gi, mu thoi cn c nn li v ng gi. c bit y ngi ta s dng mt b x l tn hiu s DSP (Digital Signal Processors) thc hin cc chc nng : chuyn i AD (analog to digital), nn m thoi/ audio, trit ting di, b khong lng, m ha, ti to tnh hiu thoi, Cc chc nng ca mt Media Gateway : - Truyn d liu thoi s dng giao thc RTP (Real Time Protocol). - Cung cp khe thi gian T1 hay ti nguyn x l tn hiu s (DSP - Digital Signal Processing) di s iu khin ca Media Gateway Controller (MGC). ng thi qun l ti nguyn DSP cho dch v ny. - H tr cc giao thc c nh loop-start, ground-start, E&M, CAS, QSIG v ISDN qua T1. - Qun l ti nguyn v kt ni T1. - Cung cp kh nng thay nng cc card T1 hay DSP. - C phn mm Media Gateway d phng. SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 12

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

- Cho php kh nng m rng Media Gateway v: cng(ports), cards, cc nt m khng lm thay i cc thnh phn khc. 2.4.2 B iu khin cng phng tin (Media Gateway Controller) MGC l n v chc nng chnh ca Softswitch. N a ra cc quy lut x l cuc gi, cn MG v SG s thc hin cc quy lut . N iu khin SG thit lp v kt thc cuc gi. Ngoi ra n cn giao tip vi h thng OSS v BSS. MGC chnh l chic cu ni gia cc mng c c tnh khc nhau, nh PSTN, SS7, mng IP. N chu trch nhim qun l lu lng thoi v d liu qua cc mng khc nhau. N cn c gi l Call Agent do chc nng iu khin cc bn tin. Mt MGC kt hp vi MG, SG to thnh cu hnh ti thiu cho Softswitch. Cc chc nng ca Media Gateway Controller : - Qun l cuc gi - Cc giao thc thit lp cuc gi thoi : H.323, SIP - Giao thc iu khin truyn thng : MGCP, Megaco, H.248 - Qun l lp dch v v cht lng dch v - Giao thc qun l SS7 : SIGTRAN (SS7 over IP) - X l bo hiu SS7 - Qun l cc bn tin lin quan QoS nh RTCP - Thc hin nh tuyn cuc gi - Ghi li cc thng tin chi tit ca cuc gi tnh cc (CDR-Call Detail Record) - iu khin qun l bng thng - i vi Media Gateway : + Xc nh v cu hnh thi gian thc cho cc DSP + Phn b knh DS0 + Truyn dn thoi ( m ha, nn, ng gi) - i vi Signaling Gateway, MGC cung cp : + Cc loi SS7 + Cc b x l thi gian + Cu hnh kt ni SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 13

Khoa in T Vin Thng + M ca nt mng hay thng tin cu hnh - ng k Gatekeeper

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

2.4.3 Cng bo hiu (SG Signaling Gateway) Signaling Gateway to ra mt chic cu gia mng bo hiu SS7 vi mng IP di s iu khin ca MGC(Media Gateway Controller). SG lm cho Softswitch ging nh mt nt SS7 trong mng bo hiu SS7. Nhim v ca SG l x l thng tin bo hiu. Cc chc nng ca Signaling Gateway: - Cung cp mt kt ni vt l n mng bo hiu. Truyn thng tin bo hiu gia Media Gateway Controller v Signaling Gateway thng qua mng IP. - Cung cp ng dn truyn dn cho thoi, d liu v cc dng d liu khc. (Thc hin truyn d liu l nhim v ca Media Gateway). - Cung cp cc hot ng SS7 c s sn sng cao cho cc dch v vin thng. 2.4.4 Server phng tin (MS Media Server) Media Server l thnh phn la chn ca Softswitch, c s dng x l cc thng tin c bit. Mt Media Server phi h tr phn cng DSP vi hiu sut cao nht. Cc chc nng ca mt Media Server: - Chc nng voicemail c bn. - Hp th fax tch hp hay cc thng bo c th s dng e-mail hay cc bn tin ghi m trc (pre-recorded message). - Kh nng nhn ting ni (nu c). - Kh nng hi ngh truyn hnh (video conference). - Kh nng chuyn thoi sang vn bn (speech-to-text) 2.4.5 Server ng dng/server c tnh (AS/FS) Server c tnh l mt server mc ng dng cha mt lot cc dch v ca doanh nghip. Chnh v vy n cn c gi l Server ng dng thng mi. V hu ht cc Server ny t qun l cc dch v v truyn thng qua mng IP nn chng khng rng buc nhiu vi Softswith v vic phn chia hay nhm cc thnh phn ng dng. SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 14

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Cc dch v cng thm c th trc thuc Call Agent, hoc cng c th thc hin mt cch c lp. Nhng ng dng ny giao tip vi Call Agent thng qua cc giao thc nh SIP, H.323, Chng thng c lp vi phn cng nhng li yu cu truy nhp c s d liu c trng. Chc nng ca Feature Server : - Xc nh tnh hp l v h tr cc thng s dch v thng thng cho h thng a chuyn mch. Mt vi v d v cc dch v c tnh : - H thng tnh cc Call Agents s dng cc b CDR (Call Detail Record). Chng trnh CDR c rt nhiu c tnh, chng hn kh nng ng dng tc da trn loi ng truyn, thi im trong ngy.Dch v ny cho php khch hng truy nhp vo bn tin tnh cc ca h thng qua cuc gi thoi hay yu cu trang Web. - H.323 Gatekeeper- dch v ny h tr nh tuyn thng qua cc min khc nhau ( cc mng khc nhau). Mi min c th ang k s in thoi v s truy nhp trung k vi Gatekeeper thng qua giao thc H.323. Gatekeeper s cung cp dvh v nh tuyn cuc gi (v chuyn dch sang dng s) cho mi u cui H.323. Gatekeeper cn c th cung cp iu khin tnh cc v qun l bng thng cho Softswitch. - VPN -Dch v ny s thit lp mng ring o cho khch hng vi cc c tnh sau: + Bng thng xc nh ( thng qua mng thu ring tc cao) + m bo QoS + Nhiu tnh nng ring theo chun + K hoch quay s ring + Bo mt cc m thoi c truyn dn. 2.5 CC GIAO THC BO HIU V IU KHIN Kin trc ca NGN l kin trc phn tn v th m cc chc nng bo hiu v x l bo hiu, chuyn mch, iu khin cuc gi,c thc hin bi cc thit b nm phn tn trong cu hnh mng. c th to ra cc kt ni gia cc u cui nhm cung cp dch v, cc thit b ny phi trao i cc thng tin bo SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 15

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

hiu v diu khin vi nhau. Cch thc trao i cc thng tin bo hiu v iu khin c quy nh trong cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c s dng trong mng. Trong mng NGN c cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin c bn sau:
H323 SIP BICC SIGTRAN

MGCP, MEGACO/H.248

Cc giao thc ny c th phn thnh 2 loi: cc giao thc ngang hng (H.323, SIP, BICC) v cc giao thc ch t (MGCP, MEGACO/H.248). S khc nhau c bn gia hai cch tip cn ny l ch kh nng thng minh c phn b nh th no gia cc thit b bin ca mng v cc server. S la chn cch no l ph thuc vo chi ph h thng, trin khai dch v, kh thi. Mt gii php tng th s dng u im ca c hai cch tip cn nn c xem xt.

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

CHNG III: GIAO THC NH TUYN


3.1 GII THIU V NH TUYN nh tuyn (routing hay routeing) l qu trnh chn la cc ng i trn mt mng gi d liu qua , t ngun n ch.Vic nh tuyn c thc hin cho nhiu loi mng, trong c mng in thoi, lin mng, Internet, mng giao thng. N l mt chc nng c thc hin tng mng (Network Layer). Chc nng ny cho php router nh gi cc ng i sn c ti ch. nh tuyn lin quan n tnh ton cc ng dn ph hp cho tng nhu cu. nh gi ng i, nh tuyn s dng cc thng tin tp mng. Cc thng tin ny c th do ngi qun tr thit lp hoc c thu lm thng qua cc giao thc nh tuyn. Routing ch ra hng, s di chuyn ca cc gi (d liu) c nh a ch t mng ngun ca chng, hng n ch cui thng qua cc node trung gian; thit b phn cng chuyn dng c gi l router (b nh tuyn). Tin trnh nh tuyn thng ch hng i da vo bng nh tuyn, l bng cha nhng l trnh tt nht n cc ch khc nhau trn mng. => V vy vic xy dng bng nh tuyn, c t chc trong b nh ca router, tr nn v cng quan trng cho vic nh tuyn hiu qu. Mt s la chn nh tuyn c th l: Tiu ch ti u khc nhau. Minium hop. Khong cch a l ngn nht. Kh nng s dng ln nht. Gii hn dung lng v cc hn ch dung lng hin ti. Cc yu cu lu lng Yu cu phn tp. Cc yu cu bng ti Qu trnh nh tuyn Khi nh tuyn d liu t ngun n ch, router thng chuyn tip gi t mt lin kt d liu (mng) ny n mt lin kt d liu khc, s dng hai chc nng c bn: SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 17

Khoa in T Vin Thng - Xc nh ng i (path determination) - Chuyn mch (switching)

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Chc nng xc nh ng i chn ra mt ng i ti u n ch theo mt tiu ch no (chng hn chiu di ng i). tr gip cho qu trnh xc nh ng i, cc gii thut nh tuyn khi to v duy tr bng nh tuyn, bng ny cha thng tin v cc tuyn ti ch. Khi ng i ti u c xc nh, bc nhy tip theo gn vi ng i ny cho router bit phi gi gi i u n c th n ch theo ng i ti u . Chc nng chuyn mch cho php router chuyn gi t cng vo ti cng ra tng ng vi ng i ti u chn. Trong qu trnh nh tuyn, phn a ch mng c s dng xc nh ng i, cn phn a ch trm c router cui cng trn ng i (router ni trc tip ti mng ch) s dng chuyn gi ti ng trm ch. 3.2 CC LP THUT TON NH TUYN 3.2.1 Thut ton vector khong cch (Distance Vector Algorithm) Thut ton ny dng thut ton Bellman-Ford. Phng php ny ch nh mt con s, gi l chi ph (hay trng s), cho mi mt lin kt gia cc node trong mng. Cc node s gi thng tin t im A n im B qua ng i mang li tng chi ph thp nht (l tng cc chi ph ca cc kt ni gia cc node c dng). Thut ton hot ng vi nhng hnh ng rt n gin. Khi mt node khi ng ln u, n ch bit cc node k trc tip vi n, v chi ph trc tip i n (thng tin ny, danh sch ca cc ch, tng chi ph ca tng node, v bc k tip gi d liu n to nn bng nh tuyn, hay bng khong cch). Mi node, trong mt tin trnh, gi n tng hng xm tng chi ph ca n i n cc ch m n bit. Cc node hng xm phn tch thng tin ny, v so snh vi nhng thng tin m chng ang bit; bt k iu g ci thin c nhng thng tin chng ang c s c a vo cc bng nh tuyn ca nhng hng xm ny. n khi kt thc, tt c node trn mng s tm ra bc truyn k tip ti u n tt c mi ch, v tng chi ph tt nht.

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Trang 18

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Khi mt trong cc node gp vn , nhng node khc c s dng node hng ny trong l trnh ca mnh s loi b nhng l trnh , v to nn thng tin mi ca bng nh tuyn. Sau chng chuyn thng tin ny n tt c node gn k v lp li qu trnh trn. Cui cng, tt c node trn mng nhn c thng tin cp nht, v sau s tm ng i mi n tt c cc ch m chng cn ti c. 3.2.2 Thut ton trng thi kt ni (Link-state Algorithm) Khi p dng cc thut ton trng thi kt ni, mi node s dng d liu c s ca n nh l mt bn ca mng vi dng mt th. lm iu ny, mi node pht i ti tng th mng nhng thng tin v cc node khc m n c th kt ni c, v tng node gp thng tin mt cch c lp vo bn . S dng bn ny, mi router sau s quyt nh v tuyn ng tt nht t n n mi node khc. Thut ton lm theo cch ny l Dijkstra, bng cch xy dng cu trc d liu khc, dng cy, trong node hin ti l gc, v cha mi noded khc trong mng. Bt u vi mt cy ban u ch cha chnh n. Sau ln lt t tp cc node cha c thm vo cy, n s thm node c chi ph thp nht n mt node c trn cy. Tip tc qu trnh n khi mi node u c thm. Cy ny sau phc v xy dng bng nh tuyn, a ra bc truyn k tip tt u, t mt node n bt k node khc trn mng. 3.2.3 So snh cc thut ton nh tuyn Cc giao thc nh tuyn vi thut ton vector t ra n gin v hiu qu trong cc mng nh, v i hi t (nu c) s gim st. Tuy nhin, chng khng lm vic tt, v c ti nguyn tp hp t i, dn n s pht trin ca cc thut ton trng thi kt ni tuy phc tp hn nhng tt hn dng trong cc mng ln. Giao thc vector km hn vi rc ri v m n v tn. u im chnh ca nh tuyn bng trng thi kt ni l phn ng nhanh nhy hn, v trong mt khong thi gian c hn, i vi s thay i kt ni. Ngoi ra, nhng gi c gi qua mng trong nh tuyn bng trng thi kt ni th nh hn nhng gi dng trong nh tuyn bng vector. nh tuyn bng vector i hi bng nh tuyn y phi c truyn i, trong khi nh tuyn bng trng thi kt ni th ch c thng tin v hng xm ca node c truyn SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 19

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

i. V vy, cc gi ny dng ti nguyn mng mc khng ng k. Khuyt im chnh ca nh tuyn bng trng thi kt ni l n i hi nhiu s lu tr v tnh ton chy hn nh tuyn bng vector. 3.3 CC GIAO THC NH TUYN C BN

Giao thc nh tuyn trong


o o o o

Router Information Protocol (RIP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Hai giao thc sau y thuc s ha ca Cisco, v c h tr bi cc router Cisco hay nhng router ca nhng nh cung cp m Cisco ng k cng ngh: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)

Giao thc nh tuyn ngoi


o o o

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF)

3.3.1 Giao thc nh tuyn RIP 3.3.1.1 Khi nim RIP (Router Information Protocol Giao thc thng tin nh tuyn) l mt giao thc nh tuyn min trong c s dng bn trong h thng t tr. y l mt giao thc rt n gin da trn nh tuyn vect khong cch, s dng gii thut Bellman-Ford tnh ton bng nh tuyn. Khi c s dng trong nhng mng cng loi nh, RIP l mt giao thc hiu qu v s vn hnh ca n l kh n gin. RIP duy tr tt c bng nh tuyn trong mt mng c cp nht bi truyn nhng bn tin cp nht bng nh tuyn sau mi 30s. Sau mt thit b RIP nhn mt cp nht, n so snh thng tin hin ti ca n vi nhng thng tin c cha trong thng tin cp nht. 3.3.1.2 Thut ton v v d minh ha Mi router c mt bng nh tuyn trong cha cc mc tng ng cho mi mng ch m router bit. Mc ny gm a ch IP ca mng ch, khong SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 20

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

cch ngn nht ti ch (tnh theo s bc nhy) v bc nhy tip theo (router tip theo). Bc nhy tip theo l ni cn gii gi d liu n c th ti c ch cui cng. S bc nhy l s mng m mt gi d liu phi i qua ti c mng ch.

Hnh 3.1 : nh tuyn trong mng s dng RIP Bng ca R2


ch Node sau Hop

Bng ca R3
ch Node sau Hop

Bng ca R4
ch Node sau Hop

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6

R1
Trc tip Trc tip

R3 R3 R3

2 1 1 2 3 4

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6

R2 R2
Trc tip Trc tip

R4 R4

3 2 1 1 2 3

N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6

R3 R3 R3
Trc tip Trc tip

R5

4 3 2 1 1 2

Bng nh tuyn RIP c cp nht khi router nhn c cc thng bo RIP. Di y ch ra gii thut cp nht nh tuyn c RIP s dng. Nhn mt thng bo RIP tr li 1. Cng 1 vo s bc nhy tip theo cho mi ch c qung co 2. Lp li cc bc tip theo cho mi ch c qung co: 2.1 Nu ch khng c trong bng nh tuyn Thm thng tin c qung co vo bng nh tuyn 2.2 Tri li 2.2.1 -Nu bc nhy tip theo ging nhau -Thay th mc trong bng bng mc c qung co 2.2.2 Tri li 2.2.2.1 Nu s bc nhy c qung co<s bc nhy trong bng Thay th mc trong bng bng mc c qung co 2.2.2.2 Tri li khng lm g c 3. Kt thc SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 21

Khoa in T Vin Thng 3.3.1.3 u & nhc im

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

RIP c thit k nh l mt giao thc IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol l giao thc nh tuyn ni min) dng cho cc h thng t tr AS (AS Autonomouns system) c kch thc nh, RIP ch p dng cho nhng mng nh, khng s dng cho h thng mng ln v phc tp. Bi v : RIP s dng giao thc nh tuyn theo vct khong cch thng tn t ti nguyn h thng nhng tc ng b gia cc b nh tuyn li chm m i vi 1 mng ln hay phc tp th li gm nhiu b nh tuyn nn RIP khng ph hp vi nhng h thng mng lp v phc tp. RIP gii hn s hop ti a l 15 (bt k mng ch no m c s hop ln hn 15 th xem nh mng khng n c). S lng 15 hop s khng khi mun xy dng mt mng ln. Bng nh tuyn c trao i vi cc b nh tuyn khc khong 30giy/ln. Nu mt b nh tuyn khng thng bo trong vng 180 giy, ng i qua b nh tuyn ny c xem nh khng dng c. Cc vn c th xy ra trong lc to li bng nh tuyn nu b nh tuyn ny c kt ni vi mt mng din rng chy chm. Hn na, trao i cc bng lm mng thng xuyn qu ti, gy tc nghn v cc tr hon khc. Khi cu trc mng thay i th thng tin cp nht phi c x l trong ton b h thng, nn iu ny s thc hin rt kh i vi mng ln v s rt r gy ra hin tng tc nghn trong mng. Cc b nh tuyn khi dng RIP l chng kt ni lin tc vi cc b nh tuyn ln cn cp nht cc bng nh tuyn ca chng, do to ra mt lng ti ln trn mng. Do s dng thut ton nh tuyn theo vct khong cch nn c tc hi t chm (Trng thi hi t l tt c cc b nh tuyn trong h thng mng u c thng tin nh tuyn v h thng mng v chnh xc) do vy i vi mng ln hay phc tp th s mt rt lu mi hi t c. Do RIP l giao thc nh tuyn theo vct khong cch nn mi b nh tuyn nhn c bng nh tuyn ca nhng b nh tuyn ln cn kt ni trc tip vi n do vy b nh tuyn s khng bit c chnh xc cu trc ca ton b h thng mng. SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 22

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

RIP s dng thut ton nh tuyn theo vct khong cch. Nu c nhiu ng n cng mt lc ti ch th RIP s chn ng c s hop t nht. Chnh v vy da vo s lng hop chn ng nn i khi cn ng m RIP chn khng phi l ng ngn nht v nhanh nht ti ch. 3.3.2 Giao thc nh tuyn OSPF 3.3.2.1 Khi nim Giao thc u tin ng i ngn nht (OSPF Open Shortest Path First) l mt giao thc nh tuyn cng trong khc ang c s dng rt rng ri. Phm vi hot ng ca n cng l mt h thng t tr (AS). Cc router c bit c gi l router bin AS c trch nhim ngn thng tin v cc h thng t trAS khc vo trong h thng hin ti. nh tuyn hiu qu, OSPF chia h thng t tr thnh nhiu vng nh. OSPF l giao thc nh tuyn trng thi lin kt, c thit k cho cc mng ln hoc cc mng lin hp v phc tp. Cc gii thut nh tuyn trng thi s dng cc gii thut Shortest Path First (SPF) cng vi mt c s d liu phc tp v cu hnh ca mng. C s d liu v cu hnh mng v c bn bao gm tt c d liu v mng c lin kt n b nh tuyn cha c s d liu. 3.3.2.2 Thut ton v v d minh ha OSPF l mt giao thc da theo trng thi lin kt. Ging nh cc giao thc trng thi lin kt khc, mi b nh tuyn OSPF u thc hin thut ton SPF- Shortest Path First x l cc thng tin cha trong c s d liu trng thi lin kt. Thut ton to ra mt cy ng i ngn nht m t c th cc tuyn ng nn chn dn ti mng ch. C s d liu v cu hnh mng v c bn bao gm tt c d liu v mng c lin kt n b nh tuyn cha c s d liu. Mi router s dng cy ng i ngn nht xy dng bng nh tuyn ca mnh. Bng nh tuyn ch ra gi ti mi mng trong khu vc. tm gi ti mng bn ngoi khu vc, cc router s dng cc qung co lin kt tm tt ti mng, lin kt tm tt ti router bin AS v lin kt ngoi. thc hin nh tuyn hiu qu, OSPF chia h thng t tr ra thnh nhiu khu vc nh. Mi AS c th c chia ra thnh nhiu khu vc khc nhau. Khu vc l tp hp cc mng, trm v router nm trong cng mt h thng t tr. Tt c cc mng trong SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 23

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mt khu vc phi c kt ni vi nhau. Ti bin ca khu vc, cc router bin khu vc tm tt thng tin v khu vc ca mnh v gi cc thng tin ny ti cc khu vc khc. Trong s cc khu vc bn trong AS, c mt khu vc c bit c gi l ng trc; tt c cc khu vc trong mt AS phi c ni ti ng trc. Hay ni cch khc l ng trc c coi nh l khu vc s cp cn cc khu vc cn li u c coi nh l cc khu vc th cp. Cc router bn trong khu vc ng trc c gi l cc router ng trc, cc router ng trc cng c th l mt router bin khu vc. Nu v mt l do no m kt ni gia mt khu vc v ng trc b hng th ngi qun tr mng phi to mt lin kt o (virtual link) gia cc router cho php ng trc tip tc hot ng nh mt khu vc s cp

Hnh 3.2 : nh tuyn s dng cy ng i ngn nht Mng N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 Gi 5 7 10 11 15 Router tip theo C D B D Thng tin khc

Gii thut chn ng dn ngn nht SPF l c s cho h thng OSPF. Khi 1 b nh tuyn s dng SPF c khi ng, b nh tuyn s khi to cu trc c s d liu ca giao thc nh tuyn v sau i ch bo t cc giao thc tng thp hn di dng cc hm. B nh tuyn s s dng cc gi tin OSPF Hello thu nhn cc b nh tuyn ln cn ca mnh. B nh tuyn gi gi tin Hello SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 24

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n cc ln cn v nhn cc bn tin Hello t cc b nh tuyn ln cn. Ngoi vic s dng gi tin Hello thu nhn cc ln cn, bn tin Hello cn c s dng xc nhn vic mnh vn ang hot ng n cc b nh tuyn khc. Mi b nh tuyn nh k gi cc gi thng bo v trng thi lin kt (LSA) cung cp thng tin cho cc b nh tuyn ln cn hoc cho cc b nh tuyn khc khi mt b nh tuyn thay i trng thi. Bng vic so snh trng thi lin kt ca cc b nh tuyn lin k tn ti trong c s d liu, cc b nh tuyn b li s b pht hin ra nhanh chng v cu hnh mng s c bin i thch hp. T cu trc d liu c sinh ra do vic cp nht lin tc cc gi LSA, mi b nh tuyn s tnh ton cy ng i ngn nht ca mnh v t mnh s lm gc ca cy. Sau t cy ng i ngn nht s sinh ra bng nh tuyn. Mt khi c s thay i topo mng hoc lu lng cc node mng phi khi to v tnh ton li tuyn ng i ngn nht, tu theo giao thc c s dng trong mng. 3.3.2.3 u v nhc im - Cn bng ti gia cc tuyn cng gi: Vic s dng cng lc nhiu tuyn cho php tn dng c hiu qu ti nguyn mng. - Phn chia mng mt cch logic: iu ny lm gim bt cc thng tin pht ra trong nhng iu kin bt li. N cng gip kt hp cc thng bo v nh tuyn, hn ch vic pht i nhng thng tin khng cn thit v mng. - H tr nhn thc: OSPF h tr nhn thc cho tt c cc node pht thng tin qung co nh tuyn. iu ny hn ch c nguy c thay i bng nh tuyn vi mc ch xu. - Thi gian hi t nhanh hn: OSPF cho php truyn cc thng tin v thay i tuyn mt cch tc th. iu gip rt ngn thi gian hi t cn thit cp nht thng tin cu hnh mng. - H tr CIDR v VLSM: iu ny cho php nh qun tr mng c th phn phi ngun a ch IP mt cch c hiu qu hn. 3.3.3 Giao thc nh tuyn Qos 3.3.3.1 Khi nim Cht lng dch v (QoS) trong phm vi nh tuyn l khi nim th hin mc p ng nhng tho thun gia nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 25

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v s lng ln cht lng kt ni. Yu cu cht lng ca mt kt ni l mt tp cc rng buc v lin kt, tuyn, v cy. Trong , Lin kt (link) l mt kt ni gia hai nt bt k, tuyn (path) l tp hp mt vi knh lin kt gia mt nt ngun v mt nt ch. Cy (tree) bao gm mt vi tuyn lin kt gia mt nt ngun v mt s nt ch. Kt ni (connection) l ng truyn dn c thit lp gia mt nt ngun v mt nt ch. Rng buc knh qui nh cc gii hn s dng knh. Rng buc v bng thng ca kt ni n hng yu cu cc knh ca tuyn phi d tr mt lng bng thng ri nht nh. Rng buc tuyn ch ra yu cu v cht lng ca mt tuyn n, cn rng buc cy quy nh yu cu v cht lng cho ton b cc tuyn trong nh tuyn a hng. Rng buc tr ca mt kt ni a hng yu cu tr ln nht t nt ngun n bt k nt ch no trong cy u phi nh hn mt gii hn nht nh. Tuyn kh dng l tuyn c cc ti nguyn ri tho mn cc rng buc QoS ca mt kt ni. => nh tuyn QoS l qu trnh nh tuyn nhm chn ra cc tuyn c ti nguyn p ng cc yu cu v cht lng dch v v ti u ha vic s dng ti nguyn mng. 3.3.3.2 Chc nng Chc nng c bn ca nh tuyn QoS l tm mt tuyn kh dng thit lp mt kt ni gia nt ngun v nt ch p ng c cc yu cu v QoS. Ngoi ra, hu ht cc thut ton nh tuyn QoS u xem xt n hiu qu s dng ti nguyn c o bng chi ph. Chi ph cho mt tuyn/ cy l tng chi ph ca tt c cc knh trn tuyn . Ti u ho l tm mt tuyn c chi ph thp nht trong s cc tuyn kh dng. Bi ton nh tuyn c hai chc nng chnh: - Thu thp thng tin trng thi v m bo thng tin lun cp nht - Tm kim mt tuyn kh dng cho kt ni mi da trn thng tin thu thp c. Kt qu ca thu thp thng tin trng thi c nh hng trc tip n hiu qu ca bt k thut ton nh tuyn no. .

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Khoa in T Vin Thng 3.3.3.3 Bi ton nh tuyn QoS

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

C th chia bi ton nh tuyn thnh 2 lp ln: nh tuyn n hng v nh tuyn a hng. Mi lp nh tuyn li bao gm 3 kiu nh tuyn : nh tuyn ngun, nh tuyn phn tn v nh tuyn phn cp. - nh tuyn n hng gii bi ton sau: Cho trc mt nt ngun s, mt nt ch t v tp cc rng buc C, tm mt tuyn kh dng tt nht t s ti t tho mn C. Vi cc tiu ch QoS l: bng thng ri, b m ri; trng thi ca tuyn c xc nh bi trng thi ca on nt c chai trn tuyn ; c hai bi ton nh tuyn c bn l: nh tuyn ti u ha knh v nh tuyn rng buc knh. Vi cc tiu ch QoS khc nh tr, rung pha v chi ph th trng thi tuyn c xc nh bng tng trng thi ca tt c cc knh trn tuyn . C hai bi ton nh tuyn da trn cc tiu ch cht lng dch v ny l nh tuyn ti u tuyn v nh tuyn rng buc tuyn. - nh tuyn a hng gii bi ton sau: Cho trc mt nt ngun s, mt tp cc nt ch, cc rng buc C v mt tiu ch ti u, tm mt cy ng dn kh dng ph ht t nt ngun s n cc nt ch thuc tp R v tho mn iu kin C. Cc bi ton nh tuyn ca hai lp nh tuyn trn c lin quan mt thit vi nhau. nh tuyn a hng trong nhiu trng hp l s tng qut ho ca nh tuyn n hng. S khc bit vi nh tuyn n hng l phi c mt tiu ch ti u ho hay mt rng buc p dng cho ton b cy thay v cho mt tuyn n l. C mt s bi ton nh tuyn a hng nh: Bi ton nh tuyn ti u ho cy, bi ton nh tuyn rng buc cy. 3.3.3.4 u v nhc im QoSR xc nh tuyn da trn ti nguyn mng hin c v yu cu ca lung lu lng. Kt qu l cht lng ca ng dng c m bo v ci tin so vi nh tuyn BE truyn thng. N c cc u im sau: - QoSR la chn tuyn ng i kh thi bng cch trnh cc Nt v kt ni b nghn. - Nu ti lu lng vt qu gii hn ca tuyn ng ang c th QoSR a ra nhiu tuyn khc truyn lu lng d .

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- Nu xy ra li mng hoc li nt th QoSR s la chn mt tuyn ng i thay th nhanh chng khi phc li vic truyn d liu m khng lm gim nhiu QoS. - Cc loi lu lng khc nhau c yu cu QoS khc nhau, cc t hp lu lng c ngun v ch ging nhau c th i cc tuyn ng khc nhau. Tuy nhin, cc u im ny ca nh tuyn QoS cng phi chu chi ph pht trin cc giao thc nh tuyn mi hay m rng cc giao thc hin ti. Mt s kh khn ch yu l: + Th nht, do cc rng buc v cht lng (tr, rung pha, t l mt gi, bng thng..) ca cc ng dng phn tn thng thay i. Nhiu rng buc ng thi thng lm cho vic nh tuyn tr nn phc tp v rt kh cng mt lc tho mn c tt c cc rng buc. Hn na, phc tp ca giao thc nh tuyn QoS cng ph thuc vo s phn nh ca n s dng trong cc quyt nh nh tuyn + Th hai, bt k mt mng tch hp dch v no trong tng lai cng s truyn ti c lu lng QoS v lu lng BE, iu lm cho vn ti u ho tr nn phc tp hn v rt kh c th xc nh c iu kin tho mn tt nht c hai loi lu lng trn nu chng phn b c lp. + Th ba, trng thi mng thay i thng xuyn do ti khng n nh, cc kt ni c to ra v gii phng lin tc; kch thc mng ngy cng ln lm cho vic thu thp thng tin v trng thi mng tr nn kh khn hn, c bit khi bao gm c mng v tuyn. Hot ng ca cc thut ton nh tuyn QoS c th b nh hng nghim trng nu khng cp nht thng tin trng thi mng kp thi.

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

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CHNG IV: THUT TON V M PHNG


4.1 GII THIU V THUT TON Bi ton Cho mng cc node c ni bi cc lin kt 2 chiu, mi chiu c gi tr chi ph ring Chi ph ca ng i gia 2 node trong mng l tng cc gi tr chi ph ca cc lin kt i qua Xc nh ng i ngn nht (chi ph thp nht) gia 2 node Tiu chun ng ngn nht S chng ng i Gi tr mi lin kt l 1 Gi tr lin kt T l nghch tc lin kt T l thun ti trn lin kt T hp cc i lng trn Gii thut Forward-search (Dijkstra) Backward-search (Bellman-Ford) 4.1.1 Thut ton Forward-search (Dijkstra) Input th G(V, E) trong V l tp nh, E l tp cnh c trng s khng m nh ngun S: S Output ng i ngn nht t nh ngun S n tt c cc nh cn li Di : ng i ngn nht t node ngun S n node i ti bc chy hin hnh ca gii thut M: tp cc nh xt ti bc chy hin hnh ca gii thut dij: trng s trn cnh ni t node i n node j o dij= 0 nu i trng j o dij= Eij nu i khc j V

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4.1.2 Thut ton Backward-search (Bellman-Ford) Input th G(V, E) trong V l tp nh, E l tp cnh c trng s nh ngun S: S Output th c chu trnh m K hiu D(h)i: ng i ngn nht t node ngun S n node i c ti a h on (link). dij: trng s trn cnh ni t node i n node j o dij= 0 nu i trng j o dij= Eij nu i khc j 4.2 V D MINH HA 4.2.1 Thut ton Dijkstra Bc 1: khi ng M = {S} Di= dsi (cc cnh ni trc tip vi S) Bc 2: cp nht ng i ngn nht Chn nh N V\M M = M U {N} Dj= min {Dj, DN + dNj} j V\M Bc 3: lp li bc 2 cho n khi M=V Kt qu Di s l ng i ngn nht t node ngun S n node i V\M sao i cho: DN = min {Di} khng tn ti ng i ngn nht ng i ngn nht t nh ngun S n tt c cc nh cn li V

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Khoa in T Vin Thng

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4.2.2 Thut ton Bellman-Ford Bc 1: khi ng D(1)N = dSN, N V\{S} (ng i ngn nht t S n N c ti a 1 on) Bc 2: cp nht ng i ngn nht D(h+1)N = min {D(h)j + djN} j V\{S} Bc 3: lp li bc 2 cho n khi khng c ng i mi no ngn hn c tm thy th dng Kt qu D(h)N s l ng i ngn nht t node ngun S n node N.

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4.2.3 Kt lun v nh gi Bellman-Ford Vic tnh ton cho node n phi bit cc thng tin v chi ph lin kt ca cc node k ca n v chi ph tng cng t node s n cc node k ca node n Mi node cn lu tr cc chi ph v cc ng i tng ng n cc node khc C th trao i thng tin vi cc node k trc tip C th cp nht thng tin v chi ph v ng i da trn cc thng tin trao i vi cc node k v cc thng tin v chi ph lin kt Dijkstra Mi node cn bit topology ton b mng Phi bit chi ph lin kt ca tt c cc lin kt trong mng Phi trao i thng tin vi tt c cc node khc trong mng NHN XT : Ph thuc vo thi gian x l ca cc gii thut SVTH: V Th Lan Hng http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 32

Khoa in T Vin Thng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Bch Hnh

Ph thuc vo lng thng tin yu cu t cc node khc Ph thuc vo vic hin thc Cng hi t v mt li gii di iu kin topology tnh v chi ph khng thay i Nu chi ph lin kt thay i, cc gii thut s tnh li theo kp s thay i Nu chi ph lin kt thay i theo lu thng, lu thng li thay i theo ng i c chn Phn hi C th ri vo trng thi khng n nh Kt lun: - Thut ton Ford-Bellman tm ng i ngn nht t nh u ti tt c cc nh cn li, c th s dng tong trng hp trng s m. - Thut ton Dijkstra ch tm ng i ngn nht gia hai nh c th (t U n V)

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN


ti trnh by c nhng khi nim c s v mng NGN, cc c trng cng nh cu trc mng. Mng th h sau NGN ang c nghin cu, chun ho bi cc t chc vin thng ln trn th gii nhm p ng nhu cu cng tng v tnh m, s tng thch v linh hot cung cp a dch v, a phng tin vi cc tnh nng ngy cng m rng. Ti Vit Nam, mng vin thng ang ngy cng pht trin p ng cc nhu cu mi trong nn kinh t hi nhp th gii v vic chuyn hon ton sang cng ngh mng NGN l vic lm bc thit nhm p ng cc nhu cu ny. Qu trnh xy dng v pht trin mng NGN phi c tin hnh tng bc, c tnh n s tng thch v phi hp vi nn tng mng hin ti. Bn cnh vic lm sao mng c th hot ng tt v n nh cng l mt vn cn lu tm. Trn c s phn tch n tin hnh c cc ni dung sau. - Tng quan v mng ngn - Mng th h sau - ngn - Giao thc nh tuyn - Thut ton tm ng & m phng Gii quyt c cc vn ny s c rt ngha trong vic thc hin nhng bc tip theo ca qu trnh i ln xy dng mng NGN t mng PSTN hin ti, ng thi cung cp c nhiu dch v mi vi cht lng v tin cy ln hn. Tuy nhin, vn nh tuyn trong mng v cng rng ln v phc tp trong nhnng h thng ln. V vy ti kh trnh khi nhng thiu st, c th l: - Cha th a ra m hnh mng hon chnh c th p dng vo thc t ca nc ta. - Ngin cu su hn na cc gii php ca cc hng v ng dng vo thc t - Cha nghin cu ht cc phng php nh tuyn c s dng hin nay.

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] HV CNBC VT. Mng Vin Thng. Chng 2. Hc vin Cng ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng, 2007 [2] Hong Trng Minh. Chuyn nh tuyn. Chng 1 v 2. [3] ThS. Nguyn Mnh Cng. Gii php nh tuyn QoS. Tp ch Cng ngh thng tin & Truyn thng, 2006 [4] Nguyn Qu Hin. Mng vin thng th h sau. NXB Bu in. [5] inh c Anh V. Data Communication and Computer Networks. Chng 8, 2008 [6] http:\\www.vnpt.com.vn. [7] http://www.quantrimang.com.vn