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PALM VEIN TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
With the increase in technology threat to personal data and national security had also increased .The methods that were developed to secure important information from outside intervention were not up to safe mark .There was a need to introduce a technology that secures our data more efficiently from unlawful intervention . Fujitsu has developed a palm vein pattern authentication technology that uses vascular patterns as personal identification data .Vein recognition technology is secure because the authentication data exists inside the body and is therefore very difficult to forge. It is highly accurate. This technology can be used in various fields like banking, hospitals, government offices, in passport issuing etc. Business growth will be achieved with these solutions by reducing the size of the palm vein sensor and shortening the authentication time. This paper is about the palm vein technology, its applications, how this technology is applied in real time applications and the advantages of using this technology.

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Introduction

In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information any time and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology is used which includes passwords, personal identification numbers and identification cards. However, cards can be stolen and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To solve these problems, Fujitsu developed four methods: fingerprints, faces, voice prints and palm veins. Among these, because of its high accuracy, contact less palm vein authentication technology is being incorporated into various financial solution products for use in public places. This paper palm vein authentication technologies and some examples of its application to financial solutions.

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Various types of biometrics


Biometrics authentication is a growing and controversial field in which civil liberties groups express concern over privacy and identity issues. Today, biometric laws and regulations are in process and biometric industry standards are being tested. Automatic recognition based on who you are as opposed to what you know (PIN) or what you have (ID card). Recognition of a person by his body & then linking that body to an externally established identity forms a very powerful tool for identity management Biometric Recognition. Figure 1 shows the different type of biometric authentication. Canadian airports started using iris scan in 2005 to screen pilots and airport workers. Pilots were initially worried about the possibility that repeated scans would negatively affect their vision but the technology has improved to the point where that is no longer an issue. Canada Customs uses an iris scan system called CANPASS-Air for low-risk travelers at Pearson airport. Junichi Hashimoto, 2006, has introduced finger vein authentication, a new biometric method utilizing the vein patterns inside ones fingers for personal identification. Vein patterns are different for each finger and for each person, and as they are hidden underneath the skins surface, forgery is extremely difficult. These unique aspects of finger vein pattern recognition set it apart from previous forms of biometrics and have led to its adoption by the major Japanese financial institutions as their newest security technology.

Irish scan

finger scan

face scan

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Palm vein scan sensor scan

Various Biometric Systems

Yuhang Ding, Dayan Zhuang and Kejun Wang, July 2005[2], have shown the theoretical foundation and difficulties of hand vein recognition, at first. Then, the threshold segmentation method and thinning method of hand vein image are deeply studied and a new threshold segmentation method and an improved conditional thinning method are proposed. The method of hand vein image feature extraction based on end points and crossing points is studied initially, and the matching method based on distances is used to match vein images. Shi Zhao, Yiding Wang and Yunhong Wang, proposed [3] a biometric technique using handdorsa, extracting vein structures. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high-quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. The proposed method makes using low-cost devices possible. The results shown that they could extract the vein networks as successfully as using high-quality images Masaki Watanabe, Toshio Endoh, Morito Shiohara, and Shigeru [4] have shown a biometric authentication using contactless palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. Implementation of these contactless identification systems enables applications in public places or in environments where hygiene standards are required, such as in medical applications. In addition, sufficient consideration was given to individuals who are reluctant to come into direct contact with publicly used devices.

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Key features of palm vein authentication


Complex biometric pattern Extreme high level of accuracy and security Ideally prevented inside the body Unchanged for life Unique to individuals No influence of Skin color Skin contamination Shallow injury Non-invasive near infrared radiation

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Palm Vein Authentication Workflow


An individual inserts a smart card into the sensor device and holds her hand over the reader. The vein pattern is instantly captured using a completely safe near-infrared light. The reader converts the image into an encrypted biometric template and compares it against the template on the smart card (1 to 1 matching) or those in the database (1 to N matching). Using a built-in speaker, the device instructs the user to place his hand over the device and informs the user when the scan is complete. In the example below, the template is stored in a smart card. This enhances security since the template never leaves the card. Alternatively, the reference templates can be stored in a database on a server (1 to N matching). The first step in all palm vein authentication applications is the enrollment process, which scans the user's palm and records the unique pattern as an encrypted biometric template in the database or on the smart card itself. In banking applications, for example, once a new customer has been issued a smart card, he/she is asked to visit the bank in order to enroll her vein data.

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Schematic of the hand vein pattern imaging module.

Whereas Mohamed Shahin, Ahmed Badawi, and Mohamed Kamel proposed , biometric authentication using hand vein patterns, they designed a system a near IR cold source to provide back-of-hand illumination. The IR cold source is a solid-state array of 24 LEDs (light emitting diodes). The diodes are mounted in a square shape,LEDs in each side, on a designed and assembled PCB (printed circuit board) and made housing and an attachment for fixing the LEDs around the CCD lens. Our experiments showed that the cold source provides better contrast than the ordinary tungsten filament bulbs. A commercially available, low cost, monochrome CCD fitted with an IR filter is used to image the back of hand.

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Block diagram of hand veins processing stage

Palm Vein Technology Reviews


The Basis of Palm Vein Technology
An individual first rests his wrist, and on some devices, the middle of his fingers, on the sensor's supports such that the palm is held centimeters above the device's scanner, which flashes a nearinfrared ray on the palm. Unlike the skin, through which nearinfrared light passes, deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins absorbs near-infrared rays, illuminating veins in palm the

hemoglobin, causing it to be visible to the scanner. Arteries and capillaries, whose blood contains

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oxygenated hemoglobin, which does not absorb near-infrared light, are invisible to the sensor. The still image captured by the camera, which photographs in the near-infrared range, appears as a black network, reflecting the palm's vein pattern against the lighter background of the palm.

An individual's palm vein image is converted by algorithms into data points, which is then compressed, encrypted, and stored by the software and registered along with the other details in his profile as a reference for future comparison. Then, each time a person logs in attempting to gain access by a palm scan to a particular bank account or secured entryway, etc., the newly captured image is likewise processed and compared to the registered one or to the bank of stored files for verification, all in a period of seconds. Numbers and positions of veins and their crossing points are all compared and, depending on verification, the person is either granted or denied access.

Registering through palm vein technology


Step 1: Palm vein authentication technology consists of a small palm vein scanner that's easy and natural to use, fast and highly accurate. Simply hold your palm a few centimeters over the scanner and within a second it reads your unique vein pattern. A vein picture is taken and palm pattern is registered. Scanner Display

Step 2:

Original Palm Scanned palm

Registered pattern.

Process of Registration

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The registered palm pattern is stored into the database along with the personal details of the client.

Working of palm vein security systems


1. One should place his/her palm Near to scanner.

Palm on Sensor Palm vein scans are about to make their American debut. Used in Japanese automated teller machines for more than five years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) recently announced that by next year all students who want to attend business school will be required to take a palm vein scan to verify their identity. "It's easy to steal a fingerprint," said Hiroko Naito, a member of Fujitsu's PalmSecure Team that developed the technology. "Palm vein information physically resides inside the patient, making it harder to steal." The palm scans are designed to thwart proxy test taking, a scam where an applicant pays someone else (the proxy) to take the test for them so they can get a higher score than they otherwise would. The palm vein scans wouldn't stop other forms of test fraud, such as test question collection or calling different time zones with the test questions. A palm vein scan works like this: A person would hold their hand, palm down, over a computer mouse-sized sensor for a few seconds -- not touching anything. Near-infrared light, the same near-infrared light that changes your television channel, shines out. Most of the light bounces back to the detector and shows up as white on the scan. Some of the light is absorbed by the veins, and creates dark lines on the otherwise ghostlylooking hand. The difference between light and dark is basic anatomy. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood. Veins carry oxygen-poor blood. When red blood cells drop off oxygen they change. Instead of reflecting near-infrared light, the red blood cells in veins absorb it. It's like a fingerprint inside the body, said Naito, except it's more accurate and harder to fake. Fujitsu claims their palm scanner is roughly 100 times more accurate than the average fingerprint. Instead of comparing pictures of swirling, curling fingerprints visually, the palm scanner

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converts the vein scan into digital data that is then run through a computer algorithm that compares the hand hovering above the scanner with the data in memory to authorize access. If an unauthorized person wanted to gain access it would be difficult. A person's fingerprints can be lifted easily and replicated with some difficulty. It's much harder to gain access to a palm vein profile since people don't leave traces of it on every object they touch with their hands. The hand also has to be alive, exchanging gasses, and full of blood for the veins to show up on the scan. In grim terms, that means a person couldn't cut off another person's hand and hold it over the scanner. 2. The scanner makes use of a special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing through the palm veins it absorbs near-infrared light. This makes it possible to take a snapshot of what's beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or steal. 3. The integrated optical system in the palm vein sensor uses this phenomenon to generate an image of the palm vein pattern and the generated image is digitized, encrypted and finally stored as a registered template in the database. Fig 3.3.1: Infra red on Palm

Short region on palm

PERFORMANCE METRICS OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEM

FALSE ACCEPTANCE RATE (FAR)

The probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database. It measures the percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectly accepted . FALSE REJECTION RATE (FRR)

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The probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and amatching template in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs which areincorrectly rejected . EQUAL ERROR RATE OR CROSSOVER ERROR RATE (EER OR CER) The rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. The value of the EER can beeasily obtained from the ROC curve . The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracyof devices with different ROC curves. In general, the device with the lowest EER is mostaccurate. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have thesame value. The lower the EER, the more accurate the system is considered to be. RELATIVE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OR RECEIVER OPERATINGCHARACTERISTICS (ROC) The ROC plot is a visual characterization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR.In general, the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold whichdetermines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered amatch. If the threshold is reduced, there will be less false non-matches but more falseaccepts. Correspondingly, a higher threshold will reduce the FAR but increase the FRR.

A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET), which is obtained usingnormal deviate scales on both axes. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors).

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Receiver operating characteristics (graph between FRR and FAR).

Graph showing EER identification by plotting FAR and FRR on samegraph.

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FAILURE TO ENROL RATE (FTE OR FER)

The rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs. FAILURE TO CAPTURE RATE (FTC) Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric inputwhen presented correctly

TEMPLATE CAPACITY The maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system

How Secure is the Technology?


On the basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals , Fujitsu declared that the new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01% (i.e., only one out of 10,000 scans were incorrect denials for access), and a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% (i.e., incorrect approval for access in one in over a million scans). Also, if your profile is registered with your right hand, don't log in with your left - the patterns of an individual's two hands differ. And if you registered your profile as a child , it'll still be recognized as you grow, as an individual's patterns of veins are established in utero (before birth). No two people in the world share a palm vein pattern - even those of identical twins differ. In addition the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1. Data from people ranging from 6 to 85 years old including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics realized by the Statistics Center of the Statistics Bureau. 2. Data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the United Nations.

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3. Data taken in various situations in daily life including gafter drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside and waking up.

What happens if the registered palm gets damaged?


There may be a chance that the palm we had registered may get damaged then we cannot use this technology, so during the time of registration we take the veins of both the hands so that if one gets damaged we can access through the second hand. When hand get damaged up to large extent we can get veins because deeper into the hand veins are obtained. When we apply this method we can maintain complete privacy. Fig 3.5: Registering two palms

Contact less palm vein authentication device


(HYGIENE CONCERN): The completely contact less feature of this device makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required .It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into contact with something that other people have already touched In addition to being contact less and thereby hygienic and userfriendly in that the user does not need to physically touch a surface and is free of such hygiene concerns, palm vein authentication is highly secure in that the veins are internal to the body and carry a wealth of information, thereby being extremely difficult to forge. Contact less sensor

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COMPARISON WITH OTHER BIOMETRICTECHNOLOGIES ADVANTAGES


In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the back of a hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers the widest area, because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern. The palm also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or back of the hand, where the color can darken in certain areas.

Advantages of using the palm:


In addition to the palm, vein authentication can be done using the vascular pattern on the back of the hand or a finger. However, the palm vein pattern is the most complex and covers the widest area. Because the palm has no hair, it is easier to photograph its vascular pattern. The palm

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also has no significant variations in skin color compared with fingers or the back of the hand, where the color can darken in certain areas.

Advantages of reflection photography:


There are two methods of photographing veins: reflection and transm ission. Fujitsu employs the reflection method. The reflection method illuminates the palm and photographs the light that is reflected back from the palm, while the transmission method photographs light that passes straight through the hand. Both types capture the near-infrared light given off by the region used for identification after diffusion through the hand. An important difference between the reflection method and transmission method is how they respond to changes in the hands light transmittance. When the body cools due to a lowered ambient temperature, the blood vessels (in particular the capillaries) contract, decreasing the flow of blood through the body. This increases the hands light transmittance, so light passes through it more easily. If the transmittance is too high, the hand can become saturated with light and light can easily pass through the hand. In the transmission method, this results in a lighter, less-contrasted image in which it is difficult to see the vessels. However, a high light transmittance does not significantly affect the level or contrast of the reflected light. Therefore, with the reflection method, the vessels can easily be seen even when the hand/body is cool. The system configurations of the two methods are also different. The reflection method illuminates the palm and takes photographs reflected back from the palm, so the illumination and photography components can be positioned in the same place. Conversely, because the transmission method photographs light that passes through the hand, the illumination and photography components must be placed in different locations. This makes it difficult for the system to be embedded into smaller devices such as notebook PCs or cellular phones. Fujitsu has conducted an in-depth study of the necessary optical components to reduce the size of the sensor, making it more suitable for embedded applications. Completely contactless design minimizes hygiene concerns and psychological resistance: Fujitsu is a pioneer in designing a completely contactless palm vein authentication device. With this device, authentication simply involves holding a hand over the vein sensor.

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The completely contactless feature of this device makes it suitable for use where high levels of hygiene are required, such as in public places or medical facilities. It also eliminates any hesitation people might have about coming into contact with something that other people have already touched.

High authentication accuracy:


Using the data of 140,000 palms from 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu has confirmed that the system has a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% and a false rejection rate of 0.01%, provided the hand is held over the device three times during registration, with one retry for comparison during authentication. In addition, the devices ability to perform personal authentication was verified using the following: 1) data from people ranging from 5 to 85 years old, including people in various occupations in accordance with the demographics released by the Statistics Center of the Statistics Bureau; 2) data about foreigners living in Japan in accordance with the world demographics released by the United Nations; 3) data taken in various situations in daily life, including after drinking alcohol, taking a bath, going outside, and waking up.

Another advantage of palm vein scanners over fingerprints is that more people can use them. By most estimates, about 2 percent of people don't have readable fingerprints. Anything from a missing finger to dry skin can throw off a fingerprint. Some of the driest hands are found on doctors and nurses, who have to scrub and wash their hands many times a day, drying the skin and rubbing down fingerprints. Fujitsu expects hospitals will be another big market for palm vein scanners. Palm vein scans have been used in Japanese ATM's for more than five years but have only recently made their way across the Pacific Ocean. Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT)-takers in South Korea and India will use the scanners starting next month. Some U.S. testers will use the scanners starting this fall, and by May, all of business school applicants will use the technology. While a firm price for the palm vein scanners hasn't been set by Fujitsu, it is estimated that it will be below $1,000. That means it will be more expensive than fingerprinting, but should be much less expensive than iris scanners, the gold standard of biometric scans which can cost around $10,000 each.

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More than 230,000 GMAT tests are administered each year at a cost of $250 for each test. The GMAC, which administers the GMAT, says that the cost of the test will not increase because of the palm scanners. The scanners should help deter cheaters, said Donald McCabe, a researcher at Rutgers University who has studied cheating across academic disciplines and found that business school students self-report the most cheating. "Making people take palm scans is unfortunate for people who do their work honestly; it says we don't trust you," said McCabe. "But in the end it will be a good thing, because it will help ensure that people who deserve a spot in business school get it."

APPLICATIONS
This palm vein authentication technology is used in various areas for more security. The following are some of the important areas where it is used:

ATM:
In July 2004, to ensure customer security, Suruga bank launched its Bio Security Deposit the worlds first financial service to use Palm Secure. This service features high security for customers using vein authentication , does not require a bank card or pass book and prevents withdrawals from branches other than the registered branch and ATMs thereby minimizing the risk of fraudulent withdrawals. To open a Bio-Security Deposit account, customers go to a bank and have their palm veins photographed at the counter in order to guarantee secure data

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management, the palm vein data is stored only on the vein data base server at the branch office where the account is opened...

In October 2004, The Bank of Tokyo launched its Super IC Card. This card combines the functions of a bankcard, credit card, electronic money and palm vein authentication. This Super IC Card contains the customers palm vein data and vein authentication algorithms and performs vein authentication by itself. This system is advantageous because the customers the card to the customers customer Fig: 5.1 ATM Sensors information is not stored at the bank. When a customer applies for a Super IC Card, the bank sends home. To activate the palm vein authentication function, the brings the card and is passbook and seal to the bank counter where the customers vein

information is registered on the card . After registration the customer can make transactions at that branch counter and ATM using palm vein authentication and a matching PIN number

PERSONAL COMPUTERS:
In personal computers palm vein technology can applied by inserting the vein sensor inside mouse. when power is supplied to system the mouse also gets power and the sensor in the mouse will be ready to sense palm veins. When one place his/her palm the sensor sense the veins and if they are matched with the registered ones the system allows the person to use it. One can use this technology even to lock folders should be maintained as private information. Fig:5.4 Near Front Doors that

IN HOSPITALS AND LIBRARYS:


A public library in Japan is set to become the first in the world to use palm-vein biometrics as a substitute for conventional library cards.

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The University of Tokyo hospital has taken Management. delivery of a contactless palm vein

authentication system to secure physical access to its Department of Planning, Information and

Fig: 5.3 Using Sensor

Authentication:

In front of our homes we can apply this Palm vein technology so that by registering the veins of our family members and relatives we can maintain high range security which is through other technologies. not possible Fig:5.2 PC Sensor Japanese recently used these

technologies before front doors and getting high range security.

Conclusion
Palm vein pattern authentication technology developed by Fujitsu was being used in a wide range in japan . If this technology is introduced in our country we can solve many problems such as password protection in ATM , security in various fields and if we implement this technology in government offices we can make the employees to work according the government timings.surely this technology will bring a revolution in the field of science and technology in the near future.

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REFERENCES
[1] Palm Vein Authentication Technology white paper, Bioguard, Innovative Biometric Solutions, March, 2007. [2] Yuhang Ding, Dayan Zhuang and Kejun Wang, A Study of Hand Vein Recognition Method, The IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics & Automation Niagara Falls, Canada, July 2005. [3] Shi Zhao, Yiding Wang and Yunhong Wang, Extracting Hand Vein Patterns from Low-Quality Images: A New Biometric Technique Using Low-Cost Devices, Fourth International Conference on Image and Graphics, 2007. [4] Masaki Watanabe, Toshio Endoh,Morito Shiohara, and Shigeru Sasaki, Palm vein authentication technology and its applications, The Biometric Consortium Conference, September 19-21, 2005,USA, pp. 1-2. Mohamed Shahin, Ahmed Badawi, and Mohamed Kamel, Biometric Authentication Using Fast Correlation of Near Infrared Hand Vein Patterns, International Journal of Biological and Medical Sciences, vol 2,No.1,winter 2007, pp. 141-148.

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