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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

KHO HC: 2006 2009

NHN XT CA GIO VIN


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Nng, ngy thng nm 2008
GIO VIN

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MC LC
NHN XT CA GIO VIN.................................................................................1
MC LC...................................................................................................................2
LI M U.............................................................................................................4
Phn I: TNG QUAN V MNG KHNG DY...................................................5
I. Cc khi nim ban u v mng khng dy.......................................................5
1..................................................................................................Lch s pht trin
5
2.............................................................................................................Khi nim
5
II. Phn loi mng khng dy.................................................................................6
III. Cc vn k thut trong mng khng dy........................................................6
IV.S nt v mt s mng khng dy.....................................................................6
1.
Mng WPAN..........................................................................................6
2.
Mng WLAN..........................................................................................7
3.
Mng WMAN.........................................................................................7
4.
Mng WWAN.........................................................................................8
Phn II: MNG KHNG DY CC B WLAN...................................................9
I. Gii thiu v cc khi nim v Wireless LAN- WLAN.....................................9
1.
Gii thiu................................................................................................9
2.
Cc khi nim v WLAN........................................................................9
II. Cc thit b c bn v ng dng ca h thng WLAN.....................................10
1.
Cc thit b c bn................................................................................10
2.
Cc ng dng ca h thng WLAN......................................................11
III. u, nhc im ca WLAN............................................................................13
1.
Nhng u im.....................................................................................13
2.
Nhc im..........................................................................................13
IV.Cc chun thng dng ca WLAN..................................................................13
1.
Cc Chun IEEE 802.11.......................................................................13
2.
Hiper LAN............................................................................................14
3.
Cc chun khc.....................................................................................15
V. Nguyn l hot ng ca mng khng dy.......................................................15
VI.Cu trc ca cc giao thc c s dng trong mng khng dy....................16
Phn III: BO MT MNG KHNG DY..........................................................17
I. Mt s hnh thc tn cng xm nhp ph bin......................................................17
1.
Tn cng khng qua chng thc...........................................................17
2.
Gi mo AP...........................................................................................17
3.
Tn cng da trn s cm nhn sng mang lp vt l..........................17
4.
Gi a ch MAC...................................................................................17
5.
Tn cng t chi dch v.......................................................................17
II. Cc phng php bo mt cho mng Wireless LAN.............................................18

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1.............................................................................Firewall, cc phng php lc


18
2.....................................................................................................M ho d liu
19
III. Mt s sai lm ph bin v bo mt cho mng LAN khng dy...........................21
Phn IV: THIT K, TRIN KHAI S DNG H THNG WLAN................22
I. Cc thnh phn, thit b h tng ca mng khng dy...........................................22
1.
B iu hp mng khng dy Card mng khng dy.........................22
2.
im truy cp mng khng dy............................................................22
3.
Router khng dy..................................................................................23
4.
ngten khng dy.................................................................................23
5.
My tng tn hiu khng dy.................................................................23
6.
Cc thit b my khch..........................................................................24
II. Cc vn lin quan khi lp t, khai thc, s dng WLAN................................24
1.
Lp t WLAN.....................................................................................24
2.
Khai thc WLAN..................................................................................24
III. Thit k, trin khai lp t mng WLAN..............................................................24
1.
Phn tch...............................................................................................25
2.
nh gi lu lng truyn thng..........................................................25
3.
D tho m hnh mng..........................................................................26
4.
Tnh ton gi.........................................................................................26
5.
Xy dng bng a ch IP......................................................................28
6.
S h thng mng.............................................................................29
Phn V: TNG KT V HNG PHT TRIN................................................31
I. Kt lun.................................................................................................................31
II. Hng pht trin....................................................................................................31
TI LIU THAM KHO........................................................................................32

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LI M U
Hin nay chng ta vn thng nghe ni v WiFi v Internet khng dy. Thc
ra, WiFi khng ch c dng kt ni Internet khng dy m cn dng kt ni
hu ht cc thit b tin hc v vin thng quen thuc nh my tnh, my in, PDA, in
thoi di ng m khng cn dy cp ni, rt thun tin cho ngi s dng.
Mng khng dy l mt trong nhng bc tin ln nht ca ngnh my tnh.
Hng chc triu thit b Wi-Fi c tiu th v d bo tng lai s cn c hng
triu ngi s dng. Con ng pht trin ca cng ngh ny t quy m hp ra phm
vi ln thc ra mi ch bt u.
Theo pht trin ca cng ngh mng khng dy, nhm chng em quyt nh
thc hin ti chuyn ngnh Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy nhm mc
ch tm hiu ng thi trang b nhng kin thc v tm nhn ca mnh v mng khng
dy, c bit l mng cc b khng dy hay cn c gi l Wireless LAN. Trn c s
vic ng dng thc t mng khng dy l khng th thiu nn Thit k, trin khai
v s dng h thng WLAN cng l mt phn trong ti ny nhm minh ha trin
khai d n thc t s dng mng khng dy.
Trong qu trnh thc hin ti, do hn ch v thi gian, kin thc cng nh
kinh nghim thc t nn ti kh trnh khi thiu st, knh mong s ng gp kin
ca qu thy c cng cc bn ti ngy cng hon thin hn.
Xin chn thnh cm n.

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Phn I:

TNG QUAN V MNG KHNG DY


I.

Cc khi nim ban u v mng khng dy:


1.

Lch s pht trin:

Trong khi vic ni mng Ethernet hu tuyn din ra t 30 nm tr li y th


ni mng khng dy vn cn l tng i mi i vi th trng gia nh. Mng
khng dy l c mt qu trnh pht trin di, ging nh nhiu cng ngh khc, cng
ngh mng khng dy l do pha qun i trin khai u tin. Qun i cn mt
phng tin n gin v d dng, v phng php bo mt ca s trao i d liu
trong hon cnh chin tranh.
Ngy nay, gi ca cng ngh khng dy r hn rt nhiu, c kh nng
thc thi on mng khng dy trong ton mng, nu chuyn hon ton qua s dng
mng khng dy, s trnh c s lan man v s tit kim thi gian v tin bc ca
cng ty.
Khi cng ngh mng khng dy c ci thin, gi ca s sn xut phn cng
cng theo h thp gi thnh v s lng ci t mng khng dy s tip tc tng.
Nhng chun ring ca mng khng dy s tng v kh nng thao tc gia cc phn v
tng thch cng s ci thin ng k.
2.

Khi nim:

Khc vi Bluetooth ch kt ni tc 1Mb/s, tm hot ng ngn di 10 m,


WiFi cng l mt cng ngh kt ni khng dy nhng c tm hot ng v tc
truyn d liu cao hn hn. iu cho php bn c th duyt Web, nhn Email bng
my tnh xch tay, in thoi di ng, PDA (thit b c nhn k thut s) hay cc thit
b cm tay khc ti ni cng cng mt cch d dng.
WiFi l vit tt ca Wireless Fidelity, l cng ngh mng khng dy s dng
sng v tuyn (sng Radio) v c nhng c tnh sau:
Chun WiFi

Tn s Tc
(GHz) (Mbps)

Khong cch
(m)

IEEE 802.11a

54

12m 54Mbps
90m 6Mbps

IEEE 802.11b

2.4

11

30m 11Mbps
90m 1Mbps

54

15m 54Mbps
45m 11Mbps

IEEE 802.11g

2.4

Mng khng dy thng trin khai trong nhng iu kin v mi trng sau:
Mi trng a hnh phc tp khng i dy c nh i ni, hi o
Ta nh khng th i dy mng hoc ngi dng thng xuyn di ng
nh: nh hng, khch sn, bnh vin
Nhng ni phc v internet cng cng nh: nh ga, sn bay, qun cafe
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II.

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Phn loi mng khng dy:

Hai ch tiu k thut c bn phn loi mng khng dy l phm vi ph sng


v giao thc bo hiu.
Trn c s phm vi ph sng chng ta c 4 loi mng sau:

WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network)


WLAN (Wireless local Area Network)
WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network)
WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network)

Da trn giao thc mng ta c hai loi mng sau:


Mng c s dng giao thc bo hiu c cung cp bi ngi qun l vin
thng cho h thng di ng nh mng 3G.
Mng khng s dng giao thc bo hiu nh l Ethernet, Internet l v d
in hnh cho loi mng ny.

III.

Vn k thut trong mng khng dy:

Trong cc h thng mng hu tuyn, d liu c truyn t thit b ny sang


thit b khc thng qua cc dy cp hoc thit b trung gian. Cn i vi mng khng
dy, cc thit b truyn v nhn thng tin thng qua sng in t, sng radio hoc tn
hiu hng ngoi. Trong WLAN v WMAN th sng radio c s dng rng ri hn.
Tn hiu c truyn trong khng kh trong mt khu vc gi l vng ph sng.
Thit b nhn ch cn nm trong vng ph sng ca thit b pht s nhn c tn hiu.
IV.

S nt v mt s mng khng dy:


1.

Mng WPAN:

Mng ny c s dng trong trng hp kt ni vi phm vi hp in hnh l


Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1), UWB v Zigbee. Ngoi ra cn c mng RFID.
a)

Bluetooth:

Chun ngy nay l IEEE 802.15.1, phin bn cui 2.0+EDR cho php truyn d
liu ln n 3Mbit/s trong phm vi 100m. Di tn s s dng 2,4 GHz ISM. Bluetooth
hin nay ch c kh nng truyn vi tc 1Mbit/s - 2Mbit/s trong mt phm vi
khong 10m vi mt cng sut u ra khong 100mW.
b)

UWB (Ultra Wide Band):

Cng ngh xut sc hin nay cho cc mng vng c nhn l UWB, cn c
bit n vi ci tn l 802.15.3a (mt chun IEEE khc). Trong nhng khong cch rt
ngn, UWB c kh nng truyn d liu vi tc ln n 1Gbit/s vi mt ngun cng
sut thp (khong 1mW).
c)

Zigbee:

Zigbee l mng ch yu truyn cc lnh ch khng phi lung d liu, cho


php thc hin mng WPAN vi chi ph thp. Hai chun ca n l: IEEE 802.15.4 (tc
250Kbit/s trong phm vi 10m, ti a 255 thit b, bng tn 2,4GHz); IEEE
802.15.4a (tc gii hn 20Kbit/s cho php trong phm vi ti a 75m vi 65000 thit
b, bng tn 900kHz).
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d)

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RFID:

Mc d chip RF ch c mt phn rt nh nhng n c u im l gi c thp


nht. RFID khng c bt k nhm IP no. RFID cho php trong phm vi 3m khng yu
cu b khuch i. RFID l chun u tin ca EPC 1.0 vo thng 9/2003 (Electronic
Product Codes).
2.

Mng WLAN:

WLAN s dng sng in t (thng l sng radio hay tia hng ngoi) lin
lc gia cc thit b trong phm vi trung bnh. So vi Bluetooth, Wireless LAN c kh
nng kt ni phm vi rng hn vi nhiu vng ph sng khc nhau, do cc thit b
di ng c th t do di chuyn gia cc vng vi nhau. Phm vi hot ng t 100m
n 500m vi tc truyn d liu trong khong 1Mbps - 54Mbps (100Mbps). Trong
mng WLAN, ch c mng Hiperlan II mi p ng c yu cu ny. Mng ny s
dng chun Wi-Fi.
Mng Wireless LAN s c gii thiu chi tit hn trong Phn II.
3.

Mng WMAN (Cng ngh WiMAX):

WiMax l t vit tt ca Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access c


ngha l kh nng tng tc ton cu vi truy nhp vi ba.
Cng ngh WiMax, hay cn gi l chun 802.16 l cng ngh khng dy bng
thng rng ang pht trin rt nhanh vi kh nng trin khai trn phm vi rng v
c coi l c tim nng to ln tr thnh gii php dm cui l tng nhm mang
li kh nng kt ni Internet tc cao ti cc gia nh v cng s.
Trong khi cng ngh quen thuc Wi-Fi (802.11a/b/g) mang li kh nng kt ni
ti cc khu vc nh nh trong vn phng hay cc im truy cp cng cng hotspot,
cng ngh WiMax c kh nng ph sng rng hn, bao ph c mt khu vc thnh th
hay mt khu vc nng thn nht nh. Cng ngh ny c th cung cp vi tc
truyn d liu n 75Mbps ti mi trm pht sng vi tm ph sng t 2 n 10km.
M hnh ng dng WiMAX:
Tiu chun IEEE 802.16 xut 2 m hnh ng dng:
M hnh ng dng c nh.
M hnh ng dng di ng.
a)

M hnh ng dng c nh (Fixed WiMAX):

M hnh c nh s dng cc thit b theo tiu chun IEEE 802.16-2004. Tiu


chun ny gi l khng dy c nh v thit b thng tin lm vic vi cc anten t
c nh ti nh cc thu bao.
Bng tn cng tc (theo quy nh) trong bng 2,5GHz hoc 3,5GHz. rng
bng tng l 3,5MHz. Trong mng c nh, WiMAX thc hin cch tip ni khng
dy n cc modem cp, n cc i dy thu bao ca mch xDSL hoc mch Tx/Ex
(truyn pht/chuyn mch) v mch OC-x (truyn ti qua sng quang).
S kt cu mng WiMAX c a ra trong Hnh 1. Trong m hnh ny b
phn v tuyn gm cc trm gc WiMAX BS (lm vic vi anten t trn thp cao) v
cc trm ph SS (SubStation). Cc trm WiMAX BS ni vi mng th MAN hoc
mng PSTN.
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Hnh 1: M hnh ng dng c nh ca WiMax


b)

M hnh ng dng WiMAX di ng:

M hnh WiMAX di ng s dng cc thit b ph hp vi tiu chun IEEE


802.16e. Tiu chun 802.16e b sung cho tiu chun 802.16-2004 hng ti cc user
c nhn di ng, lm vic trong bng tn thp hn 6GHz. Mng li ny phi hp
cng WLAN, mng di ng cellular 3G c th to thnh mng di ng c vng ph
sng rng.
Nhng ng dng dnh cho cng ngh WiMax:
Cng ngh WiMax l gii php cho nhiu loi ng dng bng rng tc cao
cng thi im vi khong cch xa v cho php cc nh khai thc dch v hi t tt c
trn mng IP cung cp cc dch v "3 cung": d liu, thoi v video.
Nhng ng dng cho gia nh gm c Internet tc cao, thoi qua IP, video
lung/chi game trc tuyn cng vi cc ng dng cng thm cho doanh nghip nh
hi ngh video v gim st video, mng ring o bo mt (yu cu an ninh cao).
WiMax cng cho php cc ng dng truy cp xch tay, vi s hp nht trong
cc my tnh xch tay v PDA, cho php cc khu vc ni th v thnh ph tr thnh
nhng "khu vc din rng" ngha l c th truy cp v tuyn bng rng ngoi tri.
4.

Mng WWAN:

Thng qua v tinh c th hnh thnh mt vi mng nh:


Mng s dng v tinh a tnh Geostationary Satellites (GEO), cao
35.800km so vi mt t v nm ti v tr ging nhau trn bu tri. Hin nay
ang phc v cho vic truy nhp s dng chun DVB-S cho ng xung
v DVB-RCS cho ng ln.
Mng s dng v tinh qu o thp Low Orbit Satellites (LEO), phc v cc
ng dng nh thoi.
Mng s dng v tinh qu o trung bnh Satellites in average orbit (MEO)
khi cn gim v tinh mt t.

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Phn II:

MNG KHNG DY CC B WLAN


I.

Gii thiu v cc khi nim v Wireless LAN- WLAN:


1. Gii thiu:

Wireless LAN l m hnh mng c s dng cho mt khu vc c phm vi nh


nh: mt ta nh, khun vin ca mt cng ty, trng hc L loi mng linh hot c
kh nng c ng cao thay th cho mng cp ng. WLAN ra i v bt u pht
trin vo gia thp k 80 ca th k XX bi t chc FCC (Federal
Communications Commission).
Wireless LAN s dng sng v tuyn hay hng ngoi truyn v nhn
d liu thng qua khng gian, xuyn qua tng trn v cc cu trc khc m khng
cn cp. Wireless LAN l mng rt ph hp cho vic pht trin iu khin thit b t
xa, cung cp mng dch v ni cng cng, khch sn, vn phng
Wireless LAN s dng bng tn ISM (bng tn phc v cng nghip, khoa hc,
y t: 2.4GHz v 5GHz) v th n khng chu s qun l ca chnh ph cng nh khng
cn cp giy php s dng.
Trn th trng hin nay c rt nhiu sn phm phc v cho WLAN theo cc
chun khc nhau nh: IrDA (Hng ngoi), OpenAir, BlueTooth, HiperLAN 2, IEEE
802.11b, IEEE 802.11a, 802.11g (Wi-Fi) Trong mi chun c mt c im
khc nhau.
2. Cc khi nim v WLAN:
a)

K thut iu ch v line-code trong Wireless LAN:

S ni ln ca cc k thut WLAN yu cu cc k thut iu ch, m ho


phm vi rng hn. WLAN cho php truy cp vo mng m khng c gii hn vt l
nh trong nhng mng c dy.
Sng hng ngoi:
y l gii php hiu qu nht cho nhng ni m gia bn nhn v bn thu
khng b che chn. K thut ny gm hai gii php sn c: tia khuch tn v tia trc
tip. Tia trc tip th c tc truyn cao hn tia khuych tn. IR c tc truyn
nhn khong 1-2 Mbps.
Wireless lng t:
Cc WLAN da trn lng t kh l bo mt v khng b nh hung
bi nhiu in t nh cp v cc h thng da trn RF. Vi cng u ra (2watts)
l thp gip gim kh nng lm h mt. Tuy nhin b gii hn v khong cch truyn
trong khong 25 mt.
Tia hng ngoi khuch tn:
Cc tn hiu hng ngoi khuych tn c pht ra t ngun pht, v ph mt
vng ging nh nh sng. Vic thay i v tr ca u nhn khng nh hng n tn
hiu. Gii php ny cung cp tc t 1-2 Mbps.
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b)

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Cc k thut bng hp tn s cao (UHF) v WLAN:

S dng bng thng hp vi tn s t 12.5 kHz hay 25 kHz. Cng t


1-2 watts cho cc cc h thng d liu bng hp RF. Nhng h thng ny thng
truyn di tn s 430-470 MHz. Phn di ca di tn s ny (430-450 MHz)
thng c gi l gii tn unprotected (unlicensed) v 450-470 MHz th c gi l
gii tn bo c bo v (c giy php).
K thut radio tng hp:
Thut ng k thut radio tng hp cp n cc sn phm c iu khin
bng tinh th, yu cu cng ty sn xut ci mt tinh th cho mi tn s c th. Cc
gii php da trn UHF c tng hp cung cp kh nng ci t cc thit b chun
m khng cn phi thay th phn cng, t phc tp hn v kh nng iu chnh mi
thit b.
Hot ng a tn:
Cc h thng UHF hin i cho php cc Access Point c cu hnh mt cch
ring bit cho tc v trn mt trong nhng tn s c cu hnh trc. Cc trm khng
dy c th c lp trnh vi mt danh sch tt c cc tn s c s dng trong cc
Access Point c ci, cho php chng thay i tn s khi roaming. tng thng
lng (throughput), cc Access Point c th c ci t ging nhau nhng li s
dng cc tn s khc nhau.

II.

Cc thit b c bn v ng dng ca h thng WLAN:


1.
a)

Cc thit b c bn:
Card mng khng dy (Wireless NIC):

Card mng khng dy giao tip my tnh vi mng khng dy bng cch iu
ch tn hiu d liu vi chui tri ph v thc hin mt giao thc truy nhp cm ng
sng mang.

Hnh 2: Card mng khng dy


b)

Cc im truy cp (Access Point):

Cc im truy cp khng dy AP (Access Point) to ra cc vng ph sng, ni


cc nt di ng ti cc c s h tng LAN c dy. Cc im truy cp ny khng ch
cung cp trao i thng tin vi cc mng c dy m cn lc lu lng v thc hin
chc nng cu ni vi cc tiu chun khc. Cc im truy cp trao i vi nhau
qua mng hu tuyn qun l cc nt di ng.
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Hnh 3: Access Point


c)

Bridge khng dy (Wbridge):

WBridge (Bridge khng dy) tng t nh cc im truy cp khng dy tr


trng hp chng c s dng cho cc knh bn ngoi. WBridge c thit k ni
cc mng vi nhau, c bit trong cc to nh c khong cch xa ti 32 km. WBridge
c th lc lu lng v m bo rng cc h thng mng khng dy c kt ni tt
m khng b mt lu lng cn thit.

Hnh 4: Wbridge
d)

Cc router im truy cp (Access Point Router):

Mt AP router l mt thit b kt hp cc chc nng ca mt Access Point v


mt router. Khi l Access Point, n truyn d liu gia cc trm khng dy v mt
mng hu tuyn cng nh l gia cc trm khng dy. Khi l router, n hot ng nh
l im lin kt gia hai hay nhiu mng c lp, hoc gia mt mng bn trong v
mt mng bn ngoi.
2.

Cc ng dng ca h thng WLAN:

a)

Vai tr truy cp (Access Role):

WLAN hu nh c trin khai lp access, ngha l chng c s dng


mt im truy cp vo mng c dy thng thng. Cc WLAN l cc mng lp
data-link nh tt c nhng phng php truy cp khc. V tc thp nn WLAN t
c trin khai core v distribution.

Hnh 5: Access Role


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b)

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

M rng mng (Network Extention):

Cc mng khng dy c th c xem nh mt phn m rng ca mt mng c


dy. Khi mun m rng mt mng hin ti, nu ci t thm ng cp th s rt tn
km. Cc WLAN c th c thc thi mt cch d dng, v t phi ci t cp trong
mng khng dy.

Hnh 6: M rng mng


c)

Vn phng nh - Vn phng gia nh (Small Office-Home Office):

Cc thit b wireless SOHO th rt c ch khi ngi dng mun chia s mt kt


ni Internet vi cc doang nghip nh, vn phng nh

Hnh 7: SOHO Wireless LAN


d)

Vn phng di dng (Mobile Offices):

Cc vn phng di ng cho php ngi dng c th di chuyn n mt


v tr khc mt cch d dng. Cc kt ni WLAN t to nh chnh ra cc lp hc di
ng cho php cc kt ni mt cch lnh hot vi chi ph c th chp nhn c.

Hnh 8: Vn phng di ng
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SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

u, nhc im ca WLAN:
1.

Nhng u im:

Mng khng dy khng dng cp cho cc kt ni, thay vo , chng s dng


sng Radio. u th ca mng khng dy l kh nng di ng v s t do, ngi dng
khng b hn ch v khng gian v v tr kt ni. Nhng u im ca mng khng dy
bao gm:

2.

Kh nng di ng v s t do- cho php kt ni bt k u.


Khng b hn ch v khng gian v v tr kt ni.
D lp t v trin khai.
Tit kim thi gian lp t dy cp.
Khng lm thay i thm m, kin trc ta nh.
Gim chi ph bo tr, bo dng h thng.
Nhc im:

Nhiu:
Nhc im ca mng khng dy c th k n nht l kh nng nhiu sng
radio do thi tit, do cc thit b khng dy khc, hay cc vt chn (nh cc nh cao
tng, a hnh i ni).
Bo mt:
y l vn rt ng quan tm khi s dng mng khng dy. Vic v tnh
truyn d liu ra khi mng ca cng ty m khng thng qua lp vt l iu khin
khin ngi khc c th nhn tn hiu v truy cp mng tri php. Tuy nhin Wireless
LAN c th dng m truy cp mng ngn cn truy cp, vic s dng m tu thuc
vo mc bo mt m ngi dng yu cu. Ngoi ra ngi ta c th s dng vic m
ha d liu cho vn bo mt.

IV.

Cc chun thng dng ca WLAN:


1.

Cc Chun IEEE 802.11:

a) IEEE 802.11:
Ra i nm 1997. y l chun s khai ca mng khng dy, m t cch truyn
thng trong mng khng dy s dng cc phng thc nh: DSSS, FHSS, infrared
(hng ngoi). Tc ti a l 2Mbps, hot ng trong bng tn 2.4Ghz ISM. Hin nay
chun ny rt t c s dng trong cc sn phm thng mi.
b) IEEE 802.11b:
y l mt chun m rng ca chun 802.11. N ci tin DSSS tng bng
thng ln 11Mbps, cng hot ng bng tn 2.4Ghz, v tng thch ngc vi chun
802.11.
802.11b+: TI (Texas Instruments) pht trin mt k thut iu ch gi l
PBCC (Packet Binary Convolutional Code) m n c th cung cp cc tc tn hiu
22Mbps v 33Mbps. Chng hon ton tng thch vi 802.11b, v khi trao giao
tip vi nhau c th t c tc tn hiu 22Mbps. Mt s tng cng m TI c th
c s dng gia cc thit b 802.11b+ l ch 4x, n s dng kch thc gi tin ti
a ln hn (4000 byte) gim chng lp v tng thng lng.
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c) IEEE 802.11a:
Chun ny m t cc thit b WLAN hot ng trong bng tn 5Ghz UNII. Do
s dng bng tn UNII nn hu ht cc thit b c th t c tc 6, 9, 12, 18, 24,
36, 48 v 54Mbps. Khng ging nh bng tn ISM (khong 83 MHz trong ph 2.4
Ghz), 802.11a s dng gp 4 ln bng tn ISM v UNII s dng ph khng nhiu
300MHz, 802.11a s dng k thut FDM.

Hnh 9: Di tn 5Ghz
d) IEEE 802.11g:
802.11g cung cp cng mt tc ti a nh 802.11a. Tuy nhin n tng
thch ngc vi cc thit b 802.11b, nh d dng nng cp mng WLAN vi chi
ph thp hn.
802.11g hot ng trong bng tn 2.4Ghz IMS. ng thi s dng cng ngh
iu ch OFDM ( Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) t tc cao nh
802.11a.
802.11g+: c ci tin t chun 802.11g, hon ton tng thch vi
802.11g v 802.11b, c pht trin bi TI. Khi cc thit b 802.11g+ hot ng vi
nhau th thng lng t c c th ln n 100Mbps.
e) IEEE 802.11i:
L chun b sung cho cc chun 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g v vn bo mt.
N m t cch m ha d liu truyn gia cc h thng s dng cc chun ny.
802.11i nh ngha mt phng thc m ho mnh m gm Temporal Key
Integrity Protocol (TKIP) v Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
f) IEEE 802.11n:
Mt chun Wi-Fi mi ang c Lin minh WWiSE a ra xin ph chun (d
kin vo nm 2008), vi mc tiu a kt ni khng dy bng thng rng ln mt tm
cao mi. Cng ngh ny ha hn s y mnh ng k tc ca cc mng
cc b khng dy (WLAN).
2.

Hiper LAN:

S pht trin ca thng tin v tuyn bng rng t ra nhng yu cu mi v


mng LAN v tuyn. l nhu cu cn h tr v QoS, bo mt, quyn s dng,
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute- Vin tiu chun vin thng
chu u ) nghin cu xy dng b tiu chun cho cc loi LAN hiu sut cao (High
Performance LAN), tiu chun ny xoay quanh m t cc giao tip mc thp v m
ra kh nng pht trin mc cao hn.
HiperLAN c th l thng tin lin lc s khng dy tc cao bng tn 5.15.3Ghz v bng tn 17.2- 17.3Ghz.
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HIPERLAN 1 HIPERLAN 2 HIPERLAN 3 HIPERLAN 4


Truy nhp
WATM c
nh t xa

Kt ni pointto-point
WATM

ng dng

Wireless LAN

Truy nhp
WATM

Bng tn

2,4 GHz

5 GHz

5 GHz

17 GHz

Tc t
c

23,5 Mbps

54 Mbps

54 Mbps

155 Mbps

Bng cc tiu chun ca ETSI HIPERLAN


3.

Cc chun khc:

a) HomeRF:
L chun hot ng ti phm vi bng tn 2.4GHz, cung cp bng thng 1.6MHz
vi thng lng s dng l 659Kb/s. Khong cch phc v ti a ca HomeRF l
45m. HomeRF cng s dng c ch tri ph FHSS ti tng vt l, v t chc cc thit
b u cui thnh mng adhoc (cc my trao i trc tip vi nhau) hoc lin h qua
mt im kt ni trung gian nh Bluetooth.
b) OpenAir:
L sn phm c quyn ca Proxim. openAir l mt giao thc trc 802.11 s
dng l thut nhy tn (2FSK v 4FSK), c tc 1.6Mbps. OpenAir MAC da trn
CSMA/CA v RTS/CTS nh 802.11.
c) Bluetooth:
L mt cng ngh nhy tn hot ng trong bng tn 2.4Ghz ISM.T l nhy
ca cc thit b Bluetooth khong 1600hop/s. T l nhy cao cng gip cho cng ngh
khng c tt hn vi nhiu bng hp. Cc thit b Bluetooth hot ng trong 3 lp
cng sut: 1mW, 2.5mW v 100mW, v nh hng n cc h thng FHSS khc.
d) Infrared (IR):
L mt cng ngh truyn thng da trn nh sng ch khng phi l cng ngh
tri ph. Cc thit b IR c th t tc ti a l 4Mbps, v tc thng thy l
115Kbps- cho vic trao i d liu gia cc thit b cm tay. c bit khng gy
nhiu vi mng tri ph RF.

V.

Nguyn l hot ng ca mng khng dy:

Mng WLAN kt ni hai hay nhiu my tnh qua tn hiu sng radio. Khi lp
t, mi thit b u cui trong mng c trang b mt thit b thu pht tn hiu radio
t cc my tnh khc trong mng hay cn gi l card mng WLAN.
Tng t mng Ethernet, mng WLAN truyn tn hiu theo dng gi. Mi
adapter c mt s ID a ch duy nht. Mi gi cha d liu cng a ch ca adapter
nhn v adapter gi. Card mng cn c kh nng kim tra ng truyn trc khi gi
d liu ln mng. Nu ng truyn ri, vic gi d liu s c thc hin. Ngc li,
card mng s tm ngh v kim tra ng truyn sau mt thi gian nht nh.
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Tc truyn d liu v tn s s dng khc nhau, ph thuc vo cc chun


nh: IEEE 802.11, OperAir v HomeRF. Cc Adapter s dng mt trong hai giao
thc iu ch l: tri ph nhy tn FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) v
tri ph phn on trc tip DSSS (Direct- Sequency Spread Spectrum) tng hiu
qu v bo mt.
Mng cho php ngi s dng chia s cc tp tin, my in hay truy cp Internet
vi cc c im ca mng Wireless:
Chia s ti nguyn v truyn khng cn dy.
Ci t d dng, tnh n nh cao nn ph hp vi gia nh hay cng s.
Kt ni t nhiu thit b khc nhau.
VI.

Cu trc ca cc giao thc c s dng trong mng khng dy:

Mng khng dy khc vi mng hu tuyn truyn thng ch yu l lp vt l


v lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC) ca m hnh tham chiu lin kt h
thng m (OSI). Nhng phn khc nhau ny ca hai phng thc tip cn trong cung
cp im giao din vt l cho cc WLAN. Nu im giao din vt l l lp iu
khin knh logic (LLC) th phng php tip cn ny i hi cc b iu khin ca
khch hng ph cung cp phn mm mc cao hn nh l h iu hnh mng.
Mt giao din nh vy cho php cc nt di dng trao i thng tin trc tip vi
nhau thng qua cc card giao din mng v tuyn. im giao din khc l lp MAC
v thng p dng im truy nhp. V vy cc im truy nhp thc hin cu ni v
khng thc hin nh tuyn. Mc d giao din MAC yu cu mt kt ni hu tuyn
nhng n cho php bt k h iu hnh mng no hoc b iu khin bt k lm vic
vi WLAN. Mt giao din nh vy cho php mt LAN hu tuyn ang c m rng d
dng nh cung cp truy nhp cho thit b mng v tuyn mi.
Cc lp thp hn ca card giao din v tuyn thng c thc hin bi phn
sn Firmware v chy trn cc b x l nhng. Cc lp cao hn ca ngn xp giao
thc mng do h iu hnh v cc chng trnh ng dng cung cp. Mt b iu khin
mng cho php h iu hnh trao i thng tin vi phn firmware lp thp hn c
nhng trong card giao din mng v tuyn. Ngoi ra n thc hin cc chc nng LLC
tiu chun. i vi h iu hnh Windows b iu khin thng tun th mt s phin
bn ca ch tiu k thut b iu khin mng (NDIS). Cc b iu khin da trn
Unix, Linux v Apple Powerbook cng c th s dng c.

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Phn III:

BO MT MNG KHNG DY
Bo mt l vn ht sc quan trng i vi ngi dng trong tt c cc h
thng mng (LAN, WLAN). kt ni ti mt mng LAN hu tuyn cn phi truy
cp theo ng truyn bng dy cp, phi kt ni mt PC vo mt cng mng. Vi
mng khng dy ch cn c thit b trong vng sng l c th truy cp c nn vn
bo mt mng khng dy l cc k quan trng i vi ngi s dng mng.
Bo mt l vn rt quan trng v c bit rt c s quan tm ca nhng
doanh nghip. Khng nhng th, bo mt cng l nguyn nhn khin doanh nghip e
ngi khi ci t mng cc b khng dy (Wireless LAN).

I.

Mt s hnh thc tn cng xm nhp ph bin:


1. Tn cng khng qua chng thc:

Tn cng khng qua chng thc (Deauthentication attack), tin tc s s dng


mt nt gi mo tm ra a ch ca AP ang iu khin mng. Khi tin tc c c
a ch ca AP, chng s gi qung b cc bn tin khng chng thc ra ton mng
khin cho cc nt trong mng dng trao i tin vi mng. Sau tt c cc nt s
c kt ni li, chng thc li v lin kt li vi AP. Qu trnh ny lp li lin tc khin
cho mng ri vo tnh trng b dng hot ng.
2. Gi mo AP:
Gi mo AP l kiu tn cng man in the middle c in. y l kiu tn cng
m tin tc ng gia v trm lu lng truyn gia 2 nt. Kiu tn cng ny rt
mnh v tin tc c th trm tt c lu lng i qua mng. Tin tc to ra mt AP thu ht
nhiu s la chn hn AP chnh thng. AP gi ny c th c thit lp bng cch sao
chp tt c cc cu hnh ca AP chnh thng l: SSID, a ch MAC v.v
3. Tn cng da trn s cm nhn sng mang lp vt l:
Tn s l mt nhc im bo mt trong mng khng dy. Mc nguy him
thay i ph thuc vo giao din ca lp vt l. C mt vi tham s quyt nh s chu
ng ca mng l: nng lng my pht, nhy ca my thu, tn s RF, bng thng
v s nh hng ca anten.
4. Gi a ch MAC:
a ch MAC l mt cch ngn ngi dng bt hp php gia nhp vo mng.
Gi tr c m ho phn cng l khng thay i nhng gi tr a ra phn sn ca
phn cng li thay i c. C nhiu chng trnh s dng cho cc h iu hnh
khc nhau c th thay i c a ch MAC c a ra trong b iu hp mng.
5. Tn cng t chi dch v:
y l hnh thc tn cng lm cho cc mng khng dy khng th phc v
c ngi dng, t chi dch v vi nhng ngi dng hp php. Trong mng c dy
c cc hnh thc tn cng t chi dch v DoS (Denial of Service) ph bin nh Ping
of Death, SYN Flooding. Mng khng dy, mt k tn cng c th to ra cc sng c
cng tn s vi tn s truyn tn hiu gy nhiu cho ng truyn.
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II.

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Cc phng php bo mt cho mng Wireless LAN:


1. Firewall, cc phng php lc:
a) Lc SSID:

Lc SSID (SSID Filtering) l mt phng php lc ch c dng cho hu ht


cc iu khin truy nhp. SSID ca mt trm WLAN phi khp vi SSID trn AP
hoc ca cc trm khc chng thc v lin kt Client thit lp dch v.
Nhiu AP c kh nng ly cc SSID ca cc khung thng tin dn ng
(beacon frame). Trong trng hp ny client phi so khp SSID lin kt vi AP.
Lc SSID c coi l mt phng php khng tin cy trong vic hn ch nhng ngi
s dng tri php ca mt WLAN.
Mt vi li chung do ngi s dng WLAN to ra khi thc hin SSID l:
S dng SSID mc nh: S thit lp ny l mt cch khc a ra thng
tin v WLAN ca mng. N n gin s dng mt b phn tch mng
ly a ch MAC khi ngun t AP. Cch tt nht khc phc li ny
l: Lun lun thay i SSID mc nh.
S dng SSID nh nhng phng tin bo mt mng WLAN: SSID phi
c ngi dng thay i trong vic thit lp cu hnh vo mng. N nn
c s dng nh mt phng tin phn on mng ch khng phi
bo mt, v th hy: Lun coi SSID ch nh mt ci tn mng.
Khng cn thit qung b cc SSID: Nu AP ca mng c kh nng
chuyn SSID t cc thng tin dn ng v cc thng tin phn hi kim
tra th hy cu hnh chng theo cch . Cu hnh ny ngn cn nhng
ngi nghe v tnh khi vic gy ri hoc s dng WLAN.
b) Lc a ch MAC:
WLAN c th lc da vo a ch MAC ca cc trm khch. Hu ht tt c cc
AP u c chc nng lc MAC. Ngi qun tr mng c th bin tp, phn phi v bo
tr mt danh sch nhng a ch MAC c php v lp trnh chng vo cc AP. Nu
mt Card PC hoc nhng Client khc vi mt a ch MAC m khng trong danh sch
a ch MAC ca AP, n s khng th n c im truy nhp .

Hnh 10: Lc a ch MAC


Lp trnh cc a ch MAC ca cc Client trong mng WLAN vo cc AP trn
mt mng rng l khng thc t. B lc MAC c th c thc hin trn vi RADIUS
Server thay v trn mi im truy nhp. Cch cu hnh ny lm cho lc MAC l mt
gii php an ton, v do c kh nng c la chn nhiu hn.
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Mc d Lc MAC trng c v l mt phng php bo mt tt, chng vn cn


d b nh hng bi nhng thm nhp sau:
S n trm mt Card PC trong c mt b lc MAC ca AP
Vic thm d WLAN v sau gi mo vi mt a ch MAC thm nhp
vo mng.
Vi nhng mng gia nh hoc nhng mng trong vn phng nh, ni m c
mt s lng nh cc trm khch, th vic dng b lc MAC l mt gii php bo mt
hiu qu. V khng mt hacker thng minh no li tn hng gi truy nhp vo mt
mng c gi tr s dng thp.
c) Lc giao thc:
Mng Lan khng dy c th lc cc gi i qua mng da trn cc giao thc lp
2-7. Trong nhiu trng hp, cc nh sn xut lm cc b lc giao thc c th nh
hnh c lp cho c nhng on mng hu tuyn v v tuyn ca AP. Nu cc kt ni
c ci t vi mc ch c bit ca s truy nhp Internet ca ngi s dng, th b
lc giao thc s loi tt c giao thc, ngoi tr SMTP, POP3, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP...

Hnh 11: Lc giao thc


2. M ha d liu truyn:
a)

WEP:

Khi thit k cc yu cu k thut cho mng khng dy, chun 802.11 ca IEEE
tnh n vn bo mt d liu ng truyn qua phng thc m ha WEP.
Phng thc ny c a s cc nh sn xut thit b khng dy h tr nh mt
phng thc bo mt mc nh. Tuy nhin, nhng pht hin gn y v im yu ca
chun 802.11 WEP gia tng s nghi ng v mc an ton ca WEP. Tuy vy, a
phn cc thit b khng dy hin ti v ang s dng WEP.
Giao thc WEP:

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) ngha l bo mt tng ng vi mng c


dy (Wired LAN). WEP c thit k m bo tnh bo mt cho mng khng dy
t mc nh mng ni cp truyn thng. i vi chun 802.11, vn m ha d
liu c u tin hng u do c tnh ca mng khng dy l khng th gii hn v
mt vt l truy cp n ng truyn, bt c ai trong vng ph sng u c th truy
cp d liu nu khng c bo v.
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WEP cung cp bo mt cho d liu trn mng khng dy qua phng thc m
ha s dng thut ton i xng RC4. Thut ton RC4 cho php chiu di ca kha
thay i v c th ln n 256 bit. Hin nay, a s cc thit b khng dy h tr WEP
vi ba chiu di kha: 40 bit, 64 bit v 128 bit. Mt my ni mng khng dy khng
c kha WEP chnh xc s khng th truy cp n Access Point (AP) v cng khng
th gii m cng nh thay i d liu trn ng truyn.
Hn ch ca WEP
Do WEP s dng RC4, mt thut ton s dng phng thc m ha dng
(stream cipher), nn cn mt c ch m bo hai d liu ging nhau s khng cho kt
qu ging nhau sau khi c m ha hai ln khc nhau. y l mt yu t quan trng
trong vn m ha d liu nhm hn ch kh nng suy on kha ca hacker.
Thm vo , mt trong nhng mi nguy him ln nht l nhng cch tn cng
dng hai phng php nu trn u mang tnh cht th ng. C ngha l k tn cng
ch cn thu nhn cc gi d liu trn ng truyn m khng cn lin lc vi Access
Point. iu ny khin kh nng pht hin cc tn cng tm kha WEP y kh khn v
gn nh khng th pht hin c.
Hin nay, trn Internet sn c nhng cng c c kh nng tm kha WEP
nh AirCrack , AirSnort, dWepCrack, WepAttack, WepCrack, WepLab. Tuy nhin,
s dng nhng cng c ny i hi nhiu kin thc chuyn su v chng cn c hn
ch v s lng gi d liu cn bt c.
Gii php WEP ti u:

gia tng mc bo mt cho WEP v gy kh khn cho hacker, cc bin


php sau c ngh:
S dng kha WEP c di 128 bit: S dng kha vi di 128 bit gia
tng s lng gi d liu hacker cn phi c phn tch, gy kh khn v
ko di thi gian gii m kha WEP.
Thc thi chnh sch thay i kha WEP nh k: Do WEP khng h tr thay
i kha t ng nn s thay i kha nh k s gy bt li cho ngi s
dng. Nu khng i kha WEP thng xuyn th cng nn thc hin t
nht mt ln trong thng hoc khi nghi ng c kh nng b l kha.
S dng cc cng c theo di s liu thng k d liu trn ng truyn
khng dy: Do cc cng c d kha WEP cn bt c s lng ln gi d
liu v hacker c th phi s dng cc cng c pht sinh d liu nn s t
bin v lu lng d liu c th l du hiu ca mt cuc tn cng WEP,
nh ng ngi qun tr mng pht hin v p dng cc bin php phng
chng kp thi.
b)

WPA (Wifi Protected Access):

Wi-Fi Alliance a ra gii php gi l Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). Mt


trong nhng ci tin quan trng nht ca WPA l s dng hm thay i kho TKIP
(Temporal Key Integrity Protocol). WPA cng s dng thut ton RC4 nh WEP,
nhng m ho y 128 bit. V mt c im khc l WPA thay i kho cho mi
gi tin. Cc cng c thu thp cc gi tin ph kho m ho u khng th thc hin
c vi WPA. Bi WPA thay i kho lin tc nn hacker khng bao gi thu thp
d liu mu tm ra mt khu.
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WPA c sn 2 la chn: WPA Personal v WPA Enterprise. C 2 la chn ny


u s dng giao thc TKIP, v s khc bit ch l kho khi to m ho lc u.
WPA Personal thch hp cho gia nh v mng vn phng nh, kho khi to s c
s dng ti cc im truy cp v thit b my trm. Trong khi , WPA cho doanh
nghip cn mt my ch xc thc v 802.1x cung cp cc kho khi to cho mi
phin lm vic.
WPA c coi l loi tr mi l hng d b tn cng ca WEP, nhng ngi s
dng vn khng thc s tin tng vo WPA. C mt l hng trong WPA v li ny
ch xy ra vi WPA Personal. Khi m s dng hm thay i kho TKIP c s dng
to ra cc kho m ho b pht hin, nu hacker c th on c kho khi to
hoc mt phn ca mt khu, h c th xc nh c ton b mt khu, do c th
gii m c d liu.
III.

Mt s sai lm ph bin v bo mt cho mng LAN khng dy:

C 5 ngi dng mng khng dy ti nh th c n 4 ngi khng kch hot


bt k ch bo mt no. Mc nh, cc nh sn xut tt ch bo mt cho vic
thit lp ban u c d dng, khi s dng phi m li. Tuy nhin, cn phi cn thn
khi kch hot tnh nng bo mt, di y l mt s sai lm thng gp phi:

Khng thay i mt khu ca nh sn xut. Khi ln u tin ci t


router khng dy (AP Router) hay Access Point, chng ta rt d qun thay i
mt khu mc nh ca nh sn xut. Nu khng thay i, c th ngi khc s
dng mt khu mc nh truy cp vo Router v thay i cc thit lp thoi
mi truy cp vo mng. V vy nn lun thay mt khu mc nh.

Khng kch hot tnh nng m ha. Nu khng kch hot tnh nng m
ha, chng ta s qung b mt khu v e-mail ca mnh n bt c ai trong tm
ph sng, ngi khc c th c tnh dng cc phm mm nghe ln min ph nh
AirSnort (airsnort.shmoo.com) ly thng tin ri phn tch d liu. V vy hy
bt ch m ha truyn d liu an ton.
Khng kim tra ch bo mt. Chng ta mua mt router khng dy,
kt ni Internet bng rng, lp c my in vo, ri c th mua thm nhiu thit b
khng dy khc na. C th vo mt ngy no , my in s t ng in ht giy
bi v chng ta khng thit lp cc tnh nng bo mt. V vy khng nn cho
rng mng ca chng ta an ton. Hy nh nhng ngi am hiu kim tra h.

Qu tch cc vi cc thit lp bo mt. Mi card mng khng dy u


c mt a ch phn cng (a ch MAC) m router khng dy c th dng
kim sot nhng my tnh no c php ni vo mng. Khi bt ch lc a
ch MAC, c kh nng chng ta s qun thm a ch MAC ca my tnh chng
ta ang s dng vo danh sch, nh th s t c lp chnh mnh, tng t nh
b cha kha trong xe hi ri cht ca li. V vy phi kim tra cn thn khi
thit lp tnh nng bo mt.

Cho php mi ngi truy cp. C th chng ta l ngi u tin c


mng khng dy v mun khoe bng cch t tn mng l truy cp thoi
mi chng hn. Hng xm c th dng kt ni ny ti rt nhiu phim nh v
mng s tr nn chm chp. V vy mng khng dy gip chia s kt ni
Internet d dng, tuy nhin ng b ng v s c ngi lm dng.

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Phn IV:

THIT K, TRIN KHAI S DNG


H THNG WLAN
I.

Cc thnh phn, thit b h tng ca mng khng dy:

Mng khng dy cc b (Wireless Local Area Network) l h thng mng


khng dy rt c u chung bi cung cp kh nng truyn ti d liu c tc cao,
vi khong cch xa m khng phi lo lng v dy dn, cp...
Cc thit b c trong ca 1 h thng WLAN gm :

B iu hp mng khng dy.


im truy cp mng khng dy.
Router khng dy.
ngten khng dy.
My tng tn hiu khng dy.

1. B iu hp mng khng dy Card mng khng dy:


My tnh mun kt ni ti mt mng WLAN u phi s hu 1 b iu hp
mng khng dy, cn c gi l NIC (Network Interface Card).
B iu hp cho my tnh xch tay trng nh 1 th tn dng dy, ngy nay khi
cng ngh hin di hn, thay v kiu th truyn thng, cc b iu hp cho my tnh
xch tay u c thit k nh 1 chip nhng bn trong my laptop hoc notebook.
Card mng khng dy giao tip my tnh vi mng khng dy bng cch iu
ch tn hiu d liu vi chui tri ph v thc hin mt giao thc truy nhp cm ng
sng mang. Cc card mng khng dy khng khc nhiu so vi cc card mng c s
dng trong mng LAN c dy.
Card mng khng dy trao i thng tin vi h iu hnh mng thng qua mt
b iu khin chuyn dng. Nh vy, bt k ng dng no cng c th s dng mng
khng dy truyn d liu.
Tuy nhin, khc vi cc card mng c dy, cc card mng khng dy l khng
cn bt k dy ni no. Card mng c dy c th s dng khe cm ISA (hin nay t s
dng) hoc khe cm PCI (s dng ph bin) trn my tnh bn hoc s dng khe
cm PCMCIA trn cc laptop. Card mng khng dy thng c mt anten ngoi c
th gn vo tng hoc mt v tr no trong phng.
2. im truy cp mng khng dy:
Mt im truy cp khng dy hot ng nh mt trm truyn thng WLAN
trung tm. Thc t, th chng cn c gi l trm c s.
Cc im truy cp lin kt mt mng LAN khng dy vi mng Ethernet c dy
tn ti trc . Ngi dng mng gia nh ch yu ci t im truy cp sau khi
s hu mt router bng thng v mun thm my tnh khng dy vo thit lp hin
thi ca mnh.
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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Cc im truy cp khng dy AP (Acsses Point) to ra cc vng ph sng, ni


cc nt di ng ti cc c s h tng LAN c dy. V cc im truy cp cho php m
rng vng ph sng nn cc mng khng dy WLAN c th trin khai trong c mt
to nh hay mt khu trng i hc, to ra mt vng truy cp khng dy rng ln.
Cc im truy cp ny khng ch cung cp trao i thng tin vi cc mng c
dy m cn lc lu lng v thc hin chc nng cu ni vi cc tiu chun khc.
Chc nng lc gip gi gn di thng trn cc knh v tuyn nh loi b cc lu lng
tha. Do bng thng ghp i khng i xng gia thng tin v tuyn v hu tuyn
nn cc im truy cp cn c b m thch hp v cc ti nguyn ca b nh. Cc b
m c dng ch yu lu cc gi d liu im truy cp khi mt nt di ng c
gng di chuyn khi vng ph sng hoc khi mt nt di ng hot ng ch cng
sut thp.
Cc im truy cp trao i vi nhau qua mng hu tuyn qun l cc nt di
ng. Mt im truy cp khng cn iu khin truy cp t nhiu nt di ng (c ngha
l c th hot ng vi mt giao thc ngu nhin phn tn nh CSMA). Tuy nhin,
mt giao thc a truy cp tp trung c iu khin bi mt im truy cp c nhiu
thun li. Cc la chn giao din mng hu tuyn chung vi im truy cp gm c
10Base2, 10BaseT, modem ADSL, ISDN.
3. Router khng dy:
Mt router khng dy l mt im truy cp khng dy vi mt s chc nng
hu ch khc. Ging nh router bng thng c dy, router khng dy cng h tr chia
s kt ni Internet vi k thut tng la nm nng cao tnh nng bo mt cho mng.
Router khng dy rt ging vi cc im truy cp.
u im ca c router khng dy v cc im truy cp l n hi. B thupht mnh tch hp sn c thit k pht tn tn hiu khng dy trong ton b
khng gian nh. Mt mng WLAN gia nh s dng router hoc im truy cp s bt
tn hiu ti gc phng hoc sn sau tt hn l khng c. Cng ging nh vy, nu s
dng router hay im truy cp, mng s h tr c nhiu my tnh hn. Nu s
thit k mng WLAN c s dng router hoc im truy cp, bn phi chy tt c cc
b iu hp trong m hnh c s h tng gi (so-call infrastructure mode) hoc
m hnh c bit (Ad-hoc infrastructure).
4. ngten khng dy:
B iu hp mng khng dy, im truy cp v router, tt c u s dng mt
ng-ten h tr thu tn hiu trn WLAN. Mt s ng-ten khng dy ging nh trn b
iu hp nm n bn trong. Mt s khc, nh trn nhiu im truy cp nm bn
ngoi. Cc ng-ten thng thng cng c th hon thnh tt nhim v thu sng hiu
qu ca mnh. Nhng nu ci t mt ng ten b sung, qu trnh nhn tn hiu s c
nng cao. Thng thng bn s khng bit liu mnh c cn thnh phn thit b ny
hay khng n sau khi kt thc lp t xong mng c bn.
5. My tng tn hiu khng dy:

Mt s hng sn xut im truy cp khng dy v router cng bn mt thit b


gi l ci tng th tn hiu.c ci t cng vi im truy cp hoc router khng dy,
tng th tn hiu tng cng tt cho b thu pht trm c s. C th s dng tng th
tn hiu cng vi ng-ten b sung nng cao tc truyn vn mng khng dy v
qu trnh thu tn hiu cng ngten b sung tng tn hiu.
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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

C ng-ten v tng th tn hiu u tr thnh thit b b sung hu ch cho mt


s mng gia nh. Chng c th gip cc my ngoi vng ph sng bt li c tn
hiu ca WLAN v trong mt s trng hp cn nng cao kh nng thc thi.
6. Cc thit b my khch :
Tht ng thit b my khch (Client Device) bao gm nhiu thit b WLAN
c s dng nh l my khch trong mng. Nhng thit b ny bao gm :

II.

PCMCIA v Card Compact Flash


B chuyn i Ethernet v Serial
B tip hp USB (USB Adapters)
PCI v ISA Adapter

Cc vn lin quan khi lp t, khai thc, s dng WLAN:


1.

Lp t WLAN:

Hiu c cc giao thc 802.11 hot ng nh th no, cc c im ca node


di ng, bo mt lp MAC v cht lng dch v (QoS) l cn thit khi quyt nh
trin khai mt mng WLAN. S c nhiu vic cn phi lm khi trin khai AP ch
khng ch chy cable v treo thit b ln trn nh. Nhng kha cnh vt l khi thc hin
site survey (kho st) s cho admin mt ci nhn v tnh kh thi ca cc vng ph sng
m mi AP cung cp, s lng AP cn thit bao ph vng mong mun, cc thit lp
v knh truyn cng nh cng sut pht.
2.

Khai thc WLAN:

nh hng ca cc ng dng n s trin WLAN l khc nhau. iu quan


trng bn cn phi hiu l nhng nh hng ny tc ng th no n vic trin khai
WLAN. Sau y l cc yu t chnh cn xem xt:
Throughput cho tng client (per-client).
Kiu ng dng streaming hay kiu ng dng bursty.
S tranh ginh ng truyn v tr ca ng dng.
C 2 phng thc trin khai mng WLAN:
Coverage oriented (hng bao ph)
Capacity oriented (hng kh nng)
III.

Thit k, trin khai lp t mng WLAN:

Xy d m hnh trin khai lp t v tnh ton gi thnh lp t h thng mng


ca Cng ty TNHH HNTQ gm 3 tng:
Tng 1: Phng L Tn v Phng Hnh Chnh.
Tng 2: Phng K Ton v Phng Kinh Doanh.
Tng 3: Phng K Thut, Phng Gim c v Phng Ph Gim c.
Yu cu ra :

Phn tch, nh gi c c s trin khai m hnh d n.


Tnh ton gi thnh sn phm s dng trong d n.
Thit k s mng cho h thng cng ty trn.
Cu hnh IP cho cc thit b mng trong h thng.

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

1.

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Phn tch:

y l m hnh phc tp, gm nhiu mng LAN nh, cc mng c b tr


tng tng ring bit.
Yu cu v tnh bo mt cho h thng, cho cc mng con trong cng ty cng
nh gia mng ton cng ty v bn ngoi.
Gi thnh lp t cho hp l, cc trm lm vic hot ng c kt qu ti u. S
dng h thng WLAN.
H thng cp mng cn c thit k m bo p ng cc yu cu v kt ni
tc cao v kh nng d phng cng nh m rng ln cc cng ngh mi.
Ton h thng mng ca cng ty c kt ni da trn h thng WLAN.
Khong cch gia 2 tng l 6m. La chn chun LAN.
Do nhiu my s dng chun 802.11b, v ngy nay, chun ny l ph bin nht
nn ta cng p dng chun ny cho vic lp t vo h thng ca mnh.
Tm hiu cc thit b c th gy nhiu sng Wireless (do s dng bng tng
2.4GHz, sng radio) nn d b nh hng bi cc thit b khc s dng chung tng s.
Nhim v ca h thng:
Cc PC c th trao i d liu vi nhau trong mng cng nh ngoi mng.
Mi phng u c 1 my in (Wireless v 1 in thoi VoIP ).
M hnh mng ca cng ty da trn m hnh mng m rng (Extended Service
Set (ESSs)).

Hnh 12: M hnh mng m rng.


2.

nh gi lu lng truyn thng:

Lu lng truyn thng y l trung bnh, nn chng ta s dng chun


802.11b. y l chun ph bin v nhiu ngi s dng.
Gi cao im ca mng l thi gian m cc my tnh ca cc mng con phi gi
d liu v Server ca h thng Cng ty ny.
Cn xc nh r s trm ca mng bit c cn dng loi Router g v
Access Point no cho hp l nht.
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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Yu cu ra cho mng :
Ngi dng WLAN c th truy nhp mng t bt c a im lm vic no
ca mnh (xc nh vic truy nhp WLAN v tr no l cn thit)
Cung cp cho ngi dng bng thng ln thc hin cng vic ca h
(quyt nh tc ng truyn chp nhn c cho cc phm vi WLAN).
3.

D tho m hnh mng:

Thit b u cui:

Cho mng cng ty:

1 Server.
1 Router.
Cp quang, cp ng trc, cp UTP-Cat5.
Access Point.

Cho mng ca cc phng ban:


Access Point, my in, cp UTP-CAT5
Cc my tnh c nhn.
V tr t cc thit b u cui :
V tr t PC: v y l m hnh mng WLAN, nn cc thit b trong m hnh c
th d dng thay i v tr trong lc lm vic trong h thng mng ring ca phng
mnh.
V tr t Access Point: Ti Trung tm ca phng, hoc h thng mng, sao cho
ti , thit b pht hot ng ti u nht.
La chn kiu LAN cho tng h thng mng cc phng ca cng ty ( y l
m hnh mng m rng).
Ln danh sch cc thit b mng, la chn cc thit b cn thit cho vic lp t
h thng.
4.

Tnh ton gi:

Tnh ton v gi thnh ( theo gi th trng 11/2008). y, qua kinh nghim


c nhn ca nhm v hiu bit, nhm la chn cc thit b sau:
Server:

Cu hnh: Intel Xeon 3040 Dual Core 1.86Ghz - 1066 MHz , 512MB PC2
5300 667MHz ECC DDR2-SDRAM/ 8GB max, 250 GB 7,2K SATA, 48x Max IDE.
Gi: 800$
PC trm:

Cu hnh: Intel Pentium IV 541(3.2 GHz, 1MB L2 cache, 800 MHz FSB)/ Intel
946GZ Chipset/ Memory: 512MB PC2-5300 DDR2 SDRAM / 80GB SATA-100
7200rpm HDD/ DVD RW IDE/ FDD 1.44MB/ Gigabit Ethernet- Integrated/ Intel
Graphics Media Accelerator 3000/ 15 LCD L151 Monitor/ OS: PC Dos/ Keyboard
& Mouse.
Gi: 450$
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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Tt c cc PC trm u c tch hp card Wireless: Linksys - RangePlus


Enhanced Wireless-G Desktop Card.

Gi: 34$
Router:

S dng router: Linksys - EtherFast 4-Port Cable/DSL Router.

Gi: 60$
My in:
S dng my in Wireless: Brother HL-2170W

Gi: 299$
HUB:

S dng HUB: Linksys - 8-Port 10/100/1000 Smart Gigabit Ethernet Switch

Gi: 40$
Access Point :
S dng HUB: Linksys - 2.4GHz Wireless-G Access Point

Gi: 68$
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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Cp UTP CAT5:

Gi: 0.4$/m
H thng mng cng ty TNHH HNTQ gm:

1 my Server: 800$
16 my PC trm: 7200$
3 my in: 897$
3 Access Point: 204$
1 Router: 60$
1 HUB: 40$
30m cp UTP CAT5: 10$

Tng chi ph lp t h thng mng cho cng ty: 9211$


5.

Xy dng bng a ch IP:

t a ch IP ng cho tt c cc PC trong mng, tuy nhin ta t password


cho cc Access Point, v cc PC mun vo mng phi c key ca Mng .
Tn
g
1

Phng

IP

Subnet Mask

Default
gateway

DNS Server

L Tn

192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
192.168.1.4
192.168.1.11
192.168.1.12
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.14
192.168.1.15
192.168.1.16
192.168.1.17
192.168.1.21
192.168.1.22
192.168.1.23
192.168.1.24
192.168.1.25
192.168.1.26
192.168.1.27
192.168.1.28
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253

255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0

192.168.1.254
192.168.1.254

192.168.1.253
192.168.1.253

Hnh
Chnh
K Ton

2
Kinh
Doanh

K
Thut

Ph G
G

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Hnh 13: M hnh IP cho h thng mng cng ty


6.

S h thng mng:

Sau khi d tho m hnh mng cho h thng cng ty, nhm thc hin v s
h thng mng trn m hnh kin trc h tng ca cng ty gm 3 tng.

Hnh 14: S mng mt bng tng 1

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Hnh 15: S mng mt bng tng 2

Hnh 16: S mng mt bng tng 3

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

Phn V:

TNG KT V HNG PHT TRIN


I.

Kt lun:

Thng qua vic tm hiu v mng khng dy c bit l mng cc b khng


dy, chng em c c cc kin thc v cc chun, cu trc mng, cc vn bo
mt v cc vn khi trin khai h thng mng khng dy cc b. Vic pht trin
mng khng dy tht s em li hiu qu vi s thun li khi s dng cc thit b c
tnh di ng cao. Bn cnh vic tm hiu l thuyt, chng em trin khai ng dng d
n thc t vi m hnh Cng ty THHH HNTQ. M hnh mng khng dy trn cn l
m hnh nh nhng hon thnh nhng yu t kt ni khng dy gia cc my trong
cng ty thnh mt mng WLAN nh mt mng LAN bnh thng. Ngoi ra chng em
cn x l mt s yu cu cn thit thc t trong mng cng ty. Tuy nhin, m hnh d
n vn cn mt s khim khuyt. Bn cnh , v hn ch ca Wireless LAN, cc kt
ni c th b tt ngn v lu lng truyn thng cng khng th m bo nh mng
LAN bnh thng.

II.

Hng pht trin:


V phn mng khng dy:
Nghin cu v cng ngh WiMAX (802.16).
Tm hiu cc yu cu v m hnh khi thit k, trin khai h thng WMAN
theo cng ngh WiMAX.
V phn trin khai thit k:

Trin khai m hnh mng vi d n ln hn nh ti trng i hc.


Thm cu hnh cho cc my Server qun l trong mng khng dy.
Tng cng cc chnh sch bo mt trong m hnh mng.
Khc phc cc yu t khuyt im ca mng khng dy trong m hnh.
Ngoi ra cn tn dng trit cc yu t yu cu ca mng.

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Tm hiu v ng dng mng khng dy

SVTH: Nhm NTQH Lp 06N

MT S TI LIU THAM KHO


Trong qu trnh thc hin ti chng em s dng n mt s ti liu in
t lin quan n mng khng dy nh sau:

Wireless Network (Ting Anh)

Designing a Wireless Network (Ting Anh)

Mng v thit b truyn dn (Ting Vit)

Mobile WiMAX (Ting Anh)

Thit k v ci t mng (Ting Vit)

Wi-Fi Toys (Ting Anh)

Wireless Network (Ting Vit)

Ngoi ra cn s dng mt s sch thuc lnh vc mng, s dng cc kin


hng dn ca thy Nguyn c Hin. Tham kho hc hi mt s kin thc thng qua
mng Internet v mng khng dy.

GVHD: Nguyn c Hin

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