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MC en Redes y Telecomunicaciones

REDES INALMBRICAS
M.C. Hctor Barajas Garca

WiMAX

Alberto Navarrete Rumbo | Matrcula 22301 Carlos Alberto Ochoa Fierro | Matrcula 15169

Trimestre Enero Marzo 2011 Mexicali, Baja California, a 16 de Febrero de 2011

WiMAX

NDICE
Historia de WiMAX WiMAX fijo (802.16d) WiMAX Movil (802.16e) WiMAX 2 Caractersticas de WiMAX Evolucin de WiMAX Asociaciones WiMAX WiMAX Forum WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance Componentes de una Red WiMAX Equipo de usuario o CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) Estacin base (BS - Base Station) Funcionamiento de WiMAX Estacin Base Como Conectar la Torre Base y el CPE La Transmisin de Dos Puntos Topologas de la Red Punto-Multipunto (PMP) Malla Sealizacion OFDM Comparacin de Estndares de Redes Inalmbricas Tabla Comparativa de los Mtodos de Acceso a Internet Mvil Seguridad en WiMAX Principales Consideraciones para Seguridad Debilidades del WiMAX IEEE 802.16-2004 IEEE 802.16e Calidad de Servicio (QoS) en WiMAX Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) Real Time Packet Service (rtPS) Extended Real Time Packet Service (ErtPS) Non Real Time Packet Service (nrtPS) Best Effort (BE) WiMAX Applications Broadband Backhaul (Red de Retorno) Triple-play Componentes WiMAX Radios Radios and Enclosures Radio placement
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WiMAX Antennas Omni Directional Antenna Sector antennas Panel antennas Subscriber Stations Outdoor CPE Indoor CPE Connecting to WiMAX Gateways Dongles Mobile phones Comparison with Wi-Fi Will WiMAX replace DSL and Cable? What is unlicensed spectrum? What frequencies are they in? Que es WiMAX 2 Iniciativa de colaboracin (WCI)? Que compaas son parte de WiMAX 2 Iniciativa de colaboracin (WCI)? Cul es el plazo esperado de la implantacin de WiMAX 2? Donde esta WiMAX implantado? Implementacin de WiMAX en el Mundo Redes en Desarrollo Redes en Servicio Redes con Reconocimiento de Licencia Redes en Planes de Desarrollo Redes con Estatus No Definido Total de Redes en el Mundo Implementacin de WiMAX en Mxico Redes en Mxico Red Axtel Red Universidad de Guadalajara Red MaxCom Red MVS Red PEMEX Red TELEVISA Red UltraNet2Go Red TELMEX Anexo 1 - List of deployed WiMAX networks Anexo 2 - Frequency band chart Referencias

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Historia de WiMAX
Histricamente las comunicaciones en entornos rurales han supuesto un handicap para los operadores que no han conseguido encontrar un modelo de negocio viable en dichos entornos por diversas razones y sobre todo para la poblacin de dichas zonas, que requiere comunicaciones competitivas, pero stas no se han logrado y en bastantes casos an no llegan a sus ubicaciones. Tecnologas como el LMDS, o el WiFi en combinacin con el satlite parecan muy prometedoras pero no nos constan modelos generalizados de xito en entornos rurales, de hecho, siguen existiendo muchos pueblos con comunicaciones deficientes en pases desarrollados que contrastan con entornos urbanos donde se dispone de fibra, comunicaciones mviles, etc. Como dato explicativo se estima que el tener fibra para prestar servicios de comunicaciones cableadas de banda ancha puede estar alrededor de los 190,000US$ por milla o incluso ms. En pases menos desarrollados, el problema es posiblemente ms grave y se extiende ms all del entorno rural remoto y lo difcil es dar comunicacin all donde no hay un volumen importante de poblacin con suficiente poder adquisitivo para utilizar y financiar dichas comunicaciones. Estas deficiencias de comunicaciones generan situaciones de desigualdad que adems afectan a las posibilidades de desarrollo y competitividad. En este entorno, surge una tecnologa llamada WIMAX que parece poder aportar soluciones prometedoras al problema de las comunicaciones en entornos rurales WiMAX, siglas de Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Interoperabilidad Mundial para Acceso por Microondas), es una norma de transmisin de datos que utiliza las ondas de radio en las frecuencias de 2.3 a 3.5 Ghz. Basado en el estndar IEEE 802.16 o WIMAX , es una potente solucin a las necesidades de redes de acceso inalmbricas de banda ancha, de amplia cobertura y elevadas prestaciones. Ofrece una gran capacidad, (hasta 75 Mbps por cada canal de 20 MHz), e incorpora mecanismos para la gestin de la calidad de servicio (QoS), permite amplias coberturas tanto con lnea de visin entre los puntos a conectar (LOS) como sin lnea de visin (NLOS) en bandas de frecuencias de uso comn o licenciadas. Es una tecnologa dentro de las conocidas como tecnologas de ltima milla, tambin conocidas como bucle local que permite la recepcin de datos por microondas y retransmisin por ondas de radio. Una de sus ventajas es dar servicios de banda ancha en zonas donde el despliegue de cable o fibra por la baja densidad de poblacin presenta unos costos por usuario muy elevados (zonas rurales). WiMAX se basa principalmente en dos sub estndares del IEEE, 802.16-2004 para el acceso fijo, y 802.16e para el acceso portable o mvil. Las diferentes versiones de especificaciones de cada sub estndar se presentan en sucesivas Wave, que se corresponden con los diferentes perfiles de sistema (WiMAX Forum System Profiles) definidos para su certificacin.

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Actualmente se han definido el perfil de WiMAX fijo, y el de WiMAX mvil, y recientemente se termin de definir WiMAX 2.

WiMAX fijo (802.16d)


En l, se establece un enlace radio entre la estacin base y un equipo de usuario situado en el domicilio del usuario. Para el entorno fijo, las velocidades tericas mximas que se pueden obtener son de 70 Mbps con un ancho de banda de 20 MHz. Sin embargo, en entornos reales se han conseguido velocidades de 20 Mbps con radios de clula de hasta 6 Km, ancho de banda que es compartido por todos los usuarios de la clula. Para el WiMAX Fijo, las normas de certificacin estn completamente definidas, manteniendo las caractersticas del sub estndar ya mencionadas.

WiMAX Movil (802.16e)


Permite el desplazamiento del usuario de un modo similar al que se puede dar en GSM/UMTS, el mvil, aun no se encuentra desarrollado y actualmente compite con las tecnologas LTE, (basadas en femtoclulas, conectadas mediante cable), por ser la alternativa para las operadoras de telecomunicaciones que apuestan por los servicios en movilidad, este estndar, en su variante "no licenciado", compite con el WiFi IEEE 802.11n, ya que la mayora de los porttiles y dispositivos mviles, empiezan a estar dotados de este tipo de conectividad (principalmente de la firma Intel). Especialmente para WiMAX Mvil se estn definiendo sucesivas versiones, y dentro de cada una de ellas, sucesivas fases (waves) que van marcando las novedades en la definicin del proceso de certificacin (Certification Profiles).

WiMAX 2
Conocido formalmente como 802.16m, termino por parte del Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) el pasado mes de noviembre con la idea de la certificacin de dispositivos basados en el estndar se realice a lo largo de 2011. Desde entonces se espera que los ISPs empiecen a desplegar el estndar de manera comercial en 2012, cuando operadoras como AT&T y T-Mobile empezarn a ofrecer servicios LTE, la tecnologa rival en 4G, en Estados Unidos. Desde el WiMAX Forum afirman que 802.16m ser significativamente ms rpido que su predecesor y que uno de sus objetivos es que la velocidad de descarga alcance los 100Mbps. En comparacin la oferta WiMAX que debut comercialmente en 2008 ofrece velocidades de descarga de entre 3.7 Mbps y 5.0 Mbps. El nico organismo habilitado para certificar el cumplimiento del estndar y la interoperabilidad entre equipamiento de distintos fabricantes es el WiMAX Forum. Todo equipamiento que no cuente con esta certificacin, no puede garantizar su interoperabilidad
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con otros productos. Esta organizacin sin nimo de lucro busca dar soporte a los grupos de trabajo del IEEE 802.16, certificar y asegurar la interoperabilidad. El foro est trabajando con las empresas asociadas a fin de desarrollar perfiles estandarizados y productos WiMAX interoperables en torno a bandas concretas del espectro de frecuencia de radio, fundamentalmente 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz y 5.8 GHz. Son miembros del WiMAX Forum numerosas empresas y proveedores de servicios.

Caractersticas de WiMAX
Define una capa MAC que soporta mltiples especificaciones fsicas (PHY). Mayor productividad a rangos ms distantes (hasta 50 Km.) Mejor tasa de bits/segundo/HZ en distancias largas. Sistema escalable Fcil adicin de canales: maximiza las capacidades de las clulas. Anchos de banda flexibles que permiten usar espectros licenciados y exentos de licencia. Distancias de hasta 80 kilmetros, con antenas muy direccionales y de alta ganancia. Velocidades de hasta 75 Mbps, 35+35 Mbps, siempre que el espectro est completamente limpio. Facilidades para aadir ms canales, dependiendo de la regulacin de cada pas. Anchos de banda configurables y no cerrados, sujeto a la relacin de espectro. Permite dividir el canal de comunicacin en pequeas sub-portadoras (Dos tipos Guardias y Datos). Soporte de mallas basadas en estndares y antenas inteligentes. Servicios de nivel diferenciados: E1/T1 para negocios, mejor esfuerzo para uso domstico.

Evolucin de WiMAX
Estndar 802.16 Descripcin Utiliza espectro licenciado en el rango de 10 a 66 GHz, necesita lnea de visin directa, con una capacidad de hasta 134 Mbps en celdas de 2 a 5 millas. Soporta calidad de servicio. Publicado en 2002 Ampliacin del estndar 802.16 hacia bandas de 2 a 11 GHz, con sistemas NLOS y LOS, y protocolo PTP y PTMP. Publicado en abril de 2003 Ampliacin del estndar 802.16 para definir las caractersticas y especificaciones en la banda de 10-66 GHz. Publicado en enero de 2003

802.16a 802.16c

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802.16d

Revisin del 802.16 y 802.16a para aadir los perfiles aprobados por el WiMAX Forum. Aprobado como 802.16-2004 en junio de 2004 (La ltima versin del estndar) Extensin del 802.16 que incluye la conexin de banda ancha nmada para elementos porttiles del estilo de los notebooks. Publicado en diciembre de 2005 Extensin del 802.16 que promete entrega de datos a velocidad terica de 1 GB. En proceso

802.16e 802.16m

Asociaciones WiMAX
WiMAX Forum

El WiMAX Forum es una organizacin no lucrativa creada para promocionar la adopcin de equipos compatibles y servicios WiMAX. Uno de los objetivos ms importantes de esta organizacin es el de certificar la inter operatividad de productos WiMAX. Aquellos productos que pasan las pruebas de conformidad e interconectividad logran obtener la designacin del Certificado de WiMAX Forum, y por ende pueden utilizar y mostrar la marca del Forum y material de mercadotecnia. Otro objetivo del WiMAX Forum es el de promover la difusin del conocimiento sobre WiMAX. De tal forma, que para lograr esto, se cuenta con un programa de entrenamiento para la certificacin de esta tecnologa el cual se ofrece en Ingles y Francs. Tambin ofrece una serie de eventos para sus miembros inscritos, y a su vez apoya eventos industriales.

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WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance

La WiSOA fue la primera organizacin global compuesta exclusivamente por propietarios de espectros con planes de implementar y desarrollar la tecnologa WiMAX en esos anchos de banda. La WiSOA se ha enfocado en la regulacin, comercializacin, y desarrollo de espectros de WiMAX en los rangos de las frecuencias de 2.3 2.5 GHz y de 3.4 3.5 GHz. La WiSOA se fusiono en Abril del 2008 con la Wireless Broadband Alliance (WBA).

Componentes de una Red WiMAX


Bsicamente se pueden mencionar los dos tipos de elementos que forman las redes 802.16: El equipo de usuario o CPE (Customer Premises Equipment): este es el equipo que incorpora las funciones de las Subscriber Station (SS), identificadas en el funcionamiento de las redes Broadband Wireless Acces (BWA). Este equipo proporciona la conectividad va radio con la estacin base (Base Station). La estacin base (BS - Base Station): adems de proporcionar conectividad con las SS tambin proporciona los mecanismos de control y gestin de los equipos SS. La estacin base tiene los elementos necesarios para conectarse con el sistema de distribucin.

En la figura inferior se identifican estos dos elementos as como las posibles configuraciones de conectividad entre ellas. De forma general, una red WiMAX posee una arquitectura similar a las redes celulares tradicionales ya que se basa en una distribucin estratgica de una serie de emplazamientos en donde se ubicarn las estaciones base (BS). Cada estacin base utiliza una configuracin punto-multipunto (PMP) o punto-punto (PTP) para enlazar los equipos de los clientes. Tambin existe la posibilidad de que las estaciones clientes se enlacen entre ellas en una configuracin mallada

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Funcionamiento de WiMAX
En una punta esta la Estacin Base, elemento que se identifica normalmente con un operador de comunicaciones, en donde existen una o varias antenas con las que se retransmite la seal. Este elemento puede ser una torre como tal en donde se anclan las antenas o puede tratarse de una pequea edificacin en algn lugar elevado, como otro edificio o un altozano. Las antenas que se ubican en este extremo pueden ser omnidireccionales, de muchas direcciones, sectoriales, que cubren sectores especficos del territorio de cobertura, o antenas de panel, para conexiones punto a punto, cuando se quiere cubrir una gran distancia y se necesita una tasa de transferencia alta. En el otro extremo de la conexin, est el usuario final, que puede ser residencial o corporativo, se encuentra instalado el CPE (Customer Premises Equipament, Equipo Local de Cliente), que constituye el ltimo eslabn de este tipo de redes y en donde acaba el flujo de transferencia de datos entre operador y el cliente final. Por las caractersticas de la seal transmitida en WiMAX, el CPE no resulta aparatoso. Se trata de un pequeo dispositivo, como una mnima caja en la que asoma una antena, cuando la seal se pretende distribuir en una red LAN o se da servicio a varios puestos. Se instala en el exterior o interior del edificio y se conecta al punto de distribucin. Por su tamao y aspecto, en cualquier caso, resulta un elemento poco
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llamativo para el observador. Pero puede ser perfectamente una tarjeta PCMCIA, PCI o mdulo USB que se inserte llanamente en el ordenador, cuando se trata de conexiones directas de equipos individuales. Es posible, incluso, encontrar porttiles que lo llevan integrado en su circuitera.

Estacin Base
En una Torre o Estacin Base, pueden coincidir distintos tipos de antenas, con las que atender distintas necesidades y oferta de servicio para abonados. Un mismo enlace de WiMAX, tiene capacidad para proporcionar varios canales por conexin fsica y atender a mltiples suscriptores, cada uno de ellos tratados privadamente, con protocolos y nivel de servicio diferenciados para cada uno de ellos, segn lo que puedan contratar individualmente. En la segunda parte de este artculo, veremos la cmo funciona la conexin de los dos puntos. La torre, y el usuario final

Como Conectar la Torre Base y el CPE


Existen dos formas de poder lograrlo. Cuando se plantea un enlace LOS, esto quiere decir que, entre la Torre Base y los CPE de usuario, no hay obstculo alguno, que se interponga en el intercambio de seal, existe visibilidad y una comunicacin directa. ste es el mejor de los casos y la comunicacin se produce en las frecuencias altas, entre 12 y 66 GHz, consiguiendo un radio de cobertura muy alto, y donde las conexiones pueden alcanzar las mayores tasas de transmisin de estas especificaciones. Si los enlaces son del tipo NLOS, la comunicacin se produce sin contacto visual directo entre los extremos. La seal debe sortear obstculos constructivos y para evitar los problemas de interferencia que estos pueden introducir en la seal, se opera en las frecuencias ms bajas, entre 2 y 11 GHz, lo que provoca que las velocidades de operacin de los enlaces sea menor y la cobertura tenga una extensin mucho ms reducida, situndose su alcance en una extensin similar a la que cubren las clulas de telefona mvil. Pero eso s, NLOS es superior a Wi-Fi.

La Transmisin de Dos Puntos


Para este cometido, se utiliza la modulacin OFDM (Orthogonal Frecuency Divisin Multiplexing), con 256 portadoras y OFDMA (Orthogonal Frecuency Divisin Multiple Access), con 2.048 portadoras. Una modulacin que es apropiada para las transmisiones de flujo sostenido como para aquellas otras que se producen a rfagas, lo que este tipo de conexin est capacitado para llevar datos de cualquier tipo de servicio en IP, voz, datos y tambin vdeo. Para establecer el mejor enlace posible, el estndar define mecanismos de modulacin adaptativa, que permite que la estacin base y los equipos receptores de usuario negocien las condiciones de la modulacin a emplear, segn las caractersticas de cada enlace de radio.

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Una facilidad que se refuerza con el empleo de antenas mejoradas, que incrementan la eficiencia y cobertura de la comunicacin, aprovechando la experiencia tecnolgica de la telefona mvil 3G para este componente.

Topologas de la Red
Existen varias topologas de despliegue de red que pueden ser soportadas en las redes WiMAX. Es posible desplegar una red cableada dedicada a la interconexin de estaciones base, o bien realizar estas conexiones en base a circuitos radio Punto punto en la banda de microondas, o inclusive emplear WiMAX para estos circuitos Punto punto entre estaciones. Las estaciones base son capaces de soportar su propia interconexin, dividiendo el ancho de banda disponible entre el dedicado a las comunicaciones de usuarios y el dedicado a la interconexin de las diferentes estaciones base.

Punto-Multipunto (PMP)
En las configuraciones punto-multipunto (PMP) un enlace WiMAX se realiza a partir de una estacin base (BS) central con antenas sectoriales, que consisten en un conjunto de antenas direccionales distribuidas alrededor de un mstil central. En estas redes pueden haber estaciones con 2 sectores (a 180), 4 sectores (a 90) u 8 sectores (a 45) todo depende del tipo de antena que se utilice y de la zona que se pretende dar cobertura. Dentro de un sector y para una determinada frecuencia (canal) todas las estaciones (BS) reciben la misma potencia o partes de la misma. Cada antena define un sector, un rea donde la frecuencia puede ser rehusada. Los sectores tambin pueden ser desarrollados en base a arreglos de antenas, donde un conjunto de dipolos son combinados y se consiguen lbulos direccionales para variar las relaciones de fase de las seales de cada una de las antenas. Las relaciones de fase son modificadas electrnicamente y, en el caso de antenas adaptativas, el sistema es capaz de ajustar la anchura y direccin del lbulo para facilitar la mejor conexin con un determinado usuario. Son las conocidas antenas inteligentes. Para esta topologa de red, el enlace de descarga (downlink), se maneja mediante una estacin base (BS) centralizada y una antena sectorizada que es capaz de manejar varias zonas simultneamente. Dentro de un canal de frecuencia y un sector de antenas dado, slo existe una BS transmitiendo, de manera que no se tiene que coordinar con las dems BS, excepto en la multiplexacin de tiempo. Las transmisiones en el enlace de bajada (downlink - DL) suelen ser broadcast, de forma que todas las estaciones de usuario reciben toda la informacin y escogen la que vaya dirigida a ellos. En el enlace de subida (uplink - UL) las estaciones de usuario comparten el canal mediante mecanismos de gestin de demanda.

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En este sentido, un enlace Punto-multipunto, comparte un determinado nodo (en el lado uplink), que se caracteriza por tener una antena omnidireccional (o con varios sectores) y puntos de terminacin (o repetidores) con antenas direccionales con una ganancia elevada. Este tipo de red es ms sencillo de implementar que las redes punto a punto, ya que el hecho de aadir un subscriptor slo requiere incorporar equipamiento del lado del cliente, no teniendo que variar nada en la estacin base. Aunque, cada sitio remoto debe encontrarse dentro del radio de cobertura de la seal, que en el caso de WiMAX (a diferencia de la tecnologa LMDS) no requerir que se site en puntos con visin directa.

En sntesis, existe una Estacin Base que controla la red, donde: Los usuarios se conectan a la Estacin Base. La transmisin se divide en tramas de uplink y downlink por TDD o FDD El downlink es dividido para los usuarios. El uplink se accede por TDMA/TDM.

Malla
Para este tipo de redes, se pueden realizar las operaciones de dos maneras diferentes: distribuida o centralizada. Para la distribuida, todos los nodos deben coordinar con los dems la manera de transmitir para evitar colisiones con los datos y realizar el control de trfico, y adems deben enviar por difusin (broadcast) su respectivo estado (recursos disponibles, peticiones y concesiones) a todos sus vecinos; para la centralizada, los recursos se asignan de
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una manera ms concentrada, ya que la estacin base Mesh , recopila varias peticiones de un determinado sector y otorga los respectivos recursos para cada enlace, tanto para el downlink como para el uplink , al mismo tiempo que comunica estas decisiones a las dems estaciones del sector. En una red mesh cada terminal de usuario es capaz de establecer varios enlaces con usuarios adyacentes. De esta forma, existen una serie de alternativas antes de llegar al punto origen de la red. Algoritmos especiales de encaminamiento son capaces de direccionar las comunicaciones por el camino ms adecuado en cada momento; si un equipo de cliente deja de funcionar, la red sigue funcionando por caminos alternativos. En este sentido, una red modo mesh se caracteriza por: No se requiere una entidad centralizada de coordinacin. Los usuarios se conectan unos con otros. Las tramas se dividen en minislots. No hay divisin entre uplink o downlink, la transmisin va en las dos direcciones por TDD.

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Sealizacion OFDM
La Multiplexacin por Divisin de Frecuencias Ortogonales, en ingls Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), es una multiplexacin que consiste en enviar un conjunto de ondas portadoras de diferentes frecuencias, donde cada una transporta informacin. Debido a sus caractersticas de esta multiplexacin es capaz de recuperar la informacin de entre las distintas seales con distintos retardos y amplitudes (fading) que llegan al receptor, por lo que existe la posibilidad de crear redes de radiodifusin de frecuencia nica sin que existan problemas de interferencia. Si se compara a las tcnicas de espectro expandido como CDMA, OFDM genera una alta tasa de transmisin al dividir el flujo de datos en muchos canales paralelos o sub portadoras que se transmiten en igual nmero de portadoras de banda estrecha y con tiempos de smbolo (uno o varios bits) mayores al caso de usar banda ancha donde para lograr la misma tasa de transmisin los tiempos de smbolo son ms cortos. Los canales de banda estrecha de OFDM son ortogonales entre s (hay un desfase de 90 entre seales de la misma frecuencia), lo que evita el uso de bandas de guardas y as proporciona un uso eficiente del espectro. Ya que los desvanecimientos (fading) afectan selectivamente a uno o un grupo de canales, es relativamente simple ecualizarlos en forma individual lo que tambin se contrapone a la ecualizacin de un sistema de banda ancha. Los beneficios de OFDM son una eficiencia espectral alta, resistencia a interferencias de RF, y baja distorsin de multi-camino. Esto es til porque en un escenario broadcasting terrestre hay canales multi-camino (la seal transmitida llega al receptor de varios caminos y de diferentes distancias).

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Los datos se dividen en varios flujos o canales en paralelo, uno para cada sub portadora. Y cada sub portadora se modula con una tcnica convencional como QAM o PSK a velocidades bajas. Los flujos de datos que se consiguen son similares a una modulacin mono portadora del mismo ancho de banda del combinado. La tcnica OFDM se utiliza en comunicaciones digitales de banda ancha, tanto cuando es con medios inalmbricos como con guas pticas o metlicas, en aplicaciones del tipo: televisin digital, comunicaciones mviles, difusin de audio y acceso de banda ancha. Su principal ventaja estriba en su capacidad para funcionar bajo condiciones que seran problemticas para otras frmulas; el OFDM soporta bien la distorsin por atenuacin en frecuencias altas en los cables metlicos y las interferencias y desvanecimiento o "fading" por multi propagacin, sin necesitar complejos ecualizadores.

Comparacin de Estndares de Redes Inalmbricas


La siguiente tabla comparativa debe de revisarse con precaucin ya que solamente muestra los rangos mximos. Adems la lista comparativa no est normalizada por el tamao fsico del canal (ejemplo, el espectro utilizado para alcanzar los rangos mximos).

Tabla Comparativa de los Mtodos de Acceso a Internet Mvil


Standard Family Primary Use Radio Tech Downlink (Mbit/s) Uplink (Mbit/s) Notes

LTE-Advanced update 100 (in 50 (in 20 expected to offer peak OFDMA/MIM LTE UMTS/4GSM General 4G 20MHz MHz rates up to 1 Gbit/s fixed O/SC-FDMA bandwidth) bandwidth) speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users. WiMAX update IEEE 802.16m expected to offer 128 (in 56 (in Mobile MIMOpeak rates of at least 1 WiMAX 802.16 20MHz 20MHz Internet SOFDMA Gbit/s fixed speeds and bandwidth) bandwidth) 100Mbit/s to mobile users. Mobile Mobile range 30km (18 Internet 5.3 1.8 Flashmiles) Flash-OFDM mobility up Flash-OFDM 10.6 3.6 extended range 55 km (34 OFDM to 200mph 15.9 5.4 miles) (350km/h) Mobile HIPERMAN HIPERMAN OFDM 56.9 56.9 Internet

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Wi-Fi

802.11 (11n)

Mobile Inte OFDM/MIM rnet O

288.9*

Antenna, RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer tweaks have helped deploy long range P2P networks compromising on radial coverage, throughput and/or spectra efficiency (310km & 382km) (*can support 600 when set at 40MHz channel width).
Cell Radius: 312 km Speed: 250km/h Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1" 3GPP Release 7 HSDPA widely deployed. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbit/s, ~200 kbit/s uplink; HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbit/s. Reported speeds according to IPWireless using 16QAM modulation similar to HSDPA+HSUPA Succeeded by EV-DO for data use, but still is used for voice and as a failover for EV-DO Rev B note: N is the number of 1.25 MHz chunks of spectrum used. EV-DO is not designed for voice, and requires a fallback to 1xRTT when a voice call is placed or received.

iBurst

802.20

HCMobile Inte SDMA/TDD/ rnet MIMO

95

36

EDGE Mobile Inte GSM TDMA/FDD Evolution rnet UMTS WCDMA/FDD CDMA HSDPA+HS UMTS/3GSM General 3G CDMA/FDD/ UPA MIMO HSPA+ UMTS-TDD UMTS/3GSM Mobile Internet CDMA/TDD

0.2 0.384 14.4 56

0.2 0.384 5.76 22

16

16

1xRTT

CDMA2000

Mobile phone

CDMA

0.144

0.144

EV-DO 1x Rev. 0 EV-DO 1x Rev.A EV-DO Rev.B

CDMA2000

Mobile Internet

CDMA/FDD

2.45 3.1 4.9xN

0.15 1.8 1.8xN

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Seguridad en WiMAX
Como cualquier otra red de comunicacin al servicio de empresas y usuarios individuales que desean mantener su informacin segura, los sistemas WiMAX necesitan aplicar medidas para asegurar la privacidad de sus usuarios finales y prevenir del acceso a informacin confidencial o sensible a personas que no estn autorizadas. Desde que los sistemas WiMAX utilizan el interface radio como medio de transmisin, la pregunta que conviene hacerse es cmo prevenir que los intrusos no intercepten informacin sensible y confidencial transmitida por ondas hertzianas ya sea en banda libre o banda licenciada. Tanto los clientes como los operadores deberan sentirse protegidos y confiar en que su sistema es privado y seguro, y que las medidas apropiadas estn disponibles para minimizar los riesgos de seguridad, incluyendo: Escuchas/espionaje: interceptar informacin de forma intencional cuando se est transmitiendo. Privacidad: Asegurarse de que la informacin transmitida es solamente leda por los destinatarios a los que va dirigida. MAC Spoofing: evitar que un atacante copie las direcciones MAC de CPE legtimas con el fin de conseguir el acceso a la red. Robo del Servicio: prevenir que los agresores puedan acceder a Internet u otros servicios utilizando CPE robadas y advirtiendo a los usuarios legtimos de obtener los servicios de forma gratuita.

Principales Consideraciones para Seguridad


El estndar WiMAX requiere de las mejores caractersticas de seguridad en su clase, lograda gracias a la adopcin de las mejores tecnologas disponibles actualmente. Las caractersticas de seguridad son independientes al tipo de operador (ILEC -Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier- o CLEC -Competitive Local Exchange Carrier-) y a la topologa de la red de acceso. En este sentido, el estndar aborda las cuatro reas principales a tener en cuenta: cmo prevenir el uso clandestino de la conexin wireless; denegacin de servicios para unidades robadas o utilizadas de forma fraudulenta; suministrar servicios slo a los usuarios finales especficos; y cumplir con la Gestin de Acceso Seguro. Respecto a cmo prevenir la utilizacin clandestina de la conexin wireless, la clave est en la encriptacin. "La encriptacin es la clave para prevenir la utilizacin clandestina de la conexin wireless"

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La seguridad WiMAX soporta dos estndares de encriptacin de calidad, DES3 y AES, que es considerado tecnologa de vanguardia. Bsicamente, todo el trfico en redes WiMAX debe ser encriptado empleando el Counter Mode con Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) que utilizan AES para transmisiones seguras y autenticacin de la integracin de datos. La autenticacin end-to-end de la metodologa PKM-EAP (Protocolo de Autenticacin Extensible) es utilizada de acuerdo con el estndar TLS de encriptacin de clave pblica. El estndar define un proceso de seguridad dedicada en la estacin base para los principiantes. Del mismo modo, tambin hay unos requerimientos de encriptacin mnimos para el trfico, as como para la autenticacin end-to-end -lo ltimo que es adaptado desde la especificacin del interface del servicio de datos sobre cable (DOCSIS) BPI y el protocolo de seguridad-. En relacin al suministro de servicios slo a los usuarios finales especficos, la autenticacin -basada en certificados digitales X.509- es incluida en la capa de control de acceso a los medios y da a cada usuario 802.16 receptor su propio certificado incorporado, ms otro para el fabricante, permitiendo a la estacin base autorizar al usuario final. La privacidad de la conexin es implementada como parte de otro subnivel MAC, la capa de privacidad. sta se basa en el protocolo Privacy Key Management que es parte de la especificacin DOCSIS BPI.

Debilidades del WiMAX


Los mecanismos de seguridad que poseen los actuales estndares son diferentes. La descripcin de cada uno de ellos es la siguiente: IEEE 802.16-2004: Provee manejo de privacidad de llaves para autenticacin e intercambio de llaves (PKM) y un protocolo de encapsulacin de datos para el manejo de confidencialidad e integridad. Entre las principales debilidades detectadas se pueden mencionar: No existe autenticacin de red, por lo que es posible realizar ataques usando estaciones base falsas. No se especifica la forma de manejar certificados. Utiliza DES para la encriptacin, lo cual es considerado inseguro. Existen potenciales ataques de denegacin de servicio debido a la no existencia de proteccin de integridad en los paquetes. El mtodo de generacin de nmeros pseudo-aleatorios es potencialmente dbil comparado con otros mtodos estandares.

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IEEE 802.16e: Este estandar es un gran paso en trminos de seguridad con respecto al estandar anterior, ya que la mayor parte de las debilidades fueron corregidas. El estandar provee mejoras en los mecanismos de autenticacin (EAP, PKMv2), la mayora de los paquetes de control son firmados para proteccin de integridad, se usan mecanismos basados en AES para encriptacin de datos y se efecta una pre-autenticacin para proveer un inicio de sesin ms eficiente para movilidad. Los anlisis han detectado algunas probables debilidades: Es posible un ataque de DoS en la autenticacin debido a que no todos los paquetes EAP estn protegidos. El manejo de certificados es an poco claro, ya que no se han resuelto asuntos como el almacenamiento de los mismos y sus llaves privadas.

Calidad de Servicio (QoS) en WiMAX


Una estacin mvil hace una peticin de QoS a las estaciones base. Dicha peticin se basa en la aplicacin deseada y puede darse ms de una a la vez. Segn los recursos y los tipos de servicio disponibles, se decidir el tipo de QoS a otorgar. La QoS es manejada por la capa MAC, con funciones que se encargan de pre configurar los parmetros de trfico y Service Flow de la Estacin Subscriptora (SS) con una QoS especifica. WiMAX ofrece 5 categorizadores de trafico, cada uno de ellos diseado para aplicaciones especificas:

Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)


Diseado para soportar aplicaciones en tiempo real que generan paquetes de tamao fijo peridicamente y con requerimientos estrictos de retardo. Ejemplo: VoIP sin supresin de silencios.

Real Time Packet Service (rtPS)


Diseado para soportar aplicaciones en tiempo real que envan paquetes de tamao variable peridicamente con requisitos menos estrictos de retardo. Ejemplo: reproduccin de videos en lnea (Streaming Videos).

Extended Real Time Packet Service (ErtPS)


Se especifica en 208.16e y se utiliza en servicios de VoIPcon supresin de silencio. Especifica tasas minimas y mximas, jitter y retardos.

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Non Real Time Packet Service (nrtPS)


Diseado para aplicaciones que no especifican tiempos de retardo. Las conexiones nrtPS reservan un minimo de ancho de banda para poder mejorar el desempeo de ancho de banda en aplicaciones que asi lo requieren. Ejemplo: FTP.

Best Effort (BE)


Similar a un nrtPS pero no reserva un minimo de ancho de banda. Ejemplos: transferencia de datos y navegacin.

QoS en WiMAX

WiMAX Applications
The bandwidth and range of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications:
Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through a variety of devices. Providing a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for "last mile" broadband access. Providing data, telecommunications (VoIP) and IPTV services (triple play). Providing a source of Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan.

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Broadband
Companies are deploying WiMAX to provide mobile broadband or at-home broadband connectivity across whole cities or countries. In many cases this has resulted in competition in markets which typically only had access to broadband through an existing incumbent DSL (or similar) operator. Additionally, given the relatively low cost to deploy a WiMAX network (in comparison to GSM, DSL or Fiber-Optic), it is now possible to provide broadband in places where it might have been previously economically unviable.

Backhaul (Red de Retorno)


WiMAX is a possible replacement candidate for cellular phone technologies such as GSM and CDMA, or can be used as an overlay to increase capacity. Fixed WiMAX is also considered as a wireless backhaul technology for 2G, 3G, and 4G networks in both developed and developing nations. In North America, backhaul for urban cellular operations is typically provided via one or more copper wire line T1 connections, whereas remote cellular operations are sometimes backhauled via satellite. In most other regions, urban and rural backhaul is usually provided by microwave links. (The exception to this is where the network is operated by an incumbent with ready access to the copper network, in which case T1 lines may be used.) WiMAX is a broadband platform and as such has much more substantial backhaul bandwidth requirements than legacy cellular applications. Therefore, traditional copper wire line backhaul solutions are not appropriate. Consequently the use of wireless microwave backhaul is on the rise in North America and existing microwave backhaul links in all regions are being upgraded.[8] Capacities of between 34 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s are routinely being deployed with latencies in the order of 1 ms. In many cases, operators are aggregating sites using wireless technology and then presenting traffic on to fiber networks where convenient.

Triple-play
WiMAX supports the technologies that make triple-play service offerings possible (such as Quality of Service and Multicasting). On May 7, 2008 in the United States, Sprint Nextel, Google, Intel, Comcast, Bright House, and Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum and merged with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name "Clear". The new company hopes to benefit from combined services offerings and network resources as a springboard past its competitors. The cable companies will provide media services to other partners while

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gaining access to the wireless network as a Mobile virtual network operator to provide tripleplay services. Some analysts have questioned how the deal will work out: Although fixed-mobile convergence has been a recognized factor in the industry, prior attempts to form partnerships among wireless and cable companies have generally failed to lead to significant benefits to the participants. Other analysts point out that as wireless progresses to higher bandwidth, it inevitably competes more directly with cable and DSL, inspiring competitors into collaboration. Also, as wireless broadband networks grow denser and usage habits shift, the need for increased backhaul and media service will accelerate, therefore the opportunity to leverage cable assets is expected to increase.

Componentes WiMAX
Radios
At the core of WiMAX is the WiMAX radio. A radio contains both a transmitter (sends) and a receiver (receives). It generates electrical oscillations at a frequency known as the carrier frequency (in WiMAX that is usually between 2 and 11 GHz). A radio might be thought of as a networking device similar to a router or a bridge in that it is managed by software and is composed of circuit boards containing very complex chip sets. WiMAX architecture, very simply put, is built upon two components: radios and antennas. Most WiMAX products offer a base station radio separate from the antenna. Conversely, many CPE devices are also two piece solutions with an antenna on the outside of the building and subscriber station indoors as illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 9: Most WiMAX solutions use radios separate from antennas

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The chief advantage of this is that the radio is protected from extremes of heat cold and humidity all of which detract from the radio's performance and durability. In addition, having the antenna outdoors optimizes the link budget (performance of the wireless connection) between transmitter and receiver especially in line of sight scenarios. The antenna is connected to WiMAX radio via a cable known as a "pigtail". One simple rule for wireless installations: keep the pigtail as short as possible. Why? The longer the pigtail the more signal is lost between the antenna and the radio. The popular LMR-400 cable, for example will lose about 1 dB (pronounced "dee-bee" for decibel, a measure of signal strength) for every 10 feet of cable. Very simply put, if an antenna is placed at the top of a 20-story building and the radio in the wiring closet on the ground floor, one may lose all signal in the cable.

Radios and Enclosures

Figure 10: WiMAX performance can be optimized by placing the radio in a weather resistant or weatherproof enclosure near the antenna

Radio placement
The photo above shows the WiMAX radio deployed in an enclosure. Note from left to right: a) copper grounding cable on the inside of the enclosure b) Ethernet connection to the data source c) Heliax "pigtail" to the antenna (Heliax is a heavy duty, lightning resistant cable) d) 110v power via an APC UPS (note black box in top right hand corner of enclosure. What are some strategies to ensure the antenna can be as high as possible to take advan-tage of line-of-sight topologies where ever possible while keeping the pigtail as short as possible? One approach is to co-locate the radio on or near the roof with the antenna in an
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enclosure. Considerations for enclosures include: a) security and b) weather resistance-how hot or cold can your radio gets and still function? Sheet metal or fiberglass enclosures with a lock provide security. Next, it is necessary to determine how well suited the radio is for local atmospherics (hot or cold). Most Wi-MAX radios are rated as operating between -20 degrees Fahrenheit to 120 degrees F at the upper end. If you will be operating in locations that will exceed those parameters you need an enclosure that will shield your radio form those extremes. As the radio will generate its own heat, surrounding it with insulation will ensure the temperature of the radio will not suffer from sub-zero temperatures.

WiMAX Antennas

Figure 11: Different antenna types are designed for different applications

WiMAX antennas, just like the antennas for car radio, cell phone, FM radio, or TV, are designed to optimize performance for a given application. The figure above illustrates the three main types of antennas used in WiMAX deployments. From top to bottom are an omni directional, sector and panel antenna each has a specific function.

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Omni Directional Antenna

Figure 12: An omni-directional antenna broadcasts 360 degrees from the base station

Omni directional antennas are used for point-to-multipoint configurations. The main drawback to an omni directional antenna is that its energy is greatly diffused in broad-casting 360 degrees. This limits its range and ultimately signal strength. Omni directional antennas are good for situations where there are a lot of subscribers located very close to the base station. An example of omni directional application is a WiFi hotspot where the range is less than 100 meters and subscribers are concentrated in a small area.

Sector antennas

Figure 13: Sector antennas are focused on smaller sectors


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A sector antenna, by focusing the beam in a more focused area, offers greater range and throughput with less energy. Many operators will use sector antennas to cover a 360degree service area rather than use an omni directional antenna due to the superior performance of sector antennas over an omni directional antenna.

Panel antennas

Figure 14: Panel antennas are most often used for point-to-point applications

Panel antennas are usually a flat panel of about one foot square. They can also be a configuration where potentially the WiMAX radio is contained in the square antenna enclosure. Such configurations are powered via the Ethernet cable that connects the radio/antenna combination to the wider network. That power source is known as Power over Ethernet (PoE). This streamlines deployments as there is no need to house the radio in a separate, weatherproof enclosure if outdoors or in a wiring closet if indoors. This configuration can also be very handy for relays.

Subscriber Stations
The technical term for customer premise equipment (CPE) is subscriber station. The generally accepted marketing terms now focus on either "indoor CPE" or "outdoor CPE". There are advantages and disadvantages to both deployment schemes as described below.

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Outdoor CPE

Figure 15: An outdoor CPE device

Outdoor CPE, very simply put, offers somewhat better performance over indoor CPE given that WiMAX reception is not impeded by walls of concrete or brick, RF blocking glass or steel in the building's walls. In many cases the subscriber may wish to utilize an outdoor CPE in order to maximize reception via a line of sight connection to the base sta-tion not possible with indoor CPE. Outdoor CPE will cost more than indoor CPE due to a number of factors including extra measures necessary to make outdoor CPE weather re-sistant.

Indoor CPE

Figure 16: Indoor WiMAX CPE, courtesy Motorola

The most significant advantage of indoor over outdoor CPE is that it is installed by the subscriber. This frees the service provider from the expense of "truck roll" or installation. In addition, it can be sold online or in a retail facility thus sparing the service provider a trip to the customer site. Indoor CPE also allows a certain instant gratification for the subscriber in that there is no wait time for installation by the service provider. Currently, many telephone companies require a one month wait between placement of order and in-stallation of T1 or E1
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services. In addition, an instant delivery of service is very appeal-ing to the business subscriber in the event of a network outage by the incumbent service provider.

Connecting to WiMAX

A WiMAX USB modem for mobile internet

There are numerous devices on the market that provide connectivity to a WiMAX network. These are known as the "subscriber unit" (SU). There is an increasing focus on portable units. This includes handsets (similar to cellular smartphones); PC peripherals (PC Cards or USB dongles); and embedded devices in laptops, which are now available for Wi-Fi services. In addition, there is much emphasis by operators on consumer electronics devices such as Gaming consoles, MP3 players and similar devices. It is notable that WiMAX is more similar to Wi-Fi than to 3G cellular technologies. The WiMAX Forum website provides a list of certified devices. However, this is not a complete list of devices available as certified modules are embedded into laptops, MIDs (Mobile Internet devices), and other private labeled devices.

Gateways
WiMAX gateway devices are available as both indoor and outdoor versions from several manufacturers. Many of the WiMAX gateways that are offered by manufactures such as Airspan, ZyXEL, Huawei, Motorola, and Greenpacket are stand-alone self-install indoor units. Such devices typically sit near the customer's window with the best WiMAX signal, and provide:
An integrated Wi-Fi access point to provide the WiMAX Internet connectivity to multiple devices throughout the home or business. Ethernet ports should you wish to connect directly to your computer or DVR instead. One or two PSTN telephone jacks to connect your land-line phone and take advantage of VoIP.

Indoor gateways are convenient, but radio losses mean that the subscriber may need to be significantly closer to the WiMAX base station than with professionally-installed external units. Outdoor units are roughly the size of a laptop PC, and their installation is comparable to the installation of a residential satellite dish. A higher-gain directional outdoor unit will generally
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result in greatly increased range and throughput but with the obvious loss of practical mobility of the unit.

Dongles
There are a variety of USB dongles on the market which provide connectivity to a WiMAX network. Generally these devices are connected to a notebook or netbook whilst on the go. Dongles typically have omnidirectional antennae which are of lower-gain compared to other devices, as such these devices are best used in areas of good coverage.

Mobile phones
HTC announced the first WiMAX enabled mobile phone, the Max 4G, on Nov 12th 2008.[12] The device was only available to certain markets in Russia on the Yota network. HTC and Sprint Nextel released the second WiMAX enabled mobile phone, the EVO 4G, March 23, 2010 at the CTIA conference in Las Vegas. The device, made available on June 4, 2010,[13] is capable of both EV-DO(3G) and WiMAX(4G) as well as simultaneous data & voice sessions. The device also has a front-facing camera enabling the use of video conversations.[14] A number of WiMAX Mobiles are expected to hit the US market in 2011.

Comparison with Wi-Fi


WiMAX is often confused with Wi-Fi, another wireless telecommunication standard, but both of these standards are much different in terms of infrastructure pre-requisites and network capabilities. Wi-Fi is basically a limited wireless extension of the conventional wired telecommunications network, using which we can access wireless internet within a small range of 10-100m from the Wi-Fi access point, whereas WiMAX provides long range wireless internet access at broadband speed, with the help of a dedicated network infrastructure, built exclusively for wireless data communication at much higher speed. Comparisons and confusion between WiMAX and Wi-Fi are frequent because both are related to wireless connectivity and Internet access.
WiMAX is a long range system, covering many kilometres, that uses licensed or unlicensed spectrum to deliver connection to a network, in most cases the Internet. Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a local network. Wi-Fi is more popular in end user devices. Wi-Fi runs on the Media Access Control's CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless and contention based, whereas WiMAX runs a connection-oriented MAC. WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different quality of service (QoS) mechanisms:
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WiMAX WiMAX uses a QoS mechanism based on connections between the base station and the user device. Each connection is based on specific scheduling algorithms. Wi-Fi uses contention access - all subscriber stations that wish to pass data through a wireless access point (AP) are competing for the AP's attention on a random interrupt basis. This can cause subscriber stations distant from the AP to be repeatedly interrupted by closer stations, greatly reducing their throughput. Both 802.11 (which includes Wi-Fi) and 802.16 (which includes WiMAX) define Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and ad hoc networks, where an end user communicates to users or servers on another Local Area Network (LAN) using its access point or base station. However, 802.11 supports also direct ad hoc or peer to peer networking between end user devices without an access point while 802.16 end user devices must be in range of the base station.

Wi-Fi and WiMAX are complementary. WiMAX network operators typically provide a WiMAX Subscriber Unit which connects to the metropolitan WiMAX network and provides WiFi within the home or business for local devices (e.g., Laptops, Wi-Fi Handsets, smartphones) for connectivity. This enables the user to place the WiMAX Subscriber Unit in the best reception area (such as a window), and still be able to use the WiMAX network from any place within their residence. Wi-Fi and WiMAX are protocols designed for different situations.

Will WiMAX replace DSL and Cable?


It is important to remember that WiMAX is a global broadband wireless standard. The question of whether or not it could replace either DSL or Cable will vary from region to region. Many developing countries simply do not have the infrastructure to support either cable or DSL broadband technologies. In fact, many such countries are already widely using proprietary broadband wireless technologies. Even in such regions however, it is very unlikely that either Cable or DSL technologies would disappear. The business case and basic infrastructure often dictates that the cheapest solutions will predominate. In many areas in developing nations, it may be cheaper to deploy Cable and DSL in the cities at least for fixed applications, whereas WiMAX will dominate outside of major towns. In the US, both Cable and DSL are growing extremely fast, but are not available for all customers. Rural and remote areas often lack broadband choices if any are available at all. When they are available, the DSL or cable plant may only exist within the town limits with no service outside the city limits. This offers a compelling argument that low-cost WiMAX gear can leverage access to many new customers. WiMAX also promises a whole new level of data access flexibility that will be much less location specific for customers. This type of robust mobile, portable or fixed broadband access will be unprecedented.

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In addition, WiMAX will provide competitive options for carriers and users that will benefit traditional wireline carriers and customers by encouraging innovation and improved services. With the advent of IPTV fiber plays are enjoying resurgence. It does not appear that WiMAX or broadband wireless will be ready to deliver IPTV in the immediate future. However, fixed WiMAX may offer the best potential for delivery of this potential content juggernaut. More recently some promising new compression technologies have reached the market. These technologies, while still new, allow the delivery of true IP-based TV signals to cellular devices. One company asserts that it could deliver high definition TV (HDTV) in as little as 2.5 Mbps of bandwidth, with standard resolution signal requiring 1.5 Mbps. These speeds are within the potential reach of WiMAX. Qualcomm and its MediaFlo system are one good example of such technologies. It is important to note that the resolution of this TV or video system is not at the level of standard TV, but progress is occurring rapidly.

What is unlicensed spectrum? What frequencies are they in?


Unlicensed or license-free spectrum as it is sometimes called simply means a spectrum band that has rules pre-defined for both the hardware and deployment methods of the radio in such a manner that interference is mitigated by the technical rules defined for the bands rather than it being restricted for use by only one entity through a spectrum licensing approach. Any person or entity that does not infringe upon the rules for the equipment (which in practical terms is all pre-certified by the manufacturer) or its use can put up a license free network at any time for either private or public purposes including commercial high speed internet service. Some of the most commonly used license free frequencies in the US are at 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.2/5.3/5.8 GHz, 24 GHz and above 60 GHz. Other spectrum just now gaining tracton is a small band at 3.65 GHz (with specific different rules set for its use). Much of the spectrum above 60 GHz (millimeter wave band) is unlicensed. There is also a band at 4.9 GHz which is allocated for public safety use. The rules vary from band to band. Other countries have varying rules about license free spectrum. In the UK for example, the power allotment for 2.4 GHz is about one tenth that allowed for products sold in the US. The rules for equipment in each band varies somewhat as does the power allotment and configuration of equipment. One example of license free service is the many Wi-Fi Hotspots that have sprung up in cafes, airports and commercial venues in recent years. The spectrum used for these Wi-Fi networks is mostly at 2.4 GHz and 5.2/5.3 GHz. In the US, the 5.2/5.3 band is used for both 802.11a hotspot access as well as outdoor use. The rules for these bands define a different power level and a more integrated antenna and radio than the 5.8 GHz band
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does. Any coffee shop in America, if they follow extremely simple rules can set up an unlicensed network. Typically, the power allotment for each license free radio is much lower than that enjoyed by licensed spectrum holders. One real exception to this rule is the 3.65 GHz band, which allows up to 1 Watt per MHz of power output, higher than unlicensed spectrum. Technically the 3.65 GHz band is licensed, but the cost and rules defining the band and its use are so modest that it is effectively unlicensed spectrum. This band is already proving to deliver NLOS capability with very solid bandwidth capability. Power allotment largely relegates license-free providers to LOS coverage only. Although 900 MHz products feature limited NLOS capability at short ranges from 1-2 miles depending on tree cover and building shadow.

Que es WiMAX 2 Iniciativa de colaboracin (WCI)?


El WCI es una iniciativa liderada por los principales proveedores de silicio WiMAX , los fabricantes de equipos y organizaciones de investigacin para acelerar la interoperabilidad de WiMAX 2 basado en el estndar IEEE 802.16m estndar. El grupo trabajar mano a mano con el WiMAX Forum para que el ecosistema 802.16m ms rpido al mercado, atendiendo las demandas de la creciente red de servicios que proporcionan

Que compaas son parte de WiMAX 2 Iniciativa de colaboracin (WCI)?


Los principales proveedores de WiMAX: Alvarion, Beceem, GCT Semiconductor, Intel, Motorola, Samsung, Sequans, XRONet y ZTE, as como la organizacin de investigacin de Taiwn, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), estn trabajando en estrecha colaboracin con el Foro WiMAX para acelerar la aplicacin de perfiles de interoperabilidad del sistema para WiMAX con el objetivo de mejorar la economa de la banda ancha mvil. En conjunto, el grupo ofrece soluciones a ms de 100 operadores mviles WiMAX en todo el mundo.

Cuales son los objetivos de WCI?


El WCI entiende que a medida que la industria de la 4G toma forma, es imprescindible para evolucionar el modelo de la industria para crear una cadena de valor mejor para los proveedores de servicios. Al trabajar en estrecha colaboracin y con el WiMAX Forum, el grupo planea llevar a cabo: Tecnologa de colaboracin y actuacin conjunta de evaluacin
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comparativa Principio del formulario Desarrollo conjunto de perfiles de productos 802.16m para que podamos realizar las primeras pruebas. Desarrollo conjunto de rutas de migracin para los sistemas 802.16e existentes Testeo de aplicaciones 4G a travs de los sistemas WiMAX 2

Cul es el plazo esperado de la implantacin de WiMAX 2?


WiMAX Forum certificar los productos comerciales a finales de 2011. El estndar de interfaz area 802.16m se espera que sea completada en el segundo semestre de 2010.

Donde esta WiMAX implantado?


A partir de febrero de 2010, el WiMAX Forum a contabilizado 559 despliegues de red en 147 pases. Informacin detallada en WiMAX Maps en www.WiMAXmaps.org.

Implementacin de WiMAX en el Mundo


Redes en Desarrollo

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Redes en Servicio

Redes con Reconocimiento de Licencia

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Redes en Planes de Desarrollo

Redes con Estatus No Definido

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Total de Redes en el Mundo

Implementacin de WiMAX en Mxico


Redes en Mxico

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Red Axtel

Red Universidad de Guadalajara

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Red MaxCom

Red MVS

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Red PEMEX

Red TELEVISA

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Red UltraNet2Go

Red TELMEX

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Anexo 1
List of deployed WiMAX networks
This is a list of proposed and deployed WiMAX networks by country.
Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
Angola MSTelcom is deploying a nationwide project at 2.5 GHz. About 60% of Luanda is covered.[citation needed] Data and voice over IP are among the services to be supplied to the end-users. Australia Adam Internet operates a Fixed WiMAX network in the Metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia in the 5.0 GHz band. Speeds up to 12 Mbps are achievable. Agile Communications operates Fixed WiMAX networks in the Coorong, Yorke Peninsula, and Riverlands areas of South Australia, retailed by partner ISP. Vividwireless owned by Television Broadcast station Channel 7, offers broadband products ranging from 1GB of data to Unlimited data, with speeds of up to 20mbps.

B
Bangladesh BanglaLion BanglaLion Communications Ltd using WiMAX standard 802.16e and onward revisions only. It has the largest coverage in Bangladesh and allows VoIP services as well. Qubee Launched wireless broadband Internet services for residential and business customers in Dhaka in October 2009. Barbados TeleBarbados uses WiMAX to cover most of the island of Barbados in partnership with its subsidiary Freemotion. Belarus Beltelecom has developed WiMAX network under the ByFly brand. Bulgaria Trans Telecom (4ever) has deployed a network with mobile WiMAX technology in 42 towns. Max Telecom holds a class A license in the 3.5 GHz band (2 x 21 MHz) and has deployed a network with mobile WiMAX technology in 14 towns so far. Nexcom Bulgaria has deployed a WiMAX network in Bulgaria that has coverage in the biggest cities.[1]

C
Canada Bell Canada, and Rogers Communications offer a shared WiMAX-like network in partnership with Inukshuk Wireless (although Inukshuk uses mostly pre-WiMAX for its own network). Bell Canada offers their Portable and Rural Bell WiMAX Internet services in many cities in Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince

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WiMAX Edward Island, and Quebec.[2] Rogers offers their Portable Internet (WiMAX) service in over 150 communities across Canada.[3] EvoShift Communications (evoshift.com) Launched it's WiMAX network in Victoria, BC on Jan 19, 2011. Using Purewave 802.16e 3.65 GHz WiMAX equipment they can provide competitive Internet and VoIP solutions. Sogetel offers WiMAX service for Nicolet-Yamaska and Bcancour in Quebec.[4] Craig Wireless is planning on offering commercial 2.5 GHz WiMAX service to Vancouver, British Columbia and Winnipeg, Manitoba. Primus Canada and Mipps Inc. are now (May'07) jointly conducting WiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005 (3.5 GHz) trials in Hamilton, Ontario, using Alcatel-Lucent's new WiMAX equipment[citation needed] ABC Communications (www.abccommunications.com) offers 3.5 GHz WiMAX service in a number of communities in the interior of BC.

Cayman Islands Digicel has deployed 802.16d & 802.16e technology for its Digicel Broadband solution.[citation
needed]

Colombia In July 2006 Orbitel launched in Cali the first WiMAX network of Colombia.[citation needed] On January 20, 2006, Colombian company Telecom launched a PRE-WiMAX network in Bucaramanga. Orbitel, ETB and Telecom hold 3.5 GHz licences for the entire country. Nowadays other cities with WiMAX are Cali, Bogot, Ccuta, Barranquilla, Cartagena and Medelln.[citation
needed]

Congo Elix has deployed a citywide WiMAX network in the city of Kinshasa, using licensed spectrum at 3.5 GHz.[citation needed] Costa Rica Radiografica Costarricense S.A. (RACSA, a part of the state owned Grupo ICE) started offering the service on the second week of 2008.[5] Croatia Novi-net offers WiMAX in Meimurje county, Dubrovnik telekom in Dubrovnik[citation needed] Optima Telekom have operating WiMAX with Siemens equipment in Osijek, Rijeka, Split, Cakovec, Opatija, Valpovo and Djakovo but getting out of business. WiMAX Telecom started to build network with Alcatel-Lucent equipment.3.5 GHz frequencies . OiV just get licences.

D
Dominican Republic Since October 2007, the first WiMAX ISP Onemax delivers both telephony and internet access, using licenced spectrum at 3.5 GHz, to both home and business customers in Santo Domingo. Also, TRICOM ([2]) it is currently offering WiMAX services to its business customers, on a first implementation phase (town Bavaro; also the municipalities of Haina, Santo Domingo Oeste, Santo Domingo Norte and Greater Santo Domingo). Recently, there's a third WiMAX provider,

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WiMAX Wind Telecom, that offers not only telephony and data, but also subscription-based digital television broadcasting.

E
Egypt The National Telecom Regulatory Authority (NTRA) issues WiMAX licensed bands to companies requiring license for using the technology for data transfer. Estonia A total of 4 licenses in the 3.5-3.6 GHz range have been issued to 5 companies. Three of them (Norby Telecom, Baltic Broadband and Tele2) have national-wide licenses and two companies (Levira and Elion) share the same frequency, but Elion can use it only in Tallinn and Harjumaa region and Levira in the whole country except of Tallinn and Harjumaa. Ethiopia The incumbent operator (and state-owned monopoly) ETC has deployed a fixed WiMAX network in the capital city of Addis Abeba using the 3.5 GHz band.

F
Finland There are some 15 WiMAX operators in Finland spread throughout the country. The coverage is mainly concentrated on the rural areas and Lapland. France HDRR, a subsidiary of TDF has announced the deployment of mobile WiMAX in the Loiret region of France. He was bought by Bollor Telecom in 2008.

G
Georgia VTEL-Georgia utilizes a spectrum in the 2.3 GHz band to operate a WiMAX network in 802.16e standard. Commercial operation in cities of Tbilisi, Batumi, Poti and Rustavi has been started in December, 2008. Germany In December 2006, 3.43.6 GHz band broadband wireless access (BWA) licenses were issued through an auction by the federal regulator Bundesnetzagentur. Clearwire, Inquam and DBD now hold licences for the entire country, two smaller companies hold regional licenses. These licenses are designed for the use with WiMAX technology. Greece OTE claims to have set up two large pilot WiMAX networks in operation in Attiki and one in Mount Athos and to be planning nationwide deployment. [3] As of now,[when?] no availability, pricing, or expected dates of commercial deployment have been announced.

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WiMAX Guyana Within the geographic boundaries of Le Ressouvenir (ECD) to Agricola (EBD), Diamond , ENetworks offers WiMAX internet service. They also offer IPTV and VoIP services over their network.

I
India BSNL Indonesia The Indonesian government announced on January 22, 2009, two ministry decrees and three regulations releasing spectrum at 2.3 GHz and 3.3 GHz for wireless broadband access across all regions of Indonesia. This means Indonesia will using 2.3 GHz band for the WiMAX 16.e standard while 3.3 GHz will be used for the 16.d standard.[6] Indonesia already able to build their own total solution for WiMAX including chips[7] and equipments[8][9] WiMAX trial had been held by Indonesian government in mid-October 2008 to provide internet broadband in the Bandung area.[10] Based on trial and local content requisites, two vendors (TRG & HARIFF) had been approved by Indonesian government to sell WiMAX 16.d equipment to the operators who won WiMAX 16.d license. XIRKA is focusing their business in WiMAX chipset. TRG, HARIFF & LEN are preparing their product for WiMAX 16.e Auction. Commercial deployment planned in 2009.[11] In July 2009, Indonesian government had announcement the winner of WiMAX 16.d license in 15 zones.[12] The winner for each region are: o Zone 1 covering North Sumatera region, won by PT First Media Tbk. o Zone 2 covering Center Sumatera region, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 3 covering South Sumatera region, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 4 covering Banten, Jakarta, Bogor, Tanggerang & Bekasi, won by PT First Media. o Zone 5 covering west Java, won by PT Comtronic System and PT Adiwarta Perdana. o Zone 6 covering center Java, won by PT Telkom. o Zone 7 covering east Java, won by PT Comtronic System dan PT Adiwarta Perdana. o Zone 8 covering Bali and NTB, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 9 covering Papua, won by APJII' Consortium & PT Telkom. o Zone 10 covering Maluku won by APJII' consortium & PT Telkom. o Zone 11 covering south Sulawesi, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 12 covering North Sulawesi, won by PT Telkom. o Zone 13 covering west Kalimantan, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 14 covering east Kalimantan, won by PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. o Zone 15 covering Riau, won by APJII' Consortium & PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa. WiMAX 16.e auction will be start in 2010 and announced in 2011.[13] Iran Irancell IranMobin Datak Telecom

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WiMAX Laser Telecom Spadan Rayaneh Danesh

Ireland Irish Broadband Intel Ireland WiMAX Trials Italy

Italian Ministry of Defense currently holds the 3.5 GHz band, and is about to free the band through auctions in order to let the government sell licences. Bloggers and members of consumers associations have started protests against this way of assigning the frequencies.[14] The members of the unofficial Italian Pirate Party are currently organizing a Googlebombing.[15] The Ministry of Defense released the band and recently Ministry of Communications has announced that WiMAX licences contest will be in September 2007 or nearly. All licenses available were awarded to different operators in an auction ended on 27 February 2008. Public services should start soon.[when?]

J
Jamaica Digicel has deployed an 802.16d network. Japan UQ Communications is a telecommunications company in Japan that provides nationwide WiMAX service. On Feb. 26, 2009, UQ started its mobile WiMAX service in Tokyo, Yokohama, and Kawasaki. The highest speed WiMAX can suggest is 40 Mbit/s down and 7.2 Mbit/s up. Among UQ investors are Intel Capital Corporation, East Japan Railway Company, KYOCERA Corporation, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd. and others.[16]

K
Kenya AccessKenya has used WiMAX for its broadband residential service, Access@Home in the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa. AccessKenya has currently deployed one of the largest WiMAX Network in East Africa Safaricom WIMAX Internet services for SOHO & residential customers[18] Korea(South) WiBro is served by KT and SK Telecom.

L
Libya
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WiMAX Libya Telecom & Technology, the national Internet service provider, deployed the first commercial WiMAX network based on the 802.16e-2005 WiMAX standard in Libya. LTT launched the commercial service on the network in January 2008.

Lithuania AB Lietuvos radijo ir televizijos centras deployed the first commercial WiMAX network MEZON based on the 802.16 WiMAX standard in Lithuania. LRTC launched the commercial service on the network in March 2009.

M
Malaysia Licences have been awarded to Green Packet Bhd, REDtone International Bhd, YTL e-Solutions Bhd and Asiaspace Dotcom Sdn Bhd to provide WiMAX services, service rollout began with P1's network in August 2008. Packet One Networks has deployed WiMAX in the 2.3 GHz band in Peninsular Malaysia with coverage in most major city areas under the brand P1. It was launched in August 2008. P1 initially offered an up-to-10 Mbps "Wiggy" package (the fastest offered speed for wireless Internet at the time it was introduced), but the package has since been discontinued as the system was found to be unable to achieve or sustain the speed in real-world conditions and the company received criticisms as a result. The fastest package offered is now an up-to-3 Mbps "Wiggy" package. A no-fuss prepaid 800 kpbs package is also available. Packet One Networks' parent company, Green Packet, builds the transceivers for Packet One Networks. YTL e-Solutions Bhd launched its WIMAX service under the brand YES on 19 November 2010. Like P1's solution, it uses the 2.3 GHz band. Unlike the other providers, it is only offered as a nofuss prepaid Internet service with voice and Text Messaging as value added services. There is no official announcement on the speed of the connection of the service, but speeds of up to 12 Mbps have been recorded in metropolitan areas, with speeds of up to 2 Mbps being recorded in rural areas. Coverage is said to be most major city and rural areas in Malaysia, however there are many areas that still lack service coverage. YTL sources its transceivers from Infomark Korea. Asiaspace Dotcom announced that its WiMAX network will be called AMAX. Currently the service only covers certain parts of the Klang Valley as a market test. No definite launch date is provided. The maximum speed available is 1.5 Mbps to consumers and 2 Mbps to businesses in the trial markets[19]. However, unlike YES and P1, AMAX's service appears to be available on a monthly flat fee with no quota. Acting on YTL's deployment of YES, REDtone has since deployed its WiMAX infrastructure under the name of REDtone Broadband WiMAX[20]. Like AMAX, the packages are offered is a flat-rate monthly service, although unlike AMAX there is a quota depending on the package chosen. REDtone's fastest speed offered is 2 Mbps to both home and office. Currently the service only covers the major cities in the East Coast of Malaysia. Macedonia National licences have been awarded to two operators, Cosmoline Greece and Nexcom Macedonia to provide fixed WiMAX services, service roll out targeted by end of 2007. Regional licences have been awarded to Neotel, Cosmofon and Istel in 2007. Neotel implements and operates mobile WiMAX 3.5 GHz network and provides services in the whole country.[21] Malta
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WiMAX Three licences in 3.5 GHz band awarded by the Malta Communications Authority to Vodafone, Go Mobile, Cellcom in October 2005. Only Vodafone has commercially launched a broadband and VOIP service over WiMAX in July 2007 and will have country wide coverage by end November 2007.

Mexico In October 2005 Axtel commercialized WiMAX for Monterrey city. Ultranet2go provides WiMAX services in four states: Veracruz, Puebla, Tamaulipas and Aguascalientes. The University of Guadalajara, in collaboration with the Government of Jalisco, has begun the development of a WiMAX network in the state of Jalisco, which will provide free Internet access to the population, as well as a better communications infrastructure for the government through a new intranet system. Mongolia Since March 2005 company Ulusnet is providing WiMAX solution for Ulaanbaatar city. Montenegro Licences have been awarded to four operators: T-Mobile, Broadband Montenegro, m:tel and Telenor Montenegro to provide WiMAX services; service rollout began in October 2007 (m:tel).

N
The Netherlands On June 17, 2008 Worldmax launched its WiMAX service in Amsterdam on the 3.5 GHz band, the first commercial WiMAX network in Europe. The network was available anywhere inside the A10 motorway, a ringroad around Amsterdam and promised speeds up to 8 Mbit/s.[22] The service closed down in July 2010 after Worldmax was informed by the Dutch Ministry of Defense that they were causing radio interference with a satellite station owned by the Ministry of Defense. For reasons of national security, they were forced to restrict Worldmax' frequency license. This caused Worldmax to cease their operations in the Amsterdam area[23] New Zealand CallPlus purchased 3.5 GHz WiMAX spectrum and are deploying Alvarion from Auckland North. This is run under the wholesale brand Blue Reach. Nicaragua Russian Mobile WiMAX operator Yota (Scartel) (ru): December 2009 - test operations in Managua[24]. Nigeria MTN Group MTN Nigeria biggest Nigerian GSM operator purchased XS Broadband a privately owned Pre-WiMAX company and inherited a 3.5GhZ WiMAX licence in 24 states.The Nigerian Operations has deployed WiMAX network in 6 cities targeting the low income masses in a joint project with the telco regulator (NCC) called the SABI PROJECT. Other Licencees,include Mobitel , Swift Networks, IpNX etc.

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WiMAX Norway Network operated by NextGenTel. NextNet is the leading WIMAX provider in Norway with about 8500 customers

P
Pakistan Qubee Wateen Telecom Wi-tribe (Qtel) Mobilink Infinity Poland

Netia networks in about 50 Cities NASK ~5 Cities Crowley Data Poland SferaNET INEA

Philippines Wi-Tribe Globe WiMAX Smart WiMAX

R
Romania In April 2010, Canadian company Redline Communications announced they had signed a contract with the National Society of Radiocommunications - Radiocom - to deliver equipments required for the implementation of the WiMAX Network. Redline will deliver the equipment for Radiocom through its Romanian partner, Omnilogic. In order to provide broadband connectivity to authorities, schools and companies in Romania, Redline Communications will deliver its 3.6-3Ghz RedMax UX, according to agerpress. In November 2010, with a delay of a few months, Radiocom has officially launched a part of their WiMAX network, covering 17 major cities and 7 other cities. The connection fee was set at 7 Eur/month (1Mbps speed limit, unlimited traffic), 9 Eur/month (2Mbps), 14 Eur/month (4Mbps). The provider estimates 2-3000 users connected by the end of 2010 and about 10.000 users by the end of 2011. The company is focused on providing internet access to rural areas or smaller cities. Source: Hotnews.
Russia

WiMAX operators are allowed to use 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz frequency bands; since outdoor UMTS-2100 is not allowed in Moscow, WiMAX is gaining widespread adoption for wireless broadband access in that region.

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WiMAX Yota (Scartel) (ru) (IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2.5-2.7 GHz[25], yota.ru) is the first commercial Mobile WiMAX operator in Russia[26]. As of Autumn 2009, commercial operation has commenced in Moscow and St. Petersburg with partial coverage of Moscow Oblast and Leningrad Oblast, and free public testing started in Ufa, Sochi and Krasnodar. A network is under construction in Samara. In the next 3 years, coverage should spread to 180 Russian cities and towns with population over 100 000; coverage of Moscow Oblast and Leningrad Oblast should improve as well.[27] Comstar-WiMAX (Comstar-OTS) (ru) (IEEE 802.16e-2005, 2.5 GHz[28], WiMAX.comstar.ru) is the second commercial operator in Russia to begin operations; currently offers WiMAX services in Moscow only and does not plan any extension of coverage.

S
Saudi Arabia GO Etihad Atheeb Telecom Co. "GO" is an operator that provides Internet and VOIP services. Mobily Mobily is a mobile phone operator that also provides WiMAX internet services via its subsidiary Bayanat Bayanat Al Oula for Network Services. Spain

Eurona small operator born in Catalunya and with deployments all over the country. Eurona deploys WiMAX 802.16d equipment giving services to rural areas and small cities with services from 18 euros for residential users to simetric services of over 20 Mb/s for companies. Eurona is also completing its offer with phone lines and VOIP services. Euskaltel is the cable operator from the Basque Country. The initial project includes broadband to rural areas with prices between 22 euros a month for 300 kbit/s and 39 euros for 1 Mbit/s. A phone line costs additional 13.75 euros. [4] (in Spanish). Iberbanda bought by Telefnica in 2006, has the largest number of customers. Their contractfree price is 39 euros for 512 kbit/s, 70 euros for 1 Mbit/s and an additional 10 euros for a phone line. Iberbanda offers three contract options Avi (only internet for 39 euro/month), AviPack (internet and phone line for 39 euro/month) and AviPlus (internet and phone service only for businesses for 70 euro/month). [5]. In the past, aL offered WiMAX to corporate customers. Clearwire is now offering WiMAX service under the name Instanet to Mlaga and will also be available to Seville soon.

Sri Lanka Dialog Telekom began commercial operations in late 2006 and offers speeds of up to 4 Mbit/s. Sri Lanka Telecom has also launched test transmission in certain areas. However there are problems as the local pay television operator Comet Cable uses some of the WiMAX bandwidths. Lanka Bell launched commercial operations in early 2008. SUNTEL has started the Wi-Max BroadBand Lanka Bell and Suntel, are already offering WiMAX services on the 3.5G spectrum in 375 base stations throughout the country SKYnetwork (subsidiary of Srilanka Telecom) also going to launch the WiMAX network by March 2010.[dated info] Huawei technologies is providing the equipments for the network implementation. They are going to use 30 bandwidth, 10M per each sector.
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WiMAX

Sweden Telia Sonera has installed WiMAX in 21 counties. South Africa [NEOTEL} Neotel is working on WiMAX tecnology .

T
Taiwan Global Mobile VMax FarEasTone Tatung Infocomm

Tajikistan Babilon-T has launched Mobile WiMAX at 2.3 Ghz in Dec. 2010, covering all major cities. Speeds up to 18Mbps are achievable. NGN telephony is provided for WiMAX customers under WiPhone brand. Tanzania Startel also known as raha.com, operates a WiMAX network in the Dar-es-salaam city using Airspan. Speeds up to 12Mbps are achievable.

U
The United Kingdom Attend 2 Ltd, a WiMAX service that covers the South East of England. ConnectMK, a company owned by the Milton Keynes Council, currently operates a WiMAX network in the town of Milton Keynes, the first one in the UK to have this service. Digital Dale, a WiMAX network that has started operating in the Teesdale area in the North of England. Urban WiMAX, a WiMAX service that covers central London (travelcard Zone 1 and some of Zone 2). The United States Antelecom, Inc. Broadband provides WiMAX service using the 3.65Ghz range in Southern California (North Los Angeles and Southern Kern counties). AT&T Alaska is currently offering WiMAX technology in the 2.3 GHz range to deployments in the Anchorage & Juneau areas. AT&T previously had multiple WiMAX trials in other areas[29] & seemed to be interested in using it as a last mile solution and still owns additional 2.3 GHz spectrum in some Southern states. Carrier Services Groupholds licenses for 2.5&3.6 in several regions in Ohio Cleveland, Youngstown and warren. Clearwire holds 2.5 GHz licenses in several regions, and is deploying a nationwide network to rival the other nationwide carriers and currently has commercial WiMAX deployments in 32 U.S.
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WiMAX markets covering 41 million people and separately markets it under the brand CLEAR. At the end of 2008, Sprint Nextel merged their WiMAX operations (under the XOHM brand), with additional investment from five other technology companies to create the "new" Clearwire. Comcast, Sprint, and Time Warner Cable acting as wholesale providers are now providing access to the same underlying WiMAX network as well.[30] Polytechnic Institute of NYU has a WiMAX network for educational purpose installed at their Brooklyn,NY campus. Xanadoo operates WiMAX networks in Texas, Oklahoma, and Illinois. They also run Navini Networks-based pre-WiMAX networks & have holdings in the 2.5 GHz spectrum in multiple markets in the mid-west. Towerstream offers WiMAX-based internet service to businesses in 9 US cities, including Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Providence, San Francisco and Seattle.[citation needed] River Canyon Wireless Provides up to 2 Mbit point to multipoint with (up to) 8 Mbit burst Motorola Canopy internet service in Moab & Green River, Utah. Also has Redline based systems in Monticello, and Blanding, Utah, however, these systems do not support the 8 Mbit burst. Main service area is Moab, Utah. Rainbow Broadband serves New York City businesses with WiMAX-based internet at speeds exceeding 100Mbit in Manhattan and surrounding boroughs (subject to line-of-sight limitations.) Northern Michigan University, working with Intel, Lenovo, Motorola and Cisco, has deployed a WiMAX network covering the City of Marquette, Michigan. Right now, most of the City of Marquette has solid access to the WiMAX network, as well as some points as far south as Chocolay Township and west as Marquette Township. Currently, students and faculty of NMU have access to the network; along with certain city personnel.[31][32][33]

Uganda TMP (Uganda)

Z
Zimbabwe Broadlands Networks operates a Mobile WiMAX (802.16e-2005) network using Huawei Technologies equipment covering Harare, Bulawayo and Gweru. Broadlands has also acquired pre-802.16m WiMAX equipment which is being tried in Harare. Bulawayo & Gweru already have the service up and running.

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WiMAX

Notes: Local regulatory conditions permit WiMAX technology to be used in all or part of the frequency band shown, according to the filter criteria selected. Special conditions may apply (e.g. special technical requirements may apply or use not permitted in certain parts of the Band or in particular geographic areas) - check database for more details. Local regulatory conditions does not permit WiMAX technology to be used according to the filter criteria selected - check database for more details.
Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia 2.3-2.4 GHz 2.5-2.69 GHz 3.3-3.4 GHz 3.4-3.6 GHz 3.6-3.8 GHz 5.725-5.85 GHz Show Map Show Map Show Map Show Map Show Map Show Map -

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WiMAX

Bosnia Herzegovina Botswana Brazil British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina-Fasso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central Africa Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, Democratic Republic Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea -

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WiMAX

Estonia Ethiopia European Union Faroe Islands Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French West Indies Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong-Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Isle of Man

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WiMAX

Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kirghizia Kiribati Korea, South Kosovo Kuwait Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova -

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WiMAX

Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Republic Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherland Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Northern Marianas Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Marteen Saint Pierre et Miquelon -

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WiMAX

Saipan Samoa Samoa (American) San Marino Sao Tome e Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos

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Tuvalu US Virgin Islands USA Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vatican Venezuela Vietnam
Western Sahara Republic Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

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Referencias
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX#WiMAX_Forum http://www.itbusinessedge.com/cm/community/features/interviews/blog/speedingupwimax/;jsessionid=D7A9C4AE64BABB2AA7F4DC668B6FA180?cs=40726&decorator=prin t http://www.techpluto.com/wimax-in-detail/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_deployed_WiMAX_networks http://www.mustafaergen.com/asn-gw.pdf?attredirects=0 http://www.wimaxforum.org/ http://www.wimaxforum.org/sites/wimaxforum.org/files/page/2009/12/wimax_2_colla boration_initiative_qa_april_12_2010.pdf http://www.wimaxforum.org/sites/wimaxforum.org/files/document_library/wimax_for um_utilitieswp_finalt_081010.pdf http://www.wimaxforum.org/sites/wimaxforum.org/files/page/2009/WiMAX%20Forum %20Amsterdam%206.09%20Keynote.pdf http://www.wimaxmaps.org/ http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=206&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1024&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=207&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1280&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=208&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1280&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=209&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1280&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=210&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1280&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/map.ph p?id=211&idtg=null&fnm=111&tdd_fdd=&res=1280&filtro1=FNM&filtro2=N http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/frequency_band_chart/r_index .php http://spectrumdatabase.at4wireless.com/wf_database/introduction/index.php http://www.wimaxforum.org/print/1863 http://www.wimaxforum.org/about/board-of-directors-staff http://www.wimax.com/general/what-is-wimax http://www.wimax.com/wimax-faq/ http://www.wimax.com/wimax-technologies-standards/what-is-the-actual-throughputdata-transfer-rate-of-wimax-technology http://www.wimax.com/wimax-regulatory/what-is-unlicensed-spectrum-whatfrequencies-are-they-in
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WiMAX

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