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VIN KHOA HC K THUT BU IN
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Ti liu ging dy

K THUT V MNG CUNG CP DCH V
ADSL


Bin son: Nguyn Qu S
Nguyn Vit Cng
Cng tc vin: Nguyn Cao Phng
Trn Ho Bu
V nh Du
Phm Anh Th












H ni 4/2003

ii
MC LC
Danh sch bng v hnh v vii
THUT NG V CH VIT TT 1
1.1 Cc thut ng 1
1.2 Thut ng vit tt. 4
LI NI U 10
I MNG TRUY NHP ..................................................................................11
1.1 Tng quan 11
1.1.1 Cc vn ca mng truy nhp truyn thng ....................................11
1.1.2 Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T........................12
1.1.2.1 nh ngha ....................................................................................12
1.1.2.2 Cc giao din ca mng truy nhp................................................13
1.1.3 Mng truy nhp ngy nay......................................................................13
1.1.4 Cc thit b mng truy nhp..................................................................14
1.1.4.1 Tng i phn tn......................................................................14
1.1.4.2 B cung cp vng thu bao s DLC.............................................15
1.2 Cc phng thc truy nhp mng d liu (Internet) hin nay 24
1.2.1 ISDN v B-ISDN.....................................................................................24
1.2.2 Modem tng t.....................................................................................28
1.2.3 Truy xut T1/E1 s dng mng cp thu bao ni ht ........................31
1.2.4 Cable modem..........................................................................................32
1.2.5 MMDS......................................................................................................42
1.2.6 LMDS 44
1.2.7 H thng truy xut qua thng tinh v tinh...........................................45
1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp xDSL 50
1.3.1 Phm vi thit k ca DSL. .....................................................................50
1.3.2 Tin s ca DSL......................................................................................51
1.3.3 ISDN c bn............................................................................................51
1.3.3.1 ISDN c bn nguyn thu ............................................................51
1.3.3.2 Kh nng v ng dng ca ISDN tc c bn ..........................52
1.3.3.3 Truyn dn ISDN c bn..............................................................52
1.3.3.4 ISDN c bn m rng...................................................................53
1.3.3.5 ng dy chnh s b sung ........................................................54

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1.3.3.6 IDSL..............................................................................................55
1.3.4 HDSL 55
1.3.4.1 HDSL nguyn bn ........................................................................55
1.3.4.2 Kh nng v ng dng HDSL ......................................................56
1.3.4.3 Truyn dn HDSL.........................................................................57
1.3.5 ADSL 65
1.3.5.1 nh ngha ADSL v m hnh tham chiu ...................................65
1.3.5.2 ADSL nguyn bn ........................................................................66
1.3.5.3 Cc kh nng ca ADSL v ng dng..........................................67
1.3.5.4 Truyn dn ADSL.........................................................................67
1.3.5.5 Tng lai ca ADSL.....................................................................70
1.3.6 VDSL 73
1.3.6.1 nh ngha VDSL v m hnh tham chiu ...................................73
1.3.6.2 Tnh nng v ng dng ca VDSL...............................................73
1.3.7 So snh cc cng ngh truy nhp xDSL...............................................74
1.3.8 u im v nhc im ca cng ngh xDSL.....................................76
II CNG NGH ADSL...................................................................................77
2.1 Cc k thut m ho ng truyn trong ADSL 78
2.1.1 M a tn ri rc DMT..........................................................................78
2.1.1.1 M ho ng truyn a knh ......................................................78
2.1.1.2 DMT..............................................................................................80
2.1.1.3 CAP...............................................................................................85
2.1.2 Cc phng php truyn dn song cng..............................................87
2.1.2.1 FDM..............................................................................................87
2.1.2.2 Phng php trit ting vng (EC)...............................................89
2.2 c im k thut v cng ngh ADSL 95
2.2.1 Tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL ..................................................................95
2.2.2 M hnh tham chiu h thng ADSL....................................................96
2.2.3 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C.....................................................98
2.2.3.1 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti STM.............98
2.2.3.2 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti ATM..........100
2.2.4 Cc m hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R............................................101
2.2.4.1 M hnh chun b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti STM..................101

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2.2.4.2 M hnh chun ho b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti ATM..........102
2.3 Dung lng truyn ti 103
2.3.1 Truyn ti d liu STM.......................................................................104
2.3.2 Truyn ti d liu ATM.......................................................................105
2.3.3 Tc bit tng v cc mo u h thng ADSL...............................106
2.4 Cc c tnh chc nng ca khi ATU-C. 108
2.4.1 Cc chc nng ring ca giao thc truyn dn STM. ......................108
2.4.1.1 Cc giao din V vo v ra ca khi ATU-C cho truyn ti
STM. ...........................................................................................108
2.4.1.2 Cc tc ca cc knh n cng hng xung - tc bit.....109
2.4.1.3 Cc tc ca cc knh song cng hng xung/ ln tc
bit. ...............................................................................................109
2.4.1.4 Tr chuyn giao ti tin. ...............................................................109
2.4.2 Cc chc nng xc nh ca giao thc truyn ti ATM. ..................109
2.4.2.1 Cc giao din V vo v ra ca khi ATU-C truyn ti ATM.....109
2.4.2.2 Tr chuyn giao ti tin................................................................110
2.5 To khung 111
2.5.1 Cu trc siu khung. ............................................................................111
2.5.2 Cu trc khung ca b m d liu nhanh........................................111
2.5.3 Cu trc khung ca b m d liu xen. ...........................................113
2.5.4 Khai thc v bo dng. ......................................................................114
2.5.5 Khi to. ................................................................................................114
2.6 Cu trc mng s dng cng ngh ADSL 115
2.6.1 Thit b pha nh cung cp dch v.....................................................118
2.6.1.1 B ghp knh truy cp DSLAM.................................................118
2.6.1.2 B tp hp truy cp Aggregator .................................................119
2.6.1.3 CO-Spliter (POTS Spliter)..........................................................120
2.6.2 Thit b u cui khch hng DSL CPE............................................121
2.6.3 CPE-Spliter ...........................................................................................121
2.6.4 M hnh cung cp dch v....................................................................122
2.7 Cc loi thit b u cui ADSL v cc m hnh phn lp tng ng 123
2.7.1 PPP over ATM (PPPoA) ......................................................................125
2.7.2 PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) ................................................................126
2.7.3 LLC Bridge ...........................................................................................127

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2.7.4 LLC Route.............................................................................................128
2.8 Cc dch v trin khai trn nn cng ngh ADSL v thc t trn mng
ca VNPT 128
2.8.1 Truy cp Internet tc cao ...............................................................128
2.8.2 Kt ni mng ring o:.........................................................................129
2.8.3 Cc dch v trin khai trn mng ca VNPT ....................................129
III TIU CHUN K THUT V PHNG PHP O KIM.............129
3.1 Tiu chun k thut 129
3.1.1 H thng tiu chun quc t v khu vc v cng ngh ADSL .........129
3.1.1.1 ITU..............................................................................................130
3.1.1.2 U ban T1. ..................................................................................131
3.1.1.3 ETSI ............................................................................................133
3.1.1.4 Din n ADSL. .........................................................................134
3.1.1.5 Din n ATM............................................................................134
3.1.1.6 DAVIC........................................................................................135
3.1.1.7 IETF............................................................................................135
3.1.1.8 EIA/TIA......................................................................................135
3.1.1.9 IEEE............................................................................................135
3.1.1.10 Vai tr ca cc t chc tiu chun..............................................136
3.1.2 Tiu chun cp ng phc v trin khai dch v ADSL...................137
3.1.2.1 Tiu chun cp thng tin kim loi TCN 68-132: 1998...............137
3.1.2.2 Tiu chun cp trn i dy thu bao s x DSL (ITU-T L.19) ..140
3.2 Phng php o kim 144
3.2.1 Tng quan v o kim..........................................................................144
3.2.1.1 Tiu chun in...........................................................................145
3.2.1.2 Cc c tnh c bn v cc kh nng..........................................145
3.2.1.3 Cc yu cu v qun l v h tr o kim..................................145
3.2.1.4 Kim chun.................................................................................145
3.2.2 o kim lp vt l: cc tham s cn o kim i vi mng cp
ng v phng php nh gi kt qu ............................................148
3.2.2.1 Mt s khi nim........................................................................148
3.2.2.2 Cc bi o kim mng cp ng.................................................159
3.2.3 o kim lp ADSL: quy trnh o kim lp ADSL............................168
3.2.3.1 Kim tra cc tham s in ..........................................................168

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3.2.3.2 o tr khng ...............................................................................185
3.2.4 o kim lp dch v: o kim s dng cc tnh nng IP ping v
ATM OEM; phng php o kim xc nh li ti lp dch v191
3.2.4.1 o kim tng tc tnh PPP .......................................................191
3.2.4.2 Tng tc ADSL ng ...............................................................193
IV TRIN KHAI LP T H THNG ADSL ........................................194
4.1 Mng ngoi vi 194
4.1.2 Cc vn bn php quy..........................................................................195
4.1.3 Nhng vn cn lu i vi mng ngoi vi hi n nay.................196
4.1.3.1 Mng cp ng ...........................................................................196
4.1.3.2 H thng cng, b cp ................................................................197
4.1.4 Mt s quy nh mi v mng ngoi vi...............................................198
4.1.4.1 Cu trc mng cp ng ni ht .................................................198
4.1.4.2 Cu trc mng truy nhp gm c cp quang v cp ng nh
sau: ..............................................................................................199
4.1.4.3 H thng cng b cp: ................................................................199
4.2 Quy hoch ADSL 199
4.3 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s 201
4.3.1 o th trc hp ng.........................................................................201
4.3.2 o th trc lp t.............................................................................202
4.3.3 o th khi lp t.................................................................................202
4.3.4 o th xc nhn sau khi lp t..........................................................202
4.4 Quy trnh o th v lp t DSL 203
4.5 Khc phc s c 207
4.6 K thut gi lp ng dy thu bao 208
TI LIU THAM KHO 210


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Danh sch bng v hnh v

Hnh II-1 Cu trc mng truy nhp thu bao truyn thng.................................. 11
Hnh II-2 Kt ni mng truy nhp vi cc thc th mng khc........................... 12
Hnh II-3 B tp trung ng dy u xa ............................................................ 15
Hnh II-4 S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp............................................. 16
Hnh II-5 Thit b DLC th h th nht .............................................................. 17
Hnh II-6 Hot ng ca UDLC........................................................................... 17
Hnh II-7 Thit b DLC th h th hai : UDLC................................................... 18
Hnh II-8 Hot ng ca IDLC............................................................................ 18
Hnh II-9 Thit b DLC th h th hai : IDLC..................................................... 19
Hnh II-10 u ni cc 2GDLC trong mng PSTN............................................. 19
Hnh II-11 Thit b DLC th h 3 (NG DLC). ..................................................... 20
Hnh II-12 u ni cc 3GDLC trong mng PSTN............................................. 21
Hnh II-13 Thit b truy nhp IP trong mng th h sau...................................... 22
Hnh II-14 Cu trc mng truy nhp qu ........................................................ 23
Hnh II-15 Modem tng t qua mng in thoi IDN....................................... 29
Hnh II-16 Modem V.pcm.................................................................................... 31
Hnh II-17 Doanh thu t modem 56 kbps trn th gii........................................ 31
Hnh II-18 Cung cp dch v T1/E1 truyn thng c tip vn............................. 32
Hnh II-19 H thng truyn hnh cp................................................................... 35
Hnh II-20 Cng ngh modem cp....................................................................... 35
Hnh II-21 So snh gia m hnh OSI v m hnh DOSIS.................................. 37
Hnh II-22 H thng cp ng trc truyn thng................................................. 38
Hnh II-23 H thng HFC.................................................................................... 39
Hnh II-24 Modem cp ri. .................................................................................. 40
Hnh II-25 Modem cp internal............................................................................ 40
Hnh II-26 Cu hnh kt ni hp set-top tng tc. ............................................. 40
Hnh II-27 Cu trc b modem cp ..................................................................... 41
Hnh II-28 Kin trc c bn h thng MMDS. .................................................... 43
Hnh II-29 Kin trc c bn h thng LMDS...................................................... 45
Hnh II-30 in thoi di ng Iridium................................................................. 47
Hnh II-31 H thng nhn tin Iridium. ................................................................. 47

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Hnh II-32 H thng truy xut Internet Iridium................................................... 48
Hnh II-33 Nguyn l hot ng ca DirectPC.................................................... 49
Hnh II-34 Tc bit DSL cng vi di mch vng cho dy 26 AWG (khng
c b lp)................................................................................................. 50
Hnh II-35 BRITE............................................................................................. 53
Hnh II-36 Cu hnh c b lp trung gian ............................................................ 54
Hnh II-37 Cu hnh ISDN m rng .................................................................... 54
Hnh II-38 ng dy chnh b sung s.............................................................. 55
Hnh II-39 H thng truyn dn song cng kp................................................... 56
Hnh II-40 HDSL song cng n......................................................................... 58
Hnh II-41 HDSL song cng i .......................................................................... 58
Hnh II-42 HDSL song cng kp ......................................................................... 58
Hnh II-43 Pht danh ngha i vi iu ch HDSL 2......................................... 64
Hnh II-44 S khi ca chng trnh gii m ................................................. 65
Hnh II-45 M hnh tham chiu ADSL................................................................ 66
Hnh II-46 Truyn dn hai hng b gii hn cc tn s thp.......................... 68
HnhII-47 ADSL ghp phn chia theo tn s....................................................... 69
Hnh II-48 Truyn dn xo ting vng ADSL..................................................... 69
Hnh II-49 Cu hnh ADSL chun c b tch...................................................... 71
Hnh II-50 Cu hnh ADSL khng c b lp pha khch hng............................ 71
Hnh II-51 Cu hnh ADSL c b lc thng thp ti mi in thoi................... 72
Hnh II-52 Cu hnh VDSL.................................................................................. 73
Hnh II-53Cu hnh VDSL c HUB th ng ..................................................... 74
Hnh II-54 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub tch cc ....................................................... 74
Hnh III-1 a tn ri rc ...................................................................................... 80
Hnh III-2 a tn ri rc ...................................................................................... 81
Hnh III-3 S iu ch DMT........................................................................... 81
Hnh III-4 Cu trc FFT....................................................................................... 84
Hnh III-5 Cu hnh IFFT..................................................................................... 84
Hnh III-6 Chm sao m ho cho CAP64............................................................ 86
Hnh III-7 Thu pht tn hiu theo phng php CAP.......................................... 87
Hnh III-8 Phn chia bng tn ca phng php FDM........................................ 88
Hnh III-10 FDM ADSL ...................................................................................... 88

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Hnh III-11 S thu pht theo FDM................................................................. 89
Hnh III-12 EC ADSL.......................................................................................... 90
Hnh III-13 Trit ting vng nhm tch bit tn hiu 2 dy................................ 91
Hnh III-14 Tng hp ting vng vng (CES): trit ting vng vi DMT.......... 93
Hnh III-15 B trit ting vng DMTsuy hao khng i xng cho ADSL ATU-C
................................................................................................................. 94
Hnh III-16 B kh ting vng DMT ni suy cho ATU-R................................. 94
Hnh III-17 Phn b tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL khng dng EC....................... 95
Hnh III-18 Phn b tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL s dng EC............................. 95
Hnh III-19 Phn b cc sng mang ph ca tn hiu ADSL s dng cng ngh
DMT........................................................................................................ 96
Hnh III-20 M hnh tham chiu ca din n ADSL ......................................... 97
Hnh III-21 M hnh chun ca h thng ADSL. ................................................ 97
Hnh III-22. M hnh chun b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti STM....................... 99
Hnh III-23 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti ATM.............. 100
Hnh III-24 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti STM. .............. 101
Hnh III-25 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti ATM.............. 102
Hnh III-26 Cc giao din chc nng ca ATU-C truyn ti STM ti im chun
V-C........................................................................................................ 109
Hnh III-27. Cc giao din chc nng ca khi ATU-C vi lp ATM ti im
tham chiu V-C. .................................................................................... 110
Hnh III-28 Cu trc siu khung ADSL............................................................. 112
Hnh III-29 Cu trc khung ng nhanh.......................................................... 112
Hnh III-30 To khung xen ................................................................................ 113
Hnh III-31 Kin trc mng ADSL chun ........................................................ 116
Hnh III-32 Cu trc mng ADSL (thc t)....................................................... 117
Hnh III-33 Cu trc phn chia dch v ADSL.................................................. 117
Hnh III-34 Di tn dng cho thoi v dch v ADSL....................................... 120
Hnh III-35 S cu to POTS-Spliter............................................................ 121
Hnh III-36 M hnh cung cp dch v ADSL................................................... 122
Hnh III-37 Cc cu hnh u ni thit b CPE ti pha thu bao ...................... 123
Hnh III-38 Cc giao din khch hng............................................................... 124
Hnh IV-1 Cc t chc tiu chun quan h vi DSL......................................... 130
Hnh IV-2 M hnh vt l ng dy ni ht .................................................... 142

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Hnh IV-3 nh hng ca cu r trn ng truyn xung................................ 150
Hnh IV-4 p ng tn s ca mch vng c ti............................................... 151
Hnh IV-5 Minh ho dng kim loi v dng theo chiu dc ............................. 151
Hnh IV-6 Nhiu xuyn m NEXT - FEXT....................................................... 153
Hnh IV-7 Xc xut thi gian ti cho cc xung................................................. 157
Hnh IV-8 So snh cc mt n ca cc DSL khc nhau..................................... 159
Hnh IV-9 M hnh tham kho, Ngn giao thc, Phm vi................................. 192
Hnh V-1 V tr ca NID v b tch dch v ADSL/POST CPE.................... 204
Hnh V-2 Hnh Wet wire DSL.......................................................................... 204
Hnh V-3 Dry wire DSL..................................................................................... 204
Hnh V-4 o th modem trn kt ni vng thu bao ni ht ............................ 208
Hnh V-5 Phng php gi lp ng dy thu bao bng cun cp ................. 208
Hnh V-6 S o th modem bng b gi lp ng dy .............................. 209

Bng II-1 Cc di tn truyn hnh 34
Bng II-2 S dng bng tn 36
Bng II-3 DOCSIS ca MCNS 38
Bng II-4 S ng dy ISDN c bn ang hot ng 52
Bng II-5 So snh cc cng ngh 74
Bng III-1 Bi s ca 32 kbit/s yu cu cho truyn ti STM. 104
Bng III-2 Thut ng tc d liu cho truyn ti STM 105
Bng III-3 Thut ng tc d liu cho truyn ti ATM. 106
Bng III-4 Tc v cc chc nng knh mo u 107
Bng IV-1 in tr dng mt chiu ca li dn 137
Bng IV-2 Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn 137
Bng IV-3 in dung cng tc 138
Bng IV-4 in dung khng cn bng 138
Bng IV-5 Suy hao truyn dn 139
Bng IV-6: Suy hao xuyn m u xa 139
Bng IV-7 Suy hao xuyn m u gn 139
Bng IV-8 Cc tc xDSL 140
Bng IV-9 Cc thng s in hnh ca cp 142
Bng IV-10 Suy hao chn ln nht 143

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Bng IV-11 Cc bng tn radio amateur 154
Bng IV-12 in tr dng 1 chiu ca li dn 161
Bng IV-13 Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn 162
Bng IV-14 in dung cng tc 162
Bng IV-15 Suy hao truyn dn 163
Bng IV-16 Suy hao truyn dn i vi dch v xDSL 164
Bng IV-17 Suy hao xuyn m u xa 165
Bng IV-18 Suy hao xuyn m u gn 166
Bng IV-19 173
Bng IV-20 175
Bng IV-21 177
Bng IV-22 180
THUT NG V CH VIT TT
1.1 Cc thut ng
(1) ADSL Lines - ng dy thu bao s bt i xng
L mt ng truyn dn bng kim loi s dng cc thut ton m ho tng t
cho php gim st vic truyn dn k thut s v tng t trn ng dy. ADSL
Lines c phn nh bng 2 im u cui. y l cc im u cui c cc
thut ton m ho tng t v cc tn hiu s c to ra sau c kim sot
trong qu trnh tch hp. ADSL Lines c nh ngha l khong gia cc im
tham chiu V-C v T-D.
(2) ADSL system overhead - Mo u h thng ADSL.
Bao gm tt c cc thng tin cn thit cho vic iu khin h thng, nh CRC,
EOC, cc byte ng b AOC, cc bt ch th c nh cho OAM v FEC; iu
c ngha l c s khc bit gia tc d liu tng v tc d liu thc.
(3) Aggregate data rate -Tc d liu tng.
Tc d liu truyn trong h thng ADSL trn mt hng, gm c d liu thc
v cc thng tin mo u ca h thng s dng cho EOC, AOC, cc byte kim
tra CRC, cc bt ch th OAM, cc byte iu khin v dung lng ca knh iu
khin ng b (tc l K
F
+ K
I
ln 32 kbit/s); n khng cha m phn d FEC
Reed-Solomon.
(4) Anomalies Cc bt thng
Bt thng l s khc nhau gia nhng c tnh thc t v c tnh mong mun
ca mt thc th. Nhng c tnh mong mun c th biu din di dng cc ch
tiu k thut. Bt thng c th hoc khng lm nh hng n kh nng thc
hin mt chc nng yu cu ca mt thc th.
(5) Bearer channel - Knh ti.
Mt lung d liu ngi s dng vi mt tc xc nh c truyn ti trong
sut qua h thng ADSL.
(6) Category I - Phn loi I.
y l phn loi c bn ca cc thit b thu pht khng c cc khi tu chn
b xung cc chc nng, y l thit b thc hin cc chc nng c bn.
(7) Category II Phn loi II
y l phn loi ca cc thit b c thm cc khi tu chn nng cao kh nng
hot ng, y l thit b c nng cp thc hin cc chc nng theo yu
cu.
(8) Bridged taps - Cu r.
Mt on cp i khng kt cui c ni song song vi cp chnh ang xt.
(9) Channelization - Phn knh.
Phn b tc d liu thc cho cc knh ti.

2
(10) Data frame - Khung d liu.
L mt nhm cc byte c ghp t cc lung nhanh v lung xen trn mt chu
k k hiu thi gian sau khi b xung thm cc byte FEC v thc hin vic ci
xen.
(11) Data symbol rate - Tc k hiu d liu.
Tc trung bnh ca mng (sau khi b xung cc thng tin mo u iu
khin ng b) trong qu trnh truyn cc k hiu mang d liu ngi s dng.
(= 4 kbaud).
(12) dBrn.
H s (bng decibels) ca mc cng sut vi cng sut chun l 1 pico-Watt
(tng ng 90 dBm).
(13) Defects - data symbol rate.
Sai hng l s gin on c gii hn v kh nng ca mt thc th khi thc hiu
cc chc nng yu cu. N c th hoc khng cn ti cc hot ng bo dng,
iu ny cn ph thuc vo kt qu phn tch thm. Nhng bt thng xy ra lin
tip lm gim kh nng ca mt thc th c coi nh l sai .
(14) DMT symbol - K hiu DMT.
Mt tp hp gi tr phc {Z
i
} trong min tn s c thit lp di dng u vo
trong qu trnh bin i Fourier ngc (IDFT). K hiu DMT tng ng vi
mt tp hp cc gi tr thi gian thc {x
n
}, c lin quan ti cc gi tr {Zi} thng
qua IDFT.
(15) Downstream - ng xung.
L ng truyn ti d liu theo hng t ATU-C n ATU-R.
(16) Dual latency - Tr kp.
Xy ra khi truyn ti ng thi nhiu knh ti d liu trn mt hng bt k
trong d liu ngi s dng c phn b trong cc lung nhanh v lung
xen; c sum(B
F
) > 0 v sum(B
I
) > 0.
(17) Embedded operations channel - Knh nghip v nhng.
L mt phn ca mo u h thng ADSL cung cp thng tin gia cc thc th
qun l ATU-C v ATU-R. Chng bao gm c cc knh thng sut v cc ch
gi bn tin trng thi
(18) Far-end - u xa.
u xa thc hin thu tn hiu ti u vo ca ATU-R trn mch vng ca ng
xung, m ti qu trnh thc hin ny c thng bo vi ATU-C trong cc
ch th ng ln, hoc l ni thc hin thu tn hiu ti u vo ca ATU-C trn
mch vng ca ng ln, m ti vic thc hin ny c thng bo cho
ATU-R trong cc ch th mo u ca ng xung; y l trng hp ngc li
so vi trng hp trc.
(19) FEC output data frame - Khung d liu u ra FEC.

3
L mt nhm cc byte c ghp t lung nhanh hoc lung xen trn mt chu k
k hiu thi gian sau khi b xung cc byte FEC v trc khi c xen.
(20) Indicator bits - Cc bt ch th.
Cc bt c s dng cho mc ch OAM; c nhng vo cc byte ng b.
(21) Loading coils - Cun gia cm.
Phn in cm c mc ni tip ti cc im t cch u nhau trn cp lm
tng p ng bng tn thoi, chng khng c s dng trong cc h thng DSL.
(22) Mux data frame - Khung s liu ghp knh.
Mt nhm cc byte c ghp t lung nhanh hoc lung xen trn mt chu k k
hiu thi gian trc khi b xung cc byte FEC v trc khi c.
(23) Near-end - u gn.
u gn thc hin vic thu tn hiu ti u vo ca ATU trn mch vng.
(24) Net data rate - Tc d liu thc.
Tc d liu cho cc d liu ngi s dng theo mt hng bt k; vi hng
xung th y l tng ca tc d liu thc n cng v song cng.
(25) Network timing reference - Chun nh thi mng.
Xc nh tn s nh thi 8 kHz s dng h tr phn b chun nh thi trn
ton mng.
(26) Primitives Cc nguyn hm.
L cc i lng o c bn trong qu trnh hot ng, n thng xut hin trong
cc m ng dy tn hiu s v cc khun dng khung hoc c thng bo
trong cc ch th mo u t cc u xa. Cc nguyn hm c th phn loi theo
cc s kin, cc bt thng, v cc sai hng. Nguyn hm cng l cc thc o
c bn cho cc i lng khc (v d nh ngun mt chiu, ngun xoay chiu,...)
thng thng thu c t cc ch th trong thit b .
(27) Subcarrier - Sng mang ph.
L mt gi tr u vo phc tch bit, Zi, a ti IDFT.
(28) Showtime Giai on truyn s liu.
L trng thi ca ATU-C hoc ATU-R sau khi hon thnh qu trnh khi to
v hun luyn, trong thi gian ny, d liu ngi s dng c truyn i.
(29) Single latency - Tr n.
Xut hin khi truyn ti ng thi ca mt hay nhiu knh ti theo mt hng,
cc d liu ngi s dng c phn b trong lung nhanh hoc l lung xen;
iu c ngha l sum(B
F
)>0 hoc l sum(B
I
)>0.
(30) Splitter - B chia.

4
B lc phn tch cc tn hiu tn s cao (ADSL) t cc tn hiu bng tn thoi;
(thng gi l b lc POTS mc d cc tn hiu bng tn thoi c th rng hn
POTS).
(31) Superframe - Siu khung.
L mt nhm 68 k hiu d liu v mt k hiu ng b trn mt qung thi
gian tng cng l 17 ms.
(32) Symbol rate - Tc k hiu.
L tc ca tt c cc k hiu bao gm cc k hiu ng b c truyn i
ngc vi tc k hiu d liu [(69/68)*4.0 = 4.0588 kbaud]; ngc li vi tc
k hiu d liu.
(33) Sync byte - byte ng b.
L mt byte mo u xut hin u ca mi khung d liu ghp knh (c gi
l byte nhanh trong cc lung nhanh l byte ng b trong cc lung xen).
(34) Sync frame - Khung ng b.
L khung c ni dung khc bit c gi i k hiu th 69 trong mt siu
khung (c gi l k hiu ng b).
(35) Thresholds - ngng.
(36) Threshold Crossing Alert - Ngng ct cnh bo.
(37) Total data rate - Tng tc d liu.
L tc d liu tng cng thm mo u FEC.
(38) Upstream - ng xung.
(39) Truyn ti d liu theo hng t ATU-R ti ATU-C.
(40) Voiceband - bng tn thoi.
T 0 n 4 kHz; c m rng t di truyn thng 0.3 n 3.4 kHz cung cp
cc dch v d liu bng thoi rng hn POTS.
(41) Voiceband services - Dch v bng tn thoi.
POTS v tt c cc dch v d liu s dng bng tn thoi hay ch mt phn ca
chng.
1.2 Thut ng vit tt.
ADC Analogue-to-digital converter. Chuyn i tng t s.
ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber
line.
ng dy thu bao s khng
i xng .
AFE Analogue Front End. Pha cui trc tng t .
AGC Automatic gain control. T ng iu khin khuych i
AOC ADSL overhead control
channel.
Knh iu khin mo u ADSL

5
AS0 to
AS3
Downstream simplex bearer
channel designators.
Tn cc knh ti n cng chiu
xung.
ASx Any one of the simplex bearer
channels AS0 to AS3.
K hiu cho cc knh ti n
cng chiu xung t AS0-AS3
ATM Asynchronous transfer mode. Ch truyn ti khng ng b
ATU ADSL Transceiver Unit. Khi thu pht ADSL
ATU-C ATU at the central office end
(i.e. network operator).
ATU pha tng i (tc l cc
nh khai thc)
ATU-R ATU at the remote terminal
end (i.e. CP).
ATU phi u cui thu bao
(tc l khch hng)
ATU-x Any one of ATU-C or ATU-R. K hiu ca ATU-C hay ATU-R
BER Bit Error Rate. T l li bt.
BRA Basic rate access. Tc truy nhp c s.
B
F
S byte mi khung trong chui d liu c nh v b m
nhanh
B
I
S byte mi khung trong chui d liu c nh v b m xen.
B
i
s bt c nh v knh ti th i
C-B&G Central Office Bits and Gains
Information.
Cc bt tng i v thng tin hu
ch.
CI. Customer Installation. Thit b thu bao
CLP. Cell Loss Priority. u tin mt t bo
CO Central office Tng i
CP. Customer Premises. Khu vc khch hng.
CRC. Cyclic Redundancy Check. Kim tra d chu k
CRC-8f. Cyclic redundancy check using
CRC-8-fast data.
Kim tra d chu k 8 bt d liu
nhanh.
CRC-8i. Cyclic redundancy check using
CRC-8-interleaved data.
Kim tra d chu k 8 bt d liu
xen
CSA. Carrier serving area. Vng phc v truyn ti.
DAC. Digital-to-analogue converter. B chuyn i s tng t
DC. Direct current. Dng mt chiu
DF. Data Frame. Khung d liu
DMT. Discrete multitone. a tn ri rc
DSL Digital subscriber line. ng thu bao s

6
EC Echo cancelling. Trit ting vng.
EOC Embedded operations channel
(between the ATU-C and ATU-
R)
Knh nghip v nhng (gia
ATU-C v ATU-R)
ERL Echo return loss Suy hao phn x ting vng
ES Errored second Giy b li
FDM Frequency-division
multiplexing
Ghp knh theo tn s.
FEBE Far-end Block Error Li khi u xa
FEBE-F Binary indication of far-end
block error count-fast data.
Ch s nh phn ca li khi u
xa d liu m nhanh.
FEBE-I Binary indication of far-end
block error count-interleaved
data.
Ch s nh phn ca li khi u
xa d liu m xen.
FEC Forward error correction. Sa li trc
FECC-F Binary indication of forward
error correction count-fast data.
Ch s nh phn ca sa li trc
d liu m nhanh.
FECC-I Binary indication of forward
error correction count-
interleaved data
Ch s nh phn ca sa li trc
d liu m xen.
FEXT Far-end crosstalk Xuyn m u xa
FFEC Far-end Forward Error
Correction.
Sa li trc u xa
FHEC Far-end Header Error Check . Kim tra li mo u u xa
FLCD Far-end Loss of Cell
Delineation.
Mt sp xp t bo u xa
FNCD Far-end No Cell Delineation . Khng sp xp t bo u xa
FOCD Far-end Out of Cell
Delineation.
Khng c sp xp t bo u
xa
GF Galois Field . Trng Galois
GNTPD
N
Grant Power Down. Gim cp ngun
GSTN General switched telephone
network .
Mng in thoi chuyn mch
chung
HDSL High bit rate digital subscriber
line .
ng thu bao s tc cao
HEC Header error control. iu khin li mo u

7
HPF High pass filter . B lc thng cao
IB Indicator Bit. Bt ch th
ib0-23 Indicator bits . Cc bt ch th
ID code Vendor identification code . M nhn dng nh cung cp
IDFT Inverse discrete Fourier
transform .
Bin i Fourier ngc
ISDN Integrated Services Digital
Network
Mng dch v s tch hp.
K
F
S byte khung d liu ghp knh nhanh ng xung
K
I
S byte khung d liu ghp knh xen ng xung
LCD Loss of Cell Delineation. Mt sp xp t bo
LEX L(S) Extension byte. Byte m rng L(S).
LOF Loss of frame defect. Sai hng mt khung.
LOS Loss-of-signal defect. Sai hng mt tn hiu tn hiu
LPR Loss-of-power defect. Sai hng mt cng sut cng
sut
LS0-2 Duplex bearer channel
designators.
Ch nh knh ti song cng
LSB Least significant bit. Bt c ngha nh nht
LSx Any one of the duplex bearer
channels LS0-2.
Mt knh ti song cng bt k
LS0-2
LTR Local timing reference. Chun nh thi cc b.
MC Maximum count indication. Ch s m ln nht
MSB Most significant bit.. Bt c ngha ln nht.
MTPR Multitone power ratio. T s cng sut a tn.
NCD NO cell delineation. Khng phn tch t bo
NEXT Near-end crosstalk. Xuyn m u gn
N
F
S byte ca khung d liu u ra nhanh FEC ng xung (hoc
ng ln)
N
I
S byte ca khung d liu u ra xen FEC ng xung (hoc
ng ln)
NI Network interface. Giao din mng
NID Network interface Device. Thit b giao din mng.
NMS Network Management System. H thng qun l mng

8
n
PCB
Power cut-back index. Ch s ct gim cng sut
NT Network termination. u cui mng
NTR Network timing reference Chun nh thi mng.
OAM Operations, administration and
maintenance.
Vn hnh, qun l v bo dng
OSS Operations Support System. H thng h tr vn hnh
PHY Physical Layer. Lp vt l
PMD/TC Physical Media Dependent. Ph thuc mi trng vt l.
POTS. Plain old telephone service. Dch v in thoi truyn thng.
ppm Parts per million. Phn triu
PRBS Pseudo-random bit sequence. Chui gi ngu nhin
PRD Pseudo-random downstream
sequence.
Chui ng xung gi ngu
nhin.
PRU Pseudo-random upstream
sequence.
Chui ng ln gi ngu nhin.
PSD Power spectral density. Mt ph cng sut
PSTN Public switched telephone
network.
Mng in thoi chuyn mch
cng cng
QAM Quadrature amplitude
modulation.
iu ch bin cu phng
R-B&G Remote End Bits and Gains
information.
Bt u xa v thng tin hu ch.
RDI Remote Defect Indication. Ch th li u xa
REJPDN Reject Power Down. T chi gim ngun
REQPD
N
Request Power Down Yu cu gim ngun
rfi Remote failure indication. Ch th s c u xa
R
F
S byte d FEC ng xung (hoc ln) cho b m nhanh
R
I
S byte d FEC ng xung (hoc ln) cho b m xen
rms

Root mean square. Gi tr hiu dng
RRSI Configuration parameters for FEC and
interleaving
Tham s cu hnh
cho FEC v xen
RS M Reed-Solomon
RT Remote termination Kt cui u xa

9
Tx Pha pht.
U-C Giao din mch vng pha cung cp dch v
U-R Giao din mch vng phi khch hng.
V-C Giao din gia ATU-C v phn t mng s
ZHP Impedance high-pass filter. B lc tr khng cao
4-QAM M ng truyn QAM bn mc.
Cng m un 2


10


LI NI U

11
I MNG TRUY NHP
1.1 Tng quan
in thoi c nh khoa hc ngi M Alexander Graham Bell pht minh t
nm 1876. Tuy nhin, phi khong t nm 1890 mng in thoi mi bt u
c trin khai tng i rng ri. Cng vi s xut hin ca mng thoi cng
cng PSTN l s t ph ca cc phng tin thng tin lin lc thi by gi. Nh
vy, c th coi mng truy nhp ra i vo khong nm 1890. Trong sut nhiu
thp k u th k 20 mng truy nhp khng c s thay i ng k no, mc d
mng chuyn mch thc hin bc tin di t tng i nhn cng n cc tng
i c in v tng i in t.
Mng truy nhp thu bao truyn thng c m t trn Hnh I-1.
Hnh I-1 Cu trc mng truy nhp thu bao truyn thng
Mng truy nhp nm gia tng i ni ht v thit b u cui ca khch hng,
thc hin chc nng truyn dn tn hiu. Tt c cc dch v khch hng c th s
dng c xc nh bi tng i ni ht (chnh l nt dch v).
Mng truy nhp c vai tr ht sc quan trng trong mng vin thng v l phn
t quyt nh trong mng th h sau. Mng truy nhp l phn ln nht ca bt k
mng vin thng no, thng tri di trn vng a l rng ln. Theo nh gi
ca nhiu chuyn gia, chi ph xy dng mng truy nhp chim t nht l mt na
chi ph xy dng ton b mng vin thng. Mng truy nhp trc tip kt ni hng
nghn, thm ch hng chc, hng trm nghn thu bao vi mng chuyn mch.
l con ng duy nht cung cp cc dch v tch hp nh thoi v d liu.
Cht lng v hiu nng ca mng truy nhp nh hng trc tip n kh nng
cung cp dch v ca ton b mng vin thng.
1.1.1 Cc vn ca mng truy nhp truyn thng
Sau nhiu thp k gn nh khng c s thay i ng k no trong cu trc cng
nh cng ngh, mng truy nhp thu bao ang chuyn mnh mnh m trong
nhiu nm gn y. Vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca cc cng ngh v dch v
vin thng, nhng tn ti trong mng truy nhp truyn thng ngy cng tr nn
su sc hn. Cc vn ny c th tm phn loi nh sau:
Th nht, vi s pht trin ca cc mch tch hp v cng ngh my tnh, ch
mt tng i duy nht cng c kh nng cung cp dch v cho thu bao trong mt
vng rt rng ln. Th nhng vng ph sng, hay bn knh hot ng ca
LE
Tng i
ni ht
MDF
T/ hp
cp
Thu bao
Mng truy nhp
backbone distribution Inlead

12
mng truy nhp truyn thng tng i hn ch, thng di 5 km. iu ny
hon ton khng ph hp vi chin lc pht trin mng l gim s lng, ng
thi tng dung lng v m rng vng hot ng ca tng i.
Th hai, mng truy nhp thu bao truyn thng s dng ch yu l tn hiu tng
t vi gii tn hp. y l iu cn tr vic s ho, m rng bng thng v tch
hp dch v.
Th ba, theo phng phc truy nhp truyn thng, mi thu bao cn c mt
lng kh ln cp ng kt ni vi tng i. Tnh trung bnh mi thu bao c
khong 3 km cp ng. Hn na bao gi cp gc cng c lp t nhiu hn
nhu cu thc t d phng. Nh vy tnh ra mi thu bao c t nht mt i cp
cho ring mnh nhng hiu sut s dng li rt thp, do lu lng pht sinh ca
phn ln thu bao tng i thp. V vy mng truy nhp thu bao truyn thng
c chi ph u t cao, phc tp trong duy tr bo dng v km hiu qu trong s
dng.
1.1.2 Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T
1.1.2.1 nh ngha
Theo cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T, mng truy nhp hin i c nh ngha nh
trn Hnh I-2. Theo mng truy nhp l mt chui cc thc th truyn dn gia
SNI (Service Node Interface Giao din nt dch v) v UNI (User Network
Interface Giao din ngi s dng - mng). Mng truy nhp chu trch nhim
truyn ti cc dch v vin thng. Giao din iu khin v qun l mng l Q3.
Hnh I-2 Kt ni mng truy nhp vi cc thc th mng khc
Thit b u cui ca khch hng c kt ni vi mng truy nhp qua UNI, cn
mng truy nhp kt ni vi nt dch v (SN Service Node) thng qua SNI. V
nguyn tc khng c gii hn no v loi v dung lng ca UNI hay SNI. Mng
truy nhp v nt dch v u c kt ni vi h thng TMN (telecom
management network) qua giao din Q3.
PSTN
ISDN
DDN
...
POTS
ISDN
V.24
V.35
Leased
Mng
truy
nhp
Q
UNI Giao
din ngi
s dng -
mng
SNI Giao
din nt
dch v
Thu bao
Thc th mng

13
gii quyt cc vn tn ti trong mng truy nhp truyn thng, mt trong
nhng gii php hp l l a thit b ghp knh v truyn dn vo mng truy
nhp.
1.1.2.2 Cc giao din ca mng truy nhp
(1) Giao din nt dch v
L giao din mt ct dch v ca mng truy nhp. Kt ni vi tng i SNI
cung cp cho thu bao cc dch v c th. V d tng i c th kt ni vi mng
truy nhp qua giao din V5.
Giao din V5 cung cp chun chung kt ni thu bao s ti tng i s ni ht.
Gii php ny c th mang li hiu qu cao do cho php kt hp h thng truyn
dn thu bao v tit kim card thu bao tng i. Hn na phng thc kt ni
ny cng thc y vic pht trin cc dch v bng rng.
(2) Giao din ngi s dng - mng
y l giao din pha khch hng ca mng truy nhp. UNI phi h tr nhiu
dch v khc nhau, nh thoi tng t, ISDN bng hp v bng rng v dch v
leased line s hay tng t...
(3) Giao din qun l
Thit b mng truy nhp phi cung cp giao din qun l c th iu khin
mt cch hiu qu ton b mng truy nhp. Giao din ny cn phi ph hp vi
giao thc Q3 c th truy nhp mng TMN trong tng lai v hon ton tng
thch vi cc h thng qun l mng m thit b do nhiu nh sn xut cung cp.
Hin nay phn nhiu cc nh cung cp thit b s dng giao din qun l ca
ring mnh thay v dng chun Q3.
1.1.3 Mng truy nhp ngy nay
S thay i ca c cu dch v l yu t then cht nh hng n s pht trin
ca mng truy nhp. Khch hng yu cu khng ch l cc dch v thoi/ fax
truyn thng, m c cc dch v s tch hp, thm ch c truyn hnh k thut s
phn gii cao. Mng truy nhp truyn thng r rng cha sn sng p ng
cc nhu cu dch v ny.
T nhng nm 90 mng truy nhp tr thnh tm im ch ca mi ngi.
Th trng mng truy nhp thc s m ca. Cng vi nhng chnh sch t do
ho th trng vin thng ca phn ln cc quc gia trn th gii, cuc cnh
tranh trong mng truy nhp ngy cng gay gt. Cc cng ngh v thit b truy
nhp lin tip ra i vi tc chng mt, thm ch nhiu dng sn phm cha
kp thng mi ho tr nn li thi.
Nhn t kha cnh mi trng truyn dn, mng truy nhp c th chia thnh hai
loi ln, c dy v khng dy (v tuyn). Mng c dy c th l mng cp ng,
mng cp quang, mng cp ng trc hay mng lai ghp. Mng khng dy bao
gm mng v tuyn c nh v mng di ng. D nhin khng th tn ti mt
cng ngh no p ng c tt c mi yu cu ca mi ng dng trong tt c
cc trng hp. iu c ngha rng mng truy nhp hin i s l mt thc

14
th mng phc tp, c s phi hp hot ng ca nhiu cng ngh truy nhp
khc nhau, phc v nhiu loi khch hng khc nhau trong khu vc rng ln v
khng ng nht.
Mng truy nhp quang (Optical access network - OAN) l mng truy nhp s
dng phng thc truyn dn quang. Ni chung thut ng ny ch cc mng
trong lin lc quang c s dng gia thu bao v tng i. Cc thnh phn
ch cht ca mng truy nhp quang l kt cui ng dn quang (optical line
terminal - OLT) v khi mng quang (optical network unit - ONU). Chc nng
chnh ca chng l thc hin chuyn i cc giao thc bo hiu gia SNI v UNI
trong ton b mng truy nhp. Ngi ta phn bit ba loi hnh truy nhp quang
chnh: Fiber to the curb (FTTC), Fiber to the building (FTTB), Fiber to the home
(FTTH) v fiber to the office (FTTO).
Cho ti nay trn th gii c mt khi lng rt ln cp ng c trin khai.
Theo mt s nghin cu v mng truy nhp, hin nay cp ng vn l mi trng
truyn dn chnh trong mng truy nhp, chim ti khong 94%. Vic tn dng c
s h tng rt ln ny l rt cn thit v c li. Cc cng ngh ng dy thu
bao k thut s (DSL) chnh l gii php cho vn ny.
Ngoi cc cng ngh truy nhp c dy, cc phng thc truy nhp v tuyn cng
pht trin rt mnh. Cc mng di ng GSM, CDMA c ti hng trm triu
thu bao trn khp th gii. Cc phng thc truy nhp v tuyn c nh cng
ngy cng tr nn thng dng hn, do nhng li th ca n khi trin khai cc
khu vc c a hnh him tr hay c c s h tng vin thng km pht trin.
cc th ln dch v v tuyn c nh cng pht trin, c bit khi nh khai thc
cn tip cn th trng mt cch nhanh nht.
Trong cc chng sau chng ta s xem xt mt cch chi tit hn cc cng ngh
truy nhp v so snh chng trn phng din k thut, v c bit l kha cnh
u t v kinh t.
1.1.4 Cc thit b mng truy nhp
Nh ni trn, mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng c nhiu nhc im
hn ch kh nng cung cp khng ch cc dch v mi, nht l cc dch v bng
rng, m ngay c i vi cc dch v truyn thng nh thoi. Trong phn ny
chng ta s xem xt s pht trin ca cc thit b s dng trong mng truy nhp.
khc phc nhng nhc im ca mng truy nhp truyn thng v nguyn tc
c hai gii php chnh sau y. Hai gii php ny c s dng rng ri trong vi
thp k cui ca th k 20:
Dng tng i phn tn
K thut DLC (Digital Loop Carrier : B cung cp vng thu bao s )
1.1.4.1 Tng i phn tn
Gii php dng tng i phn tn thc cht l s dng cc b tp trung ng
u xa (RLC - Remote Line Concentrator). B RLC c giao tip ring pha
tng i nh cc tng i v tinh nhng khng c kh nng chuyn mch nh
tng i v tinh.

15

Hnh I-3 B tp trung ng dy u xa
LC ( Line Concentrator ) : B tp trung ng dy
RLC ( Remote Line Concentrator ) : B tp trung ng dy xa.
SLC ( Subscriber Line Circuit ) : ng dy thu bao.
LT ( Line Terminal ) : Thit b u cui ng dy.
OLT ( Optical Line Terminal ) : Thit b u cui ng quang.
MDF ( Main Distribution Frame ) : Gi u dy thu bao (tng t)
LDF ( Line Distribution Frame ) : Gi u dy ra ng quang
CSS ( Concentrator Stage Switch ) : Chuyn mch tp trung.
Giao tip gia RLC v tng i trc y l do tng nh sn xut quy nh cho
thit b ca ring h. Chnh v th cc nh khai thc tr nn qu ph thuc vo
cc nh cung cp thit b. Th trng thit b chuyn mch vn tng i c
quyn, li cng tr nn thiu mm do. Mt s nh cung cp ln thc t thao
tng th trng trong nhiu thp k. Tuy nhin sau ny nhiu nh sn xut tin
ti dng chun giao tip V5, mc d h lm iu mt cch c th ni l min
cng. Vi chun giao tip V5 th RLC thc cht s tr thnh DLC, l thit b
m chng ta s cp n di y.
1.1.4.2 B cung cp vng thu bao s DLC
tng ca gii php DLC l a giao din thu bao t tng i ni ht n khu
vc thu bao, hn ch ti a mch vng thu bao truyn ti tn hiu tng t. H
thng DLC c hai thnh phn chnh: khi giao tip pha tng i CT (Central
Office Terminal), v khi giao tip pha xa RT (Remote Terminal), thng c
t ti khu vc tp trung nhiu thu bao.
Mt h thng DLC in hnh c th hot ng hai ch : c tp trung v phi
tp trung. Ch tp trung n gin l m ch cu hnh trong s lng ti
nguyn truyn dn ca h thng DLC t hn s thu bao ca n. Nh vy, ch


M
D
F
C
S
S


L
D
F
C
S
S
L
D
F

M
D
F



RLC
LC
SLC
SLC
OLT
OLT
SLC
SLC
n2
m2
n1 ()
m1 ()
Cp ng
Cp ng
Cp quang
Chuyn mch
phn phi

(Distribution
Stage
Switch)

16
tp trung c th dn ti tc nghn khi s cuc gi yu cu nhiu hn s knh trn
ng truyn chung, b li n cho php gim ng k chi ph u t. Mt s
ngi s dng s b t chi phc v hoc chp nhn mt thi gian tr nht nh.
Dung lng ca h thng ph thuc xc sut tc nghn chp nhn c trn
ng truyn CO - RT, thng t 0,1% ti 0,5%.
(1) Cc b li dy
y l mt dng n gin ca DLC khi tc trn ng truyn CT- RT l tc
ca knh ISDN c s : 2B+D tc l 144Kbit/s, mc d ng ny khng ni
ti mt thu bao a dch v. B li dy giao tip vi tng i qua giao tip tng
t tn s ting ni.
Khong cch truyn c th ln ti 7 Km vi t l li bit 10
-7

Trn Hnh I-4 chng ta thy tin trnh pht trin ca cc thit b v cng truy
nhp trong mng vin thng.


Hnh I-4 S ra i ca cc dng thit b truy nhp
Th h DLC (Digital Loop Carrier) th nht ch h tr giao din cp ng truyn
thng gia CT v tng i. RT v CT c kt ni vi nhau qua giao din E1
hoc DS3.
1890

Cp ng
1-2G DLC
1970
V5 DLC
NGDLC
Truy nhp IP
gia thp k 90
cui thp k 90
u th k 21

17









Hnh I-5 Thit b DLC th h th nht
Nh vy, 1G DLC ch l gii php tm thi c a ra vo khong nhng nm
70 ca th k trc. Dng thit b ny c th hot ng vi mi loi tng i, tuy
nhin n khng cho php tit kim card thu bao ti thit b chuyn mch.
Dng thit b ra i ngay sau l DLC th h 2. im khc bit quan trng nht
ca th h DLC th hai l h tr giao din STM-1 dng cp quang gia RT v
CT, v c th cho php kt ni CT vi tng i qua cc lung E1 (ch IDLC). C
hai loi h thng 2G DLC l UDLC (Universal DLC) v IDLC (Intergrated
DLC).
(2) UDLC
UDLC ch h tr kt ni cp ng truyn thng gia CT v tng i. Hot ng
bn trong ca h thng ny c m t trn Hnh I-6.

Hnh I-6 Hot ng ca UDLC
COLIU (Central Office Line Interface Unit): B giao tip ng dy pha
tng i
RTLIU (Remote Terminal Line Interface Unit): B giao tip ng dy thit
b u xa
MDF (Main Distribution Frame): Gi phi dy
codec
codec
codec
codec
codec
codec
R
T
L
I
U
C
O
L
I
U
codec
codec
codec
RT MDF HDT
H thng
chuyn mch
Ti thu bao
Cc dch v khng chuyn mch
Tn hiu PCM - TDM
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Khi
pha
tng i
1G DLC
Khi giao
tip pha
xa
1G DLC
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Channelized
E1 or DS3
Local
Exchange

18
Nh vy, UDLC c nhiu im tng ng vi th h DLC u tin. Thc t
l h thng DLC c ci tin cht t. im quan trng nht l kh nng h tr
ATM trong truyn dn gia cc RT vi nhau v vi CT.

Hnh I-7 Thit b DLC th h th hai : UDLC
H thng UDLC vi giao din tng t vi tng i c th kt ni vi mi loi
tng i m khng yu cu mt iu kin c bit g hay nng cp phn mm
tng i.
(3) IDLC
Cc h thng UDLC c nhiu hn ch v mt k thut:
CT c ni vi giao tip thu bao ca tng i, ngha l tn hiu trong CT
v tng i qua hai ln bin i A/D, D/A khng cn thit.
Mi thu bao c mt knh c nh trong giao tip gia thit b DLC vi
tng i.
Khng tit kim c thit b thu bao ti tng i
Mc d c u im l c th s dng trong mi mng truy nhp, khng ph
thuc vo chng loi tng i, nhng UDLC c kh nhiu im bt cp. Chnh v
vy dng thit b IDLC thuc th h th hai ca DLC ra i.

Hnh I-8 Hot ng ca IDLC
R
T
L
I
U
I
L
I
U
codec
codec
codec
RT
H thng
chuyn mch
Ti thu bao
Cc dch v khng chuyn mch
Tn hiu PCM - TDM
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Central
Office
2G
DLC
Remote
2G
DLC
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Channelized
STM-1 Local
Exchange

19
IDLC cho php s dng giao din lung E1 kt ni vi tng i, gim c mt
bc bin i D/A khng cn thit. H thng ny ch giao tip c vi cc tng
i c cng chun giao tip trn.
Th tc bo hiu vi tng i c chun ho. Hin nay, h thng IDLC c
th giao tip vi tng i theo mt chun giao tip m V5.x, y l mt chun
quc t theo khuyn ngh ca ITU.

Hnh I-9 Thit b DLC th h th hai : IDLC
ILIU (Intergrated Line Interface Unit): B giao tip ng dy tch hp
u im ca h thng IDLC l khng cn thit b ghp knh PCM pha tng i,
cc knh s liu c th truy nhp trc tip t tng i n thit b PCM u xa
to kh nng iu hnh v bo dng tp trung. Thm na, nh giao din s, h
thng IDLC c th to nn mch vng ngay phn mng truy nhp, tng tin
cy ca h thng.
Dng thit b V5 DLC nh vy cng c xp vo loi DLC th h th hai.

Tng i
Thit b
khch hng
Vng
thu
bao
P PS ST TN N
I IP P
N-NAS
DLC DLC DLC DLC
LE LE
Vng
thu
bao
Tng i
Thit b
khch hng

Hnh I-10 u ni cc 2GDLC trong mng PSTN
Channelized
E1
DS0
DS0
DS0
Central
Office
2G
DLC
Remote
2G
DLC
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Channelized
STM-1
Local
Exchange
Channelized
E1
Channelized
E1

20
(4) 3G DLC hay NGDLC
Thit b 3G DLC cn c gi l NGDLC (Next Generation DLC). Thit b truy
nhp ny c nhiu im tng ng vi ATM-DSLAM. Xem xt mt cch chi ly
th c th c s khc bit gia cc dng thit b trn. Tuy nhin, v c bn cc
thit b NGDLC v ATM-DSLAM s dng cng mt cng ngh v c kin trc
tng t nhau.

Channelized
E1
Central
Office
3G
DLC
Remote
3G
DLC
Phone
Fax
Dial
Modem PC
ATM
Based
Local
Exchange

CPE
PC
Channelized
E1
Channelized
E1

Hnh I-11 Thit b DLC th h 3 (NG DLC).
Thit b DLC th h th ba ra i vo nhng nm cui th k 20. 3GDLC l
dng DLC u tin h tr cc dch v d liu bng rng v thit b truy nhp tch
hp pha khch hng. Nu nh cc b thit b 2GDLC trong mng thc t hot
ng c lp vi nhau (Hnh I-10), tc cc thit b truy nhp ny khng phi hp
hot ng vi nhau to thnh mt mng ATM din rng thng nht, th cc b
DLC th h ba c th u ni vi nhau trong mng ATM (Hnh I-12) to ra
mng chuyn mch gi c bng thng tng i ln. Vi cu trc nh th
3GDLC cho php cung cp cc dch v d liu trn nn mng ATM mt cch
tng i mm do. Cc c tnh ca dng thit b ny l nh sau:
cung cp gii php truy nhp bng rng tm thi qua mng li ATM
s dng cng ngh xDSL truy nhp d liu tc cao
chun V5.2 kt ni vi mng PSTN
kt ni ATM vi mng ng trc hay mng IP
h tr cc dch v thoi/ fax, ISDN v d liu bng rng

21

Tng i
Thit b
khch hng
Vng
thu
bao
LE
P PS ST TN N
LE
I IP P
DLC
DLC
DLC
DL
A AT TM M A AT TM M
B-NAS B-NAS
Thit b
khch hng
Tng i
Vng
thu
bao

Hnh I-12 u ni cc 3GDLC trong mng PSTN
Tuy nhin dng thit b truy nhp ny c mt s nhc im nh sau:
bng thng/ dung lng hn ch
nt c chai trong vng ring truy nhp v mng li ATM
kh m rng dung lng
kin trc giao thc phc tp, nhiu lp (IP qua ATM qua
SDH/DSL).
gi thnh v chi ph nng cp tng i cao.
Hin tng tc nghn trong vng ring truy nhp ch c th xy ra nu phn ln
cc thu bao u s dng dch v xDSL. Tuy nhin y l mt thc t m cc
nh khai thc u phi tnh n khi trin khai mng truy nhp, c bit l trong
giai on bng n dch v bng rng. V nhng l do nu trn m dng thit b
3G DLC mc d mi ra i trong nhng nm gn y v c kh nng cung cp
dch v bng rng nhng khng thnh cng lm trn th trng. th trng
chu , dng thit b ny ch c s dng tng i rng ri ti Trung quc,
i loan v n . Trong khi cc nc nh Nht bn v Hn quc c v
hng n mt la chn khc. l thit b truy nhp th h cui cng, thit b
truy nhp IP, cn c gi l IP-DSLAM.
(5) Thit b truy nhp IP (IP-AN)

22

IP hay MPLS

IP hay MPLS switch-router
softswitch
PSTN
gateway
access gateway
xDSL
my T IP
POTS/PSTN

Hnh I-13 Thit b truy nhp IP trong mng th h sau
y l dng thit b truy nhp tin tin nht, hi t nhiu cng ngh nn tng
trong mng th h sau. L dng thit b chy trn nn mng IP, IP-AN c nhng
c im quan trng nh sau:
bng thng/ dung lng h thng gn nh khng hn ch
truy nhp bng rng IP
d dng m rng
cung cp tt c dch v qua mt mng IP duy nht
d dng tch hp vi mng vin thng th h sau (trn nn mng
chuyn mch mm)
gi thnh tnh theo u thu bao thp
chi ph vn hnh mng thp
kin trc n gin (IP over SDH, DWDM)
Vi chc nng l thit b truy nhp, bng thng ca cc sn phm IP-AN hin
nay c th ni l gn nh khng hn ch v trn thc t khng th tc nghn: t
Gigabit Ethernet (1Gb/s) cho khu vc c s lng thu bao trung bnh n
10G/OC-192c cho khu vc mt thu bao bng rng cao. Thit b IP, nh
chng ta bit, c gi thnh tnh theo bng thng rt thp. Vic m rng h thng
c th thc hin d dng bng cch thay th/ b sung cc card giao tip. Tt c
cc dch v thoi/ d liu u c cung cp trn nn mng IP, mc d cc h
thng ny vn h tr cc u cui tng t truyn thng nh my in thoi v
my fax. Ngoi ra cc u cui k thut s nh H.323, SIP cng c h tr.
Trong mng truy nhp IP, cc softswitch thc hin chuyn mch v iu khin
cuc gi gia cc u cui tng t cng nh s. Vic phi hp hot ng gia
thit b truy nhp IP v mng PSTN c t chc thng qua media gateway.
(6) Thit b truy nhp giai on qu
Xu hng pht trin mng PSTN ln mng NGN c th ni l tt yu. Tuy nhin
l trnh nng cp mng ca cc nh khai thc khc nhau c nhiu im khc bit.
Mi nh khai thc c nhng im c bit trong cu hnh mng li trin khai

23
ca mnh. Xt v gc mng truy nhp, vic pht trin phc v cc thu bao
mi nh th no l mt vn nan gii.
Chng ta xem xt k hn vn ny. Gi s c mt nh khai thc ang pht trin
mng li ti mt khu vc dn c thnh th. Mt thu bao hin ti ang mc
khim tn v cn c tim nng m rng mnh m trong tng lai. Tuy nhin, s
lng cp gc (cp ng) cn li khu vc ny tng i hn ch. Nh khai thc
ang kinh doanh trong bi cnh mt s i th cnh tranh cng chun b tham
gia pht trin thu bao mi ti khu vc ny. Trong tnh hnh , vic la chn
chin lc pht trin mng truy nhp c ngha rt quan trng, bi thng th
trong cuc cnh tranh v nng cao hiu qu kinh doanh cn phi
m bo thi gian trin khai dch v ngn nht
chi ph pht trin thu bao mi thp
mng truy nhp c kh nng cung cp dch v bng rng v cc dch v mi
khc
d dng tch hp vo mng truy nhp NGN
NMS NMS
Access
Mux.
CPE Network Side
Narrowband
POTS
ISDN PRA
ISDN BRA
MFCR2D
xDSL
Broadband
Leased Line
E1/n x 64
Modem
Modem
PSTN
SWITCH
B-RAS
DATA
NETWORK
SDH ATM WWW
WWW

Hnh I-14 Cu trc mng truy nhp qu
Nh vy, trong tnh hung ny, gii php ko thm cp ng n khu vc cha
chc l gii php ti u. S dng cc thit b truy nhp hin i khu vc tp
trung thu bao l mt trong nhng kh nng cn xem xt.
Tuy nhin, vn ln t ra l nhng u t vo mng truy nhp hin ti liu c
mang li hiu qu kinh t, v hp l v mt k thut, khi m ton b mng li
ang chuyn mnh tin n mng th h sau? L do l trong bi cnh hin ti nh
khai thc cha th a cc thit b truy nhp IP tin tin nht vo mng li, v l
do n gii l mng PSTN ni ht cha sn sng h tr cc thit b ny. u
t vo cc thit b DLC s dng V5.x cng tim n nhiu mo him. Liu cc

24
thit b ny c tr thnh gnh nng trong mng li khi cc thit b chuyn mch
c thay th bng cc tng i chuyn mch mm trong tng lai?
V nhng l do , cn thit phi c dng thit b truy nhp p ng tt cc yu
cu trong giai on qu . Cc thit b ny c thit k p ng mt cch
hiu qu v mm do nht qu trnh chuyn i mng ni ht t kin trc TDM
hin nay ln kin trc gi trong tng lai:
h tr cc giao din PSTN truyn thng, cc u cui analog
h tr bo hiu V5.x v c th kt ni vi cc tng i ni ht ang hot
ng (tc lm vic nh thit b DLC)
khi cn thit c th nng cp phn mm chuyn sang dng cc giao thc
bo hiu cuc gi tin tin nht, nh SIP, Megaco v hot ng nh
access gateway trong mng NGN. Vic nng cp phn mm ny s cn
thc hin khi tng i ni ht c thay th, hoc khi thit b ny c
chuyn sang hot ng trong mng softswitch.
Nh vy, mng truy nhp s dng cc thit b ny c th tng i d dng thch
ng vi mng ni ht th h sau, v nh vy qu trnh chuyn i ln NGN s
din ra mt cch mm do hn i vi nh khai thc.
1.2 Cc phng thc truy nhp mng d liu (Internet) hin nay
Lu lng d liu, c bit l lu lng IP ang tng trng mt cch chng
mt. Trong khi lu lng thoi c mc tng trng kh khim tn, t 10-
25% cc nc ang pht trin v gn nh khng tng trng cc nc tin
tin. Chnh v vy, mng truy nhp ngy nay phi c thit k xy dng p
ng tt nht nhu cu cc dch v d liu ca khch hng. ISDN c th ni l mt
n lc rt ln ca ton nghnh cng nghip vin thng, t cc nh cung cp thit
b n cc nh khai thc trn ton th gii vi mc tiu tch hp dch v thoi v
s liu.
Ph bin nht hin nay vn l modem tng t, truy nhp mng d liu bng
dial-up. Ngoi ra cn c cc cng ngh khc, nh knh thu ring, lung E1/T1,
modem cp, MMDS, LMDS v cc cng ngh s dng v tinh nh DirectPC...
1.2.1 ISDN v B-ISDN
Tng lai m m ca ISDN c d bo t 7 nm trc. D rt c k
vng nhng ISDN ngy nay tr thnh gnh nng i vi mng PSTN. Th
trng thit b ISDN hon ton ng bng do gi thnh thit b qu cao, trong
khi s lng bn ra rt hn ch.
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network) l mng (s) a dch v. ISDN ln
u tin c CCITT cp n trong mt khuyn ngh ca mnh vo nm 1977.
Nm 1985 AT&T th nghim ISDN ln u tin ti Hoa K. Tuy nhin, ISDN
pht trin chm Hoa K do s khng thng nht trong cch trin khai theo
CCITT ca AT&T v Nortel. ISDN ph sn ngn ca 20 quc gia khong 50 t
-la M. Nguyn l ca ISDN l cung cp cc dch v thoi v s liu chung
trn mt ng dy thu bao k thut s. Dng ISDN tc giao tip c s (
BRI: Basic Rate Interface) cho php truyn d liu v thoi trn 2 knh B (

25
Binary channel) 64 kbps v 1 knh D ( Digital channel) 16 kbps. Mi ng dy
ISDN BRI c th b tr ti a 8 thit b u cui v cng mt lc c th thc
hin c nhiu cuc gi khc nhau.Dng ISDN cho php khch hng s dng
cc dch v mi nh dch v khn cp ( bo trm, bo chy,...), dch v ghi s
in -nc gas, dch v quay s trc tip vo tng i ni b, dch v a ch
ph....Cc thit b c cu mng in thoi PSTN vn dng c vi ISDN qua
mt b thch ng u cui TA ( Terminal Adaptor). Giao tip tc s cp (PRI:
Primary rate interface) tng ng vi cc ng truyn T1 v E1 vi mt knh
D l 64 kbps cn cc knh B cn li cng c tc 64 kbps. Ngoi ra ngi ta
cn nh ngha cc knh H trn PRI vi H0 l 6B, H10 l 23B, H11 l 24B v
H12 l 30B.
Vn ln nht ca ISDN l sau hn 20 nm pht trin l n p ng c hay
khng kp nhu cu ca khch hng. Ti chu u ISDN pht trin rng ri v
cc vn phng chi nhnh, nhng ngi lm vic xa cng ty (telecommuter) s
dng ISDN hiu qu trong nhiu nm. D sao ISDN vn khng phi l dch v t
ng 128 kbps m n ch l hai knh 64 kbps. Nu mun s dng y dung
lng 128 kbps ca ng dy ISDN th phi mua thm phi mua thm mt b
thch ng u cui nhp 2 knh 64 kbps li.
ISDN khng phi l cng ngh c th ng dng ring cho thu bao m ton b
tng i phi c lp t thit b ISDN. Yu cu u tin l tng i phi s
dng k thut chuyn mch s. Nu tng i s dng k thut tng t s khng
c ISDN. Nh ni c 3 phn t tng i M l tng i s v d nhin l sn
sng cho ISDN. Cc tng i tng t c hn ang uc chuyn i sang k
thut s khi n gim gi nhng i vi gi thnh mt vi triu -la cho mt tng
i k thut s nh hin nay th vic chuyn i b rng buc bi ngun ti chnh
u t ca cc cng ty khai thc in thoi. Ngay c khi c tng i k thut
s th cc phn cng v phn mm thm vo nng cp ln ISDN rt t tin.
iu ny thc l mt mt s nh cc ca cc cng ty in thoi trn s chp
nhn ca cc thu bao iu chnh u t. Thc t s chp nhn ISDN ca
khch hng M rt khim tn lm cho cc cng ty in thoi kh th trong
vic xc tin chuyn i mnh sang ci gi l k nguyn ISDN ( ISDN era-
theo ITU-T).

26

Hnh A. 1 Cu hnh giao tip ISDN BRI.
ISDN cng phi tri qua bi ton con g v qu trng. khc phc gi thnh
chuyn i ISDN i mt vi s chp nhn khng my n tng ca khch
hng ISDN tr nn rt t tin. V d nhin mt dch v t tin khng th d
dng ph bin trn din rng. Cho ti nm 1997, ch c khong hn mt triu
ng dy thu bao ti Hoa K. V t c s dng nn thit b ISDN nh b
thch ng u cui kt ni my tnh c nhn vi mng tr nn rt t tin. Kt
qu l ISDN cn mt s u t ti chnh ln lm cho hu ht cc ngi s dng
u th . Trong trng hp ISDN dnh cho cc ngi lm vic xa cng ty hay
t cc chi nhnh th chi ph c th chp nhn c nhng vi cc vn phng gia
nh hay cc vn phng nh (SOHO: Small Office Home Office) th ISDN qu
t.
Cng ngy ISDN cng tr nn khng c li thot. Trong thi i m modem
tng t ch t ti tc 1200 bit/s th tc d liu 64 kbps cho mi knh
ISDN qu tht rt n tng. Ngy nay, khi m tc d liu ca modem tng
t ln n 56 kbps vi gi thnh khng qu 10 USD th gi thnh thit b ISDN
ln n hng ngn USD tr nn khng ng u t. Mt s kin na ang
ngy cng cho ISDN ra ra l Internet. ISDN l dch v c chuyn mch cho php
thc hin cc kt ni 64 kbps qua quay s nh gi in thoi. Trong nhng nm
u ca thp k 80 th k trc, lc ang pht trin ISDN tt c cc cuc gi s
liu u ch cho mc ch chuyn d liu gia cc my tnh qua vic kt ni bng
NT-T
TE2
TE1 TE1
TA
Switch
ET
funct
Switch
LT
funct
Thit b chuyn mch
ca cng ty in thoi
Switch
c s dng kt ni
cc thit b TE2 vi
ng dy ISDN
Thit b PSTN tiu chun c
mt giao tip R
Thit b ISDN khng th
kt ni trc tip vi
ng dy ISDN
Thit b ISDN c th
kt ni trc tip vo
ng dy ISDN
V U S/T
R

27
cch quay s gi nhau. Trong khi khi hin nay vi mt kt ni Internet c
th chuyn d liu cho bt c my tnh no khc ch bng cch n gin l gi E-
mail. iu ny c thc hin m khng cn mng chuyn mch. Internet thc
hin e-mail bng nh tuyn. Mt khc ISDN l mt dch v c gi ph thuc vo
ng di trong khi modem dial-up ch quay s n mt ISP ni ht v tn cc
ph thu bao Internet.
Vn cui cng ca ISDN trong thi k suy thoi l ISDN gp phn tng thm
gnh nng vo s qu ti ca mng PSTN. Khi ISDN mi xut hin th cha c
cng ngh Web v cc nh thit k ngh l ngi s dng ch n thun gi mt
my tnh, chuyn d liu ri gc my, chng c g khc so vi mt cuc gi in
thoi thng thng. Tuy nhin, Web v Internet thay i c bn vic truyn s
liu. S dng Web khng ch n thun l chuyn file m cn khm ph , tn
hng theo thi gian thc chui thng tin bt tn v d liu, gii tr. Nhng cuc
gi Internet khng cn l cc cuc gi vi thi lng vi pht m tr thnh
cc cuc gi ko di nhiu ting ng h. Thi lng s dng Internet trung bnh
hng tun hn 6 gi mi tun trong khi hu ht cc gia nh u khng ni
chuyn in thoi qu 6 gi mi thng.
PSTN c thit k p ng vi cuc gi tng i ngn ca cc thu bao.
Mt lu lng ngi s dng khng bnh thng v nhng cuc gi chim gi
ng dy di s gy ra tc nghn thng xuyn mt s khu vc trn mng v
thu bao s nhn c tn hiu bo bn khi mng qu ti, mt hin tng Hoa
K rt thng gp trong ngy cc b m (Mothers day). Cng v sau, khi ngy
cng nhiu nh cung cp dch v a ra cc ph truy xut bao thng lm cho cc
cuc gi thay v ko di vi pht li ko di nhiu ting ng h th mi ngy
u tr thnh ngy ca cc b m.
V vin cnh mng th mt cuc gi ISDN khng khc g my cuc gi modem
qua in thoi thng thng. C hai u chim dng kh nng chuyn mch s,
truyn dn s 64 kbps c pha ni i ln lin i. Chuyn i khch hng sang
s dng ISDN c th ci thin mt t v tc truy xut nhng khng rt
ngn ng k thi gian kt ni khi ngi s dng ch cn thng tin no ri log
off. Cn i vi ngi s dng dng tt c th gian kt ni cho mc ch gii tr
th ISDN khng c tc dng g ngoi vic truy xut thng tin hn mt pht.
Cc cng ty khai thc in thoi ang dn nhn ra rng gii php lu di duy nht
cho tnh trng qu ti mng l chuyn lu lng Internet ra khi mng PSTN
cng nhiu cng tt. C gng tng cng mng hin hu p ng s lng
bng n cc cuc gi chim gi thi gian ln ging nh l xy dng thm nhiu
xa l gii to tc nghn giao thng. Chi ph s tht khng khip v s chng
bao gi t c hiu qu kinh t.
Cc nh cung cp dch v c th c c gii php no hiu qu gii quyt tc
nghn khng? Thc t c mt kh nng thnh cng ln khi tch ri truy xut
Internet khi PSTN nh cung cp dch v s g b c c chai km gi tc
truy xut 64 kbps. Vi cu hnh mng mi nh cung cp dch v c th thit k
thch nghi vi tc thng tin d liu hin i v ngi s dng s khng ngn
ngi t b modem cng nh cc thit b thch ng u cui chy theo mng
truy xut mi.

28
1.2.2 Modem tng t
Trong nhng nm u ca k nguyn my tnh, cch y chng hn 30 nm v
trc, kt ni mng hot ng tc khong 300 n 600 bt/s l kh .
Khong 10 nm trc th modem 9.6 Kbps c xem l cng c lin lc tc
kh cao. Modem 9.6 Kbps thc t p ng nhiu ng dng lin quan n
ho v video, tuy cha thc tt lm. V d, mt ngi s dng vo mng ti
v mt bn thi tit vi tc truyn d liu 9.6 Kbps phi mt 40 giy ti
v bn trng en cht lng km. Vi bn mu phn gii cao th phi
ch n vi pht. Ngy nay th c modem 28.8 Kbps hay 33.6 kbps cng khng
p ng c v tc ca nhiu ng dng. Thi gian download mt hnh nh
JPEG trung bnh l 120 giy. Nn k thut my tnh thay i rt nhanh, cc knh
thng tin, my tnh ang bin i p ng theo nhu cu kh dung lng cao
ngy cng tng. Khi cc dch v hnh nh mu, thoi v video cng hp dn
khch hng th h tng thng tin hng megabit cng tr nn thit yu. Liu ngi
ta c th trng ch modem tng t nhng bc tin cc tc cao hn c
tc ng truyn T1 (1544 kbps) hay E1 (2048 kbps) khng ? Tht khng
may, cu tr li l khng. Tc 33.6 kbps ca modem tng t chm trn
tc d liu ca modem truyn trn knh thoi Tt c cc modem tng t u
phi truyn d liu trong knh 300-4000 Hz dnh cho m thoi trong mng in
thoi. Tc 33,6 kbps cn di thng ln hn nhiu. Tuy nhin, cc modem hin
i thay v gi dng bt cha qua x l li gi i cc k hiu (symbol), mi k
hiu i din cho mt s bt lin tip ca dng bt.
Mi khch hng s dng modem u rt quan tm n tc v tin cy ca
modem. Cc nh cung cp u c gng tin gn ti gii hn ca Shannon. Cho
ti tiu chun V.32 th mi modem u cn cch xa gii hn dung lng ny khi
mc S/N t 9 ti 10 dB. Nu gii thng t 2400 Hz ln n 2800 Hz v t s S/N
t 24 dB n 30 dB th dung lng knh khong 24000 bt/s. lp y khong
cch cn li cn phi ng dng k thut sa sai.
Vo nhng nm 1950 cc modem FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) c tc t
300 bit/s ti 600 bt/s. Tiu chun quc t ca modem bt u t thp k 60 th
k trc. Nm 1964 tiu chun modem u tin cu CCITT l V.21 xc nh c
tnh ca modem FSK tc 200 bit/s v by gi l 300 bit/s. K thut iu ch
thay i sang QAM 4 trng thi vo nm 1968 v 16 trng thi vo nm 1984
bi V.22bis. Vo lc , mt tiu chun modem ng dng tin b cng ngh mi
l V.32 thm phn c tnh trit ting di (echo cancellation) v m ho trellis.
M trellis c tin s Gottfred Ungerboeck cp ln u tin v ng dng vo
modem v thc hin lp c mt phn ba khong cch cn li so vi gii hn
Shannon. V.32bis c xy dng trn c s v t c tc d liu ln n
14400 bit/s. Sau tc d liu ca cc modem c nhng tin b nhanh
chng t 19200 bit/s ln n 24000 bit/s ri 28800 bit/s. Modem mi hn l V.34
ra i nm 1996 t ti tc d liu 33600 bit/s b v thc hin 10 bit trn
mi tn hiu.

29
Modem
PSTN
Telephone
exchange
(Cent ral office)
Local loop
Digital data
Telephone
exchange
(Cent ral office)
Modem
Local loop

Digital data

Analogue encoding
analogue
encoding
analogue
encoding

Hnh A. 2 Modem tng t qua mng in thoi tng t.
Khi cc cuc m thoi c in thoi c s ho, cc tng i lp mt b m
ho chuyn tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s ly mu tn hiu thoi 8000 ln
mi giy v dng 8 bt m ho gi tr ca mu. u kia ca kt ni din ra
qu trnh ngc li v mt tn hiu xp x gn vi tn hiu ban u c ti to.
Tuy nhin, qu trnh m ho li sn sinh ra mt loi nhiu khc l nhiu lng
t. Khi thc hin lng t ho,cc bin tng t c th nm gia hai mc
lng t k tip trong 256 mc lng t khc nhau c c t lng t ho 8 bt
v b m ho chn mc lng t gn hn. u thu,mc tn hiu tng t c
ti to s khng phi l mc tn hiu ban u m khc hn mt cht nn to ra
nhiu. Vi mc ch truyn thoi th s khc bit ny l khng ng k nhng
vi modem tc cao th l mt vn ln.
Modem
PSTN Exchange
Lo cal l o o p
Digita l da ta
Exchange Modem
Lo cal l o o p

Digita l da ta
Di g i t al en co d i n g
analogue
encoding
analogue
encoding
A/D
D/A
A/D
D/A

Hnh I-15 Modem tng t qua mng in thoi IDN
Modem 56K s dng qu trnh lng t ho ny. Nhiu lng t l do qu trnh
m ho PCM. Nu b qua c giai on m ho PCM th c th thot khi gii
hn Shannon. Nu ta b tr d liu s ch c qua b gii m trn mng in
thoi th d liu s c chuyn thnh tn hiu 256 mc pht ra t b bin i s
sang tng t ca b gii m PCM. Modem s chuyn sang tm kim cc mc
lng t ho ny vn c tiu chun ho. Trn thc t mt vi ni Hoa K
ch s dng 128 mc lng t ho v h thng ghp knh in thoi s T1 Bc

30
M s dng bt c trng s thp nht trong 8 bt gim st knh v bo hiu.
c th s dng modem ti mi ni th thay v 64 kbps tc modem l 56 kbps
d hu ht cc ni trn th gii u dng c 8 bt cho m ho d liu PCM. Hn
na do tn hiu.Hn na do tn hiu ch truyn t b gii m PCM mch giao
tip thu bao ca tng i n thu bao nn c rt t nhiu v kt qu l t s tn
hiu trn nhiu rt cao trn cc ng truyn 56 kbps. Tr o thut y l loi
b qu trnh m ho PCM v a thng d liu s n b gii m. iu ny i
hi kt ni t ngun d liu (cc ISP chng hn) n b gii m phi ton b l
s. Modem 56 kbps c th vt qua gii hn Shannon bng cch phn bit 2
chiu thu pht ca ngi s dng tc vn l 33,6 kbps. Cn chiu thu tc
ch t ti 56 kbps khi ISP( Internet service proivider: nh cung cp dch v
internet) cu h v cc tng i cu PSTN phi hp trnh b lc PCM mch
giao tip thu bao ca tng i bng cc ng truyn s T1 (1544 kbps) hay E1
( 2048 kbps). Nh vy khi 2 ngi s dng dng 2 modem 56 kbps truyn s liu
im ni im th tc khng th no t c 56 kbps m ch t c tc
d liu song cng i xng l 33,6 kbps.
Vo nhng nm cui th k trc xy ra tnh hnh khng thng nht ca cc
tiu chun modem 56 kbps do hai hng sn xut danh ting l U.S.Robotics (by
gi l mt b phn ca hng 3COM) s dng chipset X2 ca hng Texas
Instrumnt v Rockwell c tiu chun K56flex. D nhin l hai tiu chun ny
khng tng thch vi nhau v ngnh cng nghip sn xut modem nhanh chng
b phn cc theo mt trong hai tiu chun trn. Lc ny ngi s dng ti Hoa
K ch i tiu chun no s c ISP ca mnh chp nhn ri mi mua modem
theo tiu chun . Nhiu ISP ch i tiu chun no s chin thng v tiu
chun no s v vn. Trong thi gian ny mt s ISP m ra 2 s in thoi ,
mi s in thoi cho mt tiu chun v iu ny lm cho ngi s dng thy
yn tm m mua sm modem 56 kbps.
Pcm digital
V.pcmclient-
side modem
PSTN Exchange
Local loop
Digital data
Exchange
Digital
circuit
Digital data
PCM digital encoding
analogue
encoding encoding
A/D
D/A
Client compute
(Internet user) Server computer
(ISP)
Internet
connection
Internet
V.pcmserver-
side modem


31
Hnh I-16 Modem V.pcm
Thng 9 nm 1998 ITU-T ra tiu chun V.90 thng nht trn ton th gii
v modem 56 kbps. Phn cng ca cc loi modem trn khng khc nhau my
nn ngi s dng 2 loi modem c c th ch cn mua mt con chp nng cao
cho V.90 tit kim chi ph cn cc modem sn xut sau u c ch thch
l Ready for V.90.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
R
e
v
e
n
u
e
(
S
M
)

Hnh I-17 Doanh thu t modem 56 kbps trn th gii.
Trong nhiu trng hp vic b qua mt ln bin i l khng n gin. Khi truy
xut thng tin t mt nh cung cp dch v Internet ni ht th c hi rt cao nu
ISP kt ni vi tng i ni ht bng cc ng truyn s. Tuy nhin khi khong
cch th kh nng tn hiu b chuyn sang tng t ri chuyn tr li s cng ln.
Khong 25 % s tng i ti Hoa k l tng i chuyn mch tng t nn cuc
gi cng qua nhiu tng i th kh nng gp phi tng i tng t cng ln.
Nhng ngi lm vic cc vn phng chi nhnh xa cng ty hay nhng ngi lm
vic ti nh ring nhiu khi than phin kt ni modem ca h vi mng cng ty
ch t c tc ti a 28,8 kbps. Ngay c khi mi vic u tt p th tc
56 kbps vn l qu khim tn d l tin b cng ngh cui cng ca modem
tng t. Chng ta s ho ton b mng vin thng ch tr ra ng truyn
dn thu bao ni ht l phi chuyn tn hiu thnh tng t phn phi n
khch hng nn knh truyn khng th dung np thm nhiu bt hn na. Nu
mun tc truyn d liu cao hn th phi ngh n cc phng php khch
hn l s dng mng in thoi truyn thng.
1.2.3 Truy xut T1/E1 s dng mng cp thu bao ni ht
Mt ngc nhin chung cho nhiu ngi s dng l cng mt i giy cp xon
i vn ch s dng truyn ti m thanh ca dch v thoi truyn thng hay
cng lm l ISDN vi tc d liu tng cng 160 kbps m my chc nm
qua li c th lm cho iu kin truyn ti c cc dch v T1/E1 vi tc
1544 kbps hay 2048 kbps. Cc cng ty khai thc in thoi tnh cc thu bao
rt cao cho cc dch v T1/E1 so vi ng dy thu bao tng t b li chi
ph cho cc thit b h tr ng dy, v tuy cng l ng dy cp xon i
nhng T1/E1 li cn c nhng yu cu k thut c bit. Gi thnh cao ca

32
T1/E1 mt phn l do vic chuyn i t ng dy thu bao tng t sang s v
chi ph bo dng thit b ng dy cao lin quan n cc k thut iu ch
qu n gin l AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) T1 v HDB3 (High Density
Bipolar 3) c xy dng cch y hn 30 nm. K thut iu ch s dng trn
ng truyn T1/E1 truyn thng ch chp nhn cc khong cch tng i ngn.
V vy, ng truyn T1/E1 qua cc vng thu bao di phi c phn chia
thnh nhiu on cng vi cc trm tip vn (repeater) cc im tip ni d
v pht tn hiu sang on dy khc. Do phi b tr cc trm tip vn cch
hai u ng dy thu bao khng qua 600 n 900 m v khong cch gia cc
trm tip vn khng qu 900 ti 1800m tu c dy.

Office
Repeater
CSU
Customer
Central office
1.544-2.048 Mbps

Hnh I-18 Cung cp dch v T1/E1 truyn thng c tip vn.
1.2.4 Cable modem
Cable modem l thit b cho php truy xut thng tin tc cao n cc server t
xa nh Internet Server hay Video on Demand Server qua mng truyn hnh cp
(cp ng trc). So vi cc loi modem analogue truyn thng dng trong mng
PSTN th modem cp t tc cao hn nhiu v nhanh hn xp x 500 ln.
Trong khong gia nhng nm 1990 ca th k trc ngi ta pht trin c
kh nng truyn ti hai chiu ca h tng c s mng cp ng trc hin hu
phc v cho truy xut Internet tc cao. iu ny dn n vic tin hnh
nhiu nghin cu v th nghim trn nhiu khu vc ti Hoa K v cc quc gia
ty u. Kt qu l ngi ta pht trin c mt s loi k thut cp modem.
tng ca modem cp tht n gin l dng mng cp ng trc sn c kt
ni Internet. iu ny khng nhng ch em li cho thu bao c hi c c tc
d truy xut Internet n tng m cn thc hin c cc dch v khc nh video
on demand v MHP (Media Home Platform) ngay tc khc, cc nh cung cp
dch v nhn thy c tim nng em li thu nhp to ln ca cng ngh ny do
con s qu ln cc thu bao c th tham gia vo mng qua cc kt ni cp ng
trc sn c v lm cho cc cng ngh kiu nh MHP tr nn thc t. Cng ngh
cp modem em li vic kt ni mng tc cao cho mi trng dn dng cng
nh doanh nghip nh qua cc ng dy cp ng trc vn s dng cho truyn
hnh cp. Hnh I-19 minh ho cu hnh cn bn mng modem cp. Modem cp l

33
thit b cho php truy xut d liu qua mng truyn hnh cp thng thng. Thu
bao ch cn kt ni modem cp vi cm truyn hnh cp. Pha nh cung cp
dch v s kt ni u cp vi h thng x l modem cp (CMTS: Cable Modem
Termination System).
Mt b modem cp in hnh c hai kt ni, mt kt ni vi cm truyn hnh
cp v mt kt ni ni vi my tnh c nhn hay b thch ng. Hu ht cc
modem cp l cc thit b ri kt ni vi my tnh qua cng Ethernet 10 BASE-T
hay Ethernet 100 BASE-T v dy bng cp xon i. Nhng modem cp i mi
c c giao tip USB (Universal Serial Bus) hay cn c c dng Internal (lp
trong) qua giao tip PCI.
Thc ra thut ng modem c s dng cho thit b ny c i cht khng chnh
xc. Tht vy, vi chc nng iu ch v gii iu ch n c th xem nh mt
modem. Nhng m s tng t vi modem dng trong mng in thoi PSTN
cng ch dng li ti do modem cp phc tp hn modem in thoi nhiu.
Cable modem gm cc phn chc nng nh sau:
Modem
Thit b mt m ho v gii mt m
B nh tuyn
Card giao tip mng
Card SNMP
Cu
Ethernet HUB
Cc phn chc nng trn cho ta thy c s khc nhau gia modem d liu (cn
gi l modem tng t hay modem quay s) v modem cp ng trc. Tn hiu
truyn hnh thng tri rng ph trn gii tn 50 MHz n 750 Mhz. Mi knh
truyn hnh chim gii tn 60 Mhz. Cc knh truyn hnh cp MTV, CNN, hay
BBC u chim gii thng 6 Mhz. Tng t nh vy dch v Internet qua cp
ng trc cng chim gii thng 6 Mhz cho tng chiu upstream (ln) hoc
downstream (xung) ring l. Ta s xt n s khc nhau gia knh d liu trn
cp ng trc vi knh tng t thng thng bao gm c s khc nhau theo
chiu downstream cng nh chiu upstream.
Mt b modem cp gi v nhn tn hiu theo hai kiu hi khc nhau. chiu
downstream, d liu s c iu ch v t vo knh truyn hnh 6 Mhz mt
v tr no trong gii tn t 50 Mhz n 750 Mhz. Hin nay, ang s dng k
thut iu ch 64 QAM cho chiu xung t c tc d d liu ln n 27
Mbps cho knh tn hiu 6 Mhz. Tn hiu ny t knh 6 Mhz bn cnh tn hiu
truyn hnh v pha no cng c min l khng lm nh hng n tn hiu
truyn hnh. chiu upstream th phc tp hn nhiu. Nhn chung trong mng
cp hai chiu th chiu upstream c pht tn hiu gia 5 Mhz v 42 Mhz (Bng
I-2). iu ny n n mt mi trng nhiu nhiu vi nhiu tn s v tuyn v
nhiu xung. Hn na, nhiu c to ra mt cch d dng t trong nh do cc
mi ni thp v i cp khng tt v vy mng cp ng trc c dng Cy r
nhnh (Tree and Branch) nn khi tn hiu i theo chiu ln th nhiu s dn li
v tng ln. khc phc hin tng ny nhiu nh sn xut s dng k thut

34
iu ch QPSK hay cc k thut iu ch tng t cho chiu Upstream v QPSK
khng nhiu tt hn QAM tuy nhiu tn hiu QPSK cho tc truyn d liu
thp hn d liu QAM nhiu. Bng I-1 lit k cc gii tn truyn hnh v tn s
ca chng. Mt knh truyn hnh c th nm trong khong 1 trong 7 gii tn ny.
Bng I-2 cho thy v tr ca cc gii tn truyn hnh trong gii tn s ca tt c
cc ng dng khc.
Di tn Tm tn s (MHz)
Low Very High Frequency (VHF) 54-88
Midband 88-174
High Very High Frequency (VHF) 174-216
Superband 216-300
Hyperband 300-468
Ultraband 468-648
Ultra High Frequency 470-806
Bng I-1 Cc di tn truyn hnh
Trong nm 1994, nhm lm vic 802.14 v th tc TV media access control
(MAC) hay Physical (PHY) ca Institue of Electronic and Electrical Enginering
(IEEE) c hnh thnh da trn cc nh cung cp, sn xut pht trin cc tiu
chun quc t cho vic truyn d liu trn cp ng trc. Mc ch ban u ca
nhm l trnh cho IEEE mt tiu chun cho modem cp vo nm 1995. Tht
khng may l s pht trin tiu chun b tr hon ti cui nm 1997. Trong thi
gian ch tiu chun ca IEEE, mt s nh iu hnh mng cp ng trc lin
kt vi nhau a ra cc tiu chun ca h. Vo thng ging nm 1996 cc
hng COMCAST, COX CABLE, TCI v TIME WARNER pht trin mt
cng ty trch nhiu ha hn l Multimedia Cable Network Systems Partner Ltd. (
MCNS). Kt qu l tiu chun c tnh giao tip ca h thng truyn d liu qua
cp ng trc (DOCSIS : Data Over Cable System Interface Specification)
c ban hn thng 3/1997. Bng I-3 cho cc c tnh tng qut DOCSIS ca
MCNS.

35
Town
Town
Fiber Node
Fiber Node
Directional
coupier/spliter
Fiber Node
Fiber Node

City
H
Hnh I-19 H thng truyn hnh cp
Upstream Modulator
QPSK/16-QAM
f:5-65 MHz
BW:e.g.2MHz
Rates:e.g.3 Mbps
Downstream Demodulator
64-QAM/256-QAM
f:65-850 MHz
BW:6/8MHz
Rates:27-56 Mbps
Cable modem CMTS (Headend)
Upstream Demodul ator
QPSK/16-QAM
f:5-65 MHz
BW:e.g.2MHz
Rates:e.g.3 Mbps
Downstream Modul ator
64-QAM/256-QAM
f:65-850 MHz
BW:6/8MHz
Rates:27-56 Mbps

Hnh I-20 Cng ngh modem cp
Frequency Wavelength Designation Typical service
3-30 KHz 100-10 VeryLow Frequency (VLF) Navigation,sonar
30-300 KHz 10-1 Km Low Frequency (LF) Radio beacons
3-30 MHz 100-10 m High Frequency (HF) Short-wave radio, telephon,

36
telegraph,citizens band radio,
ship-to-coast,ship-to-aircraft
30-300 MHz 10-1 m Very High Frequency Analog cordless telephone
(44-49 MHz),TV(54-88
MHz),TV(174-216 MHz), air
traffic control, police, taxi.
300-3000 MHz 100-10 cm Ultra High Frequency
(UHF)
TV(470-806 MHz), RG
wireless modem (800 MHz),
cellular (806-890
MHz),digital cordless (900
MHz), PCs (900-929 MHz),
nationalwide paging (929-932
MHz), satelite telephone
uplink (1610-1625.5 MH),
satellite telephone downlink
(2483.5-2500 MHz)
3-30 GHz 10-1 cm Super High Frequency Large dish satelite TV (4-6
GHz), Small dish satellite TV
(11.7-12.7 GHz), wireless
cable TV (28-29 GHz)
Bng I-2 S dng bng tn
S khc nhau gia cc tiu chun modem cp ca DOCSIS v IEEE phn nh
mc tiu thit k khc nhau ca t chc ny. Cc tiu chun ca IEEE c
cc nh cung cp thit b nh hng vo cng ngh cng nghip chung. Trong
khi th cc nh pht trin tiu chun DOCSIS li tp trung vo vic ti thiu
ho chi ph ca modem cp c th bn c vi s lng ln. Hn na, cc
nh pht trin tiu chun DOCSIS cng ch tm ti vic s dng cng ngh c
th ti thiu ho thi gian a ra cc sn phm u tin cho th trng khch
hng. Hnh I-21 so snh gia m hnh OSI v DOCSIS.

37
OSI MODEL
7
Application Layer
Type of communi cation, E-
mail ,fi le transfer, cli ent/server.
6
Presentation Layer
Encrypti on,data conversi on:
ASCII to EBCDIC.
BCD to bi nary,etc.
5
Session Layer
Start, stops session
Maintains order.
4
Transport Layer
Ensures deli very of enti re fil e of
message
Network Layer
Routes data to different LANs
and WANs based on network
address
3
Data link (MAC) Layer
Transmits packets from node to
node based on stati on address
2
Physical Layer
El ectri cal si gnal s and cabli ng
1
DOCSIS
DOCSIS
Control
Message
TCP/
UDP
IP
IEEE 8022
Downstream:TDM(MPE
G) 46(65)-550 MHz
42/256-QAM ITU-T
J,83 Annex B(A)
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

Hnh I-21 So snh gia m hnh OSI v m hnh DOSIS
Tc modem thay i rt nhiu v ph thuc vo cc tham s sau:
H thng modem cp
Kin trc mng cp ng trc
Lu lng trn mng modem cp
Cc tham s knh chiu Upstream
Modulation
Carrier
Tc d liu
Forward Error Control
Encryption

QPSK v QAM 16 trng thi
Bin i t 200 KHz ti 3,2 MHz
320 Kbps ti 10 Mbps
Reed-Solomon
DES
Cc tham s knh chiu Downstream
Modulation
Carrier
Tc d liu
Framing
Forward Error Control
Encryption

64/246 QAM
6 MHz
27 ti 36 Mbps
MPEG-2
Reed-Solomon
DES
iu khin truy xut
Tranh chp da trn gi v dng cc khe ring

Qun l
SNMP vi cc nh ngha MIB


38
Giao tip thu bao
10 BASE-T, USB, IEEE 1394

Giao tip mng
10 BASE_T, 100 BASE-T, ATM, FDDI

Bng I-3 DOCSIS ca MCNS
Theo chiu dowmstream (t server CMTS- Cable Modem Termination System
xung ngi s dng) tc mng c th ln n 27 Mbps. y l dung lng
tng cng c tt c ngi s dng chia ra. Ch c t h thng m ngi s
dng c kh nng kt ni vi tc cao nh vy. Thng th dung lng ch t 1
Mbps ti 3 Mbps. Trong chiu upstream tc c th ln ti 10 Mbps. Tuy
nhin, hu ht cc nh sn xut modem cp u chn tc 1 Mbps ti 2,5
Mbps. Phn ln cc h thng truy xut modem cp u l bt i xng. Tc
chiu dowmstream ln hn tc chiu upstream nhiu v iu ny ph hp vi
vic s dng cable modem, ngha l dng cho dch v video on demand hay truy
xut Internet. Cc ng dng nh duyt cc trang web v c tin u c nhiu gi
d liu xung my tnh nhiu hn chiu gi d liu cho mng. Cc click chut
hay e-mail ( ch yu ca chiu upstream) d nhin l khng th chim nhiu dung
lng bng ti cc file hay audio, video (ch yu ca chiu downstream).
Mi hp truyn hnh cp u nhn tn hiu truyn dn theo chiu dowmstream v
mi knh truyn hnh u c pht mt di tn khc nhau.
Mt h thng cp truyn hnh nguyn thy da trn c s cp ng trc xuyn
sut. My pht truyn hnh cp cung cp phim t nhiu ngun v a tn hiu ln
cp ng trc. Cc b khuch i tn hiu c t u n trong h thng. C
th c n 35 b khuch i ni tip nhau t my pht ti cc thu bao. Hnh I-22
minh ho mt h thng cp ng trc truyn thng.
Regional Head end
Coaxal cable
Ampl ifier
Spl itter
Tap

+

+

+

+

Hnh I-22 H thng cp ng trc truyn thng
Cc nh khai thc mng cp ng trc ang tin hnh ci tin h tng mng cp
bng cch a vo thm cp quang vo mng cp ng trc, thay cho truyn dn
tn hiu tng t bng truyn dn tn hiu s v thay cc b khuch i mt chiu

39
bng cc trm tip vn theo hai chiu. H tng c s mng cp ng trc mi ny
gi l h thng cp ng trc kt hp quang HFC. Vi HFC, my pht s dng
giao tip cp quang v vi cp quang, nhiu c tnh ca mng cp truyn thng
b thay i. Quan trng hn l cc trm tip vn khng ch khuch i tn hiu
m cn phc hi v pht nguyn dng tn hiu s. Cc b khuch i RF lc
thng di c thay th bng cc b trit ting di. Cc b lc ny cho php mt
di tn no truyn theo mt hng v di tn khc truyn theo hng ngc
li. Nh vy, HFC l mt h thng hai chiu. Lu rng vic nng cp ln mng
HFC khng n gin. Cn phi thay th hon ton mt phn quan trng ca h
thng cp. Tuy nhin on t im cp quang v n nh thu bao vn cn dng
cp ng trc.
Regional
Head end
Distribution Hub

+

+

+

+
Fiber Cable
Coaxial Cable

Hnh I-23 H thng HFC
C ba dng modem cp thng dng l:
Modem ri
Modem lp trong my tnh c nhn
Hp set-top tng tc
C th sau mt thi gian s c cc dng modem cp mi xut hin. Modem cp
ri l mt hp bn ngoi ni vi my tnh c nhn qua mt kt ni Ethernet thng
thng. Cn phi c mt card Ethernet (gi rt r) trc khi kt ni vi modem
cp. Hn na c th kt ni nhiu my tnh c nhn vi Ethernet. Tt c cc
modem cp u hot ng tt vi hu ht cc h iu hnh v phn cng bao
gm MAC,UNIX, laptop,.
Mt dng giao tip gia modem cp l USB, c u im l lp t nhanh chng
hn nhiu. Hnh I-24 minh ho dng modem cp ri.


40
Cable Modem
(External)
Cable
Ethernet

Hnh I-24 Modem cp ri.
Modem cp lp trong thng s dng dng card giao tip PCI vi my tnh. Loi
modem ny r tin nht nhng li c nhng vn k thut ca n. Vn ch
c th c dng vi my tnh c nhn bn. Cc loi my tnh Mac v laptop
khng s dng c. Hnh I-25 l dng modem cp internal.
Cabl e
Cabl e Modem
(Internal)
PC

Hnh I-25 Modem cp internal
Hp set-top tng tc thc s khc vi modem cp. Chc nng c bn ca hp
set-top l cung cp nhiu knh truyn hnh trn cng mt s gii hng cc bng
tn. C th thc hin c iu ny bng m ho truyn hnh s (DVB: digital
television encoding). Vn l u ni cp khng cch ly tt vi ngun in AC.
iu ny gy ra kh khn cho mt s mng truyn hnh cp cn phi c thm
nhiu nng cp lp t cp t tin. Mt vi quc gia, h thng truyn hnh cp
khng s th dng c modem cp internal do l do k thut hay php l.
Trc y, cc hp set-top tng tc cho php truyn d liu theo chiu
upstream thng l qua h thng POTS ( Plain Old Telephone System) duyt
trang web, e-mail trc tip trn mn hnh truyn hnh. By gi vi k thut mi
c th cho php cc hp set top to ng truyn upstream ngay trn mng
truyn hnh cp. Hnh I-26 l cu hnh kt ni set-top tng tc.
Interactive
Set-Top Box
Television
Keyboard or mouse
Cable

Hnh I-26 Cu hnh kt ni hp set-top tng tc.
B bt sng (tuner): B bt sng c ni trc tip vi cm truyn
hnh cp. Thng mt b bt sng c tch hp b thu pht song cng
phc v cho c chiu downstream v upstream. B bt sng phi c
cht lng cao c th nhn c tn hiu iu ch QAM. Khi nim
b chn sng silic ang c nghin cu. B chn sng silic da trn
chip bn dn v em li hy vng gim gi thnh so vi b bt sng
thng thng.
B gii iu ch: Trong chiu thu, tn hiu IF c a ti b gii iu
ch. B gii iu ch thng thng bao gm mch chuyn i s tng

41
t ADC., b gii iu ch QAM 64/256, b ng b khung MPEG v b
gii m sa sai Reed Solomon. B gii iu ch cn thit cho c cc
modem cp, set-top box k thut s nn c nhiu hng pht trin sn
xut b phn ny.

Demodulator
Error
Corrector
Interf ace
PCI, USB,
Ethernet

MAC
Tuner

Burst Modulator

Hnh I-27 Cu trc b modem cp
B iu ch cm (burst modulator): Trong chiu pht, b iu ch cm
cung cp tnh hiu cho b chn sng. B iu ch cm thc hin m ho
Reed Solomon cho mi cm d liu, iu ch QPSK/QAM -16 trn di
tn cn thit v thc hin bin i s sang tng t. Tn hiu ng ra c
nhiu mc khc nhau b vi suy hao truyn dn khng lng trc
c trn cp ng trc. B iu ch cm cn thit cho modem cp v
mt s loi hp set-top hai chiu. Ngi ta cng tch hp nhiu tnh
nng di dng chip.
B iu khin truy xut mi trng (MAC: Media Access Control) nm
gia cc ng truyn thu v pht. B iu khin truy xut mi trng
c th l phn cng hay kt hp gia phn cng v phn mm. MAC
ca modem cp phc tp hn MAC ca Ethernet v thc s th khng
c b MAC no c th thc hin ht c cc chc nng ca lp MAC
m khng c s tr gip ca cc b vi x l vi cc b modem cp
DOCSIS th nhiu cng ty c tiu chun sn phm MAC ASIC c kin
trc s dng nhiu phn mm x l cc chc nng v t c
mm do cao. Cc hng sn xut cc chp MAC dng cho c DOCSIS
v DVB/DAVIC vi s khc nhau trong c phn cng ln phn mm.
Mt s nh sn xut li pht trin cc sn phm MAC ca mnh theo cc
tiu chun ring cnh tranh hay phn bit cc sn phm ca h.
Giao tip: D liu chuyn qua MAC i n giao tip my tnh hay hp
set-top ca modem cp l Ethernet, USB, PCI.
CPU: B vi x l khng c v trn s khi ca modem cp nhng
vi cc modem cp ri th phi c khc vi cc modem PSTN s dng
CPU trong my tnh c nhn.
Cc thit b bao gm MAC, b gii iu ch, b iu ch cm, b vi x l, cc
giao tip Ethernet, PCI, USB u c khuynh hng tch hp trong mt chp bn
dn. Tuy nhin vn cn cc thnh phn nh b nh bn dn b bt sng, ngun
cung cp,Nn khng th thc s c c mt modem cp mt chp c.
Modem cp s dng c mng truyn hnh cp sn c nn gim c chi ph
u t. Khng cn phi thc hin thm h tng c s mi d s thay i mng

42
truyn hnh cp l khng th trnh c. Hn na, cc linh kin tn s cao cn
thit cho hot ng ca modem cp tr nn rt r v c bn i tr. Nhiu
b chip c da ra vi gi c rt cnh tranh v kh nng tng thch cao.
Cng khng nn b qu mt iu l bng nhiu cch, modem cp p ng
nhng ha hn ban u v cc h thng v dch v truyn hnh cp tng tc.
Thay v phi xy dng cc chc nng cho hp set-top ngi ta c th s dng
my tnh c nhn thay th.
Nhc im th nht ca modem cp l hu ht cc my tnh c nhn u khng
t gn my thu hnh. Mn hnh v tn s bus cao ca my tnh c nhn s gy
nhiu cho my thu hnh v cn phi i li dy nh. Tuy nhin, nu cn phi i
dy mt ni mi th c th dng cp ng trc hay cp xon i khng chn t
UTP vi gi c r v d lp t, s dng.
Modem cp i hi phi lp t li ti 90% cp i vo nh (drop cable) cung
cp dch v cho thu bao. Cp i vo nh thng c lp t vi v v cu th
lm sinh ra nhiu nhiu. Mt vn na l nhiu ch nh t lp t mt b
chuyn i ng vo ca truyn hnh cp cho nhiu my thu hnh v cc lp t
ny rt cu th. Mt nhc im nghim trng na ca modem cp l gii tn
chiu upstream t 5 Mhz n 50v Mhz s thu thp rt nhiu nhiu t cc thit b
khc trong gia nh. khc phc, nhiu mng truyn hnh cp lc b gii tn
ny khi tn hiu ca h thng. Ch c 5% s mng truyn hnh cp l cn s
dng gii tn ny. Vi cc trng hp cp mt chiu th phi s dng thm
modem in thoi thc hin chiu upstream. l do trong mng truyn hnh
cp c khng c cc b khuch i dnh cho chiu upstream. Cc dch v truyn
hnh cp c thm ch khng x l ni lu lng khim tn ca chiu upstream
t cc dch v ny. Cui cng, v cc knh upstream phi c chia ra cho nhiu
ngi s dng (c th ln n hng ngn ngi s dng cng mt lc) nn mi
nguy him tc nghn l thc khi tt c cc gi s liu u c gi v pha head
end.
1.2.5 MMDS
Cng ngh dch v phn phi a im a knh MMDS ( Multichanel Multipoint
Distribution Service) l mt hn hp mi cc dch v video v truyn s liu tc
cao. Mt thnh phn ca MMDS l Dch v c nh truyn hnh theo lnh
(ITFS: Intructional Television Fixed Service). Hai mi knh ITFS c s dng
phn phi cc ti liu gio dc. Cc trng hc nh cc trng cao ng v
cc trng i hc phi s dng t thiu 20 gi mi tun c php s dng
ITFS. Mun dng cc knh ITFS xy dng mt h thng hon chnh cc nh
cung cp dch v MMDS phi dng mt k thut gi l sp xp knh (channel
mapping). Bng cch ny khi mt knh ITFS ang c MMDS s dng nhn
mt yu cu t mt nh cung cp cp dch v gio dc th tn hiu ang truyn ti
c chuyn mch sang c chuyn mch sang mt knh ITFS cn trng. D
nhin, b chuyn mch phi trong sut i vi thu bao sao cho cc tn hiu phc
tp gia headend v set-top box c thng sut. Mi mt knh khc c gn
cho cc dch v MMDS v hai knh na c ly t cc dch v phn phi a
im (MDS: Multipoint Distribution Services). Nh vy mt h thng MMDS c
tt c 33 knh cho dch v video, truy xut Internet tc cao theo cc ng

43
dy cable modem. My pht trung tm c MMDS s dng c gi thnh rt
cao, khong 1,5 triu USD v gi thnh trn mi thu bao bao gm Antena, i
dy, set top l khong 400 USD. Vi s liu ny, hng Wireless Cable
Association nh gi im ho vn l khong 10.000 thu bao cho mi my pht
MMDS. Kin trc c bn ca h thng MMDS c minh ho Hnh I-28.
WM Outdoor Unit (ODU)
&Antenna
WATS Outdoor Unit (ODU)
&Antenna
Wireless Access
Termination System (WATS)
Indoor Unit (IDU)
Operation Support System
Wireless Modem (WM)
Indoor Unit (IDU)
Security Server
Wireless Modem to
CPE Interface
Over the Air
MMDS
Specification
WATS IDU/OGU
Interface
Specification
Customer
Premise
Equipment
Backbone
Network
WAN
WATS IDU/OGU
Interface
Specification
Wireless Access
Termination
System Network
Side Interface

Hnh I-28 Kin trc c bn h thng MMDS.
Mc d MMDS c trn mt triu thu bao trong 73 h thng ti M v ang
c nghin cu, s dng bi cc nh cung cp dch v ln s pht trin tht s
ca h thng vn l bn ngoi nc M do c cc h thng hu tuyn nh hn
nhiu so vi M. Trn th gii (ngoi M) c khong 90 nc cung cp dch
v MMDS cung cp cho khong 5 triu thu bao. u im r rt nht ca
MMDS l tng lai ca MMDS gn lin vi tng lai ca thng tin v tuyn. S
chp nhn ca th trng vi in thoi khng dy (cordless phone) v in thoi
di ng (cellular phone) to ra mt tin l y thun tin cho MMDS. Nhng
ngi b hn ch ch t lu c xem nh l nhng t nhn th nay c th c
mt tng lai thng tin ha hn qua MMDS. Mt khc, di thng v tuyn v tc
truyn pht trin nhy vt v lan rng.Trn hu ht cc knh MMDS u
t c tc chiu downstream l 54 Mbps (tuy nhin thit b ny li kh t
tin).
Mt u im na ca MMDS l FCC a ra cc giy php thu pht hai chiu
l mt iu kin rt cn thit v vic thu pht hai chiu cn phi c my pht sng
gia nh v iu ny phi nm trong tm qun l ca FCC. Tuy nhin, nhc
im quan trng ca MMDS l nu MMDS khng em li mt dch v hon ton
mi hay mt gi c tht mm th MMDS cng ch l mt chiu d khch hng.
Chnh v l do ny m cc th nghim ban u ca MMDS trn t M gy
tht vng. Cng tn hiu rt tht thng ngay c i vi h thng c chm
sc k thut rt chu o. Mt nhc im na ca MMDS l vi bc sng ca
tn hiu th ngay c vt cn nh cy ci cng c tc dng nh mt bc tng
nn phi thc hin lin lc tm nhn thng (line of-sight). iu ny trn thc t

44
gii hn nhiu vng ph sng, c bit l vi cc vng c nhiu cy ci nh
min ng bc M chng hn.
Cui cng MMDS s dng cc h thng v cng ngh hon ton mi nn chc
chn phi cn c mt khong thi gian mng n nh v cng cn phi u t
thm nhiu hn na.
1.2.6 LMDS
Dch v phn phi a im ni ht (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) l mt
h thng phn phi v tuyn im a im, a t bo hot ng di tn t 27,5
GHz n 29,5 GHz. LMDS i lc cn c gi l truyn hnh cp t bo
(cellular cable TV) c Bernard Bosscard pht minh di giy php thc
nghim ca FCC. Cng ty Cellular Vision do ng sng lp lc u c s h tr
ti chnh ca c quan pht trin a c New Jersey. Sau hng Bell Atlantic
mua li mt phn v iu hnh v tip th cc dch v ca Cellular Vision.
V mt l thuyt , Cellular Vision ph sng mt vng vi nhiu t bo v nh
vy s trnh c vn tm nhn thng ca MMDS. Cc vng ti (shadow area)
c ph sng bng trm tip vn hay cc b phn x sng th ng. Cc t bo
ln cn s dng cng tn s nhng vi phn cc khc nhau. Tt c bc x sng
in t mang tn hiu truyn hnh n my thu. Hng ca cc trng in v t
trong tn hiu thay i so vi ng lan truyn. Gi s mt thit b no c
xy dng ngn chn trng in t theo mt hng xc nh th sng in t
s tip tc lan truyn qua thit b ny nhng s b mt mt phn nng lng v
nh vy sng b phn cc. Hin tng phn cc sng thng thy l hin
tng phn x sng nh sng bi mt nc. nh sng phn x b phn cc ngang
(ngha l nc phn x bt c trng in no khng nm trn mt phng nm
ngang). Cc thu knh hi t phn cc nh sng mt tri ch cho nh sng c
phn cc vung gc s ly i tt c nh sng phn x t mt nc. Chng ch n
thun l ngn chn tt c mi nh sng c hng phn cc khng vung gc.
Cellular Vision cng hot ng tng t. Hai t bo ln cn s dng tn hiu
phn cc khc nhau v antenna nh mt thu knh phn cc (n loi b cc tn
hiu ca cc t bo ln cn v nhn tn hiu cu t bo gn nht). Ghp phn cc
vi mt s khc bit tn s nh gia cng mt knh trong cc t vo ln cn
my thu. S suy gim ny trnh hin tng gi l multipath fade (hiu ng
tn hiu do nhiu ng lan truyn sng gy ra).

45



Subscri ber
si tes



Distribution
network
Base station

Hnh I-29 Kin trc c bn h thng LMDS
Khi nim phn cc sng cng cung cp kh nng knh o ngc. Ngi ta
nh du tn hiu upstream bng cch phn cc i nghch tn hiu. Nh vy
khng my thu no c th nhn c tn hiu chiu upstream ngoi tr my thu
head end. Hnh I-29 minh ho kin trc c bn ca mt h thng LMDS hon
ton tng t nh kin trc c bn ca mt h thng MMDS.
FCC a ra mt quy hoch tn s ring bit dng cho thng mi. Hai giy
php s c cp qua u gi cho mi vng a l:
Nhm A ( 1,15 GHz) bao gm cc phn on tn s 27,5 GHz n 28,35
GHz, 29,1 GHz v 31,075GHz n 31,225 GHz.
Nhm B (150 MHz) bao gm cc phn on tn s 31 GHz n 31,075
GHz v 31,225 GHz n 31,3 GHz.
Mc d FCC khng gii hn cc dch v c tim nng nhng trn thc t vn
ngn cn cc nh cung cp dch v ln mua giy php. Hu ht cc u, nhc
im ca h thng LMDS u ging vi MMDS. Mt du hiu ng mng cho
LMDS l c nhiu thu bao hn MMDS nhng rt tic rng a s li phn b
Canada. LMDS s dng cc my pht nh hn v vng ph sng (t bo) c th
gi c gi thnh u t mc thp, c bit l cc khu ng dn. Tuy nhin,
kch thc t bo nh nh vy s gy kh khn cho cc vng ngoi v thn qu
v khng th t mi nng tri mt thp LMDS c.
1.2.7 H thng truy xut qua thng tinh v tinh
Cc h thng thng tin v tinh truyn thng trc tip (DBS:Direct Broadcast
Satelite) c sn cung cp dch v truyn hnh cht lng cao cho nhiu gia
nh. Hu ht dch v ny (cho c cc my thu hnh tng t) s dng phng
php nn hnh nh MPEG II. Phn m thanh c x l theo k thut Dolly
Surround Sound to ra cht lng m thanh snh bng vi cht lng Audio CD.
Cc nh cung cp thit b v iu hnh h thng thng tin v tinh phi i mt
vn tr trong cc dch v thoi v s liu hai chiu. Cc h thng v tinh
truyn thng trc tip c sn trn th trng vn dng cho cc k thut truyn

46
hnh k thut s mt chiu. Hu ht cc dch v ny u s dng nn MPEG v
truyn ti a knh cung cp dch v gn ging vi dch v xem phim theo yu
cu (ngha l cc b phim bt u cch nhau 15 pht). Cc h thng v tinh
truyn thng trc tip b cn tr bi cc vn v truyn ti cc knh truyn
thng ni ht, tr lin quan n x l nn (cc s kin th thao b tr trong
khoang thi gian 1 giy), mt hot ng hai chiu (mc d thc ts c nhiu
h thng truyn ti thu bao n v tinh). Hu ht cc h thng v tinh truyn
thng trc tip s dng mt kt ni modem qua ng dy in thoi cho chiu
upstream.
Mt knh v tinh truyn thng trc tip c th d dng hot ng tc d liu
23 Mbps. Tuy nhin, tc ph bin nht l khong 400 kbps (dch v Direct
PC). Cc h thng hin nay s dng cc qu o a tnh (GEO:Geosynchronous
Earth Orbit) cao 22500 dm ( khong mt phn mt phn mi khong cch
t qu t n mt trng). Khong cch ln ny lm tng thi gian tr ca dch
v hai chiu tc cc dch v tng tc.
Tuy nhin, cc h thng v tinh nhn to th h mi nh h thng v tinh nhn
to Iridium v h thng v tinh nhn to Teledesic s dng cc qu o thp hn
nhin LEO (Low Earth Orbit) c thi gian tr nh nht v tiu th nng lng
my pht nh hn. Mt vn ca cc nh cung cp dch v qua h thng thng
tin v tinh l gi c. Trong phm vi LEO, h thng v tinh nhn to Iridium c
gi thnh khong 5 t dollar cho 66 v tinh.
Tn gi Iridium xut pht t ngun t ca nguyn t Iridium c 77 in t xung
quanh ht nhn ging nh 77 v tinh xung quanh qu t. Tuy nhin s v tinh
cn thit gim t 77 xung cn 66 nhng tn gi ca h thng vn khng thay
i c l l do nguyn tc c nguyn t gm 66 in t xung quanh ht nhn lm
nhn khng p bng Iridium.
Tuy nhin mc ch ca h thng v tinh nhn to Iridium l dng cho h thng
in thoi di ng. Mt khc dch v Teledesic cng gi l Internet trn tri
(Internet in the sky) li ch ch nhm vo dch v truy xut Internet. 288 v tinh
nhn to ca Teledesic c gi thnh xp x 9 t dollar. Globalstar, mt cng ty
con ca hng Loral and Qualcomm c h thng 48 v tinh vi gi thnh 2,6 t
dollar vi mc ch chnh l dng cho cc ng dng d liu truyn thng, in
thoi v fax. Skybridge d kin s phng 64 v tinh vi gi thnh tng cng l
3,5 t dollar.

47
Iridium Gateway

Ka-band
Ka-band
L-band
Ka-band
Iridium Satelites
Acronautical
Iridium Gateway
Iridium
Telephone
Iridium
Pager
Terrestrial Swittch Wireless Customers

Hnh I-30 in thoi di ng Iridium

Lapto
p
Ka-band
Ka-band
L-band
L-band
Iridium Satelites
Acronautical
Iridium Gateway
Iridium
Telephone
Iridium
Pager
Terrestrial Swittch Wireless Customers
Iridium Gateway

Hnh I-31 H thng nhn tin Iridium.

48
D vy cc h thng thng tin v tinh GEO vn khng sm ra i bi s xut
hin ca cc h thng thng tin v tinh LEO. H thng Direct PC ca Hughes
Communications vn l mng truy nhp Internet qua v tinh ln nht hin nay.
Tc truy xut Internet theo chiu downstream t 200 kbps n 400 kbps s
c m rng bng h thng GEO d kin Hughes Spaceway gm 8 v tinh
nhn to hot ng tc 6 Mbps vi gi thnh tng cng l 3 t dollar. Mt
h thng k tip ca Hughes Communications l h thng Expressway gm 14 v
tinh nhn to c gi thnh 4 t dollar cho php truy xut theo chiu downstream
ln n 1,5 Mbps. CyberStar, mt cng ty hp tc gia Loral v Alcatel c k
hoch cho 3 v tinh vi gi thnh 1,6 t dollar v cung cp truy xut tc 6,5
Mbps theo chiu downstream v 2,5 Mbps theo chiu upstream. Motorola d
c n 21% u t trong h thng Iridium vn ln k hoch cho h thng Celestri
l mt h thng hn hp l th gia 9 v tinh nhn to GEO v 63 v tinh nhn
to LEO vi gi thnh tng cng ln n 12,9 t dollar. Motorola d kin kt hp
sc mnh trong truyn thng broadcast v multicast ca h thng GEO v s hp
dn tr nh ca cc h thng LEO cho cc dch v tng tc Internet.
u im ln nht v c bit ca cc h thng GEO l tm ph sng rng. V
tinh nhn to lm cho vng ph sng tr nn ln nht. Thng tin v tinh hon
ton khng ph thuc vo iu kin a l nh thung lng, ni non, bin
c,...Thng tin v tinh ph v khng b nh hng bi khong cch. Mt v tinh
nhn to phc v cc im cch xa nhau hng ngn cy s cng ging vi khi
phc v cho hai nh hng xm. iu ny vn ng khi no cc a im phc v
ca h thng thng tin v tinh vn cn nm trong tm ph sng ca n.
Laptop
PSTN
ISP
Internet
Corporate
Network
Iridium Gateway

Hnh I-32 H thng truy xut Internet Iridium
Mt khc h thng thng tin v tinh cng c nhng nhc im trm trng v
mt k thut ca n. Cc dch v da vo thng tin c th b my bay che khut
v d nhin cng c th b cc v tinh c qu o thp hn che khut. nh sng
mt tri cng c th tc ng ln tn hiu v tn hiu c th b mt mt thi gian
khi mt tri i qua sau cc v tinh trong cc ngy ng ch v h ch. Mt vi
hiu ng mt tri lm cho bu kh quyn phng ln v cc v tinh c qu o
thp phi chuyn ng u n trnh khi b kh quyn li ko. Tui th ca

49
mt v tinh c xc nh bi lng nhin liu n mang theo. Tc ng nh ca
trng trng phi c cn bng bng vic t nh k tn la. Khi nhin liu
cn kit th v tinh nhn to tr nn v dng.
S
a
tel lite
d
is
h
Internet
Direct PC
Send
Receive

Hnh I-33 Nguyn l hot ng ca DirectPC
tr ca thng tin v tinh lin quan n khong cch xa v vic x l nn d
liu s c cc h thng thng tin v tinh LEO khc phc v nhu cu dch v
hai chiu thc s tng nhanh. Nhng ng tic, mt vi my pht sng n v
tinh dng cho gia nh c thit k nhng gi thnh li qu cao (hn 4000
USD cho mt b pht sng n v tinh).
Khi c nhiu ng truyn hai chiu n v tinh nhn to th vn cp php v
dung lng cn thit li tr nn phc tp khi c nhiu c quan tham gia. FCC
chu trch nhim qun l sng trong khng kh cn ITU-R v NASA th quyt
nh sng no s vo qu o v vo u.
Tr ngi cui cng ca cc h thng thng tin v tinh l s c mt ca qu nhiu
v tinh cng gy ra rc ri. Cc v tr v tinh thun li ca cc v tinh GEO
c chim gi t nhiu nm qua. Tnh hnh cng s xy ra tng t i vi cc
v tinh LEO. D nhin, vic chia nhau di thng hn ch gia lng ngi s
dng khng l s tr thnh mt bi ton nan gii.

50
1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp xDSL
Khi nng lc x l ca b x l tn hiu s tng ln, th tc ca DSL cng
tng ln. Cng ngh DSL bt u t 144 kbit/s ISDN c bn (BRI), pht trin
ti 1,5 n 2 Mbit/s HDSL, 7 Mbit/s vi ADSL, v by gi l 52 Mbit/s VDSL.
1.3.1 Phm vi thit k ca DSL.
Cc DSL c thit k gii hn 6 dB t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR. iu ny
c ngha l DSL c cc li bt BER l 10
-7
khi nng lng tn hiu nhiu l 6 dB
tc ln hn m hnh xuyn m c nh ngha l "ti nht". Trong nhiu trng
hp, m hnh xuyn m ti nht l trong nhm 50 i dy c 49 ngun nhiu
xuyn m. Nu ch c nhiu Gaussian, 6 dB SNR gy ra mc li l 10
-24
. Tuy
nhin trn thc t, nhiu thng l non-Gaussian. Do trn thc t, vi mc 6
dB m bo DSLs hot ng BER tt hn 10
-9
v DSLs s cung cp dch v tin
cy thm ch khi mi trng truyn dn km hn mc bnh thng.
Gi tr 6 dB xut pht t tiu chun ANSI ISDN c bn trong T1D1.3 (trc
l T1E1.4) vo nm 1985 do Richard McDonald ca Bellcore a ra. Nh m t
T1E1.4/95-133, gii hn 6 dB vn l gi tr hp l. Gii hn ny p dng cho
nhiu loi cp khc nhau (cp b lo ho, cp ni, cp t), nhiu b sung trung
tm chuyn mchCO, dy thu bao, cc ngun nhiu khc, thit k b thu pht
khng hon ho, li do sn xut. Mc gii hn thit k l s kt hp gia vic
m bo hot ng tin cy trong mi trng hp v kh nng cho php di
mch vng ti a. Cc phng php truyn dn phc tp c th t c cht
lng lm vic tt hn, nhng vn cn cc gii hn thit k. Tuy nhin, cc h
thng o gii hn khi khi ng c th cung cp cho ngi lp t ngay lp tc
ch s cho bit liu mch vng c gii hn hay khng.












Hnh I-34 Tc bit DSL cng vi di mch vng cho dy 26 AWG (khng
c b lp)
Sau ngi lp t phi hiu chnh v d nh tm i dy tt hn hoc loi b
cc cu r. C kin cho rng h thng c ch s thi gian thc ca gii hn
Tc
bit tn
hiu
hng v
52m
26m
13m
6m
3m
2m
1.5m
400k
144k
144k 640k 1.5M 2M 13M
Tc bit pht (bit/s t khch hng)
BRI (15 kft)
DS1-HDSL (9 kft)
E1-HDSL (7 kft)
9 kft


ADSL

12 kft
1 kft

3 kft VDSL 1 kft

4 kft 3 kft

51
truyn dn c th s dng vi mc gii hn l 5 dB. Tuy nhin, thay i gii hn
thit k 1 hoc 2dB ch m rng phm vi mch vng truy nhp khong 1 di
mch vng)
1.3.2 Tin s ca DSL
C ngi cho rng trung k T1, E1 v cc ng dch v d liu s DDS l cc
DSL u tin. Mc d h thng truyn dn T1 (1,544 Mbit/s AMI s dng Bc
M) v E1 (2048 Mbit/s HDB3) ban u ch s dng lm cc trung k gia cc
trung tm chuyn mch (CO), sau c s dng rt tt lm ng ni d liu
tc cao t CO ti khch hng. T1 u tin c AT&T s dng vo nm
1962. Trung k ni t CO ti CO ngy nay da trn cp quang v vi ba. T1/E1
ngy nay khng s dng nh mc ch nguyn thu, T1/E1 vn c s dng
trn ng dy thu bao, nhng n c mt s nhc im l gi t v tn thi
gian lp t v thng tch thnh mt nhm cc i dy tch bit vi cc h
thng truyn dn khc. Mt ng dy T1 c 4 dy, 2 dy truyn thng tin n
khch hng v 2 dy kia truyn thng tin t khch hng. gim nhiu xuyn
m u gn gia hai hng ca truyn dn, ngi ta chia thnh 2 b cp, 1 b
mang tn hiu i v 1 b truyn tn hiu v. ng dy T1 c thit k vi mc
suy hao ti a l 15 dB (ngha l t 2 n 3 kft) 772 kHz cho CO (CO ti b
lp u tin), suy hao ti a 36 dB t b lp ti b lp v suy hao ng dy 22,5
dB t b lp cui cng n khch hng. i vi khong cch nhiu dm c th
dng nhiu b lp. B lp T1 c ngun in l 130v mt chiu. Trong cun
sch ny, chng ti khng coi T1/E1 v DDS l cc DSL.
M ng dy AMI trong truyn dn T1 so vi cc tiu chun ngy nay l khng
hiu qu. AMI gi 1 bit/baud; 1 bt l 1 phn t tn hiu. Truyn dn T1 s dng
mc tn hiu truyn cao do gy nhiu nhiu xuyn m t 100kHz n 2 MHz.
Cc DSL khc s dng cng tn s s b nh hng nu t trong cng mt
nhm cp vi ng T1. Trong trng hp xu hn, xuyn m T1 c th nh
hng n cc nhm cp khc.
1.3.3 ISDN c bn
1.3.3.1 ISDN c bn nguyn thu
C th coi ISDN c bn (BRI) l loi DSL u tin. Mng s a dch v ISDN
u tin hnh thnh vo nm 1976 c nh ngha trong cc khuyn ngh ca
CCITT (nay gi l ITU, lin minh vin thng quc t). Tham vng ca ISDN l
mt mng thng nht cho truyn d liu v thoi. S pht trin ca cc h thng
truyn dn, chuyn mch, bo hiu v khai thc ISDN i hi phi c nhng n
lc rt ln, n lm gi nh li k hoch xy dng mng ng st xuyn lc a,
ch c th b loi b khi pht minh ra my bay. N lc pht trin mng ISDN ko
di mt thp k vi s tham gia ca hng nghn ngi t hng trm cng ty
hn hai mi nc. Chng ti c tnh l vic pht trin ISDN tiu tn trn
50 t USD v ngi ta khng bit liu khon u t ny c c thu li hon ton
hay khng. ISDN tp trung vo cc dch v thoi v chuyn mch gi tc
thp, y li chnh l im yu ca ISDN. Mng ISDN khng thch hp vi
mng chuyn mch gi tc cao v thi gian chim gi lu m li l c

52
tnh ca truy nhp Internet. Tuy nhin, nhng ngi tuyn b s ph sn ca
ISDN cng khng nn qun nim vui sng ca hng triu khch hng ISDN.
Dch v ISDN bt u th nghim vo nm 1985. Dch v ISDN Bc M u
tin do cng ty AT&T-Illinois Bell (by gi gi l Ameritech) a ra vo nm
1986 Oakbrook, Illinois. H thng BRI th nghim u tin s dng k thut
truyn dn TCM (ping-pong) hay AMI. Cc h thng ban u ny hot ng n
gin, v m truyn dn 2B1Q (2 nh phn, 1 t phn) c la chn l tiu chun
truyn dn cho nhiu ni trn th gii ngoi tr c v o, s dng 4B3T (4 nh
phn, 3 tam phn) v Nht s dng phng php truyn dn AMI ping-pong.
Phm vi ca h thng 2B1Q v 4B3T ln hn cc h thng s dng tiu chun
trc .
Tng s ng ISDN c bn BRI ang hot ng trn th gii tng t 1,7 triu
(tnh gn ng) vo nm 1994 ti gn 6 triu vo nm 1996. S ng dy ISDN
cc nc trin khai rng dich v ISDN c a ra Bng I-4. Thng tin nm
1994 da trn thng k ca ITU. Gi tr nm 1996 da trn thng tin cung cp t
cc chuyn gia cc nc tng ng. S liu nm 1996 ca M da trn thng
k ca FCC. Trin khai ISDN mt s nc tng t 30% n 50% mt nm.
Bng I-4 S ng dy ISDN c bn ang hot ng
Nc 1994 BRI 1996 BRI
c 428,000 2,000,000
M 352,000 843,115
Nht 320,000* 1,000,000
Php 240,000* 1,400,000
Anh 75,000* 200,000
*Gi tr ngoi suy
1.3.3.2 Kh nng v ng dng ca ISDN tc c bn
BRI truyn tng s 160 kbit/s thng tin s i xng trn mch vng c di
xp x 18 kft (5,5 km hoc 42 dB suy hao tn s 40 kHz). BRI c phn thnh
2 knh B 64 kbit/s, 1 knh D 16 kbit/s v 16 kbit/s cho khung v iu khin
ng dy. Knh B c th l chuyn mch knh hoc chuyn mch gi. Knh D
mang bo hiu v gi d liu ngi s dng. Mt knh ginh cho khai thc, bo
dng (eoc) v cc bt ch th c cha trong 8 kbit/s mo u. Eoc truyn cc
gi d liu v trng thi ng dy v cc b thu pht. Cc bt ch th xc nh
li block do o c trng thi hot ng ca ng dy.
1.3.3.3 Truyn dn ISDN c bn
Truyn dn ISDN c bn iu ch d liu bng cch s dng xung 4 mc (mt
quat) biu din 2 bit nh phn, do c gi l 2B1Q. D liu c truyn
theo hai hng s dng mch sai ng ( hoc hn hp ) trit ting vng. K
thut truyn dn trong bng c s n gin 2B1Q gi 160 kbit/s s dng di tn
80 kHz tc 2 bits/1 Hz. Cc b cn bng t ng b phn suy gim dc theo
bng truyn. BRI c th lm vic trn mch vng c on cu r v c tng suy

53
gim nh hn 42 dB 40 kHz. Mch vng BRI phi khng c c cun cn
bng (cun cm trit tiu thnh phn L ca cp).
1.3.3.4 ISDN c bn m rng
Mch vng s dng BRI trc tip c th t c 5,5 km (18 kft) t CO bng cc
phng php: BRITE, b lp trung gian hoc BRI m rng.
(1) BRITE
M rng truyn dn ISDN c bn (BRITE) (xem Hnh I-35) s dng cc nhm
knh s (channel banks) (v d cc b tp trung dng D4 v D5 l thit b ghp
knh theo thi gian 24 DS0 vo 1 ng dy 1,544 Mbit/s) v mch vng s
DLC a dch v ISDN m rng ti cc vng xa. Phng php ny s dng
n v knh ISDN ring ghp 3 DS0 thnh mt nhm knh truyn ti BRI. Do
c cc n v knh ny lm cho gi thnh trn mi ng dy l tng i cao.
Tuy nhin khi s dng gii php SLC c trc hoc gii php ny th gi
thnh ban u ca BRITE l rt l tng khi trin khai cho nhng khu vc xa c
dung lng thp.














Hnh I-35 BRITE

(2) B lp trung gian
di ca mch vng c th tng gn gp i bng cch t mt b lp trung
gian gia mch vng. Xem Hnh I-36. Do b lp thc cht l u quay lng
vo nhau NT v LT, mch vng c chia thnh 2 DSL. Mi mch vng c mc
suy hao ti 42 dB 40 kHz, tng ng vi di xp x l 30 feet (2x15). Cc
b lp thng c t hm cp hoc hn trn cc ct. Khi t trong hm cp
th cc b lp c th khng th chnh xc gia mch vng do di mch
vng c th nh hn 2 ln mch vng khng c b lp.
Cc b lp trung gian s dng ngun 1 chiu (thng -130V DC). M ngi ta
thng ly ngun t mch cp ngun CO. C th s dng b lp th hai cho
khong cch xa hn. Cu hnh hai b lp t c s dng do qun l phc tp v
kh cp ngun. Gi thnh ca ng dy c b lp phn ln l chi ph xy dng
cho thit k mch vng, bo v thit b, lp t thit b bo v. Gi thnh ca b
lp in t l tng i nh.
Mch
vng
ng ni
si quang
hoc T1
Chuyn
mch s
ni ht
u cui
tng i
trung tm
u cui xa
u cui
ngi s
dng
LT LT NT NT
3 DSOs trn ng dy
ghp knh truyn BRI
SLC hoc Channel Bank

54
Cu hnh lp v BRITE c tr tn hiu gp hai ln (2,5 ms mt hng) so vi
cu hnh DSL trc tip.








Hnh I-36 Cu hnh c b lp trung gian
(3) BRI m rng
K thut truyn dn pht trin khi c tiu chun BRI (ANSI T1.601). Cc k
thut, v d nh m trellis, cho php truyn 160 kbit/s trn mch vng di ti 8,5
km (28 kft) m khng cn cc b lp trung gian. tng thch, h thng BRI
m rng dng tiu chun giao din ANSI T1.601 ti LT trung tm chuyn
mch CO v NT1 ca khch hng. Tuy nhin vic t b chuyn i xa ti v tr
trung gian c th ko di c khong cch mch vng. Kt qu l tng di
t ti xp x 43 kft (15+28). Hn na b chuyn i pha mng c th t xa
vi iu kin l c ngun cung cp.












Hnh I-37 Cu hnh ISDN m rng
1.3.3.5 ng dy chnh s b sung
Thit b thu pht BRI c th s dng cho cc ng dng phi ISDN- ch yu l
ng dy s b sung (DAML). H thng DAML cho php mt mch vng
truyn 2 mch thoi. Xem Hnh I-38. Cc b m ho v gii m thoi (CODECs)
mi u ca h thng DAML chuyn 64 kb/s BRI knh B thnh giao din thoi
tng t. Do giao din thoi truyn thng c cung cp n chuyn mch
CO v in thoi ca khch hng. H thng DAML c s dng cung cp
dch v in thoi b sung ti nhng vng khng c i dy ni gia CO v
khch hng. n v DAML pha khch hng c cp ngun t ngun CO qua
mch vng. H thng DAML s dng cng ngh BRI c di mch vng ti a
l 5,5 km (18 kft). H thng DAML da trn HDSL c th truyn nhiu hn 2
mch thoi trn mt i dy.
Mch
vng 1
Mch
vng 2
B lp trung gian
Chuyn
mch s
ni ht
u cui
ngi s
dng
LT LT NT
Cp
ngun
NT
Mch vng
(s dng phng
thc truyn dn
nng cao)
Pha khch hng













Tng i trung tm
ANSI
T1.601
ANSI
T1.601
Chuyn
mch s
ni ht
u cui
ngi s
dng
LT

B
chuyn
i

B
chuyn
i

55











Hnh I-38 ng dy chnh b sung s
1.3.3.6 IDSL
Mt ng dng phi ISDN khc ca b thu pht BRI l IDSL (ISDN DSL). Cc
knh i xng BRI (128 kbit/s hoc 144 kbit/s) c kt hp li thnh mt knh
truyn dn gi d liu gia b nh tuyn v my tnh ca khch hng. Phn ln
cc dng IDSL s lm vic vi ISDN NT tiu chun u cui khch hng ca
ng dy. Do vi IDSL chuyn mch ni ht ISDN c thay th bi b
nh tuyn gi. Cu hnh ny c s dng cho truy nhp Internet.
1.3.4 HDSL
1.3.4.1 HDSL nguyn bn
Khi nim ban u v HDSL (ng dy thu bao s tc cao) xut hin vo
nm 1986 phng th nghim AT&T Bell v Bellcore. Cc thit k thit b thu
pht HDSL thc cht l thit k ISDN c bn mc cao hn. H thng HDSL
mu xut hin nm 1989. Thit b HDSL u tin c Bell Canada a vo
hot ng vo nm 1992 do cng ty Tellabs Operation Inc sn xut. Nm 1997
trn th gii c khong 450000 ng dy HDSL ang hot ng trong c
khong 250000 ng dy HDSL Bc M. Mi nm c hn 150000 ng dy
HDSL c lp t. Thng 10 nm 1998, ITU thng qua khuyn ngh G.991.1
cho HDSL th h th nht, tiu chun ny da trn tiu chun ETSI TM-03036.
ITU bt u nghin cu xy dng khuyn ngh HDSL th h th 2 (HDSL2) gi
l G.991.2.
Nhu cu cho HDSL ngy cng r rt khi h thng truyn dn E1 v T1 khng s
dng nh mc ch nguyn thy ni lin i v d on s pht trin nhanh
chng ca cc ng dy ring ni t trung tm chuyn mch n khch hng.
H thng truyn dn T1/E1 s dng cc i dy in thoi c c gi thnh rt
cao. Phng php truyn dn s dng E1/T1 c nng lng tn hiu pht cao
tn s t 100 kHz ti hn 2 MHz, iu ny i hi cn phi kt hp cc ng
dy E1/T1 thnh mt nhm tch bit vi nhiu dch v khc. Ngoi gi thnh t
khi lp t v bo dng, cc ng dy T1/E1 cn cn vi tun t khi c yu
cu dch v cho n khi dch v c cung cp. Ngi ta cn mt h thng
truyn dn tin li c th cung cp nhanh chng v d dng 1,5 hoc 2 Mbit/s
trn phn ln cc ng dy thu bao, v th HDSL ra i.
Mch vng
(mt i
dy)
Pha khch hng













Tng i trung tm
Chuyn
mch thoi
ni ht
POTS
Thu
pht
BRI
Gii m
ho thoi
POTS
Gii m
ho thoi
Thu
pht
BRI
Gii m
ho thoi
Gii m
ho thoi

56
Li ch ca HDSL l rt ln do khng cn c cc b lp trung gian. Mi b lp
phi c tnh ton sao cho m bo mi on dy nm trong gii hn suy gim
cho php. Tn hiu lp c th gy ra xuyn m nghim trng; do cn phi
quan tm c bit khi thit k cc thit b lp sao cho trnh c xuyn m qu
mc ti h thng truyn dn khc. B lp c t trong hp my trong hm
cp hoc trn ct. Cc hp my thng phi c gn vi cp. Cc hp my c
gi thnh cao hn cc b lp n bo v. Hng b lp cn phi sa cha ti ch.
Cc b lp thng thng c cp ngun t ng dy, cn phi c mt ng
dy ring cp ngun t CO. Phn ln ngun cp t CO u lng ph do tiu
hao trn in tr mch vng v do vy cp ngun khng hiu qu.
HDSL c a dng hn T1 truyn thng l bi v HDSL cung cp cc c tnh
chun on (bao gm o SNR) v HDSL gy xuyn m t hn cc h thng
truyn dn khc do tn hiu truyn c hn ch trong bng tn hp hn T1
truyn thng.
1.3.4.2 Kh nng v ng dng HDSL
HDSL truyn ti hai hng 1,544Mbit/s hoc 2,048 Mbit/s trn ng dy in
thoi di n 3,7 km (12 kft) vi dy 0,5 mm (24 AWG) i dy xon khng c
b lp trung gian v c th tng chiu di ln gp i vi 1 b lp trung gian.
Hn 95% ng dy HDSL khng c b lp. HDSL l phng thc truyn dn
tin cy cho tt c cc vng phc v vi t l li bt l 10
-9
n 10
-10
. H thng
HDSL DS1 (1,544 Mb/s) s dng hai i dy, mi i dy truyn 768 kbit/s ti
hiu dng (784 kbit/s tnh) trn mi hng. Do thut ng song cng c s
dng m t h thng truyn dn HDSL. Xem Hnh I-39. H thng HDSL E1
(2048 kbit/s) c th la chn s dng hai hoc 3 i dy, mi i dy s dng
hon ton song cng. HDSL 2,048 Mbit/s 3 i dy s dng b thu pht rt
ging b thu pht h thng 1,544 Mbit/s. Mch vng HDSL 2,048 Mbit/s c th
c mch r nhng khng c cun cn bng.












Hnh I-39 H thng truyn dn song cng kp
Mc d ban u HDSL c m t l cng ngh cn lp, nhng cc b lp
HDSL vn thng c s dng trn ng dy HDSL khng b lp c chiu
di t 2,75 km n 3,7 km (9 n 12 kft). i vi dy 24 AWG, c th t c
7,3 km khi s dng mt b lp v 11 km (36 kft) khi dng 2 b lp. di thc
s c th thp hn nhng ni khng th t c b lp chnh xc v tr
Thu pht ti tng
i trung tm
Data
Pump
Data
Pump
DSI
ilnterf
and
framer
Data
Pump
Data
Pump
DSI
ilnterf
and
framer
Thu pht pha ngi
s dng
Mch vng ni ht
(hai i dy)
Thit b ngi
s dng
784kbit/s
song song
784kbit/s
song song
Mng
DSX-1
ANSI
T1.403

57
trung gian. Ban u h thng HDSL hai b lp c cp ngun bng cch, b lp
th nht c cp qua ng dy t CO, b lp th hai c cp ngun t pha
thu bao. Vic cp ngun t pha thu bao c hn ch v qun l v bo dng.
Do ngun tiu th t cc b thu pht ngy nay l nh nn ngi ta c th cp
ngun cho c hai b lp t ngun ca CO.
Mch ng dy ring cp 1 (1,544 Mbit/s hoc 2,048 Mbit/s) t ngi s dng
n mng dng cc ng dng HDSL nhiu nht. HDSL l phng tin ch yu
ni tng i ring (PBX) v thit b d liu gi hoc ATM ti mng cng
cng. ng ni HDSL c s dng ni cc trm v tuyn trn mng mt
t. HDSL cng dng ni cc trm DLC ti CO. Trong nhng nm u s
dng, thit b HDSL c gi thnh cao b hn ch s dng do khng tm c v
tr t thit b bo v b lp. Vo cui nm 1994, gi thit b HDSL gim ti mc
m hu ht cc im lp t mi s dng thit b HDSL th kinh t hn thit b
T1/E1 truyn thng. Thit b E1/T1 truyn thng vn c s dng cho cc
khong cch nh (di 3 kft) khng cn b lp v cho nhng khong cch rt di
(ln hn 30 kft) cn nhiu hn hai b lp.
Gi thnh bo dng hng nm ca HDSL thp hn ng dy T1/E1 bi v
ng dy HDSL t hng b lp hn, tin cy truyn dn cao, cc kh nng
chn on li ci tin. Ngc li, ng dy T1/E1 him khi c thay th bi
ng dy HDSL mi do gi thnh lp t ng dy mi cao.
Mc d HDSL c s dng ch yu bi cc nh khai thc ni ht (cc cng ty
in thoi). Trong mt s trng hp ngi ta s dng HDSL trong mng ring
cung cp ng ni tc cao gia cc to nh trong mt khu trng hoc
cng s.
1.3.4.3 Truyn dn HDSL
Truyn dn song cng 2B1Q c mch hn hp trit ting vng c s dng cho
hu ht cc h thng HDSL trn th gii. Mt s ni Chu u s dng h
thng a tn ri rc v AM/PM khng sng mang (CAP). i vi truyn dn
1,544 Mbit/s, truyn dn song cng kp s dng mi i dy truyn mt na
ca ti hai hng (768 kbit/s) cng vi 16 kbit/s overhead dng ng khung
v knh thng tin khai thc (eoc). Hai i dy to nn h thng truyn dn 1,544
Mb/s. Bi v c hai i dy cng truyn thng tin overhead ging nhau nn thit
b thu s chn mt trong hai dy thu overhead. Thng thng thit b thu s
chn dy c t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) tt hn.
C mt vi gii php c la chn cho h thng HDSL nguyn thu: song cng
n, n cng kp v song cng kp.
Song cng n ch cn s dng mt i dy v mt cp thit b thu pht mi
u ca ng dy. Xem Hnh I-40. Hai hng truyn dn c th c tch bit
bng ghp knh theo tn s (FDM) hoc bng truyn dn hn hp trit ting
vng. Tuy nhin, truyn ton b ti trn hu ht cc mch vng u da trn
cng ngh u nhng nm 90. Hn na di thng ln cn phi quan tm n
tng thch ph vi cc h thng truyn dn khc. H thng HDSL 1,544 Mbit/s
i dy n (i khi gi gi l SDSL) pht trin vo u nhng nm 90 c di

58
mch vng t hn 6 kft trn i dy 26 AWG; do c khong ngn ny hn ch
rt ln kh nng s dng ca n. Ch vi k thut tin tin xut hin vo cui
nm 90 th truyn dn 1,544 Mbit/s n song cng mi tr thnh hin thc.
HDSL2, m t phn 2.4.4, p dng truyn dn song cng n.




Hnh I-40 HDSL song cng n






Hnh I-41 HDSL song cng i
Truyn dn n cng kp s dng hai i dy, vi mt i dy truyn ton b ti
theo mt hng v i dy th hai truyn ton b ti theo hng ngc li. Xem
Hnh I-41. Phng php ny rt n gin tch tn hiu hai hng khc nhau
ca truyn dn. Khai thc T1 truyn thng s dng truyn dn n cng kp.
Truyn dn n cng kp c nhc im truyn tn hiu c bng tn ln do c
suy hao ln v xuyn m tn s cao. Do c xuyn m cc tn hiu truyn trn
hai i dy khng hon ton tch bit. Do cc thit b thu pht n cng kp
c th n gin hn nhng hot ng km hn song cng kp.
Truyn dn song cng kp ci tin di mch vng v tng thch ph bng
cch gi mt na thng tin trn mi i dy. Xem Hnh I-42. HDSL gim bng
tn ca tn hiu truyn bng cch s dng truyn dn ECH truyn hai hng
cng mt bng tn. Nng lng tn hiu truyn ca HDSL song cng kp gim
dn i vi tn s ln hn 196 kHz. Kt qu l tn hiu xuyn m v suy hao
gim. Mt u im khc ca truyn dn song cng kp l s dng mt i dy c
th d dng cung cp h thng truyn dn na tc .









Hnh I-42 HDSL song cng kp

Payload thu
Payload pht
Payload thu
Payload pht
Na u Payload thu
Na sau Payload pht
Na sau Payload thu
Na u Payload pht

59
Mt i dy, h thng HDSL mt phn tc c s dng truyn dch v
ng dy ring mt phn tc 768 kb/s hoc nh hn cho h thng mch vng
nh h tr 12 knh thoi hoc t hn . Cc u cm HDSL mt phn tc dng
cho knh D4 cho php ti 12 DS0 ca HDSL truyn thng tin ghp vi thng tin
t cc n v knh khc trong cng mt dn knh D4.
Thng tin bo dng ging nhau (bt ch th v eoc) c truyn trn mi i dy
ca h thng HDSL. Vic ti d cc overhead cho php s dng cng cc phn
t thu pht cho mt, hai v ba i dy ca h thng HDSL. Hn na, thng tin
overhead d bo m hot ng tin cy ca cc chc nng bo dng thm ch
nu truyn dn b hng hoc b gim cht lng trn mt mch vng.
(1) nh thi
Khung HDSL cha v tr cho stuff quats cc nhm 4 k hiu biu din 2 bit.
Stuff quats c chn vo khung khi cn ng b tc ti T1/E1 vo truyn
dn ng dy HDSL. hot ng trit ting vng c hiu qu, tc pht thu
HDSL phi ging nhau. Trong mt s trng hp tc ti T1/E1 pht c th
hi khc vi tc ti thu. Stuff cng vi b m nh cho php tc ti khc
cht t so vi tc HDSL. nhiu mng cng cng cc mch E1/T1 c u
vng v thi gian, ngha l tn hiu thi gian ca tn hiu pht c tch t ng
h thu. Mch u vng thi gian khng cn stuff quats. Tuy nhin, c tnh ny
c quy nh cho tt c HDSL trong trng hp mch khng c u vng
thi gian.
(2) tr
H thng truyn dn T1 truyn thng c tr truyn tn hiu t u cui n
u cui nh hn 100 ms. Do x l tn hiu s, mch HDSL thng thng c
tr truyn tn hiu xp x 400 ms khi o 1 hng gia giao tip DSX-1 v giao
tip T1.403. Tr b sung ca h thng HDSL him khi gy ra li, nhng c mt
s trng hp th tc bt tay lp cao b vt ngng thi gian (time-out) do
tng tr t u cui n u cui. V l do ny, h thng HDSL c thit k
m bo tr truyn tn hiu mt hng cho ng dy HDSL nh hn 500 ms.
ng dy HDSL c mt b lp trung gian c tr gp hai. Cc phn t mng
khc bao gm cc cng SONET v h thng u cho s c tr ln hn 500
ms. Do vy, h thng u cui ch cho php c tr vi ms mc d khng c
HDSL.
(3) T l li bit
H thng HDSL, ging nh BRI v ADSL c thit k m bo c li bit
(BER) l 10
-7
trn mch vng ti nht c mc nng lng nhiu xuyn m 6dB
ln hn m hnh xuyn m ti nht. Mc thit k ny da trn tho thun ca cc
chuyn gia hng u trong nhm tiu chun T1E1.4. Kinh nghim thc t trong
thp k qua chng minh mc thit k ny l s tho c thnh cng gia thit
k mc cao (s dng di mc thit k) v thit k mc thp (thiu tin cy do
nng lc mng yu).
Tuy nhin c hai khi nim b hiu sai ang tn ti lin quan n thit k BER
ca HDSL v cc DSL khc. Khi nim hiu lm th nht l hu ht HDSL hot

60
ng 10
-7
BER. Gi tr BER 10
-7
l trng hp xu nht, t khi gp trn thc t.
Khong 99% cc HDSL trn thc t hot ng c BER tt hn 10
-9
. Khi li xy
ra, dng nh ch din ra trong khong thi gian ngn. c tnh khong thi gian
t nguy him hn l li bit ngu nhin. Khi nim hiu sai th hai l HDSL hu
ht l thit k cc xuyn m qu cao. Xt n thit k gii hn 6 dB trong trng
hp xu nht, ngi ta c th d dng hiu ti sao mt s ngi c quan im
nh vy. Tuy nhin, dng nh thit k qu cao c bin h vi hai l do. Cc
HDSL cn phi hot ng rt tin cy trong sut thi gian cho tt c cc mch
vng. Khng ging cc modem trong bng thoi s dng chuyn mch knh, mt
ngi c th "t my" v quay s li hy vng c c ng ni tt hn.
Hn na trong mi trng thc t c rt nhiu suy hao ln ti gii hn thit k 6
dB (v d, c nc trong cp, cht lng trong dy km, hoc chiu di dy di
hn).
(4) HDSL th h th hai (HDSL2)
Tiu chun cho cng ngh HDSL th h th hai xut hin vo nm 1995 c tc
bit v di mch vng ging nh HDSL th h th nht ch khc l s dng
mt i dy thay v hai i dy. Gim s lng i dy l rt quan trng bi v
rt nhiu LECs thiu cc i dy d mt s vng. HDSL2 c k thut m ho
cao v iu ch phc tp hn. La chn k cng tn s pht v thu cho HDSL2
chng li xuyn m. Cc phin bn mi ca HDSL mn nhiu tng t
ADSL. Phin bn tng thch tc dng nh xut hin. Ngi ta ang xem
xt t bng tn s cho HDSL ln trn bng tn thoi tng t hoc trn ISDN c
bn. Thut ng SDSL (DSL i xng hay DSL i dy n) cng c s dng
m t cc phin bn sau ca HDSL.
a/ Cc yu cu v hot ng
Mc d c mt vi gi v m ng dy cho T1E1.4 theo yu cu vo nm
1995 (T1E1.4/95-044), qu trnh trin khai vn b chm li cho n khi cc yu
cu chi tit c a ra. Cc yu cu ny ban u c m t bi cc cng ty
khai thc a ra vo nm 1996 (T1E1.4/96-094 v T1E1.4/96-095) v c sa
i (T1E1.4/97-180, 180R1,181, 469). Hin nay c m t nh sau:
di mch vng: Bao ph CSA (ging nh hai i dy ANSI HDSL):
9000 ft (2,7 km) cho 26 AWG (0,4 mm)
12000 ft (3,6 km) cho 24 AWG (0,5 mm)
Mch cu b gii hn 2,5 kft (tng), 2 kft (mi cu)
Tham s cp c m t trong T1.601
Suy hao/Hot ng: Gii hn ti thiu 5 dB vi 1% xuyn m xu nht t
cc dch v gy nhiu sau:
HDSL vi 49 b gy nhiu
HDSL2 vi 39 b gy nhiu
EC-ADSL vi 39 b gy nhiu

61
FDM-ADSL vi 49 b gy nhiu
T1 vi 25 b gy nhiu
24 T1+24 HDSL2
24 FDM-ADSL+24 HDSL
Tng thch ph:Vi tt c cc dch v hin ti, suy hao khng ln hn gii hn
hin nay ngoi tr vic khng lm suy hao HDSL ln hn 2 dB (T1E1.4/97-434,
440R1) v ADSL ln hn 1 dB (T1E1.4/97-444). Cc dch v ny bao gm giao
din thu bao sau y: T1.413 (ADSL), TR-28 (HDSL), ANSI T1.403 (DS1) v
T1.601 (ISDN-BRA).
tr: tr ti a ca HDSL2 l khng ln hn HDSL (500us)
b/ suy hao
suy hao c tnh l trng hp xuyn m nghim trng in hnh m
HDSL2 c th gp phi. Ngi ta tm ra c khi kim tra mch vng ANSI TR-
28 l CSA 4 biu th trng hp ti hn. Xuyn m u cui gn s dng m
hnh Unger, c m t T1E1.4/96-036 v xuyn m u cui xa c m hnh
ho v m t ANSI T1.413 ph lc B. Cc m hnh cho thit b thu pht
T1.601, TR-28 v T1.403 c ly t T1.413 ph lc B. C nhiu m hnh trit
ting vng (EC) v phin bn ghp knh theo tn s (FDM) ca ADSL c s
dng. Phn ln cng vic gn y kt hp phin bn sa i ca PSDs t ph lc
B4 v B5 ca T1.413. Phn ln cc thay i lin quan cc im tch cho FDM.
Ni chung ngi ta thng nht l thut ng Sinc t B4 v B5 khng nn s dng.
Cc trng hp xuyn m hn hp c b sung vo cc tiu chun (T1E1.4/97-
180, 181) sau khi ngi ta nhn thy l n ti hn xuyn m ng nht i vi k
thut iu ch non-self-NEXT hn ch.
Nhiu xung khng c coi l thnh phn suy hao ng k trong T1E1.4. Cc
tnh ton lin quan n tng thch ph u l i vi ANSI DSL. ETSI v ITU
cha cng b nhng tnh ton/php o ny.
c/ Tng thch ph
Xc nh tng thch ph gia dch v mi v dch v hin ti l mt th thch
ln. i vi dch v ISDN-BRA ngi ta d dng ch ra rng m ng dy a
ra r rng l c suy gim thp hn self-NEXT. Cc dch v lit k khc th
khng d. i vi T1.403, (DS1/T1), k thut ban u lin quan n vic o tng
nng lng NEXT xut hin b thu T1 c so snh vi mc tn hiu t T1 t
xuyn m xem liu c li xy ra hay khng. Trong mt vi trng hp, xuyn
m c o (T1E1.4/97-071) hoc c tnh bi b lc thu T1. Sau , ngi ta
nhn ra rng tng thch ph vi T1 l d dng v on th nht t CO ch c suy
hao 15 dB ch khng phi l 30 dB m cc phn on khc phi lm vic.
Vi ADSL, tng thch ph c nh ngha bng tnh ton gii hn l tng.
Ngi ta nhn thy rng s thay i nh trn nn nhiu d kin, truyn PSD v
ti thiu ho tn s mang (cho trng hp FDM) c th c nh hng ln n s

62
hot ng. Phn ln cc tnh ton cho thy PSD lm gim gii hn ADSL gn
1dB vi trng hp xu nht trong tiu chun.
Vi HDSL, tng thch ban u s dng tnh ton l thuyt, nhng cc kim tra
sau cho thy i vi mt s khun dng iu ch l khng y (s c
trnh by k phn sau).
d/ Khun dng iu ch
Ban u, c hai hng tip cn, truyn dn i xng trit ting vng (SET) v
truyn dn ghp knh theo tn s (FDM) u c xem xt. SET cho thy phi
c gii hn t xuyn m t 2 n 3 dB. Ngc li truyn dn FDM khng b gii
hn bi t xuyn m u gn, m bi nhiu t cc dch v khc (i n) v cng
b gii hn bi xuyn m n cc dch v khc do tn s truyn cao ln vi
truyn ti i xng cng loi. Xuyn m i v n lm cho gii php FDM thm
ch km hp dn hn SET. Mt m hnh FDM dao ng c a ra nhm
hn ch cc hiu ng khng mong mun ny.
Trong T1E1.4/97-073, truyn dn trit ting vng chng ln tng phn (POET)
c a ra. POET bao gm chm ph chng ln nhau nhng khng ging nhau
theo hai hng truyn. Chm ph ny c sp xp cn thn cung cp hot
ng ti a khi c xuyn m h thng hoc t pha ngoi trong khi gy ra s suy
gim ti thiu cc dch v khc do xuyn m POET vo cc dch v khc. Nhiu
phin bn khc nhau ca hng tip cn ny c a ra trong qu trnh chun
ho, tt c u c chung mt khi nim c bn (POET-PAM (97-073),
OverCAPped (97-179), OPTIS (97-237,320), MONET (97-307,412)).
Mt c tnh m tt c cc m hnh iu ch POET a ra l hiu ng xuyn m
khng ng nht khi hot ng. i vi SET xuyn m ng nht v khng ng
nht l ging nhau. Tuy nhin, i vi iu ch POET, c th l hot ng khi c
xuyn m khng ng nht s ti t hn rt nhiu khi hot ng xuyn m ng
nht. Hot ng ca cc h thng ny trn thc t cng thay i theo tc
tng trng hay kiu iu ch. i vi thit b thu pht s ly mu, ngi ta c
th tch PSD pht t tc biu tng thc s (s dng cc nguyn tc ging
nh s dng trong thit b thu pht CAP truyn thng). c tnh ny u tin
c khai thc phin bn CAP ca POET (T1E1.4/97-170), nhng cui cng
ngi ta nhn thy rng vi mc suy hao n nh cho HDSL2, iu ch PAM c
ch hn l phng php tch ny (T1E1.4/97-273). i vi mi xuyn m PSD
c mt tc biu tng ring bit m hot ng l tt nht. thc hin
d dng ngi ta mong mun c mt tc biu tng hot ng mc ti
u trn mt di rng xuyn m PSDs.
Phn ln m hnh iu ch sau ny c PSD mt s tn s cao c nng ln
trn gi tr danh nh. Phn "nng ln" ca PSD cng ln hn mc ca bt k
DSL no hot ng tn s ny. Gii php nng ny u tin c gii thiu
trong T1E1.4/97-170 v c a vo r rng trong T1E1.4/97-273. Sau khi khi
nim ny c a ra, ngi ta pht hin ra rng, khi truyn nhng tn hiu nh
vy, ch tnh ton l thuyt l khng d on c tng thch ph vi
cc dch v hin ti. Khi kim tra cc h thng HDSL trin khai (T1E1.4/97-
339) cho thy c s khc bit ln gia tnh ton l thuyt v o c thc t khi c

63
xuyn m OPTIS. Kt qu l mt s thay i c a ra cho HDSL2 PSD
h mc suy gim ny (T1E1.4/97-434, 440R1). Cc o c cui cng sau khi sa
i cho thy mc suy gim ny l 2dB hoc nh hn (T1E1.4/97-434, 440R1).
Khun dng iu ch thng qua hin ti c kt hp vi cc yu t c bn
a ra trong T1E1.4/97-257:
Mi thit b pht i v n c 1 dng ph duy nht.
Ph thit b pht i v n s chng ln mt phn tn s.
Dng ph pht s c tch t tc k hiu cho php linh hot khi s
dng vt qu di tn.
iu ch pht s dng s l iu ch bin xung (PAM)
iu ch theo m cng s c s dng.
Kt qu (T1E1.4/97-435) l h thng POET s dng cc sa i ca OPTIS
PSD. Khun dng iu ch s dng PAM vi 3 bt thng tin trn 1 k hiu v
chm m ho 16 mc. Tc k hiu ca 1/3 tc ti c hai hng NT-n-
NT v LT-n-NT c chn nh l tc dung ho. u im c c khi s
dng vt qu bng tn theo hng t LT-n -NT v mc cao ca dng ph
theo hai hng. Cng sut pht t xp x 16,5 dBm theo mi hng. K thut
iu ch ny cho thy (qua tnh ton DFE ti u) c gii hn khng m ho l
thuyt nh nht trn mch vng xu nht 1dB. Hot ng thc t gn gi tr l
thuyt ch t c khi dng cch cn bng khong cch tng phn.
nh dng ph trong PSDs c thit k c bit cho ng dng ny: lm tng ti
a SNR b thu HDSL2 ( vi tc k hiu l 517,33 kHz) khi c hn hp cc
xuyn m ring bit lit k trong tiu chun khi ng thi gim nh hng ca
xuyn m n ANSI DSL (hnh 2.10). Khng ch vic ti a ho hot ng ca
HDSL2 trong khi gim thiu xuyn m i n hai DSLs khc nhau l hai mc
tiu mu thun nhau, m n gin l vic c gng gim thiu ng thi xuyn m
i n 2 DSL khc nhau cng c th gy ra xung t. V d, gim nh hng
ti ANSI HDSL, ngi ta mun s dng PSD thp hn v rng hn trong
gim xuyn m n ANSI T1.413 ADSL, th ngi ta s dng PSD hp hn v
cao hn l thch hp. Do s ti u ny c lm c bit cho ANSI DSLs, khng
th ngoi suy phin bn theo tn s ca b lc nh dng l phin bn tt nht
cho phin bn ITU ca HDSL2. Cc cng vic tip theo v vn ny cn c
lm trc khi a ra kt lun.

64










Hnh I-43 Pht danh ngha i vi iu ch HDSL 2
e/ Cu trc m Trellis
p ng cc yu cu kht khe, iu ch m c s dng tng kh nng
gii hn xuyn m. Do gii hn v tr, k thut m ho chn vng v turbo t
ra khng p dng c, m phi dng m iu ch trellis truyn thng kt hp
vi tin m ho cn bng knh (v d tin m ho Tomlinson-Harashima). Mc
d c nhiu cch tip cn a chiu v a mc c th nghim, nhng cch
tip cn PAM m trellis mt chiu n cho thy c tr nh nht v tng ch
m ho cao (T1E1.4/97-337).
Theo khun dng iu ch thng nht, cn c tng ch m ho 4 dB. i vi
cc m mt chiu dng gii m Viterbi, cn c 32 trng thi t c trn 4
dB ca tng ch m ho BER. Tuy nhin, mc gii hn 5 dB phi bao gm
mt lng suy gim khng lin quan n m ho m phi c thc hin trong
tng ch m ho. (S suy hao ny c th nh hng n tng ch m ho
thc t). Do mt lng bin i tng ch m ho c th cn da trn cc
suy hao khc khi thit k h thng. Tho thun bao gm tc theo chng trnh
1/2 trellis mt hng (T1E1.4/97-443). Xem Hnh I-44. Cu trc ny cho php
cc b thu c th linh hot dung ho tnh phc tp ca gii m ho trellis vi tnh
phc tp ca phn cn li trong b pht. Cu trc theo chng trnh ny cng cho
php s dng k thut gii m thay th c s dng (v d, gii m ho th t),
s dng cc m khc rt nhiu so vi s dng cho gii m Viterbi.









-35
-40
-45
-50
-55
-60
-65
-70
-75
-80
0 1 2 3 4 5
Tn s (Hz) x 10
5
Power dBm
NT transmitter
LT transmitter

65














Hnh I-44 S khi ca chng trnh gii m
f/ S khc nhau phc tp lin quan n HDSL
Do cc yu cu i vi ANSI HDSL2 l kh tho mn v s phc tp tng ln rt
nhiu so vi cc yu cu ca HDSL. Trong phn ny chng ta s tng kt ngn
gn cc s khc bit phc tp ny.
Nng lng truyn ca HDSL2 cao hn HDSL 3 dB.Hn na, vic s dng
tin m ho v hnh thnh ph gy ra t l gi tr nh so vi gi tr hiu
dng ln hn HDSL da trn 2B1Q. Cc mc in p nh cao hn s
tng mc tiu hao nng lng ca ng dy.
Tin m ho cn bng knh c chc nng ging nh b lc ni tip ca b
cn bng ni tip s dng trong HDSL. Tuy nhin, d liu trong tin m
ho c chiu rng t 12 n 16 bits thay v 2 bt nh trong 2B1Q DFE.
iu ny lm tng phc tp. Hn na, s xut hin ca tin m ho
lm tng phc tp ca b trit ting vng theo mt cch tng t.
p ng c cc nhu cu qua vic s dng gii m ho Viterbi, c v
nh m trellis cn c 512 trng thi. Gii m ho Viterbi cho m biu th
mt lng tng rt ln v nng lc x l cng nh b nh so snh vi h
thng HDSL khng m ho.
hot ng tt, HDSL2 cn b cn bng khng gian tng phn v b trit
ting vng, c hai u c phc tp hn nhiu so vi php tng ng
cch qung baud trn thc t c s dng trong cc b thu pht HDSL.
1.3.5 ADSL
1.3.5.1 nh ngha ADSL v m hnh tham chiu
ng dy thu bao s khng i xng ADSL l k thut truyn dn mch vng
ni ht ng thi truyn ti trn cng mt i dy cc dch v sau:
Tc bit thu (v pha thu bao) ln ti gn 9 Mbit/s
Tc bit pht (v pha mng) ln ti 1 Mbit/s
b
20
b
19
b
18
b
1
b
0
a
20
a
19
a
18
a
1
a
0
Y
0
Y
2
X
2
X
1
Y
1
Y
3
X
3
T T T

66
Dch v in thoi thng thng ph thng (POTS, thoi tng t v.v..)
Tc bit truyn v pha khch hng ln hn nhiu ln truyn t khch hng i,
do c thut ng khng i xng. Thoi tng t c truyn tn s trong
bng c s kt hp vi truyn d liu thng bng qua b lc thng thp (LPF)
m thng thng c gi l b tch. Ngoi b tch, ADSL bao gm mt n v
truyn dn ADSL pha thit b trung tm (ATU-C), mt mch vng, v mt
n v truyn dn ADSL xa (ATU-R)









Hnh I-45 M hnh tham chiu ADSL

1.3.5.2 ADSL nguyn bn
nh ngha khi nim ban u ca ADSL xut hin t nm 1989, t
J.W.Lechleider v nhng ngi khc thuc Bellcore. S pht trin ADSL bt u
trng i hc Stanford v phng th nghim AT&T Bell Lab nm 1990. Mu
ADSL u tin xut hin, vo nm 1992 phng th nghim Bellcore, sn phm
ADSL u tin c th nghim vo nm 1995. ADSL thu ht cc cng vic
trc kia c thc hin trn cc modem trong bng, ISDN v HDSL.
Vo thng 10 nm 1998, ITU thng qua b tiu chun ADSL c bn. Khuyn
ngh G922.1 chi tit ADSL full-rate. Khuyn ngh ny gn ging ANSI T1.413
phin bn 2 vi 2 im ngoi tr c bn:
1. Trnh t khi to da trn m c thay th bi qu trnh da trn bn tin
m t trong G.994.1, v
2. Ch c bit c b sung ci thin hot ng khi c xuyn m t
ghp knh nn theo thi gian TCM ISDN s dng Nht.
Khuyn ngh G.992.2 (trc y gi l G.lite) ch r ADSL vi cch s dng
khng c b phn chia POTS. G.992.2 c da trn G.992.1 vi nhng im
khc bit sau:
3. D tr b sung i vi ch tit kim ngun ti ATU-C v ATU-R,
4. B sung c ch cho php khi phc nhanh t cc trng thi nhc my/t
my.
5. S lng m gim t 256 n 128
6. S lng bit trn m gim t 15 n 8.
Mch vng ni ht
bng i dy xon
AUT-R
B tch
LPF
in
thoi
POTS-R Pha nh
khch hng
U-R T
u cui
ng-i s
dng
AUT-C
B tch
LPF
Tng i in
thoi
POTS-C
U-C V
Mng
bng rng
Cho n 9 Mb/s
Cho n 1 Mb/s
Thoi tng t

67
Khuyn ngh G.994.1 (trc y gi l G.hs) m t th tc bt tay ban u da
trn gi tin cho php cc b thu pht DSL a ch c mt ch hot ng
chung. Khuyn ngh G.955.1 cung cp tng quan h khuyn ngh DSL. Khuyn
ngh G.966.1 m t phng php o s hot ng ca thit b DSL. Khuyn ngh
G.977.1 m t hot ng ca lp vt l, cc quy nh v qun l v bo dng
cho ADSL, bao gm knh eoc v c s qun l thng tin (MIB).
1.3.5.3 Cc kh nng ca ADSL v ng dng
(1) ADSL1, ADSL2, ADSL3
Khi nim v ADSL xut hin vo gia nhng nm 1990. Ban u ADSL c
nghin cu tc 1,5 Mbit/s thu v 16 kbit/s pht cho ng dng MPEG-1 quay
s video (VDT). Mt s thnh vin trong nghnh cng nghip ny gi y l
ADSL1. Sau , ngy cng r rng l mt s ng dng yu cu tc cao hn v
nhiu k thut truyn dn tin tin hn cho php truyn tc cao. 3 Mbit/s thu
v 16 kbit/s pht ("ADSL2") c a ra cho php 2 dng MPEG-1 ng thi.
Vo nm 1993, s quan tm hng v ADSL3 vi 6 Mbit/s thu v t nht 64
kbit/s pht h tr video MPEG2. Tiu chun ADSL ANSI T1.413 phin bn 1
pht trin vt ra khi khi nim ADSL3. Thut ng ADSL1, ADSL2, v
ADSL3 t c s dng sau khi tiu chun ANSI T1.413 thng qua.
(2) RADSL
ng dy thu bao s tc iu chnh (RADSL) l thut ng p dng cho h
thng ADSL c kh nng xc nh dung lng truyn ca mi mch vng mt
cch t ng v sau hot ng tc cao nht ph hp vi mch vng .
Tiu chun ANSI T1.413 cung cp kh nng hot ng tc iu chnh. iu
chnh tc thc hin khi thit lp ng dy, vi gii hn cht lng tn hiu
tn hiu thch hp m bo rng tc ng dy thit lp c th duy tr trong
nhng thay i danh nh trn c tnh truyn ca ng dy. Do RADSL s
t ng cung cp tc bit ln hn trn mch vng c c tnh truyn dn tt
hn (suy hao t hn, nhiu t hn). RADSL h tr tc thu ti a trong phm vi
t 7 n 10 Mbit/s v tc pht ti a trong phm vi t 512 n 900 kbit/s.
Trn nhng mch vng di (5,5 km/18 kft hoc ln hn). RADSL c th hot
ng tc thu thp nht khong 512 kbit/s v 128 kbit/s pht.
RADSL mn khi nim tc iu chnh t modem trong bng thoi. RADSL
c li ch ca mt phin bn thit b c th m bo tc truyn dn cao nht
c th cho mi mch vng v cng cho php hot ng trn nhng mch vng
di tc thp hn.
1.3.5.4 Truyn dn ADSL
Khi nim ADSL c hai phn c bn: (1) Xuyn m u gn gim do c tc
bit pht v di tn thp hn nhiu tc bt thu v (2) truyn ti ng thi POST
v d liu bng cch truyn d liu trong di bng tn trn bng tn thoi.
Truyn dn hai hng tc nhiu Mbit/s khng dng trn phn ln cc ng
dy in thoi do hiu ng kt hp ca suy gim mch vng v xuyn m. Nh
ch ra Hnh I-46, nng lng tn hiu nhn c gim i tng ng vi tn s

68
v nhiu xuyn m nhn c tng theo tn s. Do truyn dn hai hng
khng th thc hin c nhng tn s m nhiu xuyn m ln t tn hiu nhn.













Hnh I-46 Truyn dn hai hng b gii hn cc tn s thp

ADSL thc hin truyn dn hai hng ti nhng ni c th: di tn s ct hai
hng. Tn s cao khng thch hp cho truyn dn hai hng c s dng cho
truyn dn mt hng. iu ny cho php tc thu vt xa tc c th
truyn dn hai hng.
Nhiu h thng ADSL s dng k thut truyn dn ghp knh theo tn s, k
thut ny t truyn dn pht di tn s tch khi di tn thu trch t xuyn
m. Di tn bo v l cn thit gip cho cc b lc ngn tp m POTS can nhiu
vo truyn dn s (HnhI-47).
Mt s h thng ADSL s dng k thut truyn dn xo ting vng ECH, ni di
tn pht c t trong di tn thu. Xem Hnh I-48. Bng cch chng di tn,
tng bng tn truyn c th gim. Tuy nhin, ECH kh trnh c t xuyn m
v khi thc hin cn c x l s phc tp hn. C mt s bn khon l liu
phc tp s c n b bng cch n gin ho tng t u trc.
Do khng c t xuyn m u cui CO, nn ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
FDM ADSL lm vic theo hng pht tt hn nhiu so vi xo ting vng ECH
ADSL. Tuy nhin di thng thu ca ADSL cho php lm vic theo hng thu,
i vi cc mch vng l ngn hn.
Hot ng ca DSL i xng ban u b hn ch bi t xuyn m u gn (self-
NEXT). ADSL khc phc c self NEXT u cui khch hng n gin bng
cch gim ngun c NEXT. Bng cch gim tc bit pht, knh pht c th
t v tr xuyn m vo truyn dn thu l t nht. i vi ADSL, s thu nhn
ca knh pht c xp t d dng hn bng cch t n tn s thp hn ni
m suy hao mch vng l thp v nhiu xuyn m cng thp hn.
Mc tn hiu
Tn s
Mc tn hiu
nhn c
Mc nhiu
xuyn m
nhn c
Gii hn
cho truyn dn
hai hng

69










HnhI-47 ADSL ghp phn chia theo tn s










Hnh I-48 Truyn dn xo ting vng ADSL
H thng ADSL ng dng k thut truyn dn tin tin nng cao hot ng.
iu ch v sp t tn s ca tn hiu pht c t lm thch ng t c
mc hot ng ti u nht t cc c tnh lin quan ti ng dy thu bao s
dng. M Trellis c s dng gim hiu ng nhiu bng tn rng trng thi
n nh. Cc b cn bng c kh nng thch nghi chng li nhiu bng hp v d
nh nhiu tn s pht thanh (RFI). M iu khin li hng i v ci xen
(interleaving) ngn chn nhiu xung. Interleaving chng li li xut hin t ngt
bng cch thay i cc khi d liu v th m s xut hin t ngt li ko di
dn n c mt s t li trong mt khi d liu (c th sa c) thay v mt
lng li ln xy ra trong mt khi (khng th sa c). Vi su
interleaving 20 ms s chng li nhiu t bin c khong thi gian l 500 us.
Tuy nhin mc interleaving ny gy ra tr truyn b sung m c th lm chm li
bng thng ca cc th tc v d nh TCP/IP yu cu phi c cc gi tin phc
p trc khi d liu tip theo c truyn.
Mc truyn
Tn s
Bng POTS
Bng bo v Bng pht
tc thp
Bng pht
tc cao
Mc truyn
Tn s
Bng POTS
Bng bo v Bng pht
tc thp
Bng pht
tc cao

70
Mch vng ADSL c th c mch r nhng khng c c cun cn bng.
1.3.5.5 Tng lai ca ADSL
ADSL s c tch hp vo h thng mch vng s (DLC) trn cp dnh cho cc
mch vng khng ni trc tip t CO. ADSL rt thch hp cung cp tc bit
cao trn mch vng DLC, m rt him khi di qu 3,7 km (12 kft). Mc d c
cc tiu chun cng nghip cho ADSL (ANSI T1.413), cc h thng ADSL ban
u khng lm vic vi nhau. Ngi ta ch i nhng n lc ca cc nh sn
xut ADSL v cc u ban tiu chun t c kh nng kt ni cho cc h
thng ADSL tng lai ca nhiu nh sn xut thit b. Ngoi lp vt l, kh nng
kt ni yu cu tng thch th tc tt c cc lp.
Ngi ta nhn thy ngy cng r rng rng ADSL l cng ngh truy nhp m ch
chuyn giao khng ng b cn m rng ti khch hng gia nh v cc
vn phng nh. Trc khi c ADSL, ATM t ra hn ch cho nhng khch hng
chu c gi kt ni ng truyn 45 Mbit/s v ln hn thng ch c ti khu
thng mi ln v mng ng trc. Ngi ta ang nghin cu truyn ti ATM
trn cc c tnh thng nht ca ADSL: li truyn, tr, khng i xng v t
ng thay i tc .
Trong thi gian ti, ngi ta tp trung vo pht trin ADSL ln ti tc cao ti
10 Mbit/s thu v 1,5 Mbit/s pht. Tuy nhin hng ny b mt dn do trng vi
VDSL, cc lo ngi v tng thch ph v cc nghi ng lin quan ti nhu cu
s dng tc ny. Thay vo hin nay ngi ta tp trung vo ci thin phm
vi mch vng cc tc gn 1Mbit/s, gi thnh thp, tiu thu nng lng thp
v gim xuyn m. Cc h thng ADSL ang c pht trin truyn a mch
thoi s ngoi truyn d liu tc ln.
(1) ADSL + ISDN
Mt s nh bn thit b ang gii thiu phin bn ADSL bng tn pht v thu
c t trn 0 n 80 kHz ANSI T1.601 bng truyn ca ISDN tc c bn.
i vi BRI s dng m ng dy 4B3T, bng tn s BRI l t 0 ti 120 kHz.
iu ny gim ng k tc ADSL nhng cho php ng thi dch v ISDN v
ADSL trn cng mt mch vng. Cu hnh ADSL + ISDN khng ha hn cung
cp c mch vng ti 5,5 km (18 kft) m thng thng cung cp bi ISDN.
ADSL +ISDN c bit c quan tm c v Php ni dch v ISDN c
trin khai rng. Cu hnh ny cng c s dng cung cp hai mch thoi v
d liu tc cao trung bnh.
(2) ADSL khng tch ( lc )
Vic lp t dch v ADSL pha nh thu bao c th yu cu thay ton b i
dy bn trong hoc sa i. i vi cu hnh ADSL chun, ADSL kt thc
thit b giao din mng (NID), ni b lc thng thp (b tch) tch tn hiu trong
bng thoi c gn vi dy v dy xanh ti in thoi v tn hiu bng rng
c ni ti dy vng v dy en ni ti modem ADSL ca khch hng. lm
c iu ny cn phi c cc thit b tch v s dng cc dy vng v en m
khng lp t mt s khch hng hoc s dng cho dch v thoi ng dy
th hai. Hn na trong mt s trng hp, dy km tiu chun c s dng lm

71
nh hng ti hot ng ca ADSL (v thm ch ISDN). Kt qu l thng phi
i dy li t NID ti modem ca khch hng.












Hnh I-49 Cu hnh ADSL chun c b tch
Cu hnh ADSL POTS c b tch ph bin nht (c ch ra trong Hnh I-49) t
b lc thng thp LPF cho ng dy thoi gn NID v b lc thng cao HPF
trong ATU-R. Mt gii php khc, cc b lc (LPF v HPF) c th tch hp
trong ATU-R. S dng b lc trong ATU-R c nhc im l c th b mt
dch v POTS khi b i ATU-R v c th c mc xuyn m qu mc khi s dng
ng i dy hin c.
Khi nim ADSL khng c b tch loi b b lc tch cui ng dy pha
thu bao. Nhiu thut ng khc c s dng m t khi nim ny: ADSL
lite, Consumer DSL (CDSL) hoc ADSL ph thng (UADSL). ADSL khng c
b tch c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh ITU G.992.2. ADSL modem v cc
in thoi c ni trc tip ti ng dy v xanh hin c, h tr ng thi
thoi v d liu. Vic lp t ADSL c thc hin d dng bng cch cm
ADSL modem vo bt c gic no nh thu bao, khng cn phi i dy mi
cng nh lp t cc b tch.










Hnh I-50 Cu hnh ADSL khng c b lp pha khch hng
Khi nim ny rt tuyt diu; vic thc hin trn thc t ang c kim tra. B
lc ADSL c hai mc ch: (1) b lc lm suy gim nhiu tn hiu c th lm
hng ng truyn d liu ADSL v (2) b lc lm suy gim tn hiu ADSL
trnh nhiu tp m trn ng dy in thoi. Do tr khng khng tuyn tnh ca
Tng i trung tm
ATU-C
Chuyn mch thoi
LPF
Pha khch hng

vng & en
ATU-R
LPF
NID
& xanh
Tng i trung tm

Chuyn mch thoi
LPF
Pha khch hng
& xanh

NID
ATU-C ATU-R

72
mt s in thoi, mc nng lng pht ADSL cc tn s trn bng tn m c
th iu ch vo bng tn thoi. Tuy nhin iu ny s lm gim tc d liu
ADSL v di mch vng. Li bt thng d xy ra khi in thoi rung chung
v chc chn xy ra trong thi im ngt chung khi in thoi ang rung
chung b nhc t hp. Ting rt kh chu c th nghe thy c trong in thoi.
Mt gii php cho vn ny l t mt lot cc b lc thng thp vo mi in
thoi (Hnh I-51). B lc ny thng khng t v c cc u ni modun cho nn
bt c khch hng no cng c th t lp t trong vng vi giy. Vic lp t
cho cc in thoi treo tng khng n gin nhng t nht khch hng c th
mua in thoi treo tng mi "ADSL-tng thch" c cc b lc thng thp c
sn trong my. Cu hnh ny c th ngn chn nhiu POTS lm suy gim truyn
dn ADSL v nhiu ADSL nghe thy c trn in thoi. Khng cn i dy
mi bn trong v cng khng cn lp t cc b lc NID. Khch hng c th
cm ADSL modem vo bt c gic in thoi no trn tng. Tc d liu
ADSL mt chng mc no thp hn cu hnh ADSL tiu chun. Tc d
liu c th suy gim do cc ngun nhiu khc v hiu ng ti ca cc b lc cc
mu dy. Khuyn ngh ITU G.992.1 ('G.lite")hot ng thp hn khuyn ngh
G.992.1 ("G.DMT") do gim s m DMT v s bit trn m t hn. Cht lng
truyn trong bng thoi b suy gim c th xut pht t nhiu b lc thng thp
t song song vi nhau. Mt tr ngi khc lin quan n cc khch hng qun
khng t LPF trn ng dy ni ti in thoi ca h.











Hnh I-51 Cu hnh ADSL c b lc thng thp ti mi in thoi
Nu cc chng ngi v k thut v khai thc c khc phc, c th ADSL
khng b tch s chim u th hn. Trong tng lai gn, phn ln cc ADSL
c lp t vi b tch cc hai u cui ca ng dy. Vic s dng b tch
pha khch hng c th c tip tc s dng cho cc khch hng yu cu dch
v tc bit cao. Mt s nh cung cp dch v ADSL gi l dch v ADSL ca
h c th lm vic vi c cu hnh c b tch v khng c b tch trong khi s
dng cng loi ATU-C CO. Qu trnh trin khai ADSL khng c b tch c
thc y bi cc hot ng th trng v k thut ca nhm nghin cu ADSL
chung (UAWG), nhm cc cng ty in thoi hng u v cc cng ty my tnh.
Tng i trung tm


ATU-C
Chuyn mch thoi
LPF
Pha khch hng
& xanh


ATU-R
NID
LPF LPF

73
1.3.6 VDSL
ng dy thu bao s tc rt cao l s m rng ca cng ngh ADSL ln ti
tc cao hn, ln ti 52 Mbit/s. tc cao nh vy, mch vng phi rt ngn
v hu ht s dng cp quang ngoi tr vi nghn ft cui cng.
1.3.6.1 nh ngha VDSL v m hnh tham chiu
Phn ln cc DSL ban u d nh s dng trn nhng mch vng t CO n
khch hng v sau l s dng t b ghp knh phn phi. VDSL ban u s
c s dng cho cc mch vng t n v mng quang (ONU), trn thc t t
cch nh thu bao di 1km. C t mch vng VDSL ni trc tip ti CO.
Cp quang dng ni ONU n CO. Truyn dn VDSL trn i dy xon c
s dng cho vi nghn ft t ONU ti nh thu bao (Hnh I-52). Tiu chun k
thut VDSL c pht trin bi nhm xy dng tiu chun T1E1.4 m t cc tc
v khong cch t ONU ti thu bao:

Tc thu
(Mb/s)
Tc pht
(Mb/s)
Khong cch
52 6.4 1000-300
26 3.2 2500-800
26 26 1000-300
13 13 1800-600
13 1,6 3750-1200












Hnh I-52 Cu hnh VDSL
Cp t mng cho ti cc ONU c th c ni trc tip n ONU, theo hnh trn
hoc l b tch quang th ng.
1.3.6.2 Tnh nng v ng dng ca VDSL
VDSL, nh mt phn ca mng a dch v, d kin h tr ng thi tt c cc
ng dng: thoi, d liu v video. Sau cng, VDSL s h tr truyn hnh c
nt cao (HDTV) v cc ng dng my tnh tin tin. ng dng i xng ca
Cp quang
trc tip
Mng ni
tip

m

n
g
Mng quang
th ng
ONU

74
VDSL s cung cp tc d liu hai chiu ln ti 26 Mbit/s s rt hp dn cho
cc khu vc kinh doanh ni khng c cp quang ni ti (FTTB).
Tiu chun k thut dng DAVIC VDSL s dng iu ch bin pha khng
sng mang (CAP) cho tc 13; 25,92 v 51 Mbit/s thu v 1.6 Mbit/s pht qua
i dy xon. Tiu chun k thut ca DAVIC VDSL da trn cu trc NT th
ng, cho php ni nhiu b thu pht VDSL u cui ng dy thu bao.
(Hnh I-53). Trn thc t, cu trc NT th ng yu cu ONU t gn hn 100
mt t cc n v VDSL ca thu bao.








Hnh I-53Cu hnh VDSL c HUB th ng
Cu trc hub tch cc VDSL c ch ra trong Hnh I-54 cho php c nhng sn
phm c tc v di ln hn bng cch s dng cu hnh mch vng truyn
dn im ni im. Hub tch cc bao gm 1 b thu pht VDSL v cc ng ni
tch bit ti mi cng (c ch ra) hoc l 1 ng bus trong nh thu bao
(khng ch ra).











Hnh I-54 Cu hnh VDSL c Hub tch cc
1.3.7 So snh cc cng ngh truy nhp xDSL
Bng I-5 So snh cc cng ngh

K thut. Tc Gii hn khong
cch
ng dng
56 Kbps 56 Kbps downslink Khng gii hn E-mail, Truy cp LAN t xa,
ONU

VDSL
LPF
POTS
VDSL
VDSL
VDSL
LPF
POTS
Hub th ng
Pha khch hng
Set-top
Box or PC
Set-top
Box or PC
Set-top
Box or PC
ONU

VDSL
LPF
POTS
Set-top
Box or PC
Hub
tch
cc
Set-top
Box or PC
Set-top
Box or PC
LPF
POTS
Pha khch hng
VDSL

75
analog
modems
28.8 hoc 33.6 Kbps
uplink
Truy cp Internet/intranet.
ISDN <= 128 Kbps
(khng nn) Song
cng
5 Km (thm thit b
c th m rng
khong cch)
Hi ngh truyn hnh, Khc
phc thin tai, D phng leased
line, Cc hot ng thng mi,
truy cp Internet/intranet.
Cable
modem
1030 Mbps Lung
xung, 128 Kbps10
Mbps lung ln
(Bng thng dng
chung)
50 Km trn cp ng
trc (thm thit b ph
tr c th m rng ti
300 Km)
Truy cp Internet
ADSL
Lite
1 Mbps lung xung
512 Kbps lung ln
5 Km Truy cp Internet/intranet,
duyt Web, thoi IP, thoi
video.
ADSL/R-
ADSL
1.58 Mbps lung
xung, 1.544 Mbps
lung ln
5Km (khong cch
cng ngn tc cng
cao hn)
truy cp Internet/intranet, video
theo yu cu , truy cp LAN t
xa, VPNs, VoIP
IDSL 144 Kbps song cng 5Km (thm thit b
ph tr c th m
rng ti 300 Km)
truy cp Internet/intranet, video
theo yu cu , truy cp LAN t
xa, VPNs, VoIP
HDSL 1.544 Mbps(T1) song
cng
2.048 Mbps (E1)
song cng
(s dng 23 i
dy)
3,6 Km4,5 Km Ni ht, Thay th trung k
T1/E1 c dng b lp, Kt ni
cc PBX vi nhau, Tp trung
lu lng Frame Relay, kt ni
cc mng LAN.
SDSL 1.544 Mbps full
duplex (T1)
2.048 Mbps full
duplex (E1)
(uses 1 wire pair)
3Km Ni ht, Thay th trung k
T1/E1 c dng b lp, Kt ni
cc PBX vi nhau, kt ni cc
mng LAN.
VDSL 1352 Mbps Lung
xung
1.52.3 Mbps lung
ln
(i xng t ti
34Mbps )
300m1,5 km
(ph thuc vo tc
)
Truy cp Multimedia Internet,
qung b cc chng trnh TV.
Ngun: 3Com, 03/ 1998.

76
Hin ti trong h xDSL, cng ngh ADSL nhn c s quan tm c bit do n
cho php s dng chung mt ng truyn vi thoi truyn thng. Hin nay
c hn mt chun iu ch DMT (Discrete Multi-Tone ) cho cng ngh ny c
ITU, ETSI v ANSI chp thun.
1.3.8 u im v nhc im ca cng ngh xDSL
a/ Cng ngh xDSL c nhng c im sau:
1. Tc truyn d liu thay i theo tng phin bn ca cng ngh DSL,
v di ca mch vng thu bao
i vi ADSL, l cng ngh DSL ph bin nht, chun ADSL ca
ITU-T xc nh tc ti a hng truyn xung l 6,1 Mbps v
640 Kbps hng ln.
trong thc t, tc ti a 6,1 Mbps ch c th t c nu
khong cch di 2,7 km, v gim xung ti 1,5 Mbps hoc thp
hn na khong cch 4,5 km.
tc thc t s dng thng thng nm trong khong t 640 kbps
n 1,5 Mbps.
phin bn c tc cao nht l VDSL, h tr tc ti a ng
xung l 55 Mbps khong cch 300 m, v 13 Mbps nu khong
cch l 1,4 km. Tc hng ln nm trong khong 1,6 2,3
Mbps.
2. Mi ngi s dng c mt ng ring kt ni ti DSLAM t ti tng
i hoc ti RT (trm thit b tp trung thu bao).
3. Cc dch v h tr
truyn s liu v VoDSL (vi voice gateway)
ADSL chia s cng ng cp ng vi thoi tng t
VDSL c th h tr chuyn mch truyn hnh
4. Yu cu k thut
ng cp ng sch, khng c cc cun cm ko di (loading
coil), khng r nhnh (bridge tap)
hn ch khong cch ng truyn khong di 4,5 km
khng s dng cc thit b DLC trong mch thu bao, nu c DLC
th DSLAM phi t ti cc RT
5. Thit b pha khch hng ngoi xDSL modem
voice gateway nu dng VoDSL
b/ u im ca cc cng ngh xDSL l

77
Cng ngh c kim nghim vi nhiu triu line hot ng trn
khp th gii, Chu Hn quc l nc c mt thu bao ADSL
cao nht
Chun ho bi ITU-T
S dng h thng cp ng c trin khai rt rng khp ca cc nh
khai thc
Trong iu kin thun li, u t cho mng DSL khng ln i vi nh
khai thc
c/ Nhng thch thc chnh ca cng ngh ny l:
Kh khn khi trin khai mng li, do mng truy nhp khng ng b
Chm sc khch hng, tnh cc
Trin khai cc dch v gi tr gia tng
Hn ch bi khong cch v nhng h thng tp trung thu bao cng
ngh c trin khai
Trin vng doanh thu tng i tt i vi cc nh khai thc ch o,
c c s h tng vin thng rng khp nh VNPT, nhng s rt kh
khn cho cc nh khai thc cnh tranh. iu ny c kim nghim
trn th trng vin thng M. Trong nhng nm qua nhiu nh khai
thc nh lin tc thua l v phi ng ca.
Cng ngh DSL hng ti th trng chnh l t nhn v cc doanh nghip va/
nh. Dch v ny c th khng thch hp vi nhiu doanh nghip ln, do cht
lng dch v khng phi thng xuyn c m bo. D kin nm 2005 M
s c 18,5 triu line hot ng (FCC). Trong mt vi nm ti Vit nam con s
thu bao ADSL s ln ti hng nghn.
Ti Vit nam, nhng vn v cht lng cp, cht lng u ni trong mng
truy nhp cng nh mt s thit b tp trung thu bao gm nhiu chng loi khc
nhau, s dng cc cng ngh khc nhau l nhng yu t k thut quan trng cn
lu khi pht trin thu bao xDSL.

II CNG NGH ADSL
ADSL l k thut khng i xng. ADSL cho php phn bng thng ca chiu
xung (t pha nh cung cp dch v ti pha khch hng) ln hn phn bng
thng chiu ln (t pha khch hng ti pha nh cung cp dch v). S bt i
xng ny l c tnh lm cho ADSL t ra ph hp vi cc dch v truy cp
internet, video theo yu cu, v truy cp LAN t xa.v..v mt lot cc dch v hin
ang rt pht trin nhiu quc gia trn ton th gii. Nhng ngi s dng
ADSL cng l nhng khch hng c nhu cu nhn thng tin v nhiu hn l phn
thng tin m h gi i. Mt trong nhng u im ni bt ca ADSL l n c kh
nng cho php khch hng c th s dng ng thi mt ng dy in thoi
truyn thng cho hai dch v: thoi v ADSL. S d nh vy v ADSL tn dng

78
nng lc ca ng dy thoi bng cch truyn min tn s cao hn thoi bnh
thng (t 4400Hz n 1Mz) nn khng nh hng n tn hiu thoi. Trong
min tn s , d liu uplink c truyn tn s t 30KHz n 138KHz, cn
d liu downlink c truyn tn s t 156 KHz n 1MHz.
2.1 Cc k thut m ho ng truyn trong ADSL
Cc phng php iu ch CAP v DMT l cc m ng truyn s dng hu
ch cho vng tn s cao nm trn di bng tn thoi. Hai phng php m ho
ny l rt khc nhau v phng php thc hin, do b thu pht DMT khng
th tng thch vi b thu pht CAP.
2.1.1 M a tn ri rc DMT
2.1.1.1 M ho ng truyn a knh
Khi nim truyn dn a knh c s dng chng li i th quan trng-
"phn chia v chim", i th trong trng hp ny l c tnh ca cc ng
truyn DSL trn i cp ng xon. Phng php truyn dn a knh phn chia
cc ng DSL thnh hng trm cc ng truyn nh hn, d truyn hn. Tc
s liu l tng tc truyn trn cc knh nh ny. Phng php chung nht
ca phn chia l truyn dn trn cc bng tn hp khng c hin tng chng ln.
Phn "chim" y l cc m ng truyn n gin trn tng knh mang li
cht lng tt nht m khng c hin tng xuyn nhiu gia cc k hiu nh
khi truyn dn cc knh c bng tn ln.
M ha ng truyn a knh c cht lng cao nht v c bn c ti u
ha cho knh b hin tng xuyn nhiu. c im chnh ca truyn dn a knh
l lm tng thch tn hiu u vo vi cc c trng ring ca ng dy in
thoi. iu ny cho php nng cao ng k v c ly v tin cy, hai tham s
chnh lm nh hng n chi ph khi thit k h thng. Chnh v vy m truyn
dn a knh c s dng ph bin trong cc ng truyn DSL.
Dung lng ca mt knh truyn dn theo l thuyt l gii hn trn ca tc s
liu c th truyn dn mt cch tin cy. Trong mt knh AWGN khng c xuyn
nhiu, tc s liu cc i di dng bit/th nguyn thc l:
) ( log SNR c + = 1
2
1
2

trong SNR l t s nng lng pht ca k hiu trn mt ph cng sut ca
nhiu hoc SNR = /
2
(cn nhc li l cc th nguyn ca nhiu v tn hiu l
nh nhau). tnh tc s liu di dng bit/s ch cn nhn dung lng trn
vi s k hiu v tc k hiu.

T
N
c c . =
i vi cc m ng truyn c tc s liu cc i vi Pe nh nht, mt s
k thut phc tp c s dng. Mt s phng php iu ch/ m ha thc t
c c trng bi xc sut li k hiu c nh no nh tham s chnh lch
nh gi khng hiu qu ca tn hiu/tp m SNR so vi dung lng. Do vy
tc s liu t c khi s dng m l

79
) / ( log + = SNR b 1
2
1
2

Gi tr cng nh th m ha cng tt. Cc phng thc QAM v PAM c
trnh by trn c =9,8dB vi xc sut li 10
-7
. Cc phng thc m ha tt
c th gim gi tr ny t 3 ti 5 dB. Mt vi m c hiu qu rt cao (khng
xem xt y) c th gim gi tr ny t 1 n 2 dB (xem m Turbo v m lin
kt).
Phng thc truyn dn a knh em li cht lng cao c s dng trong
ng truyn ADSL. B cn bng ch c th hn ch mt phn hin tng xuyn
nhiu v c s dng trong s tch ti u mt phn. Khi hin tng xuyn
nhiu tr nn nghim trng, cc b cn bng tr nn rt phc tp v gim cht
lng cng ln so vi gi tr l thuyt. Gii php s dng y l phn chia
knh truyn dn thnh mt s cc knh AWGN nh hn. L thuyt ny do
Shannon a ra trong l thuyt ton thng tin ca ng nhm chia knh thnh mt
s ln cc knh AWGN bng tn hp. Cc knh ny thng c tch thnh cc
bng tn k tip nhau ring bit v gi l truyn dn a sng mang hay a tn
hiu. Nu cc knh truyn dn a tn hiu c bng tn hp th xuyn nhiu s
t hn hoc khng c v chng c th c xem l knh AWGN. Thay v s
dng cc b cn bng phc tp ch cn s dng cc b tch/ghp tn hiu ti v
t cc knh nh. Truyn dn a sng mang hin c tiu chun ha v s
dng do vic to cc knh nh n gin khi c cc b x l tn hiu s. B cn
bng cc sng mang rng c th c thay th bng s t hn cc b cn bng s
dng b sng mang hay a sng mang theo l thuyt ca Shannon v c th c
s dng hay hiu n gin hn. Dung lng ca knh s l tng ca cc knh
c lp song song vi nhau lm cho vic tnh ton tc s liu cc i ca knh
theo l thuyt hay s dng hiu qu ca SNR tnh cc tc thc t s n
gin hn.
Khi nim c bn v a tn ri rc hay ng truyn a knh c m t trn
hnh v sau. Trong trng hp ny ta xem xt hai ng truyn DSL c hin
tng xuyn nhiu ISI nghim trng, nu c truyn di dng knh n bng
rng. Ngi ta phn chia ph ca tn hiu pht thnh cc cc bng hp hn v cc
knh ny truyn qua knh d kin truyn ti thng tin. Cn ch l b thu c b
lc tng thch vi tng b lc thng bng pha pht do d dng to thnh b
thu ging nhau cc i (khng cn b tch m Viterbi ngay c knh c b lc
ph kht khe). Cc knh c cht lng tt hn s truyn ti nhiu thng tin hn
cc knh cn li. Nu cc knh ny hp th s khng cn n b cn bng.









bt/knh
Tn s
i dy xon
i dy xon c TAP,AM/RF v XTALK
xtalk
Suy hao
Suy hao

bt/knh
Tn s
Tn s
bt/knh
Tn s
Tn s
Tn s
AM
bt/knh

80





Hnh II-1 a tn ri rc

Tp hp cc t s tn hiu/tp m l rt cn thit tnh cht lng ca knh. Gi
thit l ta c N knh mi knh c
) / ( log + =
n
n SNR b 1
2
1
2

S bit trung bnh l tng s bit truyn trn mi knh chia cho s knh (gi thit
y l N) nh sau

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

= =
geo
N N
n
n
N
n
n
SNR
SNR SNR
N
b 1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
log log log

trong SNRgeo l t s tn hiu/ tp m v hnh hc hay gi tr trung bnh nhn
ca 1+SNR/.

|
.
|

\
|

+ =

=
1 1
1
1
N N
n
n
geo
SNR
SNR
Tng ca cc knh c lp song song c xem l nhiu trng Gaussian c
SNRgeo bng gi tr trung bnh nhn ca cc knh nh SNR. SNRgeo c th xem
nh SNR ca h thng cn bng thng bng v bng tn c bn. T s nhiu/tp
m SNRgeo c th c ci thin ng k khi phn b nng lng qua tt c hay
mt s knh khng ng u v cho php nng cao cht lng ca h thng. Qu
trnh ti u ha bit v phn b nng lng qua tp hp ca cc knh gi l phn
ti v s c nghin cu sau.
2.1.1.2 DMT
Modem ADSL da trn DMT bao gm rt nhiu (256) modem mini, mi modem
c bng tn khong 4kHz, hot ng ng thi. DMT s dng rt nhiu knh
mang to thnh cc knh con, mi knh con mang mt phn nh ca tng s
thng tin. Cc knh con ny c iu ch mt cch c lp vi tn s mang
tng ng vi tn s trung tm ca knh con v c x l song song. Mi knh
con c iu ch s dng QAM v c th mang t 0 n 15bit/symbol/Hz. S
bt thc t c mang trn mt knh ph thuc vo c tnh ng dy. Cc knh
con trung tm c th khng c s dng do giao thoa ngoi gia cc knh con.
DMT c minh ho trong Hnh II-2.





81







Hnh II-2 a tn ri rc

Theo l thuyt, di bng tn ln nht hng ln l 25 knh x 15
bit/symbol/Hz/knh x4KHz = 1,5 Mbps.
Di bng tn ln nht hng xung l: 249knh x15 bit/symbol/Hz/knh x4KHz
= 14,9 Mbps.
S iu ch DMT:






Hnh II-3 S iu ch DMT
M DMT chia bng tn thnh cc knh nh. Mi knh c mt sng mang ring,
khng ph thuc vo nhau. Tn hiu c a ti b m ho pha pht chia
thnh cc knh nh c sng mang ring, cc knh ny c kim tra xc nh
xem liu chng c th dng truyn thng tin hay khng, ri c bin i
Fourier ri rc ngc thc hin chuyn i t tn hiu phc sang tn hiu thc
v chuyn n b bin i D/A. Ti pha thu tn hiu c x l DFT gii m
chui bt thc ti thnh chui bit phc. Cc b DFT v IDFT dng phng php
bin i Fourier nhanh, c trnh by di y.
(1) Bin i Fourier nhanh cho DMT
Phng php bin i Fourier nhanh gim khi lng tnh ton trong DFT N
im t N
2
php nhn phc thnh Nlog
2
(N) php nhn phc trong N l hm
m ca 2 v gi thit ny c s dng trong phn ny. Cc h thng DSP hin
i nht ngy cng hiu qu khi s dng thut ton FFT c bit khi cc phng
thc truyn dn a knh DMT tr ln ph bin v n gin. C mt vi thut
ton FFT nhng y ch xem xt thut ton FFT c bn. Trong trng hp ca
DMT, ti gin ca FFT cho phn thu l c th khi nhn xt rng cc u vo FFT
l thc v tng t IFFT cho phn pht c th ti gin v u ra l thc. Phng
php n gin ha c m t di y.
DFT v nghch o ca n c biu din bi cp bin i

Upstream
POST
Downstream
0 4 40 1100
7 dB MAX
ADSL
Khng c s dng do
iu kin ng truyn
M ho Kim tra IDFT D/A
Knh thng tin
DFT Kim tra
Tn hiu
ra
Tn hiu
vo
Gii m

82

=
1
0
2
N
k
N
kn
j
k n e x X

=
=
1
0
2
1
N
n
N
kn
j
n k e X
N
x

. .
Trong h s 1/N trong phn nghch o thng c b qua v t l c xc
nh thng xuyn thng qua iu kin di ng ca b vi x l. Thut ton FFT
c bn li dng cu trc ca DFT v s dng phng php qui DFT c N t 2
DFT c N/2 cho php log2(N) trng thi qui to ra DFT t 2 DFT n gin.
n gin k hiu

N
j
N e W
2
=
v

n
n
N
n
1
2
N
0 k
kn
2
N
1 k 2
1
2
N
0 k
kn
2
N
k 2
1
2
N
0 k
n 1 k 2
N
1 k 2
1 N
0 k
1
2
N
0 k
kn 2
N
k 2
kn
N
k n
H W G
W x W x
W x W x W x X
.
. .
. . .
) (
+ =
+ =
+ = =

=
+

=
+
+

=

l qui mong mun ca DFT theo 2 DFT c kch c ch bng 1/2. Qu trnh s
lp li Log
2
(N) ln kt thc thut ton FFT. Bn cht vng lp c m t trn
Hnh II-4. Mi DFT c kch thc gim 1/2 c phn tch thnh DFT kch
thc 1/4. Cc u vo theo thi gian s c phn ra thnh cc tp hp chn v
l ( truyn qua tt c cc "tng" FTT) to nn cc ch s theo trt t v thi gian
c xc nh thng qua khi N im, c n gin bng ch s nh phn c
trnh t bt ngc. Trnh t bt ny c gi l a ch theo bt ngc s dng
trong cc chn la trong DSP c th lp trnh c. Mi trng thi ca DFT gm
N php nhn phc i vi cc ng dng n gin. Tuy nhin trn Hnh II-4 cng
cho thy cc php nhn phc c th c phn thnh 2 nhm thng qua thao tc
butterfly. Thao tc ny cho php rt gn t 8 cn 6 php tnh. Kt qu l c N/2
log
2
(N) butterfly trong mt FFT to ra 3Nlog
2
(N) php nhn thc.
S ti gin cho php cc chui theo thi gian trong DMT ca DSL l thc. i
vi cc chui phc c di N/2
{ } { } k k k y j y y + =
php tnh phc trong i s dn n
{ } { }
*
/

n N
n n k Y Y n ch Y y

+ =
2
2
1

v
{ } { }
*
/ n N
n n k Y Y l Y y j

=
2
2
1

c th to ra chui phc c di N/2 t chui thc c di N thng qua

83

1 2 2 +
+ =
k k k
jx x y k=0, ...,N/2-1
Bin i DFT ca chui x
k
c di N l X
n
. T kt qu ca FFT trn c th
nhn thy
nl
n
N
n nch n Y W Y X + =
l php tnh butterfly c N/4. Do c N/4log
2
(N/2) buterfly cho FFT phc c
N/2 to ra Yn cng thm vi N/4 butterfly to ra Xn t cc phn Yn chn v l
a ra tng s N/4log
2
(N) butterfly hay 1.5Nlog
2
(N) ch dn/ thao tc ng
dng v nh vy tit kim 2 ln so vi ng dng phc y .
Mt IFFT c th c FFT ng dng s dng cng thc
i vi IFFT trong phn pht ca DMT mt s cng thc tnh khc nhau c
s dng trong php bin i ngc nhm n gin cc php bin i phc-thc.
IFFT c th vit di dng
1 r 2 vik W X X W
r 2 vik W X X
W X W X x
nr
2
N
1
2
N
0 k
2
N
n
n
n
N
nr
2
N
1
2
N
0 k
2
N
n
n
1
2
N
0 n
2
N
n k
N
2
N
n
kn
N
n k
+ =

+ =

=
+

=
+
+

=
+
+

.
.
. .
) (

Hai chui theo tn s c di gim 1/2

n
N
N
n
n n
N
n
n n
W X X H
X X G

+
+
=
+ =
). (
2
2

c th c bin i ngc to ra cc mu theo thi gian chn v l. Dng
thp phn ca u ra IFFT m t trn Hnh II-5.
| |
*
*
) ( ) (
k
n X DFT
N
X IDFT
1
=








N/2 im
DFT
G
0
x
0

x
2

x
N-2

G1
G
N/2

N/2 im
DFT
H
0
x
1

x
3

x
N-1

H1
H
N/2-1
X
0

X
1

X
N/2-1

X
N/2

X
N/2+1
X
N-1

W
N
W
N
W
N
N/2-1

WN
N/2

W
N
N/2+
1
W
N
N-1

chn
l

84









Hnh II-4 Cu trc FFT









Hnh II-5 Cu hnh IFFT
Yu cu tnh ton cho IFFT hon ton ging cho FFT gm N/2log
2
(N) php ton
buterfly hay 3Nlog
2
(N) php ton thc.
Trong DMT cc gi tr thc u ra ca IFFT trong phn pht c th tn dng
trong mt na cc php tnh cn thit ca IFFT. iu ny c c l do tnh i
xng lin hp ca u vo DMT l
n n N X X
*
=
chui

*
2
2
N
n
n
N
n
n n X X X X G
+
+
+ = + =
l chn v chui

*
n
N
n
N
n
n n X X X X O

+
= =
2
2

l l; hm Hn=On.WN
-n
l chn. V tnh i xng lin hp ln Gn v Hn l nh
x N/4 do ch c N/4 gi tr khc nhau khi xk l s thc. Do vy c Gn v Hn
l chn v c cng u ra IFFT theo thi gian. Do vy chui

N/2 im
DFT
G
0
x0
x2
xN-2
G1
GN/2-1


N/2 im
DFT
H0
x1
x
3

x
N-1

H1
HN/2-1
X0
X1
XN/2-1
X
N/2

X
N/2+1

X
N-1

WN
0

WN
-1

WN
-N/2+1
-1
-1
-1
chn
l

85
1
2
0 = + =
N
vin jH G X
n
n n ,.....
~

c IFFT c N/2 l l gk+jk trong gk,jk l cc s thc. Tuy nhin t cc kt
qu nghin cu trc y chng ta c:
x
2k
=gk v x
2k+1
=hk cho k=0,....N/2-1
Do IFFT c 1/2 s phi thc thin thm N/4 butterfly do c Gn v Hn to ln
n/4log
2
(N) butterfly hay 1.5Nlog
2
(N) php tnh thc do IFFT tn dng tnh i
xng lin hp trong DMT ca DSLs. Tnh ton butterfly ph thuc vo N l mt
s dng 2n to thnh thut ton gi l c s 2. Nh xc nh tha s ca N bt k
trong cc tha s c bn c th xc nh c cc cu trc butterfly khc hu ch
v tnh ton hiu qu hn theo gi tr N mong mun.
Khi DMT c s dng lm phng php m ho cho ADSL th n to ra mt s
u im sau:
o Pht trin t cng ngh modem V34: modem V34 s dng mt s k thut
tin tin t c ti a tc d liu trn ng dy in thoi.
Modem ADSL da trn DMT l i din cho s tin ho t k thut ca
modem V34. Modem DMT s dng QAM, trit ting vng, m li a
kch c, v sp xp hnh sao.
o S thc thi: truyn c tc bit ti a trong cc khong bng tn nh
bi v cc knh con c lp c th thao tc mt cch ring bit vi cc
iu kin ng dy c xem xt. DMT o t s S/N mt cch ring bit
i vi mi knh con v n nh s bt c mang bi mi knh con
tng ng. Thng thng, cc tn s thp c th mang nhiu bt bi v
chng b suy hao nh hn ti tn s cao.
o Thch ng tc : DMT linh hot hn trong vic iu chnh tc truyn,
n c th thch ng tc d liu i vi iu kin ng dy c th. Mi
knh con mang mt s bt c th ph thuc vo t s S/N. Bng vic hiu
chnh s bit trn mt knh, DMT c th t ng iu chnh tc bt d
liu.
Nhc: Do c nhiu sng mang nn thit b rt phc tp v t
2.1.1.3 CAP
Phng php iu ch pha v bin khng sng mang ny da trn phng
php iu ch bin cu phng QAM. V th phng php ny hot ng
tng t nh phng php QAM. Tng t nh QAM, CAP s dng c iu ch
bin v iu ch pha, nh ch ra trong Hnh II-6.






86







Hnh II-6 Chm sao m ho cho CAP64
S khc nhau gia CAP v QAM trong vic thc hin chng. Vi QAM, hai tn
hiu c kt hp trong mt min tng t. Tuy nhin, do tn hiu sng mang
khng mang thng tin, nn CAP khng gi mt cht sng mang no. Tn hiu
iu ch c thc hin mt cch s ho nh s dng hai b lc s vi cc c
tnh bin cn bng v khc pha. Tn hiu iu ch ca CAP l s ch khng
phi l tng t do tit kim c chi ph. Tuy nhin chnh s vng mt ca
sng mang li to nn nhc im ca CAP l chm sao m ho ca CAP
khng c nh (trong khi chm sao m ho ca QAM l c nh). Do b thu
CAP phi c chc nng quay pht hin ra v tr c lin quan ca chm sao.
Di y l s thu pht tn hiu theo phng php iu ch CAP. Cc bt d
liu c a vo b m ho, u ra b m ho l cc symbol c a n cc
b lc s. Tn hiu sau khi qua b lc s ng pha v b lc s lch pha 90
0
s
c tng hp li, i qua b chuyn i D/A, qua b lc pht v ti ng
truyn.
Ti u thu, tn hiu nhn c qua b chuyn i A/D, qua cc b lc thch ng
v n phn x l sau l gii m. B lc pha thu v b x l l mt phn ca
vic cn bng iu chnh chnh mo tn hiu.












M ho
B lc s
ng pha
B lc s
trc giao
D/A Lc pht
A/D
B lc
thch ng 1
B lc
thch ng 2
B x l Gii m
0001
1011
0001
1010
1110
1101
1111
1100
0100
0101
0111
0110
0010
0011
1000
0000

87

Hnh II-7 Thu pht tn hiu theo phng php CAP
CAP to cc thun li sau:
o K thut hon thin pht trin t modem V34: Do CAP da trn QAM
mt cch trc tip, nn n l mt k thut hon thin d hiu, v do khng
c cc knh con nn thc thi n gin hn DMT.
o Thch ng tc : Trong CAP, vic thch ng tc c th t c bi
vic thay i kch c chm sao m ho (4-CAP, 64-CAP, 512-CAP)
hoc l bng cch tng hoc gim ph tn s dng.
o Mch thc hin n gin
Nhc im ca phng php CAP:
Khng c sng mang nn nng lng suy gim nhanh trn ng truyn, v cng
do khng c sng mang m tn hiu thu ch bit bin m khng bit pha do
u thu phi c b thc hin chc nng quay nhm xc nh chnh xc im tn
hiu.
C rt nhiu s bn ci v vic s dng DMT hay CAP lm m ng truyn cho
ADSL, mi phng php u c nhng u v nhc im ring ca n. DMT c
kh nng thch ng nhanh vi thay i ng dy, CAP cng c kh nng nh
vy. Nhng hin nay DMT c s dng lm m ng truyn cho ADSL. Tuy
nhin, theo s phn tch ban u th DMT c nhiu t chc chun ho ng
s dng truyn cho ADSL full-rate v ADSL Lite.
Tri ngc vi DMT, CAP s dng hon ton di bng kh dng (ngoi tr di
bng tn thoi), do khng c cc knh con trong CAP. Ni cch khc, DMT
v CAP u da trn QAM, nhng s khc nhau cn bn nht l DMT s dng
QAM trn mi knh con cn CAP phn b u nng lng qua ton di tn. Cc
h thng CAP s dng ghp phn chia theo tn s FDM tch cc tn s trong
knh hng ln v hng xung.
2.1.2 Cc phng php truyn dn song cng
Hu ht cc dch v DSL i hi hai chiu (song cng) trong vic truyn d liu,
thm ch tc bt theo cc hng ngc nhau l khng i xng. Cc modem
DSL s dng cc phng thc song cng tch bit cc tn hiu trn cc hng
ngc nhau. C 4 phng thc song cng khc nhau: song cng 4 dy, trit ting
vng, song cng phn chia theo thi gian, v song cng phn chia theo tn s.
Phng thc song cng trit ting vng v song cng phn chia theo thi gian
c s dng trong modem ADSL.
2.1.2.1 FDM
Trong phng php ny di tn c chia thnh hai phn ng ln v ng
xung khc nhau. hnh v di y th hin s phn chia vi fb
1
v fb
2
l
rng di tn hai bng.

88


Hnh II-8 Phn chia bng tn ca phng php FDM
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDM) ln lt truyn theo cc hng khc
nhau trong cc gii tn khng trng nhau, nh c ch ra trong hnh v trn.
Trn thc t, FDM khng c s dng nhiu, ct yu l v s thay i trong suy
yu ng truyn dn khng m bo v bng thng cn thit dnh cho hai
hng. FDM loi b NEXT nu tt c cc ng s dng cng khong bng
thng. Mt phng thc la chn FDM i vi ADSL (ph hp vi trit ting
vng) cho php dnh ring bng thng ti 138 kHz u tin cho ng truyn
hng ln v tun th theo chun ([7] T1.413). Phng thc ny thng c s
dng M. Tuy nhin, nng lc x l thng c tho hip trong cu hnh ny,
v bng thng hng ln hn ch tc d liu di mc mong mun i vi
mt vi dch v (v d: truy nhp Internet).
Nhiu h thng ADSL s dng k thut truyn dn ghp knh theo tn s, k
thut ny t truyn dn pht di tn s tch khi di tn thu trnh t xuyn
m. Di tn bo v l cn thit gip cho cc b lc ngn tp m POTS can nhiu
vo truyn dn s (Hnh II-9).









Hnh II-9 FDM ADSL
S thc hin truyn:
f
c1
Ln Xung
f
c2
f
b1
f
b2
f

Mc truyn
Tn s
Bng POTS
Bng bo v Bng pht
tc thp
Bng pht
tc cao

89

Hnh II-10 S thu pht theo FDM
Thng ng ln s dng bng tn thp, ng xung bng tn cao v bng
xung rng hn bng ln.
u im ca phng php FDM:
o Do bng tn ln v xung tch bit nn gim c can nhiu trong mt
i dy, trit c xuyn m u gn.
o Khng cn ng b gia pht v thu
Nhc im:
o Bng tn s dng ln, gy lng ph bng tn
o thnh phn tn s cao s b suy hao nhiu
o Khi khong cch tng ln, tn hiu trn ng dy chu nh hng ca
nhiu tn s, suy hao tn s cao r hn do tng suy hao tng
o Vn c xuyn m u gn trong hai i dy khc nhau do cc hng sn
sut khc nhau s dng cc bng tn khc nhau.
o nh hng ti cc dch v khc v b nh hng bi cc dch v khc do
tn s truyn cao
2.1.2.2 Phng php trit ting vng (EC)
Phng php kh ting vng EC s dng mt knh duy nht cho c pht v thu
nn cn c mt b kh ting vng pha thu. Mt s h thng ADSL s dng k
thut truyn dn xo ting vng ECH, ni di tn pht c t trong di tn thu.
Xem Hnh II-11. Bng cch chng di tn, tng bng tn truyn c th gim. Tuy
nhin, ECH kh trnh c t xuyn nhiu v khi thc hin cn c x l s phc
tp hn. C mt s bn khon l liu phc tp s c n b bng cch n
gin ho tng t u trc.


iu ch
(ln)
Gii iu ch
(xung)
Thu/Pht
lc
Thu/Pht
lc
Gii iu ch
(ln)
iu ch
(xung)
fc
1
fc
2
fc
1
fc
2
ln
xung

User 1 User 2

90








Hnh II-11 EC ADSL
Song cng trit ting vng, nh c ch ra trong Hnh II-12, t c tc
truyn d liu ca song cng 4 dy trn mt i dy xon. Trit ting vng l
dng ph bin nht ca ghp knh trong DSL hin i, ang c chun ho
s dng trong ISDN, HDSL, v ADSL. Ting vng l s phn x ca tn hiu
pht vo b thu u gn. Ting vng ng ngi l bi v cc tn hiu i theo c
hai hng ca truyn dn s v cng tn ti ng thi trn cc ng truyn dn
i dy xon, do vy ting vng l tp m khng mong mun. Ting vng l mt
phin bn b lt ra ca tn hiu pht. B trit tiu ting vng to ra mt bn sao
ca tn hiu pht b lt ra v loi b n ra khi tn hiu nhn. Mi tn xuyn qua
b trit ting vng trong Hnh II-12, c s dng rng ri trong vic x l tn
hiu s ch r mt b lc c hiu chnh thch hp bng cch s dng tn
hiu ng dy lm tn hiu iu khin.
Mch sai ng analog trong Hnh II-12 phn tch cc tn hiu pht khi cc tn
hiu nhn khi ng dy tr khng c kt hp mt cch chnh xc bng tr
khng sai ng ph hp. Khi cc tr khng ny khng th kt hp c vi nhau
mt cch chnh xc, m trong thc t iu ny hu nh l lun lun xy ra, th d
m ting vng ca tn hiu pht xut hin trong tn hiu nhn ca u ra mch sai
ng. Khi thit k knh mch sai ng tt thng t c 20 dB suy hao tn
hiu pht trc khi n ra khi u ra tn hiu nhn. Cc tn hiu ng dy s c
th b suy hao ti 40 dB, do vy ting vng c th l 20 dB vn ln hn tn hiu
u xa mong mun, kt qu l t l tn hiu trn tp m l khng th chp nhn
c trong vic tch tn hiu u xa. u vo ca b trit ting vng l tn hiu
truyn dn s c ly mu. u vo ny v cc mu trc y ca n c lu
tr trong dy tr s trong khong 100 n 200 micro giy. B trit ting vng
lm tng bi cc mu c lu tr ny bi cc h s ca b trit ting vng v
gp cc kt qu ny li hnh thnh nn mt d bo v ting vng, m sau b
loi b ra khi u ra mch sai ng. Cc h s trit ting vng tt nht ph
thuc vo ng truyn dn v v vy c quyt nh mt cch thch ng.




Mc truyn
Tn s
Bng POTS
Bng bo v Bng pht
tc thp
Bng pht
tc cao

91






Hnh II-12 Trit ting vng nhm tch bit tn hiu 2 dy
Cc b trit ting vng phi c kh nng loi b ting vng khong 50 dB hoc
cao hn i vi ISDN, khong 60dB hoc cao hn i vi HDSL, v khong trn
70 dB i vi ADSL. Cc mc trit ting vng l khc nhau bi v HDSL v
sau l ADSL s dng cc tn s cao hn s suy hao ln hn, iu c ngha
l b nhn phi gim ting vng tn s cao xung mc thp hn cc tn s nhn
nh nht. t c loi b ting vng cao, b trit ting vng phi quyt
nh cc h s ting vng tng thch vi chnh xc cao. Mt vi b trit ting
vng cng s dng cu trc ca cc thnh phn ting vng phi tuyn, khng th
i din ton b cc sn phm ca cc mu tn hiu c truyn. Trit ting vng
phc tp hn so vi ghp knh 4 dy. Tuy nhin, tin ti cc mc x l tn
hiu s cao trong VLSI, trit ting vng thm ch i vi hu ht cc trng hp
kh (ADSL) th thng c chi ph khng ng k v thng c s dng trong
thc t.
B trit ting vng a ra d bo ting vng c th c vit ngn gn theo cng
thc sau:
X * W d =
^

Trong d

l c tnh ca thnh phn ting vng d thuc v tn hiu nhn ti


u ra mch sai ng. W l vct ct ca cc h s b trit ting vng, v X l
vct tng xng (k hiu
*
th hin vic i ch) ca cc mu tn hiu truyn.
Sn phm bn trong ca hai vct m t v ton hc tng c trng s c hnh
thnh bi b trit ting vng. Cc gi tr trong vct ca cc u vo (X) ph
thuc vo vic la chn m ng dy t quyt nh hot ng v chnh
xc t c ca b trit ting vng. lm r tnh phc tp, tc ly mu ca
b pht ISDN t nht l 80 kHz, tng ng vi khong ly mu 12.5 s. V vy,
di hng ng ting vng 400 s ( tng ng vi kch c ca W v X) s i
hi t nht 32 h s, v do vy 32 (80,000) = 2,56 triu php tnh trn giy. Cc
b lc thng thp c s dng loi b tp m thng tng di ca cc
ting vng. HDSL v ADSL s dng cc bng tn rng hn, v do vy cc b lc
thng thp ca chng t c tc ng n di, nhng cc tc ly mu ca
chng cng vn kh cao, v thng dn n nhiu tnh ton hn. i vi HDSL
cc b trit ting vng c th cn 64 n 128 h s v 128 (800,000) = 100 triu
php tnh trn giy. i vi ADSL cc b trit ting vng c th cn n 300 h
s, nhng li dng tnh khng i xng v quay vng ca m ng DMT,
thng ch cn t 20 n 30 triu php tnh trn giy.
B trit
ting vng
W
Tn hiu pht iu ch
Mch sai ng
analog
(Tm cch loi b
ting vng bng mch
cn bng v d tnh
c nh tr khng
ng dy)
+
Mt vi ting
vng thot qua b sai ng do phi hp
tr khng khng hon ho
tn hiu nhn
khng c ting vng
ting vng
e
d
d
Ti b thu u gn

92
(1) Trit ting vng tng thch
Cc gi tr ca cc h s c th c quyt nh bi ci gi l thut ton cp nht
trung bnh bnh phng nh nht (LMS) [8], y l phng php stochastic-
gradient quyt nh v d tm cc gi tr h s ng, theo cch lp i lp li. Tn
hiu li b trit ting vng l:
d

d e =
v tng ng vi tn hiu nhn nu b trit ting vng ti to li mt cch
hon chnh ting vng v loi b ting vng . Tn hiu li ny cng c s
dng trong vic cp nht LMS:

*
k k k 1 k
X e W W u + =
+

trong k hiu k l ch s thi gian cp nht. Hng s quyt nh tnh hp l
gia chnh xc v tc d tm du vt.
Trit ting vng phi tuyn ra lnh cho trit ting vng pha trn bng cch thm
mt u ra bng tham chiu (RAM c xc nh bi vc t Xk) vo ting vng
d tnh (d). V tr ca bng tham chiu c quyt nh bi cc bt mu tn hiu
truyn quan trng nht ch i vi mt vi mu tng ng vi cc giai on thi
gian nhn, khi m hu nh nng lng ting vng c phn x li. Cp nht v
tr bng tham chiu c xc nh n gin bng cch ly trung bnh (gi tr mi
= gi tr c + (li)). l hng s quyt nh s cn i gia chnh xc v
vic d tm ca b trit ting vng phi tuyn.
Thit b ADSL dng CAP s s dng FDM, khng s dng k thut trit ting
vng; ngc li, k thut DMT li s dng k thut trit ting vng.
Phng php DMT trit ting vng gi thit rng t xuyn nhiu u gn (self-
NEXT) c th chp nhn c v rng bng tn c th c dng chung cho
c hai hng. Trit ting vng c s dng trong ISDN, HDSL, v ADSL. i
vi DMT trong ADSL, mt vi phng php n gin ha b trit ting vng
khng i xng c ngi ta s dng nhm gim phc tp ca cc phn
mm. Nu t xuyn nhiu u gn (self-NEXT) c th chp nhn c, cc b
trit ting vng s dng trong ADSL c chi ph thp hn cc b lc analog s
dng trong FDM, nhng chnh xc ca ADC s tng ln t 1 n 2 bt do
cn c s chn la phng php ph hp dung ha vi gi thnh Modem.
Trit ting vng ca DMT thng n gin hn so vi trit ting vng ca cc
phng php iu ch khc nh PAM, QAM, hoc CAP nh s dng b tng
hp ting vng vng ca Ho. Cc chc nng FFT v IFFT ca b thu pht DMT
c b trit ting vng c t m trn hnh v. p ng xung ca ting vng
thng di hn cc p ng xung hng i trn i dy xon, phn ln do nng
lng thot ra t u xa ca b thu pht v s r r khi qua mch hn hp. Do
vy, khong thi gian bo v ca DMT thng khng di m bo tn hiu
ting vng xut hin theo chu k. Melsa v Younce cho thy lm th no mt b
cn bng nh TEQ c th kt hp gim di p ng pha pht ca knh v
tuyn ting vng ch gii hn trong chu k bo v v c xem nh l gii php
thay th hoc b sung vo CES. V vy tn hiu quay tr v t b hn hp

93
(hybrid) l tng ca tn hiu u xa yk cho k hiu trong khi thi gian th k,
thnh phn ting vng vng dk v thnh phn ting vng phi vng wk [xk - xk
-1
].
Ngi ta mong mun thnh phn ting vng vng c th c xy dng mt
cch ton vn theo tn s bng b nhn N, hn l theo thi gian s dng cc b
nhn phc N
2
thc hin mt chui b lc di. Ch rng nhng thnh phn
ting vng khng tun hon c to thnh do phn ui ca p ng ting vng
vt qu di thi gian bo v.









Hnh II-13 Tng hp ting vng vng (CES): trit ting vng vi DMT
Ch c nhng thnh phn ting vng ny l cn xem xt trong min thi gian.
ng b khung c th phn b mt u ca h thng truyn dn, tc l chu k
k hiu DMT c lp li cng nh nhp ly mu. Cu hnh ny ti thiu
ho s phc tp ca CES (nhng c th lm tng phc tp u khng c
ng b khung). phc tp ca cc thnh phn ting vng tiu biu ny khng
qu 1/4 phc tp ca b trit ting vng trong ton b min thi gian. CES l
qu trnh n gin s dng p ng ting vng wk bit tnh ton ting vng
ti cc thi im chch ra ngoi ting vng tun hon. Sau b trit ting vng
c th c hon thin bng cch s dng b nhn tch lu h s N tng i nh
theo tn s. y l phn th hai ca b trit ting vng nm sau b thu FFT. y
l b trit ting vng tng thch n gin, thng c thc hin vi thut ton
LMS:
Wn
,k+1
= Wn
,k
+ uEn
,k
. Xn
,k

Jones a ra phng php ti thiu ho ton b vic tnh ton c hai u
truyn dn.
Cc h s CES theo min thi gian nhn c theo chu k nh IFFT. Do khng
cn cp nht i vi mi k hiu, phc tp c th c phn b theo thi gian
t c yu cu v tnh ton theo thi gian thc rt thp.




x
X
n,k

W
n

x
X
64-n,k

W
64-n

x
X
64+n,k
W
64+n
x
X
128-n,k
W
128-n
x
X
128+n,k
W
128+n

x
X
192-n,k
W
192-n
x
X
192+n,k

W
192+n
x
X
256-n,k

W
256-n

+

D
n,k


CO
IFFT
FFT
Hn hp
D
(2)
B trit ting vng
{W
n,k
}
n=0N/2

+
-
+
{E
n,k
}
n=0...N/2

{D
n,k
+Y
n,k
}
n=0...N/2
{X
n,k
}
n=0...N/2
+
+
-
+
+
+
x
k-1
W
k
[X
k
- X
k-1
]
Y
k
+ d
k
- w
k
x
k
+w
k
x
k-1

i dy
xon
X
k
{D
,k
}
n=0...N/2

{Y
n,k
}
n=0...N/2


94





Hnh II-14 B trit ting vng DMTsuy hao khng i xng cho ADSL ATU-C








Hnh II-15 B kh ting vng DMT ni suy cho ATU-R
i vi ADSL, theo Ho ghi ch thm, tnh khng i xng c th c s dng
gim phc tp trong tnh ton trit ting vng. Ti pha CO, phn truyn dn
ADSL ti tng i trung tm (ATU-C) c mt h s ly mu ADSL lung xung
bng 8 ln h s ly mu thu. iu ny c ngha l tn hiu ting vng c lp
li 7 ln cho mt m n nh c minh ho Hnh II-14. Trong min tn s
khng c s n gin ho. Tuy nhin, CES ch cn tnh ton mt trong 8 u ra
s dng h s trit ting vng nhn c t tn hiu pht ATU-C. Sai s c s
dng cho 8 h s ting vng tng ng l nh nhau do cn cn trng khi cp
nht b trit ting vng nu mt hoc nhiu k hiu u vo c gi tr nng lng
nh hn nhng u khc. Tuy nhin, tt c u vo nn c cp nht hoc s
dng nng lng r r t u ting vng. Hnh II-15 cho thy hnh nh ngc li
ca cc b trit ting vng DMT ni suy ti u xa ca truyn dn ADSL. Trong
trng hp ny, mi mt tn hiu pht ngc s to ra 8 ting vng tng ng
nh hnh v. Nh th b CES c rt gn thnh 8 CES nh song song, vi cng
u vo lp li 276kHz. H s gim phc tp l 8.
X
W
n

W
64-n
W
64+n
W
128-n
W
128+n
W
192-n
W
192+n
W
256-n


D
256-n,k


D
192+n,k


D
192-n,k


D
128+n,k


D
128-n,k


D
64+n,k


D
64-n,k


D
n,k


X
n,k
ATU-R
X X X
X X X X

95
2.2 c im k thut v cng ngh ADSL
2.2.1 Tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL
POTS POTS POTS
Frequency
Signal
Power
4 30 140 1 100
Frequency
Signal
Power
4 30 140 1 100
Downstream ADSL Channel Downstream ADSL Channel
Upstream
ADSL
Channel
Upstream
ADSL
Channel

Hnh II-16 Phn b tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL khng dng EC
POTS POTS POTS
Frequency
Signal
Power
4 30 140 1 100
Frequency
Signal
Power
4 30 140 1 100
Downstream ADSL Channel Downstream ADSL Channel
Upstream
ADSL
Channel
Upstream
ADSL
Channel

Hnh II-17 Phn b tri ph ca tn hiu ADSL s dng EC

96
Frequency [kHz]
Signal
Power
4 25 138 1 104
Frequency [kHz]
Signal
Power
4 25 138 1 104
Downstream
Data
(6) 33-256
Downstream
Data
(6) 33-256
Upstream
Data
6-31
Upstream
Data
6-31
256 channels 256 channels
Channel
Spacing
4.3125 kHz
Channel
Spacing
4.3125 kHz

Hnh II-18 Phn b cc sng mang ph ca tn hiu ADSL s dng cng ngh
DMT
2.2.2 M hnh tham chiu h thng ADSL
Cp modem ADSL kt ni my tnh ngi s dng vi mng thng tin thng qua
cc kt ni ADSL. Theo yu cu ca ni dung ny, c T1E1.4 trong ANSI
T1.413 v TR-001 trong ADSL Forum u nh ngha m hnh tham chiu cho
kt ni ADSL. Bi v m hnh ca ADSL Forum l m rng tham chiu ca
ANSI T1.413, chng ta s s dng m hnh ANSI T1.413 cho nhng tho lun
v lp con PMD ca lp vt l.
T tri sang phi theo Hnh II-19 ta c.
V-C Giao din im truy nhp v mng d liu
U-C2 Giao din ADSL ti ATU-C khng c bng thoi POTS (0 n 4kHz)
U-C Giao din ADSL ti ATU-C bao gm bng thoi
U-R Giao din ADSL ti ATU-R bao gm bng thoi
U-R2 Giao din ADSL ti ATU-R khng c bng thoi
T-R Giao din ADSL gia ATU-R v mng trong nh thu bao*
T-S Giao din gia mng trong nh thu bao v my ch ca khch hng
* Mng phn b trong nh thu bao c th l mt mng cc b chng hn nh
mng LAN hoc c th khng phi l nh th trong trng hp mt kt ni trc
tip gia mt modem v mt PC hoc mt card modem cm trong ADSL v bus
my tnh.

97

















Hnh II-19 M hnh tham chiu ca din n ADSL
Theo yu cu ca chng ny cc giao din U-C v U-R, T-R v T-S c kt
hp li. Chng s c gi l cc giao din S v T.
M hnh chun ca h thng ADSL ca ITU-T m t cc khi chc nng c s
dng cung cp dch v ADSL (Hnh II-20).
Hnh II-20 M hnh chun ca h thng ADSL.
Ch 1: Cc giao din U-C v U-R c nh ngha y trong tiu chun
ca ITU. Giao din V-C v T-R ch c nh ngha theo cc chc nng logic,
khng phi vt l.
Mng
bng rng
B tch
R
B tch
C
PSTN
NT T-
R
SM
SM
P
H
Y
V-C
U-C
U-C 2
U-R
U-R 2
HPF
LP
F
ng tn
hiu
Giao din
ATU-C
POTS
T/S
P
H
Y
ATU-R
mch vng
Mng
gia nh
Mng
bng
rng
in thoi hoc
modem m tn

HPF
LPF
Mng bng
rng
Mng bng hp
L

p

v

t

l
ATU-C
h-p
l-p
h-p
l-p
L

p

v

t

l
ATU-R
Mng khch
hng
in thoi, modem
bng tn thoi, u
cui ISDN
Giao din
nt dch v
Giao din
nt dch v
PSTN hoc ISDN
V- C
U- C U- R
T/S
R - T
Mng li Mng truy cp
u cui
mng 1
u cui
mng 2
Chuyn i
khch hng
u cui
khch hng
SNI XNI XNI
XNI: Giao din truy cp mng
SNI: Giao din pha tng i
U- C2
U- R2
B chia
C
B chia
R

98
Ch 2: Giao din V-C c th bao gm mt (hay nhiu) giao din V-C ni vi
mt (hay nhiu) h thng chuyn mch (STM hoc ATM).
Ch 3: Khi cc phn t c ghp thnh mt khi chung th vic to ra cc
giao din V-C v T-R l khng bt buc.
Ch 4: C th ghp mt hay nhiu b lc thng cao ca b chia vi khi
ATU-x, khi cc giao din U-C 2 v U-R 2 tr thnh cc giao din U-C v
U-R.
Ch 5: C th xen cc thit b truyn dn s vo giao din V-C.
Ch 6: Do tnh cht khng i xng ca cc tn hiu trn ng dy nn cc
tn hiu pht phi c xc nh ring bit ti giao din U-C v U-R.
Ch 7: C th c nhiu loi giao din T-R c nh ngha v c th c
nhiu giao din T/S c cung cp t ADSL NT.
T
Hnh II-21 n Hnh II-24 khng phi l nhng yu cu hay xut cho vic xy
dng cc b thu pht DMT. Chng ch yu ch l cc m hnh tr gip vic m
t cc dng sng tn hiu DMT c ngn gn v chnh xc. Trong cc hnh trn,
Z
i
l knh sng mang ph DMT (nh ngha theo min tn s) th i v x
n
l mu
u ra IDFT (nh ngha trong min thi gian) th n. Khi x l DAC v x l
tng t trong cc hnh t
Hnh II-21 n Hnh II-24 to nn dng tn hiu in p lin tc tng ng vi
cc mu tn hiu s u vo ri rc. Vic s dng nhng hnh ny nh mt m
hnh tham chiu ca b pht cho php tt c cc dng sng tn hiu ban u c
m t qua dy k hiu DMT {Z
i
}, cn thit cho qu trnh to ra tn hiu. S khc
bit cho php v c tnh ca khi x l tng t v bin i s-tng t s to
ra cc dng sng in p lin tc theo thi gian khc nhau i vi cng mt tn
hiu ban u. Tuy nhin, mt b pht mm do s pht ra tn hiu ban u sao
cho chui sng mang ph DMT c to ra s ph hp vi dng tn hiu.
2.2.3 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C
ATM v STM l nhng ng dng tu chn. ATU-C v ATU-R c th c cu
hnh truyn ti ng b bit STM hoc truyn ti t bo ATM. Cu hnh lai
ghp (ngha l ng thi c mt s ng dng chy trn ATM, s khc th khng)
khng thuc ni dung ca tiu chun ny.
Nu giao din U-C da trn ng b bit STM (ngha l khng c t bo ATM
trn giao din U-C) th ATU-C c cu hnh truyn ti STM Nu giao din
U-C da trn ATM (ngha l ch c t bo ATM trn giao din U-C) th ATU-C
c cu hnh cho truyn ti ATM.
Nu giao din U-R da trn ng b bit STM (ngha l khng c t bo ATM
trn giao din U-R) th ATU-C c cu hnh truyn ti STM. Nu giao din
U-R da trn ATM (ngha l ch c t bo ATM trn giao din U-R) th ATU-R
c cu hnh cho truyn ti ATM.
2.2.3.1 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti STM

99

Hnh II-21 l s khi ca b thu pht ADSL pha nh cung cp biu din
cc khi chc nng v giao din c chun ho trong tiu chun ny cho truyn
ti s liu STM ng xung.

iu
khin
ghp
knh/
ng
b
AS0
AS1
AS2
AS3
LS0
LS1
LS2
NTR
OAM
V-C
EOC/AOC
ib
crcf
crc
i
Trn
&FEC
Trn
&FEC
Xen
Sp
xp
Tone
"Cc bt"
M ho
chm
sao v
xc nh
t l
khuch
i
IDFT
B m
u ra
song song/
ni tip
X l tng t v
DAC
"Cc bt"&
khuch i
511
510
480
1
n=0
Zi
i=1 n 255
C
M ho khung
d liu u vo
B
Khung d liu
u ra
A
Ghp khung
d liu
im tham chiu
Ch - Cc ng lin v t nt c s dng ch cc yu cu gia cc kh nng la chn tng ng. Hnh ny khng nhm mc ch chi
tit c th. Chi tit c th phn 6 v 7

Hnh II-21. M hnh chun b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti STM.
Vic cung cp STM l tu chn, tuy nhin nu c th n s phi tho mn cc yu
cu sau:
Kiu truyn ti STM c bn l chui bit ni tip
Kiu khung s dng phi bo ton cho cc byte ranh gii nu xut hin
ti giao din V-C.
Ngoi cc giao din ni tip ASx/LSx th byte s liu MSB c pht i
trc. Tuy nhin, tt c qu trnh x l ni tip trong khung ADSL (v
d CRC, trn,) s thc hin LSB trc (MSB bn ngoi s c
ADSL xem nh l LSB). Kt qu l bit ti trc (MSB bn ngoi) s l
bit c x l u tin trong ADSL (ADSL LSB).
Thit b ADSL phi h tr ti thiu knh ti ng xung AS0 v LS0.
Vic h tr cc knh khc l tu chn.
Trong hai lung biu din gia khi iu khin v sp xp Tone; lung
nhanh c tr thp; lung xen c t s li rt thp nhng tr ln
hn. H thng ADSL h tr STM phi c kh nng hot ng trong ch
tr kp i vi hng xung (s liu ngi s dng c phn cho
c hai lung nhanh v lung xen), v ch tr n cho c hai hng
ln v xung (tt c s liu ngi s dng c phn cho mt lung,
hoc l lung nhanh hoc lung xen). H thng ADSL h tr truyn ti
STM c kh nng hot ng trong ch tr kp tu chn cho ng

100
ln, trong d liu ngi s dng phn b cho c hai lung (nhanh v
xen).
2.2.3.2 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti ATM
Hnh II-22 l s khi ca b thu pht ADSL pha tng i, biu din cc
khi chc nng v giao din c chun ho trong tiu chun ny cho truyn ti
s liu ATM ng xung.
iu
khin
ghp
knh/
ng
b
ATM0
NTR
OAM
V-C
EOC/AOC
ib
crcf
crc
i
Trn
&FEC
Trn
&FEC
Xen
Sp
xp
Tone
"Cc bt"
M ho
chm
sao v
xc nh
t l
khuch
i
IDFT
B m
u ra
song song/
ni tip
X l tng t v
DAC
"Cc bt"&
khuch i
511
510
480
1
n=0
Zi
i=1 n 255
C
M ho khung
d liu u vo
B
Khung d liu
u ra
A
Ghp khung
d liu
im tham chiu
Ch - Cc ng lin v t nt c s dng ch cc yu cu gia cc kh nng la chn tng ng. Hnh ny khng nhm mc ch chi
tit c th. Chi tit c th phn 6 v 7
Cell TC
AS0
ATM1 Cell TC
AS1

Hnh II-22 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-C cho truyn ti ATM
Vic cung cp ATM l tu chn, tuy nhin nu c th n s phi tho mn cc
yu cu sau:
Cc byte ranh gii ti giao din V-C phi c bo ton trong khung s
liu ADSL.
Ngoi giao din ni tip Asx/LSx, cc byte MSB s c pht trc.
Tuy nhin, tt c qu trnh x l trong khung ADSL (v d CRC,
trn,) s c thc hin LSB trc (MSB bn ngoi s c ADSL
xem nh l LSB). Vi kt qu th bit ti trc (MSB bn ngoi) s l
bit c x l u tin trong ADSL (bit LSB), v bit CLP ca mo u
ATM s mang bt MSB ca khung ADSL (c ngha l chng c x l
sau)
Thit b ADSL phi h tr ti thiu knh ti ng xung AS0. Vic h
tr cc knh khc l tu chn.
Trong hai lung biu din gia khi iu khin ghp knh/ng b v
sp xp Tone; lung nhanh c tr thp; lung xen c t s li rt
thp nhng tr ln hn. Vic phn phi d liu ngi s dng giao
din V-C vo cc lung dn c nh ngha trong phn 2.4. H thng
ADSL h tr ATM s c kh nng hot ng trong ch n, trong
tt c s liu ngi s dng c phn b cho mt lung (lung nhanh
hoc lung xen). H thng ADSL h tr truyn ti ATM c kh nng

101
hot ng trong ch tr kp tu chn, trong s liu ngi s dng
phn b cho c hai lung (nhanh v xen).
2.2.4 Cc m hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R
2.2.4.1 M hnh chun b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti STM
Hnh II-23 l s khi chc nng v giao din chun ho ca b pht ATU-R
cho truyn ti d liu STM ng ln.
iu
khin
ghp
knh/
ng
b
LS0
OAM
T-R
EOC/AOC
crcf
crc
i
Trn
&FEC
Trn
&FEC
Xen
Sp
xp
Tone
"Cc bt"
M ho
chm
sao v
xc nh
t l
khuch
i
IDFT
B m
u ra
song song/
ni tip
X l tng t v
DAC
"Cc bt"&
khuch i
63
62
61
1
n=0
Zi
i=1 n 31
C
M ho khung
d liu u vo
B
Khung d liu
u ra
A
Ghp khung
d liu
im tham chiu
Ch - Cc ng lin v t nt c s dng ch cc yu cu gia cc kh nng la chn tng ng. Hnh ny khng nhm mc ch chi
tit c th. Chi tit c th phn 6 v 7
LS1
LS0
LS2

Hnh II-23 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti STM.
Vic cung cp STM l tu chn, tuy nhin nu c th n s phi tho mn cc yu
cu sau:
Kiu truyn ti STM c bn l dy bit ni tip
Kiu khung s dng c cc byte ranh gii c bo ton nu xut hin
ti giao din T-R.
Ngoi cc giao din ni tip LSx th MSB trong byte s liu c pht
i trc. Tuy nhin, tt c qu trnh x l trong khung ADSL (v d
CRC, trn,) s c thc hin LSB trc (MSB bn ngoi s c
ADSL xem nh l LSB). Vi kt qu th bit ti trc (MSB bn
ngoi) s l bit c x l u tin trong ADSL (bit LSB).
Thit b ADSL phi h tr ti thiu mt knh ti ng ln LS0 nh
nh ngha trong mc. Vic h tr cc knh khc l tu chn.
Trong hai lung gia khi iu khin ghp knh/ng b v sp xp
Tone; lung nhanh c tr thp; lung xen c t s li rt thp nhng
tr ln hn. Vic phn b d liu ngi s dng giao din T-R vo
cc lung truyn dn c nh ngha trong. H thng ADSL h tr
STM s c kh nng hot ng trong ch tr n trong mt hng,

102
trong tt c s liu ngi s dng c phn b cho mt lung
(lung nhanh hoc lung xen). H thng ADSL h tr truyn ti STM
c kh nng hot ng trong ch tr kp cho ng ln, trong s
liu ngi s dng phn b cho c hai lung (nhanh v xen).
2.2.4.2 M hnh chun ho b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti ATM
Hnh II-24 l s khi chc nng v giao din chun ho ca b pht ATU-R
cho truyn ti s liu ATM ng ln.
iu
khin
ghp
knh/
ng
b
ATM0
OAM
T-R
EOC/AOC
crcf
crc
i
Trn
&FEC
Trn
&FEC
Xen
Sp
xp
Tone
"Cc bt"
M ho
chm
sao v
xc nh
t l
khuch
i
IDFT
B m
u ra
song song/
ni tip
X l tng t v
DAC
"Cc bt"&
khuch i
63
62
61
1
n=0
Zi
i=1 n 31
C
M ho khung
d liu u vo
B
Khung d liu
u ra
A
Ghp khung
d liu
im tham chiu
Ch - Cc ng lin v t nt c s dng ch cc yu cu gia cc kh nng la chn tng ng. Hnh ny khng nhm mc ch chi
tit c th. Chi tit c th phn 6 v 7
LS0
ATM1
Cell TC
LS0
Cell TC
LS1

Hnh II-24 M hnh chun ca b pht ATU-R cho truyn ti ATM
Vic cung cp ATM l tu chn, tuy nhin nu c th n s phi tho mn cc
yu cu sau:
Byte ranh gii ti giao din T-R phi c bo ton trong khung s liu
ADSL.
Ngoi giao din ni tip LSx cc byte MSB s c pht trc nh
trong khuyn ngh I.361 v I.432.1. Tuy nhin, tt c qu trnh x l
trong khung ADSL (v d CRC, trn,) s c thc hin LSB trc
(MSB bn ngoi s c ADSL xem nh l LSB). Vi kt qu th bit
ti trc (MSB bn ngoi) s l bit c x l u tin trong ADSL (bit
LSB), v bit CLP ca mo u ATM s mang byte MSB ca khung
ADSL (c ngha l chng c x l sau)
Thit b ADSL phi cung cp t nht l knh ti ng ln LS0. Vic
cung cp cc knh khc l tu chn.
Trong hai lung gia khi iu khin ghp knh/ng b v sp xp
Tone; lung nhanh cung cp tr thp; lung xen cung cp t s li rt
thp v tr ln hn. H thng ADSL h tr ATM s c kh nng hot
ng trong ch tr n, trong tt c s liu ngi s dng c

103
phn b trong mt lung (lung nhanh hoc lung xen). H thng
ADSL h tr truyn ti ATM c kh nng hot ng trong ch tr
kp tu chn cho ng ln, trong s liu ngi s dng phn b cho
c hai lung (lung nhanh v lung xen).
2.3 Dung lng truyn ti
H thng ADSL c th truyn dn ng thi 7 lung d liu trn 7 knh ti tin:
C th ti 4 knh ti tin n cng c lp ng xung hng t nh
khai thc mng (giao din V-C) n thu bao (giao din T-R) .
C th ti 3 knh ti tin song cng (2 chiu gia nh iu hnh mng v
thit b thu bao).
Ba knh ti tin song cng c th c cu hnh lun phin thnh cc knh ti tin
n cng c lp, v tc ca chng theo hai hng (t nh cung cp ti CI v
ngc li) m khng cn phi tng thch vi nhau.
Tc ca cc knh ti tin c thit lp l mt bi s ca 32 kbit/s. Khun
dng ghp knh d liu ADSL phi linh hot c kh nng truyn cc tc
khc nh l cc phn knh da trn lung 1,544 Mbit/s nhng vic h tr cc tc
ny (khng phi l bi s nguyn ca 32 kbit/s) s b hn ch do dung lng
ADSL hin c phi thc hin vic ng b h thng (xem ch 1 v 2)
Dung lng truyn ti d liu mng ti a ca h thng ADSL s ph thuc vo
cc c tnh ca mch vng v vic la chn cu hnh s nh hng n thng tin
mo u m h thng s dng (xem ch 3). Cc tc ca cc knh ti tin ca
h thng ADSL c thit lp trong giai on khi to v hun luyn.
Dung lng truyn ti ca mt h thng ADSL ch c nh ngha theo cc
knh ti tin. Tuy nhin khi h thng ADSL thit lp trn mt ng dy c mang
tn hiu thoi POTS hoc tn hiu ISDN th dung lng tng cng c tnh l
dung lng ca POTS hoc ISDN cng vi dung lng ADSL.
H thng ADSL c s khc nhau gia truyn ti d liu ng b (STM) v
khng ng b (ATM). Khi ATU-x c cu hnh h tr truyn ti STM
hoc truyn ti ATM. Cc knh ti c cu hnh truyn dn d liu STM
cng c th mang d liu ATM. Thit b ADSL c kh nng h tr truyn ti
ng thi c STM v ATM, nhng n nm ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh ny.
Nu ATU-x h tr mt knh ti tin no th n phi h tr cho knh ny c
hai lung nhanh v xen.
Ngoi ra, h thng ADSL c th truyn ti c tn hiu nh thi chun ca
mng.(NTR).
Ch 1: Mt phn mo u ca h thng ADSL c dng chung gia cc
knh ti tin cho ng b. Phn cn li ca tc d liu mi knh vt qu
bi s 32 kbt/s s c truyn ti trong phn mo u dng chung ny. Ch
c kiu lp khung 0 h tr cc tc khng phi l bi s ca 32 kbit/s.
Ch 2: Tc ca cc knh ti tin phi c thit lp l bi nguyn ca 32
kbit/s. Tuy nhin, ADSL cn phi c kh nng hot ng vi tc DS1

104
(1,544 Mbit/s). ng b d liu v phn mo u cho php h thng ADSL
cung cp dung lng truyn ti thng sut lung d liu tc DS1
(ngha l ton b tn hiu DS1 c th c truyn thng qua tuyn truyn dn
ADSL m khng cn thng dch hoc tch b cc bit to khung v phn mo
u).
Ch 3: Mt khu trong qu trnh khi to v hun luyn s nh gi cc c
tnh ca mch vng v xc nh xem liu s lng byte trong mi khung DMT
m tc d liu tng ng ca cu hnh yu cu c kh nng truyn trn
mch vng cho ny hay khng. Tc d liu thc bng tc d liu
tng hp tr i phn mo u. Mt phn trong phn mo u ca h thng
ADSL ph thuc vo cc ty chn v cu hnh, v d nh s phn b cc knh
ti tin cho cc b m d liu xen hay khng xen trong cu trc khung ca tn
hiu ADSL v mt phn trong phn mo u ca h thng ADSL c gi c
nh.
Ch 4: Tr truyn dn ca h thng ADSL gia cc hng truyn dn ln v
xung c th khc nhau.
2.3.1 Truyn ti d liu STM
Cc h thng ADSL truyn ti STM s h tr knh ti tin n cng AS0 v song
cng LS0 hng xung. Vic h tr cc knh ti tin AS1, AS2, AS3, LS1 v LS2
l tu chn. Cc knh AS0, LS0 v bt k knh ti tin no khc c h tr s
c phn b c lp ti mt lung tr theo s la chn ca ATU-C trong qu
trnh khi to. H thng s h tr tr kp hng xung.
Cc h thng ADSL truyn ti STM phi c knh song cng LS0 hng ln s
dng lung tr n. Vic cung cp cc knh LS1, LS2 v tr kp l khng bt
buc.
Knh AS0 s h tr truyn ti d liu ti tc l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s t 32
kbit/s n 6.144 Mbit/s. Knh LS0 phi h tr tc 16 kbit/s v cc tc l
bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s t 32 kbit/s n 640 kbit/s.
Khi cc knh AS1, AS2, AS3, LS1 v LS2 c s dng th tc ca chng
phi nm trong di l cc bi nguyn ln ca 32 kbit/s (xem Bng II-1). Vic a
ra cc tc l bi s ca 32 kbit/s vt qu nhng gi tr trong Bng II-1 l tu
chn. Vic h tr cc tc khng l bi s nguyn ca 32 kbit/s cng l tu
chn.
Bng II-1 Bi s ca 32 kbit/s yu cu cho truyn ti STM.
Knh ti tin
Bi s nguyn
nh nht
Bi s nguyn ln
nht
Tc d liu cao
nht tng ng
(kbit/s)
AS0 1 192 6144
AS1 1 144 4608
AS2 1 96 3072
AS3 1 48 1536

105
LS0 1 20 640
LS1 1 20 640
LS2 1 20 640
Bng II-2 m t cc nh ngha v thut ng s dng cho truyn ti STM. Cc
im tham chiu trong bng c biu din trong cc t
Hnh II-21 n Hnh II-24.
Bng II-2 Thut ng tc d liu cho truyn ti STM
Tc d liu
Phng trnh
(kbit/s)
im chun
Tc d liu STM = "Tc d liu thc" (B
I,
B
F
) 32
(Ch )
ASx + LSx
"Tc d
liu thc"
+ Tc mo u khung = "Tc d liu kt hp" (K
I,
K
F
) 32 A
"Tc d
liu kt hp"
+ Tc mo u m
ho RS
= "Tc d liu tng" (N
I,
N
F
) 32 B
"Tc d
liu tng"
+ tc mo u m ho
Trellis
= Tc ng truyn b
i
4 U
Ch Tc d liu thc tng ln 16 kbit/s nu s dng knh C 16 kbit/s.
2.3.2 Truyn ti d liu ATM
Cc h thng ADSL truyn ti ATM phi h tr ch tr n (xem ch 1) i
vi tt c cc tc l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s ti 6144 kbit/s theo hng
xung, v ti 640 kbit/s theo hng ln. i vi ch tr n, d liu ATM
phi c sp xp vo knh AS0 hng xung v LS0 hng ln. Cn ch
trong cc kiu khung 0, 1 v 2 mo u khung tn ti trong c hai lung tr mc
d ti ch c phn b tr n.
Yu cu s dng tr kp cho cc dch v ATM ph thuc vo c tnh ng
dng/dch v v hin cn ang c nghin cu. Mt trong ba kiu tr sau c
th c s dng:
Tr n, khng nht thit nh nhau cho mi hng truyn dn;
Hng xung tr kp, hng ln tr n;
Tr kp cho c hng ln v xung.
Cc h thng ADSL truyn ti ATM phi h tr knh AS0 hng xung v LS0
hng ln, vi mi knh trong s c phn b lung tr mt cch c lp
theo s la chn ca khi ATU-C lc khi to. Do , vic cung cp tr kp cho
c hng ln v xung l tu chn.
Nu d liu ATM hng xung c truyn qua lung tr n (ngha l ch c
lung nhanh hoc lung xen) th ch c knh AS0 c s dng v n c phn
b cho lung tr tng ng. Nu d liu ATM hng xung c truyn qua c
hai lung tr (ngha l c nhanh v xen) th knh AS0 v AS1 c s dng v

106
chng c phn b trong cc lung tr khc nhau, tc l c tr truyn dn khc
nhau.
Tng t, nu d liu ATM hng ln c truyn qua lung tr n (ngha l
nhanh hay xen) th ch c knh LS0 c s dng v n c phn b cho lung
tr tng ng. Vic la chn lung nhanh hay xen ca hng ln khng ph
thuc vo s la chn ca hng xung. Nu d liu ATM hng ln c
truyn qua c hai lung tr (ngha l c nhanh v xen) th ch c knh LS0 v
LS1 c s dng v chng c phn b cho cc lung tr khc nhau.
Knh ti tin AS0 phi h tr vic truyn ti d liu c tc l bi nguyn ca
32 kbit/s t 32 n 6144 kbit/s. Knh LS0 phi h tr vic truyn ti d liu c
tc l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s t 32 n 640 kbit/s. Vic h tr truyn ti d
liu c tc khng l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s l tu chn.
Khi h thng cung cp cc knh AS1 v LS1 th cc knh ny cng phi h tr
cc tc l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s (xem Bng II-1). Vic h tr cc tc l
bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s khng c ch ra trong Bng II-1 l tu chn. Vic h
tr cc tc khng phi l bi nguyn ca 32 kbit/s cng l tu chn.
Khi ATU-x c chc nng ATM khng c cung cp cc knh AS2, AS3 v
LS2.
Ch : Trong cc h thng ATM, phn knh cho ti s c nhng trong dng
d liu ATM s dng lung o/knh o khc nhau. Do , yu cu c bn i
vi ATM l ch c mt knh ti tin ADSL hng xung v mt knh ti tin
ADSL hng ln.
Bng II-3 Thut ng tc d liu cho truyn ti ATM.
Tc d liu
Phng trnh
(kbit/s)
im
chun
53 8 tc t bo ATM = "tc d liu thc" (B
I,
B
F
) 32 ASx + LSx
"tc d
liu "
+ Tc mo u khung = "tc d liu kt hp" (K
I,
K
F
) 32 A
"tc d
liu kt
hp"
+ Tc mo u m ho
RS
= "tc d liu tng" (N
I,
N
F
) 32 B
"tc d
liu tng"
+ Tc mo u m ho
Trellis
= Tc ng truyn b
i
4 U
Bng II-3 m t cc nh ngha v thut ng s dng cho truyn ti STM. Cc
im chun tham thiu c biu din trong cc
Hnh II-21 n Hnh II-24.
2.3.3 Tc bit tng v cc mo u h thng ADSL
Tc bt tng c truyn qua h thng ADSL khi hot ng trong ch to
khung mo u rt gn bao gm:
Tc d liu truyn trong cc knh ti ADSL
Mo u h thng ADSL bao gm:

107
knh nghip v nhng, EOC
knh iu khin mo u, AOC
byte kim tra CRC
cc bt ch th c nh cho OAM
cc byte d FEC
Khi hot ng ch mo y y , tc bt tng s bao gm c cc byte
iu khin ng b v dung lng cc knh ti iu khin ng b.
Cc lung d liu k trn c sp xp vo cc khung ADSL v cc siu khung.
Cc knh mo u ni b v tc ca chng c ch ra trong Bng II-4.
Bng II-4 Tc v cc chc nng knh mo u
Tc ng xung
(kbit/s) nh nht/ln
nht
Tc ng ln
(kbit/s)
nh nht/ln nht

S cc
knh ti
ASx
> 1
S cc knh
ti ASx
= 1
S cc
knh ti
LSx
> 1
S cc
knh ti
LSx
= 1
iu khin ng b, CRC
v AOC; b m xen

32/32

32/32

32/32

32/32
iu khin ng b,
CRC, EOC, cc bt ch
th; b m nhanh

32/32

32/32

32/32

32/32
Tng ca kiu khung mo
u rt gn
32/64
(ch 2)
32/64
(ch 2)
32/64
(ch 2)
32/64
(ch 2)
Dung lng ng b
(dng cho tt c cc knh
ti)
64/128
(ch 3)
64/96
(ch 3)
32/64
(ch 3)
32/32
(ch 3)
Tng s (ch 1) 128/192 128/160 96/128 96/96

108
Ch 1 Cc mo u cho FEC khng c trong bng ny.
Ch 2 Vi ch to khung rt gn, mo u mt h thng ADSL 32 kbit/s
s xut hin trong tng kiu b m. Tuy nhin, khi tt c ASx v LSx c n
nh trong mt kiu b m th cc bt ch nh, CRC, AOC, EOC v iu khin
ng b c th c ti trong cc mo u h thng ADSL 32 kbit/s hin din
trong cc loi b m c s dng. Vi ch to khung mo u y , mo
u h thng ADSL 32 kbit/s lun hin din trong mi loi b m.
Ch 3 Dung lng ng b dng chung bao gm 32 kbit/s chia s gia cc
LSx trong cc b m xen, 32 kbit/s chia s gia cc LSx trong cc b m
nhanh. Tc ln nht t c khi t nht mt ASx c xc nh trong mi loi
b m, tc nh nht khi tt c cc ASx v LSx c xc nh trong mt loi
b m.
2.4 Cc c tnh chc nng ca khi ATU-C.
ATU-C c th h tr truyn dn STM hoc ATM, hoc c STM v ATM. H tr
truyn dn STM c nh ngha trong 2.4.1. H tr truyn dn ATM c nh
ngha trong 2.4.2.
Cc kiu khung c h tr ph thuc vo vic ATU-C c cu hnh cho
truyn ti STM hay ATM. Tuy nhin, nu kiu khung k c h tr th cc kiu
khung t (k- 1) n 0 cng phi c h tr.
Trong qu trnh khi to, ATU-C v ATU-R phi ch th kiu khung s 0, 1, 2
hay 3 nh s dng. Kiu khung c ch s thp nht s c s dng.
S dng kiu khung 0 cho php ATU-x truyn ti STM c th kt hp vi mt
ATM TC bn ngoi truyn ti ATM. Cc cu hnh m rng khc c th c
s dng tu theo c im ca tng ATU-x.
ATU-C c th cung cp tn hiu ng b chun cho mng (NTR). Hot ng ny
phi c lp vi cc tn hiu ng h trong h thng ADSL. Nu c tn hiu NTR
th n s c chn vo cu trc khung ti U-C.
2.4.1 Cc chc nng ring ca giao thc truyn dn STM.
2.4.1.1 Cc giao din V vo v ra ca khi ATU-C cho truyn ti STM.
Cc giao din chc nng d liu ca khi ATU-C truyn ti STM c biu din
trong Hnh II-25. Cc giao din u vo dnh cho cc knh ti tin n cng,
hng xung tc cao c phn b cho cc knh AS0 n AS3; giao din
vo/ra dnh cho cc knh song cng c phn b cho cc knh LS0 n LS2.
Ngoi ra, cng c giao din song cng cho chc nng khai thc, qun l, bo
dng (OAM) v iu khin h thng ADSL.

109
Lp STM v
giao din vi
mng k thut
s
ATU-C
AS0 (n
0
x 32 kbit/s)
AS1 (n
1
x 32 kbit/s)
AS2 (n
2
x 32 kbit/s)
AS3 (n
3
x 32 kbit/s)
LS0 ("C"; 16 hoc m
0
x 32 kbit/s)
LS1 (m
1
x 32 kbit/s)
LS2 (m
2
x 32 kbit/s)
NTR
Vn hnh, qun l, bo dng
v iu khin
Ch - Cc knh ti khng bt buc (c n cng v song cng) v biu din di dng cc ng t nt.
V-C
i dy xon

Hnh II-25 Cc giao din chc nng ca ATU-C truyn ti STM ti im chun
V-C
Tc d liu ca mt giao din cho phi ph hp vi tc ca knh ti tin
c cu hnh cho giao din .
2.4.1.2 Cc tc ca cc knh n cng hng xung - tc bit.
Bn giao din d liu u vo ca khi ATU-C c nh ngha cho cc knh
n cng hng xung tc cao: AS0, AS1, AS2 v AS3 (tng qut l ASx).
2.4.1.3 Cc tc ca cc knh song cng hng xung/ ln tc bit.
Ba giao din d liu vo/ra ca khi ATU-C c nh ngha cho cc knh song
cng: LS0, LS1 v LS2 (tng qut l LSx).
LS0 c gi l knh 'C' hay knh iu khin. N mang thng tin bo hiu ca
cc knh ti tin ASx hoc cng c th mang thng tin bo hiu ca mt s hay tt
c cc knh ti tin song cng khc.
2.4.1.4 Tr chuyn giao ti tin.
Tr chuyn giao mt chiu ca cc bit ti tin trong tt c knh ti (n cng v
song cng) t im tham chiu V pha tng i (V-C) n im tham chiu T
pha thu bao (T-R) i vi cc knh c sp xp vo cc b m nhanh khng
c ln hn 2 ms v i vi cc knh c sp xp vo cc b m xen khng
c ln hn [4+(S-1)/4+S x D/4] ms., trong S v D c nh ngha trong
kh nng m ho FEC ti thiu cho ATU-C. Cc yu cu ny cng c p dng
cho chiu ngc li t im tham chiu T - R n im tham chiu V-C.
2.4.2 Cc chc nng xc nh ca giao thc truyn ti ATM.
2.4.2.1 Cc giao din V vo v ra ca khi ATU-C truyn ti ATM.
Cc giao din chc nng ca khi ATU-C cho truyn ti ATM c biu din
trong Hnh II-26. Knh ATM0 s lun c h tr, knh ATM1 l khng bt
buc v c th c a ra h tr tr kp. Mi knh hot ng nh mt giao

110
din vi lp vt l. Khi hot ng trong ch tr kp, mt mt s khng c s
phn b c nh gia hai knh ATM0 v ATM1, mt khc d liu s c mc
nh l truyn theo hai ng lung nhanh v lung xen. Mi quan h ny c
cu hnh bn trong khi ATU-C.
Ti im tham chiu V phi c chc nng iu khin lung cho php ATU-C
(lp vt l) iu khin lung t bo n v i khi lp ATM. Chc nng ny
c biu th bng Tx-Cell-handshake v Rx-cell-handshake. Mt t bo c th
c truyn t lp ATM sang lp PHY ch khi khi ATU-C kch hot Tx-
cell-handshake. Tng t, mt t bo c th c truyn t lp PHY sang lp
ATM ch khi kch hot Rx-cell-handshake. Chc nng ny rt quan trng
trong vic trnh trn t bo v khng t bo trong khi ATU-C v cc lp
ATM.
y cng l mt giao din song cng cho qu trnh khai thc, qun l, bo dng
(OAM) v iu khin h thng ADSL.
ATM1 Tx_ATM1
Tx_Cell_Handshake1
Rx_ATM1
Rx_Cell_Handshake1
ATM0
Mng s
Lp ATM
ATU-C
P
O
R
T
0
P
O
R
T
1
Tx_ATM0
Tx_Cell_Handshake0
Rx_ATM0
Rx_Cell_Handshake0
NTR
Vn hnh, qun l, bo dng
v iu khin
V-C

Hnh II-26. Cc giao din chc nng ca khi ATU-C vi lp ATM ti im
tham chiu V-C.
2.4.2.2 Tr chuyn giao ti tin
Tr chuyn giao mt chiu (tr cc t bo xc nh chc nng) ca bit ti tin
trong tt c cc knh ti tin (n cng v song cng) t im chun V pha nh
cung cp (V-C) n im chun T pha thu bao (T-R) vi cc knh c sp
xp vo cc b m nhanh khng c ln hn 2 ms v vi cc knh c sp
xp vo cc b m xen khng c ln hn [4+(S - 1)/4+S x D/4] ms, trong ,
S v D c xc nh theo kh nng m ho FEC ti thiu cho ATU-C. Vi
chiu ngc li (t im chun T-R n im chun V-C) cng p dng yu cu
ny.

111
Ch : Tr tng thm do cc chc nng dnh ring cho t bo s c xc nh
trong qu trnh thit lp.
2.5 To khung
di khung c quyt nh bi tc d liu tng ng ca giao din. K
hiu DMT c m ho ti tc 4000 baud, ngha l tng ng vi 250us.
Lng d liu tht s c m ha trong mt chuyn i l chc nng ca trng
thi ng dy. Tu theo trng thi ng dy lc bt u chuyn i, s m h
tr v lng d liu c m ho trong mi m s thay i. Cc m trong phm
vi nhiu ca ph c b i, v iu phc tp ca m ho chm k hiu trong
mi m s l vic truyn ti u cho cc trng thi ng dy ring bit. Mt
khung bao gm d liu m c th truyn thng qua giao din DMT nh l mt k
hiu, ngha l ti mt thi im mi khung bao gm d liu cho b m d liu
nhanh v xen cng nh l cc bit dnh cho sa li, qun tr v qun l ng
ADSL. Tham kho Hnh II-27. bi v di khung lin quan trc tip ti cch s
dng DMT m ho d liu nh th no, nn khng cn phi ch ra ranh gii
bt u v kt thc ca khung.
2.5.1 Cu trc siu khung.
nh ngha v siu khung c cp n trn. Mi siu khung ADSL
c thit lp t 68 khung ADSL v k hiu ng b. Xem Hnh II-27. Bi v
di ca khung c thc hin theo cc cu hnh ring bit ca giao din U
ADSL, nn di ca siu khung cng khng c nh m tu theo cu hnh ca
ng ni.
2.5.2 Cu trc khung ca b m d liu nhanh.
D liu trong b m nhanh c chn vo trong ng dn u tin ca khung.
Byte u tin gi l " fast byte " v ni dung ca n l phn u hoc thng tin
ng b. Cc byte d liu t b m lin tc c chn tip theo sau fast byte.
Cc byte cho mi knh mang theo yu cu, nh Hnh II-28.
















Cc byte NF
1 byte
ib8-15
trong
byte
nhanh
ib16-23
trong
byte
nhanh
ib0-7
trong
byte
nhanh
crc0-7
trong
byte
nhanh
v ng
b
Khng dng
hoc d liu
mc bit
Cc byte NI
B m khung d liu (68/69 x 250 usec)
Siu khung (17 msec)

Khung
0
Khung
1
Khung
2
Khung
66
Khung
67
Khung
ng b
B m d liu nhanh
Khung
34
Khung
35

(ib = bit ch th)
fast
byte
Byte d liu
nhanh
cc byte
FEC
KF

bytes
RF

bytes
Byte d liu xen
B m d liu xen
Khung d liu ghp, im
A
u ra FEC (im B) hoc m ho
chm im u vo (im C) khung
d liu
M ho chm im khung d liu
u vo (im C)

112



Hnh II-27 Cu trc siu khung ADSL



f
a
s
t

b
y
t
e

b
y
t
e


1



A
S
0

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
A
S
0
)



A
S
1

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
A
S
1
)



A
S
2

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
A
S
2
)



A
S
3

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
A
S
3
)



L
S
0

C

c

b
y
t
e

C
F
(
L
S
0
)


L
S
1

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
L
S
1
)


L
S
2

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
F
(
L
S
2
)


A
E
X

C

c

b
y
t
e

A
F


L
E
X

C

c

b
y
t
e

L
F


c

c

b
y
t
e

F
E
C

C

c

b
y
t
e

R
F

C

c

b
y
t
e

N
F

u

r
a

F
E
C

(

m

B
)

h
o

c

m


h
o


c
h

u

v

o


(

m

C
)


k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

C

c

b
y
t
e

K
F


G
h

p

k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

(

m

A
)



Hnh II-28 Cu trc khung ng nhanh
Nu mt knh mang khng c thc hin, th s khng c d liu chn vo
knh mang ny. D liu cho nhng knh ring bit c ch nh tng xng vi
khung da trn bng thng c dnh cho mi knh. Nu nh khng c d liu
gi qua ng dn lin tc, th khung lin tc s ch c fast byte. Phn b m
nhanh ca khung s c bi byte cha thng tin ng b (AEX v LEX v tip
n m sa li c tnh ton cho d liu ng dn nhanh trong khung).

113
2.5.3 Cu trc khung ca b m d liu xen.
B m xen c chn vo trong khung sau b m nhanh. u tin n c tp
hp theo khun dng ng nht theo khung nhanh. Ging nh khung nhanh, d
liu thc s cho mi knh mang c ch nh cho ng dn xen c tri ra
tng xng vi bng thng ca cc knh mang ca ng ni ADSL. Vic ghp
knh c thc hin cho ng dn xen, cc khung c gi trong b m ti
ch r chiu su xen v s lin kt gia chng. Kt qu l u ra c cng di
vi khung u vo nhng li l t nhng khung xen t trc. Chng hn nh nh
d liu gi n b m ho DMT ni dung d liu t N khung trong b m. D
liu t khung xen bt k b tr i mt chu k l N khung (250 N ln mili giy)
trc khi c gii m pha bn kia. u ra c ghp li vi u ra ca b
m nhanh xy dng khung.






























Hnh II-29 To khung xen

c

b
y
t
e

R
I


C

c

b
y
t
e

K
I

C

c

b
y
t
e

K
I


C

c

b
y
t
e

K
I


B
y
t
e

n
g

b


b
y
t
e


1



A
S
0

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
A
S
0
)



A
S
1

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
A
S
1
)


A
S
2

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
A
S
2
)



A
S
3

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
A
S
3
)



L
S
0

C

c

b
y
t
e

C
I
(
L
S
0
)



L
S
1

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
L
S
1
)



L
S
2

C

c

b
y
t
e

B
I
(
L
S
2
)



A
E
X

C

c

b
y
t
e

A
I



L
E
X

C

c

b
y
t
e

L
I


G
h

p

k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

(

m

A
)

C

c

b
y
t
e

K
I



G
h

p

k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

#
0


G
h

p

k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

#
1


G
h

p

k
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

#
S
-
1

c

c

b
y
t
e

F
E
C



K
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

r
a

F
E
C

#
0


K
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

r
a

F
E
C

#
1


K
h
u
n
g

d


l
i

u

r
a

F
E
C

#
S
-
1

C

c

b
y
t
e

N
I


C

c

b
y
t
e

N
I


C

c

b
y
t
e

N
I



114
2.5.4 Khai thc v bo dng.
Giao din ADSL h tr ba phng php cho vic trao i thng tin hot ng
ca lp vt l gia ATU-C v ATU-R:
o Ghi knh hot ng EOC
o iu khin mo u ADSL AOC
o Cc bit ch dn.
Ghi knh hot ng h tr vic c v ghi cc ng k cha thng tin hot ng
trn ATU-R t ATU-C. Cc ng k theo tiu chun cho php truy nhp min
ni dung nhn dng ca ATU-R bao gm nh cung cp, s sn xut, cu hnh
hin ti ca ATU-R, kt qu t kim tra, suy gim dng ng dy, s d t l
nhiu trn tn hiu. Mt vi ng k c dnh cho nh cung cp nh ngha,
nhng c th c v ghi c thng qua EOC. ATU-R c th gi cho ATU-C
bn tin thng bo s c thng qua EOC khi mt ngun ATU-R.
EOC c thc hin nh s dng cc bit trong 'fast byte' ca nhng khung t 2
n 32 v t 36 n 67 trong mt siu khung. Khung EOC gm 13 bit trong
c 5 bit mo u v 8 bit ti. Mt khung EOC c th c gi trong hai khung
ADSL. Ti c th l byte d liu hay lnh cho pha bn kia. Trong T1.413 ngoi
tr bn tin s c mt ngun c gi bi ATU-R, tt c cc lnh c gi bi
ATU-C ti ATU-R. ATU-R c th tr li cc lnh vi ni dung t b ghi (3).
AOC cng c cu trc tng t nh EOC. N c s dng mang cc thng
tin thi gian thc cn thit cho vic ti lp li cu hnh cn cho thay i trng thi
ng dy. N mang cc bit trong byte ng b ca phn ghp xen khung
ADSL. Mt khung AOC c di 13 bit gm 5 bit lnh v 8 bit d liu.
23 bit ch dn c mang trong cc fast byte ca phn nhanh ca khung ADSL.
Mi bit c xem nh ch dn cho modem thu v trng thi ca phn tng t n
ti u bn kia. Cc bit ch dn c thit lp khi cc trng thi chng hn nh
li ng truyn hay mt tn hiu c pht hin ti u bn kia ca kt ni
ADSL.
2.5.5 Khi to.
Tin trnh khi to cho php thit lp thng tin gia ATU-C v ATU-R. Tin
trnh cho php hai modem c nhn dng chng vi nhau, xc nh sn sng
v cc trng thi ng dy h tr cho cc thng tin, trao i cc tham s m
c nh ngha cho yu cu kt ni, ch nh ti nguyn, v cc thng tin bnh
thng. Tin trnh c chia thnh 4 giai on.
1. Kch hot v chp nhn : ATU-R bt u tin trnh khi to bi vic truyn
cc m dnh ring ti ATU-C. Khi giai on khi to ny c hon tt, ATU-R
v ATU-C trao i v phng php iu chnh v xc nh thit b ch. Ti thi
im kt thc th tc, ATU-R v ATU-C trong trng thi c th phn tch trng
thi ng dy. Cc m tn hiu sau y c s dng trong giai on khi to :
R/C-ACT 1.2.3.4, REVEILLE.

115
2. Thu th: Trong tin trnh ny, ATU-R v ATU-C gi cc tn hiu m cho
php xc nh trng thi ng dy v iu chnh cn bng u thu ca chng.
Vic thu th cng xc nh nu ADSL hot ng theo ch ghp knh theo tn
s FDM hoc trit vng ECH. Cc m tn hiu sau y c s dng trong giai
on thu th ny l : R/C-REVERB v R/C-SEGUE.
3. Phn tch knh: Thng tin trao i gia cc modem trn ng ln v ng
xung cc knh mang yu cu kt ni, thi gian ch tuyn ca chng cng c
a vo, v bng thng cho mi knh cng c i hi. Sau cc modem thc
hin kim tra xc nh cht lng mch vng v t s tn hiu trn nhiu cho
mi m DMT 4kHz. m tn hiu sau y c s dng trong khi phn tch knh
l MEDLY.
4. Trao i: Tp hp cc thng tin v cht lng kt ni v cu hnh theo yu
cu, cc modem nh hnh li bn thn chng v trao i thng tin v cu hnh
ca chng. Vic ch nh bng thng yu cu knh mang s c n nh, cc
m DMT c th v lng d liu m ho trong mi m c ch ra v n nh.
Vic kt ni c kim tra trn c hai hng v mi modem s thng bo vi
u bn kia rng n sn sng nhp thng tin. Cc m tn hiu c s dng
trong giai on ny l : R/C-REVERB v R/C-SEGUE.
2.6 Cu trc mng s dng cng ngh ADSL
Kin trc dch v end-to-end ADSL tiu biu c m t trong hnh sau. N bao
gm customer premises equipment (CPE) v cc thit b h tr ADSL ti point of
presence (POP). Network access providers (NAPs) qun l mng li Layer 2
trong khi network service providers (NSPs) qun l mng li Layer 3. Cc
vai tr ny c phn chia qun l ti cc incumbent local exchange carrier
(ILEC), competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC) v cc nh cung cp dch v
Internet Tier 1 and Tier 2 Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Trong tng lai p lc th trng s bt buc nh ngha li mi quan h hin ti
ca cc nh cung cp dch v ADSL, c th lc mt s nh cung cp NAP c
th pht trin thm cc kh nng Layer 3 hoc c kh nng m rng cung cp cc
dch v qua mng li.

116

Hnh II-30 Kin trc mng ADSL chun
CPE c th l cc PC hoc Workstation, Remote ADSL Terminating Units
(ATU-R) hoc Router. V d nh mt khch hng Nh ring c th s dng mt
PC n vi mt ADSL modem tch hp gn trn PCI card, hoc mt PC vi mt
giao tip Ethernet hay giao tip Universal Serial Bus (USB) kt ni n mt
ADSL modem (ATU-R) bn ngoi. Ngc li i vi cc khch hng l cc
cng ty thng mi thng kt ni nhiu PC t cc user u cui vo mt router
vi ADSL modem tch hp hoc mt router v mt ATU-R bn ngoi.
Ti ADSL POP, NAP trin khai mt hoc nhiu thit b DSLAM kt ni cp
ng local loop gia POP v CPE. Khi c cu trc theo kiu m rng
Subtending, cc DSLAM c th kt ni mt xch vi nhau ti u ho ng
ATM uplink. Cc DSLAM kt ni trc tip hoc gin tip qua mng WAN n
mt thit b tp hp truy cp LAC (Local Access Concentrator), thit b ny lm
nhim v cung cp ATM grooming, PPP tunneling v Layer 3 termination kt
ni khch hng n cc Local Centent hoc Cached Content. Service selection
gateway (SSG) c th c t ti LAC v th khch hng c th t la chn ni
n (Destination) theo yu cu. T LAC/SSG cc dch v s c m rng qua
ATM core n NSP hoc IP network core.

117
US: 640 kbit/ s
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
ONT Optical Network Termination
SF Splitter Filter (POTS/ISDN)
DS Downstream
US Upstream
USB Uni versal Serial Bus
POTS/ISDN
DS: 6 Mbit/ s
Cc nh cung
cp dch v
Mng bng hp
(PSTN/ISDN)
STM-1
ATM
ANT
SF
Ethernet
10 Mbit/s
ATMF-25
25 Mbit/s
.
.
.
O
N
T
DSLAM
ATU
-C
SF
USB
POTS
ISDN
ATU
-C
SF
Mng bng rng
IP/ATM
US: 640 kbit/ s
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
ONT Optical Network Termination
SF Splitter Filter (POTS/ISDN)
DS Downstream
US Upstream
USB Uni versal Serial Bus
POTS/ISDN
DS: 6 Mbit/ s
Cc nh cung
cp dch v
Mng bng hp
(PSTN/ISDN)
STM-1
ATM
ANT
SF
Ethernet
10 Mbit/s
ATMF-25
25 Mbit/s
.
.
.
O
N
T
DSLAM
ATU
-C
SF
USB
POTS
ISDN
ATU
-C
SF
Mng bng rng
IP/ATM

Hnh II-31 Cu trc mng ADSL (thc t)
Thuc v
khch hng
Loop
POTS
Splitter
POTS
Splitter
CO
ATU-R
Modem
ATU-R
Modem
Mng s
liu ATM
Mng
PSTN
Qun l
cc phn
t mng
Qun l
cc phn
t mng
RAS
Gateway
DSLAM
ATM & IP - TP3
Dch v ADSL - TP2
End to End - TP4
Nh cung cp
dch v
Truyn dn - TP1

Hnh II-32 Cu trc phn chia dch v ADSL
Sau khi c c s hnh dung tng qut v cc thnh phn h thng, ta s i su
vo vo cc cch thc, kin trc cho php trin khai cc dch v. Cc kin trc
bao gm:
o ATM point to pointdng kt ni cho (cross-connect) cc thu bao
n cc destination ca h nh ISP, Enterprise. Kt ni c thc hin
bng cc mch o PVC t CPE n destination.
o Aggregationtp hp cc mch VC t cc thu bao vo trong mt vi
trung k PVC nhm lm gim thiu s lng VC connection qua mng
core. Thay v mi thu bao s chim mt VC, Aggregation s s dng

118
chung mt VC cho nhiu thu bao khc nhau vi mt ch n ging
nhau.
SVC v MPLSs dng cc SVC t ng cp pht cc kt ni cho cc CPE.
Cc SVC t CPE i xuyn qua DSLAM v kt thc ti cc router chuyn mch
Lable (Edge LSR), v thm nhp vo mng li MPLS.
Mng xDSL bao gm cc thnh phn sau:
Thit b pha nh cung cp dch v:
o B tp hp truy cp Aggregator.
o B ghp knh truy cp DSLAM (Digital Subsriber Line Access
Multiplexer).
o Knh truyn.
o POTS spliter hay CO Spliter.
Thit b pha khch hng :
o Thit b u cui DSL (DSL CPE - Digital Subsriber Line Customer
Premises Equipment).
o PC/LAN.
o CPE Spliter.
2.6.1 Thit b pha nh cung cp dch v
2.6.1.1 B ghp knh truy cp DSLAM
DSLAM l b ghp knh c chc nng trc tip cung cp cng kt ni ti khch
hng . y l thit b tp trung cc ng thu bao ring l y ln mc trn
v ngc li.
B ghp knh truy cp phi t c mt s yu cu sau:
o H tr MPLS, IP routing QoS cho php trin khai nhiu loi ng dng qua
xDSL
o H tr nhiu chun DSL: ADSL, SDSL, IDSL, RADSL, VDSL.v..
o Kh nng tng tng thch vi nhiu loi thit b u cui khch hng
DSL CPE ca nhiu hng sn xut m ra cho khch hng nhiu kh nng
la chn thit b u cui.
o H tr a dng cc loi giao tip up-link bng rng DS3/E3, OC3/STM-1,
..vv.
o H tr kt ni u cui ngi s dng E1, nx64 Kbps.
o Kh nng ng dng cc k thut phn nhnh, xp chng...vv cho php
trin khai linh hot khi thay i cu trc mng.
o Cu hnh nhiu khe cm c th la chn.
o V.v.

119
V ADSL kt ni trc tip n Local Loop, ngoi ra v khong cch gii hn ca
cc Loop trong cng ngh DSL do cc DSLAM thng c t ti cc CO.
DSLMA l thit b khng chu li Single-Point-of-Failure cho mt s khch hng
ln trc thuc khu vc. DSLAM cng thng c t ti cc khu vc CO
khng c ngi qun l k thut do hu ht cc nh sn xut thit b ny phi
ch to ra cc sn phm c kh nng chu li rt cao nhm gim thiu cc s c
v mng. Cc tiu chun sau cn c h tr :
o ANSI T1.413 Issue2 (ADSL over POTS).
o ITU G.992.1 Annex A.
o ITU G.992.2(Glite).
o ITU G.994.1(G.hs).
2.6.1.2 B tp hp truy cp Aggregator
B tp hp truy cp l thit b c nhim v tp trung cc kt ni v trung tm
theo phng thc gim thiu kt ni logic. Aggregator tp trung cc kt ni logic
(cc PVC) n t cc DSLAM ri tng hp li thnh mt hoc mt vi PVC
truyn ti qua mng trc ti kt cui th hai ca cc kt ni logic (ISP,
headquarter, offices.v.v). Nu khng s dng Aggregator th vi nxPVC n t n
thit b u cui s chim nxPVC trn mng trc.
Thng qua Aggregator, nh cung cp dch v s cung cp cho khch hng cc
dch v DSL nh truy cp internet tc cao, kt ni mng ring o, Video on
Demand, Video Broadcast, e-learning,..vv.
Yu cu t ra cho Aggregator:
o H tr a dng cc loi giao tip LAN/WAN thun li cho vic kt ni
vi cc Router, DSLAM: Ethernet/Fast/GigaEthernet, Serial, HSSI, ISDN,
T3/E3, OC3/STM-1, OC-12/STM-4, ...vv.
o Kh nng x l cao tng xng vi vai tr l b tp trung, chp nhn
c hng ngn kt ni ti t pha khch hng.
o H tr ATM, MPLS, IP, QoS, CoS, L2TP
o H tr kh nng xp chng, phn nhnh cho php trin khai linh hot cu
hnh mng khi cn thit.
o Kh nng tng thch vi cc dng sn phm ca cc hng khc.
o V.v.
Vai tr ca Aggregator l tp hp tt c cc kt ni o logic vo trong mt im
logic, iu ny cng ng ngha vi Aggregator tp hp tt cc cc phin PPP
vo mt im sau mi dn ln UP-link ti mng trc. V cn bn mi thu
bao c mt phin PPP tuy nhin s lng kt ni PPP l khng gii hn trn mi
kt ni DSL. Vi c tnh ny cho php khch hng khc nhau trong cng mt
vn phng chia s cng mt ng xDSL i ra ngoi mng Internet. Cc
phin PPP c xc thc (Authentification) sau c kt thc ti Aggregator.
Thit b Aggregator c th l mt thit b nh tuyn a chc nng, hoc l mt

120
thit b mng chuyn c thit k cho vic tp hp cc bng rng. Aggregator
c th thc hin vic xc thc Authentification, Cp php (Authorization) hay
tnh ton (Accounting) bi mt RADIUS server t trn mng ca nh cung cp
dch v. Sau khi c xc thc, Aggregator s thit lp mt lin ni (route) t
nh khch hng n nh cung cp dch v Internet. Cc thit b Aggregator c th
c t bn cnh thit b DSLAM ngay ti cc POP cung cp dch v hoc c
th c t ta khu vc trung tm vng v kt ni n cc DSLAM mc di
thng qua giao tip WAN. Cc thit b Aggregator s kt hp vi h thng
RADIUS t ti Trung tm iu hnh cho php qun l AAA cho cc khch hng
DSL nh phng php truy cp Internet bnh thng.
2.6.1.3 CO-Spliter (POTS Spliter).
Bng
thoi
Bng tn ADSL
4 kHz 25 kHz 1104 kHz

Hnh II-33 Di tn dng cho thoi v dch v ADSL
Dch v ADSL cho php s dng dch v truyn d liu tc cao cng vi dch
v thoi truyn thng trn cng i dy cp thoi ng. c th lm c iu
ny, ADSL v dch v thoi truyn thng s dng cc gii tn s khc nhau.
m bo cc gii tn s ny khng gy nhiu ln nhau, b phn chia c s
dng. B ny thng c gi l POTS Splitter v t bn trong DSLAM hoc
bn ngoi i km vi DSLAM trong qu trnh cung cp dch v.
B lc tn s thp cho php ting ni hay gii tn s ca thoi truyn thng 200-
3500 Hz m khng cn phi iu chnh tn hiu u vo. Hnh II-33 ch ra gii
tn s dng cho ADSL v dch v thoi truyn thng.

121
Mch bo
v
Mch lc
thng
thp
Mch lc
thng cao
POSTs
ADSL
modem
Tip, Ring
Line
POST Splitter

Hnh II-34 S cu to POTS-Spliter
Khi cung cp dch v DSLAM trn cng i dy cp thoi, th cn phi trang b
thm thit POTS spliter bn cnh DSLAM (thit b ny c th c tch hp vo
bn trong DSLAM hoc ri bn ngoi tu vo nh sn xut thit b). B POTS
spliter c th bao gm nhiu mch con, tuy nhin d kin ban u s u t mt
s bn mch t hn s cng ti a trn DSLAM. Mi bn POTS spliter s bao
gm t nht 03 nhm cng giao tip Telco 50pins : Mt kt ni n LocalLoop,
Mt kt ni vi DSLAM v cn li dng kt ni vi TelePhone Switching
thuc mng PSTN. Dung lng cho php trung bnh trn mi POTS splitter trn
th trng hin ti khong 300 ADSL lines.
2.6.2 Thit b u cui khch hng DSL CPE
Thit b u cui khch hng bao gm mt lot cc thit b, card giao tip thc
hin chc nng chuyn i d liu ngi s dng thnh dng tn hiu xDSL v
ngc li. DSL CPE tiu biu l PC NIC, DSL modem, DSL bridge, Router.
Hin ti nhng sn phm ny ang c nhiu hng gii thiu v cho hng vi
nhiu chng loi ph hp vi tng loi khch hng l c nhn, t chc c nhu
cu khc nhau.
o 3com:HomeConnect 3647, 4130.
o Alcatel: Speedtouch Home
o Ambit:T60M104/07. Jetstream IAD-801. Cisco 677, 678..v.v.
o Lucent: DSL ACAP, DSL DMT.v..v.
o Cisco: 802/804, 1417 ADSL Router, 1600, 1700.v.v.

2.6.3 CPE-Spliter
Ti thit b u cui ngi s dng v ti CO, kt ni ADSL s dng hai b
splitter khc nhau nhm m bo mt phn tch thng tin ca dch v thoi
truyn thng v dch v ADSL. Cu to bn trong ca hai b phn chia ny c
th khng ging ht nhau, tuy nhin chng u da trn cng mt s cu trc
bn trong nh trnh by trn. B thit b CPE Splitter ny cn oc gi l

122
Remote POTS splitter phi hp vi POTS splitter t ti DSLAM nhm phn
tch tn hiu tn s. CPE Splitter cn phi h tr 03 giao tip RJ-11 : Mt dnh
cho kt ni LocalLoop, mt cho kt ni ti DSL CPE v mt dnh cho kt ni ti
my in thoi.
2.6.4 M hnh cung cp dch v


Hnh II-35 M hnh cung cp dch v ADSL
Cn phi lu rng giao din u ni gia thit b DSLAM v Aggregator thng
thng phi l ATM qua STM-1 (STM-4) hoc OC-3, do nn tng truyn dn
ca cng ngh xDSL l ATM. Tuy nhin, qua tham kho mt s m hnh thit
k, trong trng hp cha trin khai mng ATM th c th tm thi s dng kt
ni leased line vi phng php encapsulation ATM nu cc thit b trn c h
tr.
Mng ADSL c xy dng t nht p ng c cc chun ph bin dng cho
cc loi hnh khch hng. Thit b u cui khch hng cn h tr mt trong cc
chun do DSLAM cung cp :
o ANSI T1.413 Issue2 (ADSL over POTS).
o ITU G.992.1 Annex A.
o ITU G.992.2(Glite).
o ITU G.994.1(G.hs).

123
2.7 Cc loi thit b u cui ADSL v cc m hnh phn lp tng ng
PC
DSL modem
PCI
PC
USB
Modem
PC
1394
Modem
PC
10BaseT
Modem
PC
10BaseT
Modem
Hub 10BaseT
PC
10BaseT
PC
10BaseT
PC
LAN Hub LAN
PC
PC
Gateway
DSL modem
Case A Case A
Case B Case B
Case C Case C

Hnh II-36 Cc cu hnh u ni thit b CPE ti pha thu bao
Cu hnh A: Mt my PC duy nht, cc la chn modem kt ni:
PCI card
USB modem
IEEE 1394 modem - in the future
Point-to-point Ethernet
Cu hnh B: Modem dng chung
Vn t ra: M rng PPP qua mng LAN
Gii php: S dng ng hm PPTP ni b tunneling, s dng h
tr PPTP c sn trong Windows 95, 98, and 2000
Private IP within the home
PPTP to the modem (terminated at modem)
PPP over ATM across the network
Reach different destinations from different PCs
Ti sao PPPOE khng c khuyn ngh?
Ch bin li h tr giao thc ang c
Yu cu s dng giao thc ring mi
Yu cu khch hng lp t ngn xp mi
Cu hnh C: Gateway.
Windows 2000 hoc Windows 98 nh l Home Gateway

124
PC dng Windows 2000 hoc Windows 98 ni vi DSL line nh trng
hp case A
Mng trong nh dng Ethernet
Cc thit b Client dng Windows 2000 hoc Windows 98 s dng:
T ng nh cu hnh bng phn b DHCP
Shares kt ni Internet bng NAT
c im ca thit b u cui
Thit b c lp hoc PC-card (nm trong line-card ca DSLAM ti CO)
Cung cp truy nhp d liu tc cao ti khch hng qua ATU-R
Cp ngun t b chuyn i AC-DC (tr PC card, USB)
Cc giao din khch hng thng thng:
o 10/100BaseT Ethernet
o ATM-F 25 Mbit/s
o V.35
o USB (Universal Serial Bus) (Power drawn from USB bus)
ADSL Line
POTS/ISDN
Line
LAN
Line
Splitter
Filter
ADSL
modem
LAN
Hub/Router
Video
Broadcast
PC
USB
ATMF
25.6 Mbit/s
Ethernet
10Mbit/s/
100Mbit/s
Telephony/ISDN

Hnh II-37 Cc giao din khch hng

125
2.7.1 PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
ATM/DSL
Internal
DSLAM
ATM VC
ISP
IP Router
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
PPP
xDSL
ATM
Sonet/SDH
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
PPP
CO CPE

PPPoA (RFC 2364)
c dng trong cc thit b: Internal ADSL Modem, USB modem or ADSL
router
Cc u im:
S dng bng tn hiu qu nht (t thng tin mo u s dng trong vic
ng khung)
Gn nh l gii php c chi ph thp nht
Cc nh sn xut PC c th ci t phn cng v phn mm c lin quan
trc khi bn hng
C kh nng cung cp a ch IP ng
PPP cung cp tnh nng bo an (PAP/CHAP)
Nhc im:
Phn mn hoc phn cng ca PC phi c chc nng SAR
Mt i tng s dng trn mt kt ni ADSL
Cu hnh i tng s dng
VPI/VCI cho ADSL PVC
S dng User ID v Password cho NSP

126
2.7.2 PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
DSL
Modem
DSLAM
ATM VC
ISP
IP Router
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
PPP
xDSL
ATM
Sonet/SDH
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
PPP
CO CPE
10Base-T
Ethernet
PPPoE
1483
Ethernet
PPPoE
1483

PPPoE (Point to Point over Ethernet) (RFC 2516)
PPPoE yu cu hu ht cc giao thc ng khung:
PPP trn PC bo an kt ni t PC n b nh tuyn ca ISP
PPPoE kt ni t PC n modem
RFC 1483 kt ni t modem n b nh tuyn ca ISP
u im:
PPPoE c th ghp nhiu phin PPP trn mt ATM PVC
H tr nhiu ngi s dng chung mt kt ni ADSL
PPP cung cp tnh nng bo an (PAP/CHAP)
S dng mn hnh dial-up quen thuc
Ngi s dng c th la chn dch v (La chn dch v mt cch ng)
Nhc im:
S dng bng tn ADSL khng hiu qu
PC cn phi c ci t giao thc PPPoE (cha c chun ho)
PPPoE yu cu ci t b sung phn mm iu khin ln PC
PPPoE khng m bo c QoS ( thi im hin ti)
PPPoE khng h tr cuc gi n
Cu hnh thit b pha khch hng:

127
PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet
VPI/VCI cho ADSL PVC trn ADSL modem
User ID and password ng k vi ISP trn PC
2.7.3 LLC Bridge
DSL
Modem DSLAM
ATM VC
ISP
IP Router
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
xDSL
ATM
Sonet/SDH
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
1483
CO CPE
10Base-T
Ethernet
Enet Bridging
Ethernet
1483

RFC 1483 (Bridged)
S dng trong modem ADSL ngoi vi giao thc ng khung RFC 1483.
Hin nay c trin khai trong cc sn phm ca SBC v Pac Bell s dng cho
cc i tng c nhn v doanh nghip.
u im:
RFC1483 c th ghp nhiu phin trn mt ATM PVC
Nhc im:
ADSL Modem phi nh dng li khung Ethernet
Thng c s dng vi Static IP
Cu hnh thit b pha ngi s dng
PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet
Phi khai bo VPI/VCI cho DSL PVC ca ADSL modem

128
2.7.4 LLC Route
DSL
Modem DSLAM
ATM VC
ISP
IP Router
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
xDSL
ATM
Sonet/SDH
IP
ATM
TCP
AAL5
1483
CO CPE
10Base-T
Ethernet
IP Routing
Ethernet
Encap.

RFC 1483 (Routed)
S dng trong: b nh tuyn ADSL cm ngoi
Ch ny c s dng trong cc Modem ADSL cm ngoi ng vi RFC
1483. N hin nag c s dng trong cc sn phm ca SBC v Pac Bell.
u im:
RFC1483 c th ghp nhiu phin trn mt ATM PVC
Nhc im:
Modem ADSL phi nh dng li khung Ethernet
Thng s dng phng thc a ch IP Static
Cu hnh thit b pha CPE
PC phi c trang b Card Ethernet
VPI/VCI cho DSL PVC ca ADSL modem
2.8 Cc dch v trin khai trn nn cng ngh ADSL v thc t trn mng
ca VNPT
2.8.1 Truy cp Internet tc cao
Khch hng c th truy cp vo Internet vi tc cao hn trong tc chiu
xung (downlink) c th tu chn v tc chiu ln (uplink) t ti 1Mbps.
Mc cc i ca cc tc chiu xung, chiu ln ph thuc vo chun DSL
c s dng. Xem bng (1).
Truy cp internet tc cao c th s dng mt trong hai phng thc kt ni
PPPoA (PPP over ATM) hoc PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet).

129
2.8.2 Kt ni mng ring o:
Trn c s h thng c thit k nh trn, dch v VPN c th c cung
cp theo th tc s dng khi truyn ti thng tin qua mng trc l c ch ng
ng L2TP tunneling, ..vv.
Ngoi ra cc dch v c th trin khai da trn cng ngh ADSL:
- Video theo nhu cu (VoD)
- Video Conferencing (hi ngh truyn hnh)
- Cc ng dng t xa
- Y t t xa
- o to t xa
- Tr chi tng tc qua mng
- Audio, video qung b
- Mua bn trc tuyn
- ...
2.8.3 Cc dch v trin khai trn mng ca VNPT

III TIU CHUN K THUT V PHNG PHP O KIM
3.1 Tiu chun k thut
3.1.1 H thng tiu chun quc t v khu vc v cng ngh ADSL
Vic pht trin tiu chun tr nn n gin hn rt nhiu nu so snh vi thi
k mng vin thng ch c cung cp bi cc cng ty quc doanh v theo chnh
sch c quyn nh truc khi chia tch AT&T. tn ti mt t chc k hoch
tp trung lm tiu chun. i vi mt tiu chun c pht trin ring r bi
mt hoc mt vi cng ty c nh hng ln n vic iu khin th trng vin
thng chng c gi l tiu chun khng chnh thc ( de facto ). Ngy nay vic
xy dng tiu chun c la chn t cc nhm nghin cu ca hng trm cng
ty vi cc li ch a dng. Tiu chun c pht trin bi cc t chc tiu chun
cng khai v cng bng gi l tiu chun chnh thc.
Phm vi hot ng ca tiu chun ho bao gm cc t chc quc t chng hn
nh Lin minh Vin thng Quc t ITU v T chc tiu chun quc t v U ban
K thut in in t Quc t chun ho hi ho gn nh tt c cc quc gia.
Vin nghin cu chun ho vin thng chu u ch phc v cho cc quc gia
thnh vin. IEEE, xut pht l t chc c nh hng M tr nn mang tnh
quc t hn. Vic chun ho cho quc gia M c pht trin bi Hip hi
cng nghip in t/Hip hi cng nghip Vin thng( EIA/TIA) v Vin chun
ho quc gia M ( ANSI ) - c cng nhn chnh thc ca u ban T1 v X3.
TTC pht trin cc tiu chun cho nc Nht. Vic thc hin cc din n y
nhanh cc ch c th. Rt nhiu t chc chun ho m khng c mi quan h
trc tip vi DSL khng c th hin trong Hnh III-1.

130
ITU ISO/IEC
ETSI
TTC
Nht
EIA/TIA
X3
T1
IEEE
802
USA
Cc t chc
quc t
Cc t chc
khu vc
Cc t chc
quc gia
Cc din n
thc hin
Din n
ATM
Din n
ADSL
Din n
Q.l mng
DAVIC
Din n
Frame Relay
NIUF
IETF
Khng thy trong Hnh III-1 l Nhm lm vic ADSL ton cu UAWG
(Universal ADSL Working Group), mt hip hi c thnh lp vo cui 1979
bi cc cng ty vin thng v my tnh hng u thc y tin trnh x l
trong b tch ADSL (ADSL Lite). UAWG khng c xem nh t chc tiu
chun, nhng cc cng vic n thc hin li ng gp vo cho T1E4 v ITU-T.













Hnh III-1 Cc t chc tiu chun quan h vi DSL
3.1.1.1 ITU
c thnh lp vo nm 1865 vi tn gi Lin minh in bo quc t, ITU
thay i thnh Lin Minh Vin thng Quc T vo 1934 v tr thnh vin ca
Lin hp Quc vo 1947 vi tr s t ti Geneva, Thy s. Vi khong 187
quc gia thnh vin vo nm 1996, bao gm cc b phn :
Vn phng thc hin cc chc nng qun tr v ti chnh.
ITU-D, b phn pht trin, hp tc v pht trin cc c s h tng vin thng
mi, c bit l cho nhng nc ang pht trin.
ITU-R, b phn v tuyn, m bo cng bng, hiu qu v kinh t khi s dng
ph tn s cho tt c mi ngi s dng.
ITU-T, b phn chun ho Vin thng, cc nghin cu k thut, khai thc v cc
vn v chnh sch. Trc y c bit nh CCITT, ITU a ra cc khuyn
ngh ( khng bt buc l tiu chun ) cho cc mc tiu chun ho quc t cho cc
h thng v dch v. Nm 1997, ITU-T bao gm:
Hi ngh chun ho vin thng quc t ( WTSC), nh ngha cc chnh
sch v cc d n.
Nhm t vn chun ho vin thng ( TSAG ) cung cp t vn v chin
lc v u tin cng vic.

131
Vn phng chun ho Vin thng ( TSB ), cung cp chc nng qun tr
v hp tc.
Nhm nghin cu 1 : nh ngha dch v.
Nhm nghin cu 2 : Khai thc mng : qun l mng, nh s, nh
tuyn, qun l dch v.
Nhm nghin cu 3 : Nguyn tc gi v thanh ton.
Nhm nghin cu 4 : Bo dng mng : TMN
Nhm nghin cu 5 : Bo v chng li trng in t : bo v thit b v
nhn vin chng li nguy him in t trng.
Nhm nghin cu 6 : K hoch ngoi vi : cu trc cp v vt liu lin
kt.
Nhm nghin cu 7: Mng s liu v thng tin h thng m : kha cnh
mng thng tin s liu, frame relay.
Nhm nghin cu 8 : u cui cho cc dch v telematic : fax.
Nhm nghin cu 9 : Truyn m v tn hiu tivi.
Nhm nghin cu 10 : Ngn ng cho cc ng dng vin thng.
Nhm nghin cu 11 : Chuyn mch v bo hiu : mng thng minh.
Nhm nghin cu 12: Thc hin truyn u cui ca mng v thit b
u cui.
Nhm nghin cu 13 : Mng tng quan, lin quan n cc khi nim
mi, IP, BISDN, C s h tng vin thng ton cu ( GII ).
Nhm nghin cu 14 : K thut truyn dn v iu ch cho cc dch v
s liu, in bo, telematic : modem, cc b tng thch u cui ISDN.
Nhm nghin cu 15 : Cc thit b v h thng truyn dn : cc h thng
truy nhp thu bao, truyn dn quang.
Nhm nghin cu 16 : a phng tin.
Cc thnh vin bao gm :
Qun tr :quc gia
ROA Recognized Operating Agencies : Cung cp dch v v mng.
Cc nh sn xut, khoa hc v cc t chc cng nghip ( SIO )
Cc t chc quc t v khu vc.
3.1.1.2 U ban T1.
U ban T1 c thnh lp vo thi im chia tch AT&T, l hi ng tiu chun
vin thng cho M. T1 c u bi Lin minh cc gii php Tin hc v Vin
thng v chnh thc c cng nhn bi ANSI. C 67 thnh vin b phiu ca
T1 vo 1997.

132
Hn na trong U ban T1, quyt nh chnh sch v phng hng, U ban
bao gm mt nhm t vn v cc U ban con v k thut ( TSC ).
(1) T1A1 Thc hin v x l tn hiu
T1A1.2 Tnh sng cn ca mng
T1A1.3 Dch v v mng s
T1A1.5 Thc thi v m ho thng tin a phng tin
T1A1.7 X l s tn hiu v thc thi mng cho cc dch v bng thoi
(2) T1E1 Giao din, ngun v bo v mng
T1E1.1 Giao din vt l v truy nhp analog.
T1E1.2 Truy nhp bng rng
T1E1.4 Truy nhp mch vng thu bao s
T1E1.5 H thng ngun Giao din ngun
T1E1.6 H thng ngun Giao din ngi v my
T1E1.7 Bo v in
T1E1.8 Thit k v bo v vt l
(3) T1M1 Cung cp, bo dng, Qun tr v khai thc mng
T1M1.3 Giao thc, h thng iu hnh, kim tra, khai thc mng
T1M1.5 Giao thc, giao din v cu trc OAM&P
(4) T1P1 Thit k h thng, k hoch chun ho v chng trnh qun l
T1P1.2 M t dch v thng tin c nhn v cu trc mng
T1P1.3 H thng thng tin tin tin c nhn
T1P1.5 PCS 1900
T1P1.6 CDMA/TDMA
T1P1.7 CDMA bng rng
(5) T1S1 Dch v, cu trc v bo hiu
T1S1.1 Cu trc v dch v
T1S1.3 Bo hiu knh chung
T1S1.5 ISDN bng rng
(6) T1X1 ng b v phn cp s
T1X1.3 ng b v giao din phn tch nhnh
T1X1.4 Giao din phn cp cp ng
T1X1.5 Giao din phn cp cp quang

133
TSC v cc nhm lm vic thng hp li vi nhau vo cng mt tun, bn ln
trong mt nm. Cc cuc hp lm thi c th t chc khi cn thit. Cc cuc hp
c m cho c cc i tng khng phi l thnh vin.
Tn gi ca u ban k thut T1E1 thnh thong b nhm ln vi u ban lm vic
v h thng truyn dn lin quan n T1 v E1. Nhng trong danh mc nu trn
cc cng vic thc thi ca u ban ny khng lin quan g n T1 v E1.
pht trin hn na cc tiu chun v bo co k thut cho nc M, u ban
T1 pht trin vai tr ca M ti cc t chc quc t ( ISO, ITU, IEC )
3.1.1.3 ETSI
Vin nghin cu chun ho Vin thng Chu u pht trin cc tiu chun v bo
co cho cc quc gia thnh vin. ETSI c thnh lp vo nm 1988 tip tc
cc cng vic c thc hin trc bi CEPT. Cc thnh vin ca ETSI
bao gm 41 nh qun tr, 220 nh ch to thit b, 70 nh khai thc mng vin
thng cng cng, 60 nh cung cp dch v, 27 nhm s dng v 25 t chc thnh
vin.
U ban k thut ca ETSI bao gm:
(1) TM Truyn dn v ghp knh
TM1 Thit b truyn dn, cp quang v cp.
TM2 Thc thi v qun l mng truyn dn.
TM3 Yu cu v giao din, cu trc v chc nng ca mng chuyn
ti.
TM4 H thng lp v tuyn.
TM6 Cc h thng truyn dn truy nhp trn cp ng ( DSL )
(2) NA Mng
NA1 Giao din ngi s dng, dch v v tnh cc
NA2 - nh s, gn a ch, nh tuyn v kt ni mng
NA4 Thc thi,nguyn tc, bo dng, khai thc, cu trc mng.
NA5 Mng bng rng.
NA6 Mng thng minh
(3) EE Enviromental Engineering
(4) ERM EMC v ph v tuyn
(5) BRAN Mng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng
(6) HF Nhn t con ngi.
(7) ICC Mch tch hp.
(8) CN Mng hp tc.
(9) CTM u cui di ng ko di

134
(10) MTS Phng php kim tra v ch tiu k thut.
(11) DECT H ko di m rng s
(12) DTA - u cui v truy nhp s.
(13) RES H thng v thit b v tuyn
(14) SEC Phng v
(15) MTA - u cui v cc ng dng a phng tin
(16) PTS - u cui v h thng tr tin.
(17) SPS Chuyn mch v cc giao thc bo hiu.
(18) STQ X l thoi, truyn dn v cht lng.
(19) TMN Mng qun l vin thng.
3.1.1.4 Din n ADSL.
Din n ADSL c thnh lp nm 1995, l mt t chc quc t y mnh
vic s dng cng ngh ADSL v pht trin cc ch tiu k thut lin quan n
vic s dng ADSL. Din n ADSL c 300 cng ty thnh vin vo nm 1998.
Din n ADSL gm c mt u ban tip th thc hin o to cng nghip v
quan h cng cng, v mt u ban pht trin cc bo co k thut c thc hin
trn cc h thng ADSL. Vo nm 1997 u ban k thut c cc nhm lm vic
sau y :
Mng truy nhp ( Cu trc mng u cui )
Ch ATM
Ch gi
Thit b khch hng (dy , b tch, thit b u cui)
Tch hp mng
Qun l mng
Kim tra v tnh phi hp hot ng
3.1.1.5 Din n ATM
Din n ATM l mt din n quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1991 vi mc
ch h tr mt cch nhanh chng v rng ri cho vic thc hin cng ngh
ATM. Din n ATM c hn 900 cng ty thnh vin vo nm 1997. Din n
ATM bao gm B phn qun l, U ban k thut, U ban tip th cho Chu
Thi bnh dng, Chu u v Bc M. U ban k thut gm c cc nhm lm
vic sau y:
Giao din khai thc mng
M phng LAN
a giao thc
Qun l mng

135
Lp vt l
Giao din mng mng ring.
Bng rng ti gia nh
Phng v
Dch v v ng dng
Bo hiu
Kim tra
Qun l lu lng
Thoi v in thoi qua ATM
ATM khng dy.
3.1.1.6 DAVIC
Hi ng hnh nh v m thanh s pht trin cc ch tiu k thut m bo end
to end interoperability cho cc ng dng hnh v m thanh s. DAVIC l mt
din n quc t dnh cho cc nh cung cp dch v v thit b u cui ca
khch hng trong lnh vc video theo yu cu hay cc dch v video qung b.
DAVIC c khong 200 cng ty thnh vin vo nm1997. Thm vo U ban qun
l din n, DAVIC bao gm cc nhm lm vic dnh cho ng dng, Lp vt l,
Biu din thng tin, Phng v, h thng con v h thng tch hp. Nm 1997 sn
phm chnh ca DAVIC l ch tiu k thut DAVIC 1.0 cho phn phi TV, near
video theo yu cu, video theo yu cu, khung c bn cho mua hng t xa.
3.1.1.7 IETF
IETF gm c ngi s dng, cc nh nghin cu, cc nh cung cp dch v, cc
nh cung cp phn cng v phn mm, tp trung vo cc gii php da trn giao
thc Internet. IETF l chartered bi hip hi Internet v nhn c cc hng
dn t nhm t vn thit k Internet IES v U ban cu trc Internet IAB. Vo
nm 1996 IETF hot ng trn 8 lnh vc vi khong 90 nhm lm vic. IETF
pht trin cc yu cu k thut gi l RFC Request for comment c x l
thnh cc giai on t km chnh thc cho n chnh thc ( xut, bn tho v
chun ho hon ton )
3.1.1.8 EIA/TIA
Hip hi cng nghip in t v hip hi cng nghip vin thng (EIA/TIA)
c ANSI chnh thc cng nhn. EIA/TIA pht trin cc tiu chun v bo co
k thut M lin quan n cc thit b, v pht trin vai tr ca M ra cc t chc
tiu chun quc t ( ISO, IEC, ITU ). EIA/TIA T41.9 c pht trin cc khuyn
ngh k thut h tr cho nguyn tc vin thng M c quy dnh ti phn 68
FCC.
3.1.1.9 IEEE
Hi cc k s in v in t ( IEEE ) bo tr rt nhiu u ban tiu chun. Hu
ht cc vn lin quan n DSL l u ban IEEE 802, c thnh lp nm 1980

136
bi hip hi my tnh IEEE. U ban IEEE 802 tp trung vo lp 1 v lp 2 ca
mng LAN v MAN v phi hp cht ch vi IEC/ISO/JTC SC 6. Vo nm
1997 IEEE bao gm cc nhm lm vic sau y :
P802.1 Tng quan, cu trc, cu nibridging, qun l
P802.2 iu khin ng logic
P802.3 CSMA/CD
P802.4 Token bus
P802.5 Token Ring
P802.6 DBDQ ( dual Queue Dual Bus )
P802.8 Bng rng v cp quang
P802.9 Dch v tch hp
P802.10 Phng v
P802.11 V tuyn
P802.12 Yu cu u tin
P802.14 TV cp
IEEE P743 pht trin cc k thut cho vic o cc c tnh tng t
ca tn hiu DSL.
3.1.1.10 Vai tr ca cc t chc tiu chun
Ti Hoa k, tiu chun u tin cho lp vt l ADSL ln u tin c Vin tiu
chun ho quc gia Hoa k (ANSI) m t trong tiu chun T1. 413-1995. Ti liu
ny m t chnh xc cc thit b ADSL lin lc qua mch vng thu bao tng t.
Tiu chun ny thc s khng phn m t cu trc mng v dch v ADSL,
khng m t cc chc nng bn trong ca thit b. Tiu chun ny ch xc nh
cc vn c bn ca ADSL nh m ng truyn v cu trc khung trn ng
dy.
Cc sn phm ADSL c sn xut s dng cc k thut m ng dy thng
dng nht l CAP, QAM v DMT. Tuy nhin khi s dng 1 i dy truyn
dn tn hiu song cng th phi s dng t nht mt trong hai phng php: song
cng phn tn (FDD) hoc trit ting vng (EC). Vi ADSL phng php thc
hin kt hp song cng phn tn v trit ting vng v bn cht bt i xng ca
di tn ADSL (Hng i v hng v c th chng ln nhau nhng khng th
khp nhau c).
Thng 6-1996 ITU-T cho ra i khuyn ngh G.992.1 cho ADSL G. DMT v
G.992.2 cho ADSL G. Lite. Vic tiu chun ho ca ITU-T cng ch dng li
thit b thu pht ADSL m cha c tiu chun no cho kin trc mng ADSL.
Vo thng 10 nm 1998, ITU thng qua b tiu chun ADSL c bn. Khuyn
ngh G922.1 chi tit ADSL full-rate. Khuyn ngh ny gn ging ANSI T1.413
phin bn 2 vi 2 im ngoi tr c bn:

137
1. Trnh t khi to da trn m c thay th bi qu trnh da trn bn tin
m t trong G.994.1, v
2. Ch c bit c b sung ci thin hot ng khi c xuyn m t
ghp knh nn theo thi gian TCM ISDN s dng Nht.
3.1.2 Tiu chun cp ng phc v trin khai dch v ADSL
3.1.2.1 Tiu chun cp thng tin kim loi TCN 68-132: 1998
Cc ch tiu k thut quy nh trong phn ny ch p dng cho cp mi lp
t. Cng c th tham kho cc ch tiu ny cho cp ang s dng nhng cc gi
tr o c phi khng c vt qu 20% gi tr tiu chun. Cc thng s k
thut trong iu 10 hon ton ph hp vi TCN 68-132:1998.
(1) in tr dng mt chiu ca li dn
in tr dng mt chiu ca li dn, 20
0
C, phi tun theo cc ch tiu trong
Bng III-1. i vi cp t 100 i tr ln, cho php 1% s i trong cun cp
khng t yu cu v in tr c bit.
(2) Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn
Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn, nhit 20
0
C, phi tun theo cc
ch tiu trong Bng III-2. i vi cp t 100 i tr ln, cho php 1% s i
trong b cp khng t yu cu v mc mt cn bng in tr c bit cc i.
Bng III-1 in tr dng mt chiu ca li dn
in tr mt chiu ca li dn /km ng knh dy dn
mm
Trung bnh cc i C bit cc i
0,32 220,0 239,0
0,40 139,0 147,0
0,50 88,7 93,5
0,65 52,5 56,
0,90 27,4 29,0
Bng III-2 Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn
ng knh dy dn,
mm
Gi tr trung bnh cc
i, %
Gi tr c bit cc i,
%
0,32 2,0 5,0
0,40 2,0 5,0
0,50 1,5 5,0
0,65 1,5 4,0
0,90 1,5 4,0

138
in dung cng tc l in dung tng h gia hai li dn ca mt i dy khi
tt c cc i cn li c ni vi mn chn nhiu v c ni t. Trong mt b
cp bt k, in dung cng tc ca tt c cc i dy, c o tn s 1 kHz v
nhit 20
0
C, khng c vt qu gi tr quy nh trong Bng III-3.
Bng III-3 in dung cng tc
Loi cp Gi tr trung bnh cc
i, nF/km
Gi tr c bit cc i,
nF/km
S i cp FSP CCP FSP CCP
12 i tr xung 524 55 58 60
13 i tr ln 522 55 57 60
i vi cp t 100 i tr ln, cho php 1% s i trong b cp khng t yu
cu v gi tr in dung c bit cc i.
(3) in dung khng cn bng
in dung khng cn bng gia cc i dy v gia cc i dy vi t, o ti
tn s 1 kHz v nhit 20
0
C, khng c vt qu cc gi tr quy nh trong
Bng III-4.
Bng III-4 in dung khng cn bng

in dung khng cn bng
gia i vi i, pF/km
in dung khng cn bng
gia i vi t, pF/km

S i cp
Gi tr c bit
cc i
Gi tr cn
qun phng
cc i, rms
Gi tr c
bit cc i
Gi tr trung
bnh cc i
12 i tr
xung
181 - 2625 -
13 i tr ln 145 45,3 2625 656
i vi cp t 100 i tr ln, cho php 1% s i trong b cp khng t yu
cu v gi tr in dung khng cn bng c bit cc i.
(4) in tr cch in
in tr cch in ca mi dy c bc cch in i vi tt c cc dy
khc v vi mn chn nhiu ca si cp, nhit 20
0
C, phi ln hn 10
Mkm.
in p o th l in p mt chiu 500 V cho cp mi v 350 V cho cp ang
s dng, thi gian o: 1 pht.
(5) Suy hao truyn dn
Gi tr trung bnh cc i ca suy hao truyn dn o, ti tn s 1 kHz, 150 kHz
v 772 kHz, nhit 20
0
C, phi tun th cc gi tr quy nh trong Bng III-5.

139
Bng III-5 Suy hao truyn dn
Gi tr trung bnh cc i ca suy hao truyn dn, dB/km ng knh dy
dn, mm
1 kHz 150 kHz 772 kHz
0,32 2,373% 16,30 31,60
0,40 1,853% 12,30 23,60
0,50 1,443% 8,90 19,80
0,65 1,133% 6,0 13,9
0,90 0,823% 5,40 12,00
i vi cp t 100 i tr ln, cho php 1% s i trong b cp khng t yu
cu v gi tr suy hao truyn dn c bit cc i. Gi tr suy hao truyn dn c
bit cc i c tnh bng 110% gi tr trung bnh quy nh trong Bng III-5.
(6) Suy hao xuyn m
Suy hao ca tng cng sut xuyn m trung bnh u xa v suy hao ca tng
cng sut xuyn m c bit u xa, o ti cc tn s 1 kHz, 150 kHz v 772 kHz,
phi ln hn gi tr trong Bng III-6.
Bng III-6: Suy hao xuyn m u xa
Gi tr trung bnh ti thiu
dB/km
Gi tr c bit ti thiu
dB/km
ng knh
li dn
f, kHz

0,9

0,65

0,5

0,4

0,32

0,9

0,65

0,5

0,4

0,32
150 60 58 58 56 54 54 52 52 52 52
772 46 44 44 42 40 40 38 38 38 38
Suy hao ca tng cng sut xuyn m u gn trung bnh v suy hao ca tng
cng sut xuyn m u gn c bit, c o trong mi nhm bt k ca b cp
ti tn s 1 kHz, 150 kHz v 772 kHz, phi ln hn gi tr trong Bng III-7.
Bng III-7 Suy hao xuyn m u gn
Tn s, kHz Gi tr trung bnh ti thiu,
dB/km
Gi tr c bit ti thiu, dB/km
150 58 53
772 47 42
(7) i vi cp ng trc: c th tham kho cc tham s in ca nh sn
xut nhng phi tho mn cc yu cu ti thiu sau:
in tr li dn: <165 /km
in tr cch in: > 5 Gkm

140
in dung cng tc ti tn s 1 kHz: 68 nF/km 10%
Tr khng c tnh: 50/75 3
Suy hao ti tn s 100 MHz: <12 dB/100 m
3.1.2.2 Tiu chun cp trn i dy thu bao s x DSL (ITU-T L.19)
(1) Nhng yu cu chung
Xem xt phn truy nhp s gia tng i ni ht v khch hng l mt vic chnh
dn ti thnh cng ca cc dch v v v h thng ISDN, HDSL, ADSL,
UADSL, cc yu cu cn xem xt i vi mng l:
- Kh nng hot ng trn cc ng 2 dy khng ti,
- Mc tiu s dng 100% cp cho cc dch v mi v h thng ISDN,
HDSL, ADSL, UADSL m khng chn lc cp, sp xp li cp hoc b
cc BT (Bridged Taps-r nhnh)
- Mc tiu cho php m rng cc cc dch v mi v h thng ISDN,
HDSL, ADSL, UADSL ch yu cho cc khch hng m khng s dng
b lp. Trong t trng hp cn li mt s sp xp c bit c cn ti.
- nh gi vic cng tn ti trong mt tuyn cp c hu ht cc dch v nh
thoi v truyn dn d liu bng thoi
- Cc chnh sch quc gia lin quan ti tng thch in trng (EMC).
- Cung cp ngun qua mng theo phng thc c bit.
- Lp t thit b h tr bo dng.
(2) Cc cng ngh xDSL
4 cng ngh xDSL quan trng nht c ch ra trong bng 1 l:
Truy nhp ISDN c bn ITU-T I.430, tc hai chiu 160 kBit/s
(2B+D)
ADSL vi hng v l 6 Mbit/s v hng i tc thp hn s dng
mt cp cp ng (khng c nhiu ln in thoi)
HDSL: mi hng 2 Mbit/s, nhng yu cu 3 i cp ng
ADSL ITU-T G.996.1 (UADSL hoc Universal ADSL) cung cp bng
thng 1,5 Mbit/s trn c hai hng cho truy nhp Internet nhanh nhng
khng p dng cho video.
Bng III-8 Cc tc xDSL
H xDSL Tc bit d liu
hng v

ISDN 160 kbit/s
ADSL ti 6 Mbit/s
HDSL 2 Mbit/s

141
UADSL ln ti 1,5 Mbit/s
(3) xDSL: cc vn k thut
C mt s vn k thut vi cc dch v da trn xDSL, c bit nu cc nh
khai thc c php thu cc i cp ng trong mng truy nhp cp. Trong
cng mt cp, mc nhiu gia cc ng dng khc nhau ph thuc vo cng
ngh c s dng v cc c im vt l ca cp (s phn tch gia cc cc
cp, cch ly...).Cng ngh xDSL cng sut ln cao nh ADSL gy ra cc vn
nhiu ln nht, cn UADSL gy ra nhiu nh nht.
C 5 kh khn chnh khi a ra cc dch v xDSL:
Yu cu gi nguyn vn cc dch v ang c. Nhiu c to ra bi cc
mch vng xDSL c th gy li hoc hot ng vi cht lng thp km
i rt nhiu cho cc dch v ang c
Yu cu thay i th tc kim tra ng dy. S c mt ca modem
ADSL trong mch vng ni ht lm phc tp kim tra ng dy.
Yu cu gim ti thiu nhiu gia cc cng ngh truyn dn ISDN v
UADSL. ISDN c s dng rng ri nhiu nc.
Yu cu ti a s dng mch vng ni ht cho cc dch v xDSL
Lm th no chn tt nht cc ng dy cho xDSL. Khng phi tt c
cc ng ph hp cho ADSL. Yu t quan trng nht phi trnh khi s
dng ADSL l tn tht tn hiu. iu ny ph thuc vo khong cch,
nhng khong cch chnh xc m ADSL s hot ng cng ph thuc vo
cc c im ca mch vng v tc d liu d nh. Cc yu t khc
cng nh hng n cht lng (nhiu, xuyn m hoc nhiu tn s v
tuyn....).
(4) Mi trng truyn dn
Mi trng truyn dn m qua d nh h thng truyn dn s s hot ng l
mng cp ng m qua cc khch hng ni ti tng i ni ht qua cc ng
dy ni ht.
Mng ny khai thc cc cp cp ng cung cp dch v ti khch hng. Mt
ng dy ni ht cp ng d kin c th vn chuyn ng thi truyn dn s
theo c hai hng cung cp cc tc ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL gia LT
(kt cui ng dy) v NT1 (kt cui mng 1) nh ch ra trong Hnh III-2.

NT1 SDP CCP LT MDF
Cp thu bao Cp r nhnh
Cp chnh hoc
cp gc Cp trong nh
Cc im ni l:
MDF: Gi u dy
CCP: im ni cho
SDP: im r nhnh thu bao


142
Hnh III-2 M hnh vt l ng dy ni ht
cung cp ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL, h thng truyn dn s phi c th
hot ng trn cc ng cp ng ni ht m khng c yu cu c bit no. S
lng cc ng dy ng c th s dng cho ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL t
c theo cc yu cu nh nht ca ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL.
Cc yu cu sau i vi cc ng ni ht s tho mn cc yu cu ISDN,
HDSL, ADSL, UADSL.
(5) Cc yu cu c khuyn ngh
a/ Cc yu cu ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL ti thiu
Mt ng s ni ht khng c cc vng ti (coil) hoc dy m.
Khi c cc BT th chng khng gy nhiu nhiu ti in thoi nhng c th lm
suy gim cht lng truyn dn ca cc tn hiu ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, UADSL.
nh hng ca cc suy hao do BT trong ng truyn dn ph thuc vo tn s
tn hiu, tc truyn sng v di trong BT.
S xut hin BT trn ng thu bao s b xung nhiu ln tn hiu pht i. Tn
tht xy ra do v cng sut phn x theo hng ca b pht bi vy khng ph
hp vi ng truyn dn ti im BT. BT to ra cc phn x do khng lin tc
trn ng truyn dn. Cc tn hiu b phn x s cng vo tn hiu pht i
trn ng dy thu bao.
b/ Cc c im vt l ng dy ni ht
Mt ng dy ni ht s c xy dng t mt hoc nhiu phn cp ni hoc
hn vi nhau.
Cp nhnh hoc cp gc c xy dng nh sau:
cc tng cp c ng knh v di khc nhau
c th tn ti mt hoc nhiu BT ti nhiu im khc nhau trong cc cp
feeder v cp nhnh.
Bng III-9 Cc thng s in hnh ca cp
Cp trong nh Cp gc Cp nhnh Cp thu
bao
ng knh
(mm)
0.3 n 0.6 0.3 n 1.4 0.3 n 1.4 0.3 n 0.9
Cu trc cp xon hoc
i cp
Lp hoc b
cp xon hoc
i cp
Lp hoc b
cp xon
hoc i cp
Lp hoc b
cp xon,
i cp hoc
cp l
S lng i cc
i
1200 2400/0.4 mm
4800/0.3 mm
600/0.4 mm 2 (cp lu
khng)
600 (cp
trong nh)
in dung tng
tc
(nF/km 800
55 n 120 25 n 60 25 n 60 35 n 120

143
Hz)
c/ Cc thng s in v truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao s
Bao gm suy hao chn (insertion loss), xuyn m, mt cn bng t, nhiu xung
Suy hao chn
Bng III-10 Suy hao chn ln nht
H xDSL Cc tn s test
(kHz)
Suy hao chn ln nht
(dB)

ISDN (M) 40 42
ISDN (Chu u) 40 36
HDSL 150 30
ADSL 300 41dB i vi 6 Mbit/s
ADSL 300 47dB i vi 4 Mbit/s
ADSL 300 49dB i vi 2Mbit/s
UADSL 300 49dB i vi 1,5
Mbit/s

Xuyn m
i vi ISDN gi tr suy hao tng cng sut nn nh hn 50 dB 40 kHz (44 dB
160 kHz) v gim 15 dB/decade with frequency (lg f).
Mt cn bng t
Suy hao bin i dc (LCL) nn ln hn 40 dB 40 kHz v gim 5 dB/decade
with frequency.
Nhiu xung: Phi nm trong

T0603920-96
1 10 300
10
100
Frequency (kHz)
Hz / V u

Ghi ch:
Cc gii hn FEXT c th chp nhn c i vi ADSL v UADSL ang c
nghin cu.

144
Cc gii hn NEXT c th chp nhn c i vi HDSL, ADSL v UADSL
ang c nghin cu.
Cc gii hn mt cn bng c th chp nhn c i vi HDSL, ADSL v
UADSL ang c nghin cu.
3.2 Phng php o kim
3.2.1 Tng quan v o kim
Phn ny ny cung cp tng tc tnh, ng v hot ng o kim ca thit b
ADSL.
Thnh cng ca nhmADSL Forum Testing & Interoperability Working Group
l h tr cho cc tiu chun o kim tng tc chung m bo hot ng
tng tc gia cc phng n trin khai. Thnh cng ca vic pht trin ADSL
ph thuc vo cng ngh c tiu chun ho v hot ng tng tc hon ton
gia cc nh sn xut thit b. Tiu chun ADSL hin ti tp trung trn cc tiu
chun ca cc lp h thng, khng tp trung vo tiu chun ca mt sn phm
ring bit, c s cho vic tng tc gia cc thit b ngang hng.
Ti liu ny c thit k l mt ti liu sng, n c thay i tng thch
vi cng ngh hin ny v th trng. Mc tiu l to ra mt b khung cho cc
yu cu o kim v cu hnh cho cc pha chnh ca vic o kim, tng ng vi
cc hot ng ca ADSL. C th hnh dung c phin bn ny ca ti liu s
to iu kin thun li cho cc cuc tranh lun v phng php o kim v tin
hnh o kim c tin hnh mt cch thch hp v r tin.
Trong phn tip theo, cc yu cu khc nhau v o kim cng nh c s hp l
ca o kim cng c ch r. Cng vic tip theo l tp trung vo cu hnh o
kim v cc bi o ADSL trong mi trng iu khin. Cc bi o c th l mt
tp con ca cc yu cu trong phng th nghim.
Mc tiu
Ti liu ny cung cp tng quan v cc phn khc nhau trong o kim. Cc phn
bao gm o kim v kh nng thch nghi, o kim tng tc tnh, o kim tng
tc ng. y l ti liu gii thiu chung thit lp mt b khung cho cc yu
cu o kim khc nhau.
Mc tiu cui cng ca o kim ny l to ra s tin tng i vi thit b c
kim tra s hot ng tt khi c ni vi mt thit b c kim tra khc v
khi c a vo hot ng vi i cp thch hp.
thc hin c mc tiu ny, cn phi xc nh nu sn phm p ng c
cc tiu chun v chng c th tng tc m khng gp vn ln no. Hn th
na, thit b c th hot ng di cc iu kin ti khc nhau. Ba loi o kim,
o kim tng tc tnh, o kim tng tc ng, o kim tun th thng cung
cp cho ngi s dng vi mc tin tng i vi thit b p ng c cc yu
cu ny. Mi mt loi o kim ny c th rt ln. Chng cng c lp v loi ny
khng nht thit l iu kin u cho loi kia. Hn na, s thnh cng hay tht
bi ca bi o kim loi ny khng phi l iu kin u m cng khng phi l
m ch ti kt qu mong i ca bi o kim loi khc. Vic kt hp c ba loi

145
o kim s cung cp mc tin tng cao nht rng thit b c o kim s
tng tc vi hot ng tt khi lp t trong mng thc.
Kim chun c gng xc nh xem vic trin khai c ngc vi tiu
chun.
o kim tng tc tnh l c gng xc nh hai thit b c kt ni vi
nhau, bt chp chng tun th tiu chun nh th no hoc chng hot
ng nh th no trong mng.
o kim tng tc ng l c gng xc nh thit b c lp trong mi
trng mng thc di cc iu kin khc nhau hot ng nh th no.
Cc yu cu chung cho tt c ba loi o kim ny l ADSL ICS (ADSL
Implementation Conformance Statement-ICS). ADSL ICS c s dng xc
nh bi o kim no l cn thit, ci g cn phi sa i v trong mt s trng
hp bi o no c th b qua.
3.2.1.1 Tiu chun in
nh gi bt k vic trin khai no, tht cn thit thc hin y cc bi o
v in ca ADSL ICS. Cc tiu chun v in v gii hn cho php phi c
cung cp. iu ny bao gm cc yu cu nh tiu chun v Splitter POTS, kt
cui ng dy, c tnh in ADSL, v.v...
Bi o v tiu chun in ADSL c xy dng da trn ETR-212.
3.2.1.2 Cc c tnh c bn v cc kh nng
Cc bi o c th bao gm:
Thng tin cn thit trong phng th nghim thc hin bi o kim trn
thit b mt cch thch hp nht.
Cc thng tin h tr xc nh kh nng ph tr no c th c o kim
v kh nng no khng cn thit o kim.
o kim thit b, thng tin yu cu o kim trong phng th nghim lin quan
ti thit b v mi trng o kim phi c cung cp bi bi o.
3.2.1.3 Cc yu cu v qun l v h tr o kim
Cc yu cu v qun l v h tr o kim l cc kt ni o v c cu iu khin
thit b cn o kim t thit b vo cc iu kin o kim thch hp cn thit
to thun li cho vic o. iu ny bao gm c truy cp vt l n gin v
chung (v d, giao din ni tip) vo thit b cn o, truy cp vo thanh ghi gim
st hot ng ca thit b cn thit cho vic nh gi hot ng, iu khin thit
b n c th to ra hoc hn ch cc tc nhn thch ng cho vic o kim tun
th v in... Kim tra truy nhp l yu cu cho phn ln cc bi o.
3.2.1.4 Kim chun
Kim chun l xc minh cc kh nng v la chn c thc hin bi thit b
c o kim trong cu hnh kin trc h thng khi so snh vi tiu chun k
thut ca t chc tiu chun. Cc bi kim chun c th tp trung vo mt lp

146
giao thc xc nh hoc mt giao thc. Mt sn phm c th p ng c ti
mt lp giao thc, nhng khng tun th theo cc lp khc. Kim chun cng c
th c s dng xc nh nguyn nhn ca vn sau khi o kim tng tc
khng t. Kim chun c hon thnh vi thit b o theo chun c ni vi
thit b cn o. Da vo vic hon thnh ICS, cc bi o kim c thc hin v
kt qu c phn tch.
(1) Cc mc kim chun
C ba mc chung cho kim chun:
Tun th v in
Tun th v vt l
Tun th lp cao hn
Tun th v in v vt l c mi lin quan gn gi vi nhau. V d phn cn
c nh gi trong o kim v in v vt l bao gm cc c im v in mt
chiu DC, c tnh bng tn thoi, c tnh Splitter POTS, v c tnh bng tn
ADSL.
Cc giao thc h tr gia ATU-C v ATU-R bn trn lp vt l c th cn thit
c o kim ph chun tnh tun th theo cc tiu chun kin trc nh
ADSL Forum TR-002 and TR-003. Cc phn cn o kim c th l:
PPP over ATM on ADSL
Frame-based architectures (v d., FUNI on ADSL hoc HDLC on ADSL)
Cc phn khc c th cn cc bi o c nh ngha nh Din n ADSL ch
ra cc cng b ph cho mng ADSL.
Khng cn thit o kim cc lp cao hn. o kim cc lp cao hn d dng
hn v ch nh l mt phn ca o kim tng thch.
(2) o kim tng tc (Interoperability Testing)
a/ o kim tng tc tnh (Static Interoperability Testing)
o kim tng tc tnh kim tra hot ng ca mt cp modem hot ng trong
mi trng thun li (v d, mch vng ng nht v khng b xen nhiu).
Mc ch ca o kim tng tc tnh l khng nh mc m hai thit b c
th giao tip c vi nhau, trn c s cc tnh nng c ci t thu c t
ADSL ICS. Tng tc tnh cho php khch hng c th kt ni thit b t cc nh
sn xut khc nhau v tin rng chng c th giao tip tt vi nay trong mi
trng th nghim n nh.
o kim tng tc c thc hin trong h thng ADSL vi mt ATU-C v
ATU-R c ci t cc tnh nng v chc nng bt buc nh nhau, cn c th
khc nhau i vi cc tnh nng la chn. Trong vi trng hp kh nng tng
tc ph thuc vo tnh nng ph.
o kim tng tc tnh kim tra p ng h thng ca hai h thng c kt ni
vi nhau v c th hn ch ch ra cc giao thc trong ngn. N bao gm o kim

147
kh nng v p ng ca thit b trong mi trng kt ni v kim tra liu thit b
c th giao tip tt vi thit b khc cng hoc khc loi.
o kim tng tc khng bao gm nh lng v hot ng, n nh, hoc tin
cy ca thit b.
o kim tng tc tnh khng nh gi vic tun th ca thit b vi tiu chun
lin quan. Vic nh gi ny l kt qu ca o kim tun th trong mc 4. Ch
rng, hai thit b khng c tiu chun nhng vn c th bt tay c vi nhau.
o kim tng tc tnh khng cn thit kim tra cc tnh nng bt buc c
nh ngha trong tiu chun chng li vic hot ng ca thit b c o kim.
b/ o kim tng tc ng
o kim tng tc ng kim tra kh nng ca mt cp modem tng tc vi
nhau trong mi trng lin quan ti kin trc mng thc. N m ch ti vic o
kim hot ng chung ca hai thit b thng qua mt chui cc tham s hot
ng v xc nh n nh, tin cy v bm theo lut hot ng c nh
ngha ca thit b c o trong cu hnh kin trc h thng. o kim tng tc
ng i hi mt th tc o kim trong lc kh nng giao tip ca thit b cn o
vi nhau c xc nh nh l cc iu kin kim tra hot ng c phn loi
v thc hin.
Phm vi ca o kim tng tc ng l bin i v c xc nh cho tng bi
o.
Tham s ca lp vt l l BER. ADSL c nhiu cp pht, chng sa li xut hin
t ngt, v tng thch vi ton b bng thng ca ng dy duy tr BER
vi cc bin nhiu v tr. Bn thn BER truyn thng s khng cho bi o
hot ng duy nht v cc phn t thm vo l tc truyn, bin nhiu i
vi tc , s cc li trn giy c th c yu cu.
Cc bi o cho o kim tng tc ng
Tc truyn hng ln v hng xung
Bin nhiu (Noise margin)
Trng thi ng dy ADSL (ADSL line status)
Cc khi FEC c truyn (Transmitted FEC blocks)
Cc khi FEC c sa li (Corrected FEC blocks)
Truyn siu khung (Transmitted superframes)
Cc siu khung khng th sa li (Uncorrectable superframes)
B m cho hin ti v trong qu kh v mt tn hiu, mt khung, mt
nng lng, giy b li.
Bit trn mi sng mang (Bits per carrier)
Tr (Interleave delay)

148
Tng thch tc - Rate adaptation (e.g., dynamic rate repartitioning,
dynamic rate adaptation, and fast retrain)
iu kin o kim i vi o kim tng tc ng
Tip theo l v d v iu kin o kim c dng trong khi o kim tng tc
ng ca thit b ADSL:
c im mch vng: ( di, tit din, cu ni, suy hao...)
Dy dn nh thu bao
iu kin v PSTN: ( chung, ring-trip, ngun nui, tn hiu, etc.)
Xen nhiu xuyn knh: (BR-ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, etc.)
Cc nhiu khc: (Impulse noise, RFI, etc.)
c/ Tham s hot ng xuyn sut End-to-End cho o kim tng tc ng
i vi nh cung cp mng, hot ng xuyn sut mng ti khc hng l quan
trng. Cc tham s sau c th c o kim:
Cht lng dch v (Service Quality)
Tr (Latency)
Tnh sn sng v bng thng v tc d liu (Bandwidth and Data Rate
availability)
(3) Cc mc o kim tng tc
C vi mc tng tc m nh thng ti c nh cung cp thit b v nh cung cp
dch v. Trong trng hp c bn, tng tc ti mt lp c th c th c nh
gi trong cc bi o tng tc tnh hoc ng. Vi v d:
Lp vt l (Physical layer)
Tng tc ti lp TC layer
ATM over ADSL Layer
STM over ADSL
Higher Layers of Interoperability
Cc giao thc h tr gia ATU-R v ATU-C bn trn lp vt l c th cn thit
c o kim ph chun tnh tng tc vi cc tiu chun kin trc nh
ADSL Forum TR-002 and TR-003. Phn o kim c th bao gm:
PPP over ATM on ADSL
Frame-based architectures (e.g., FUNI on ADSL or HDLC on ADSL)
3.2.2 o kim lp vt l: cc tham s cn o kim i vi mng cp ng
v phng php nh gi kt qu
3.2.2.1 Mt s khi nim
(1) Wire Gauge

149
Hu ht cc mch vng M theo thit k l 1300. Theo nguyn tc, 10.000 ft
cp u tin t CO l 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG, s o ng knh ca
dy). Da trn im ny, dy c AWG ln hn c s dng trnh in tr
mch vng ln. Ni chung, mch vng bao gm cng mt c 26 AWG hoc 24
AWG v dy treo (dy trn) vi dy chn gn ngang nhau. Nhng mch vng rt
di l dy 22 hoc 19 AWG. Dy thng thng l 500 ft mt cun, mt mch
vng in hnh c th c 22 mi ni. Cc mi ni hin i s dng thit b nn
m bo mi ni chc chn m khng phi l hn. Cc mi ni c, cc dy c
xon li vi nhau c th b n mn v gy ra tr khng cao v thm ch to thnh
cc i t do cc lp ng b oxy ho gia cc dy. Hin tng ny s gim i bi
sealing current. (xem phn 3.3)
C th c tn hiu phn x do thay i tr khng mi ghp ni mt dy ny vi
mt dy khc c ng knh khc nhau. Cc mch vng di c th thay i
ng knh dy khc nhau vi ln. Mc nh hng n cht lng truyn dn
khi thay i ng knh cn ang tranh ci. Phn ln cc chuyn gia tin rng cc
DSL vi b trit ting vng c dung sai, nh hng do thay i ng knh
nh c th b qua.
Ngoi nc M, ng knh dy c o bng mm, thng thng xp x tng
ng vi ng knh AWG. Bng sau y a ra in tr mch vng nhit
70
oF
. in tr mch vng thay i theo nhit , v d mch vng 26 AWG c
in tr 373/dm 0
oF
v 489/dm 120
oF
. in tr ca mch vng l tng
ton b mch vng gm dy pht v dy thu.

AWG C dy (mm) in tr mch vng
(/dm)
28
26
24
22
0.32
0,4
0,5
0,63
685
441
277
174

(2) Cu r (Bridge Tap - BT)
mt vi nc, thng trin khai ghp ni cp nhnh (gi l cu r) vo mt
ng cp. Xem Hnh III-3. Do , cu r l chiu di ca mt i dy mt u
ni ca mch vng v u kia khng kt cui. Khong 80% mch vng M c
cu r; i khi c mt vi cu r trn mt mch vng. Cu r c th t gn u
cui hoc im trung gian. Mt l do phi c cu r l n cho php tt c cc
i dy trong cp c s dng hoc s dng li phc v bt c mt thu bao
no dc theo tuyn cp. Phn ln cc nc Chu u tuyn b l khng c mch
r nhng vn c mt s ngoi l. Tn hiu phn hi t cu r khng kt cui gy
ra suy gim tn hiu v nhiu. Trong nhiu DSL c b cn bng iu chnh v
trit ting vng hn ch c suy gim truyn dn gy ra bi cu r. Trng hp
xu nht l cu cu r c chiu di bng 1/4 bc sng ca bt k tn s truyn
no s dng, gy ra nhiu b xung t 3 n 6 dB. Tn hiu phn hi l r 1/4

150
bc sng lch pha 180
o
so vi tn hiu pht v do vy trit tiu mt phn tn
hiu. Cc DSL c th chp nhn mch r vi iu kin l suy gim tn hiu tng
hp do chiu di mch vng v cc cu r nm trong phm vi cho php ca h
thng.



















Hnh III-3 nh hng ca cu r trn ng truyn xung
(3) Mch vng c cun cm cn bng
i vi cc mch vng di 5,5 km (18 kft), suy hao tn hiu tn s ln hn
1kHz vt qu mc cho php lm cho truyn dn thoi khng chp nhn
c. Cc in cm ni tip (thng l 88 mH) t cch nhau 1,8 km (6
kft)cho thy phn hi tn s trong bng b suy hao ln hn rt nhiu so
vi tn s bng thoi. Kt qu l, DSL khng hot ng trn mch vng c
cun cm cn bng.
Hnh III-4 minh ho nh hng ca loading vi tn s phn hi. Ph thuc vo
tng vng, 10 n 15% mch vng M c cun cm cn bng. Vo nhng nm
1970, trc khi trin khai rng mch vng thu bao s, 20% mch vng c cun
cm cn bng. Trong mt s t trng hp, cun cm cn bng c pht hin
nhng mch vng ngn hn 5,5 km (18 kft). DSL lm vic c phi loi b
c cun cm cn bng . Tuy nhin, n lc loi b cun cm cn bng rt
t tin. Chu u, mch vng di 5,5 km (18 kft) rt t gp, v th khng s
dng cun cm cn bng.










Tng i
trung tm
Khch
hng
R cu
R cu

Xung truyn
Nng lng
xung b chia
thnh hai ng

Xung phn x t
u cui r
Xung phn x
cng b phn
chia v gy ra
ting vng

c tnh tn s ca mch vng di 18 kft
Mc tn
hiu thu
c
0 3 kHz tn s
Mch vng
c ti
Mch vng
khng ti

151


Hnh III-4 p ng tn s ca mch vng c ti
(4) Suy hao phn x
Khi tr khng ti bng tr khng c tnh (khng phi l phi hp vi tr khng
c tnh), th khng c sng theo chiu m v khng c nng lng phn x.
Suy hao phn hi ca ng dy truyn dn hoc mng hai cng l nghch o t
s ca nng lng phn x trn nng lng ti ti (hoc phn tip theo ca
mch). Suy hao phn hi n gin l bnh phng ca h s phn x, do vy
dB loss return
2
10
1
10
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

log (3.31)
(5) Cn bng
+
Zc ZL
Dng kim loi mang tn hiu n
Mt ct dc dy 2
Mt ct dc dy 1
Vc
VL
IL

Hnh III-5 Minh ho dng kim loi v dng theo chiu dc
Hnh III-5 ch ra dng kim loi v dng chiu dc trong mt i dy xon). Dng
kim loi mang tn hiu n t thu bao, qua tr khng ZL. Cc dng chiu dc
hng xung t thc cht l hai dy chp chung thnh mt ng phn hi
xung t. Cc dng theo chiu dc c th xut hin do sng radio nh hng t
ng dy thoi hoc do truyn dn khng hon ho ca mch vng n ng
dy thoi gy ra cc in p khc nhau lm d r vo ng chiu ngang.
S cn bng ca ng dy truyn dn phn nh kh nng chng li dng d r
theo chiu dc ("cn bng kim loi") v ng thi kh nng tng h trnh tn
hiu chiu dc chy n dng kim loi ("cn bng chiu dc"). S cn bng cng
ln th kh nng ca ng dy in thoi loi b c hiu ng mc ni tip
cng ln. S cn bng lun lun l hm ca tn s v gim cc tn s cao.
xon cht ca i dy xon nng cao cn bng. Thit k k lng cc mch
thu pht bo m rng tr khng ni t cao v khng i tt c cc im v
ging nhau trn c hai dy. Tuy nhin, trn thc t c gii hn cn bng trong
bng tn POTS, cn bng thng thng l t 50 n 60dB tc l tn hiu bin
thin n chiu dc v ngc li gim ti 5 n 6 ln cng nng lng. Tuy

152
nhin tn s cao trong ADSL/HDSL cn bng c th gim ti 30dB, v
thm ch tn s cao hn ca VDSL c th cn gim hn na.
M hnh ton hc cho s cn bng dng nh rt kh tm. Tc gi gi m hnh
sau y cho ng dy loi 3 da trn nhng quan st tng th l s cn bng
gim t 50 dB hoc l tt hn tn s cao, khong 35 dB 1,5 MHz, thm ch
thp hn tn s cao (m hnh ny dng li 15dB cn bng 30 MHz), vi t
s nng lng:


|
.
|

\
|
= <
=
MHz f f
f
f
kHz f f
f B
b
b
b
30 10
150 0 10
5 1
5
5
.
) ( (3.51)

(6) Nhiu - Xuyn m
C nhiu xuyn m trong cc DSL bi v mi dy trong cp ca i dy xon
pht ra in t. Cc trng in v t to ra dng in chy trong cc i dy
bn cnh dn n tn hiu xuyn m khng mong mun trn cc i dy ny.
Hnh III-6 minh ho 2 kiu xuyn m thng gp phi trong DSL. Xuyn m u
gn (NEXT) l loi xuyn m xy ra t cc tn hiu i theo hng ngc li trn
i dy xon (hoc l t b pht ti b thu u cui gn). Xuyn m u xa
(FEXT) c t tn hiu i theo cng mt hng trn hai i dy xon (hoc t b
pht ti b thu u xa).

153














Hnh III-6 Nhiu xuyn m NEXT - FEXT
Xuyn m c th l ngun nhiu nh hng ln trn i dy xon v thng gy
gim tnh nng hot ng ca DSL khi n khng c loi b.
(7) Nhiu v tuyn
Nhiu v tuyn l phn cn li ca tn hiu v tuyn trn ng dy in thoi,
c bit l ca AM qung b v ca cc nh khai thc nghip d (HAM).
Tn hiu tn s v tuyn (RF) nh hng ln i dy in thoi, c bit l dy
trn. Cc ng dy in thoi lm t ng to thnh anten thu sng in t dn
ti dng in tch cm ng so vi t. in p chung cho i dy xon l mt
trong hai dy so vi t - thng thng hai in p ny ging nhau hai dy trong
i dy xon ging nhau. ng dy in thoi cn bng cao cho thy s suy
gim ln trong tn hiu RF bin thin trn i dy so vi tn hiu chung. Tuy
nhin s cn bng s gim khi tng tn s, v tn s ca DSL t 560 kHz n
30 MHz, h thng DSL c th chng ln ln bng tn v tuyn v s thu nhn
mc no ca nhiu v tuyn dc theo cc tn hiu DSL bin thin trn cng
mt i dy thoi. Dng nhiu DSL ny gi l RF vo.
Theo cng thc Foster v Cook, cng trng in t cho im ngun anten
l tng c nng lng pht Pt u trong khng gian, khong cch d l
m V
d
P
d
Z P
F
t f t
/
. .
.
. 48 5
4
2
= =

(3.64)
Tr khng ca khng gian t do l Zf = 377. Mc in p cm ng so vi t
t cng t trng F i ti dy ph thuc vo c tnh dn t ca cp. Qua
thc nghim, in p cm ng bng cng trng in t khi biu din bng
next
Cp
u pht
u thu
Fext
Cp
u pht
u thu

154
vn/mt trong trng hp xu nht. Do in p chung cng c biu din
trong (3.60). in p bin thin l in p chung b gim bi tha s cn bng
B(f) = B, v th

B d
P
V
t
d
.
.48 5
= (3.65)
Biu din ny c th s dng c tnh cc mc nhiu vo t c cc trm v
tuyn AM v t cc nh khai thc v tuyn amateur.
a/ S thm nhp ca nhiu radio nghip d
Truyn dn v tuyn amateur trong cc bng c ch ra trong Bng III-11
Bng III-11 Cc bng tn radio amateur
Cc bng khai thc HAM (MHz)
Tn s thp nht Tn s cao nht
1,81
3,5
7,0
10,1
14,0
18,068
21
24,89
28,0
2,0
4,0
7,1
10,15
14,35
18,168
21,45
24,99
29,7
Cc bng ny chng ln bng truyn dn ca VDSL nhng trnh cc bng
truyn dn ca cc DSLs khc. Do , giao thoa v tuyn HAM ch l vn ln
i vi VDSL.
Nh khai thc HAM c th s dng cng sut 1,5 KW, nhng s dng cng sut
ln nh vy rt him khi s dng cc vng dn c ng hay cc vng c nhiu
i dy in thoi. B pht 400W khong cch 20 mt (30 ft) c th gy ra
in p cm ng chung theo chiu dc khong 11 vn trn ng dy in thoi.
Vi cn bng l 33 dB, in p kim loi tng ng l 300 mV, l 0 dBm cng
sut trn ng dy Z
0
= 100. Cc nh khai thc HAM s dng bng tn s
2,5kHz lin tc vi m thanh (thoi) hoc tn hiu s (m Morse, FSK), dn ti
nhiu PSD xp x -34 dBm/Hz. Trn thc t, cc nh khai thc HAM truyn
cc mc thp hn hoc c th cch xa hn 10m khi truyn cc mc cao hn. Tuy
nhin iu ny dn n nhiu PSDs trong khong t -35 dBm/Hz n -60
dBm/Hz, cao hn mc xuyn m trong phn 3.7. Hn na, cc mc in p cao
nh vy c th lm bo ho cc thit b in t analog u vo.

155
Cc nh khai thc HAM chuyn tn s sng mang vi pht mt ln v tn hiu
truyn l 0 (iu ch SSB) khi khng c tn hiu. V th, b thu c th khng c
kh nng d on c s xut hin ca HAM vo.
May mn thay, tn hiu v tuyn HAM l bng hp v v th cc phng php
truyn dn c gng nh du cc bng tn hp v t ca cc nhiu ny, thc cht
l trnh nhiu (i vi mt s phng php truyn, xem chng 6) hn l c
gng truyn qua n. Mt s b thu c cc b lc loi b hiu ng ny.
b/ AM xm nhp
Giao thoa v tuyn AM xut pht t trm pht v tuyn lin tc c rng bng
thng 10 kHz t 560 kHz n 1,6 MHz, do nh hng ti tn hiu thu ADSL
v VDSL. Nhiu trm v tuyn AM c th cng mt lc hot ng trong thnh
ph v nh hng ln ng dy in thoi. Cc trm pht v tuyn AM c th
pht qung b mc cng sut ln ti 50,000W v c th pht ti cng sut ln
nht vo bui ti. Tn hiu v tuyn AM c th l cao hn 20dB hoc hn na so
vi tn hiu HAM, nhng chng ta cn nh rng cp cn bng thng l tt hn
tn s thp (gim t 10 n 15dB). ng thi, khong cch t ct anten AM
cho ti ng dy thoi thng l 1 km ch t cng ln hn 10mt, v nng lng
tri rng gp 4 ln di thng (gim 6 dB). Do vy, tn hiu v tuyn AM c nhiu
PSD khong t -80dBm/Hz n -120 dBm/Hz. Tn hiu v tuyn AM l lin tc
do tnh cht bng tn hai pha cng sng mang. c tnh nhiu ADSL v VDSL,
s dng m hnh 10 tn s, trong tt c cc nhiu l hnh sin.
Mc AM xm nhp c th ngang hoc trn mc xuyn m v mc nhiu nn ca
DSL v v th khng th b qua khi thit k. Tuy nhin, tn hiu v tuyn AM
khng ln lm bo ho u cui analog ca cc b thu DSL.
(8) Nhiu xung
Nhiu xung l xuyn m khng n nh t cc trng in t tm thi gn ng
dy in thoi. V d v b pht xung l rt a dng nh m ca t lnh (m t
chy/tt), in p iu khin thang my (cc ng dy in thoi trong cc to
nh thng chy theo ng ging thang my), v rung chung ca cc my in
thoi trong cng b cp. Mi hiu ng ny l tm thi v gy ra nhiu xm nhp
vo cc ng dy in thoi qua cng mt c ch c bn nh nhiu RF, nhng
thng tn s thp hn nhiu.
in p cm ng kim loi thng l vi mV, nhng cng c th cao ti 100 mV.
Cc in p nh vy dng nh l nh, nhng s suy gim ln tn s cao trn
i dy xon c ngha l thit b thu xung c th l rt ln so vi mc tn hiu
DSL nhn c. Cc in p ch ny ph bin gy bi xung c th gp 10
ln v bin . Cc xung thng thng ko di t hng chc n hng trm ln
micro giy nhng cng c th ko di ti 3 ms.
Nhiu nghin cu v xung u dn n hai m hnh phn tch xung da trn phn
tch thng k ca trn 100.000 xung bi nhiu nhm khc nhau. Tuy nhin, nhiu
ngi cho l xung khng th phn tch c v nng v lu tr cc dng sng
biu din trng hp xu nht. V th m hnh ho xung vn cn ang tranh ci,
c th l nguyn nhn gy ra xung rt nhiu dng cho nn bt c tnh ton hay o

156
c no cng cn phi c mt s nh hng. M hnh phn tch s dng rng ri
nht l Cook pulse, ly tn ca John Cook ca BT (trc y l vin thng Anh
Quc). Cook ghi trn 100.000 xung v qua my tnh phn tch khong 89.000
xung trn ng dy in thoi khc nhau lm c s cho m hnh ca cc phn
tip theo.
Cook Pulse
Bng cch thng k, Cook thy rng bin ca xung tng theo bng tn ca
DSL. iu ny trn danh ngha tng dn theo rng bng tn ca b lc thu
DSL, n gin ngha l suy hao xung t hn. in p chnh lch cm ng do
xung c gi tr nh tng theo cng thc
mV f V
DSL peak imp
4
1
4
1
. .
,
= (3.66)
Trong l hng s biu th mc chc chn xy ra, fDSL l di thng s
dng ca DSL, v l khong thi gian quan st xung. Gi tr ph bin ca hng
s chc chn l = 0.28 vi gi tr trng hp xu nht = 1.4. V vy, h
thng bng tn cng rng cng c nhiu xung (tng bng 3/4 cng sut ca bng
tn), v thi gian quan st cng lu, dng nh nhiu xung cng xut hin. L k
l phn b in p chung khng ph thuc vo tn s v bng
mV V
common
u. = (3.67)
Vi u l hng s chc chn chung vi gi tr ph bin l 1100 v gi tr trng
hp xu nht l 4400. S ph thuc theo tn s r rng l biu th s mt cn
bng tn s cao, vi f
1,5
, xc nhn li m hnh xuyn m v ch ra s tng ca
nhiu xuyn m theo cng mt tha s.
Cook pulse theo thi gian c m hnh ton hc
) sgn( . . ) (
/
t t V t v
p
4 3
= (3.68)
Hm khng lin tc ti t = 0, lm n dng nh khng thc. Tuy nhin, xung
c ly mu v lu tr cho mc ch kim tra cc cch qung thi gian 1/T,
dn n xung ly mu theo thi gian hp l.
) sgn( . . ) (
.
.
k k
T
V
kT v
p 75
75

= (3.69)
Gi tr tuyt i ca xung gi tr nh

75 . ,
T
V
V
p
peak imp
= (3.70)
o c ca Cook pulse t = T. Khi T tng cng vi h thng bng tn rng hn,
cng nh xung c th tng. Tuy nhin, dng nh l bin ny nn gii
hn gi tr gn vi tc ly mu t 1 n 2 MHz.

157
Do vy, Cook pulse lu tr c th c xen vo ng dy in thoi thi
im ngu nhin khi o phn nh dng nhiu c th xy ra ngu nhin trn
ng dy in thoi ang hot ng. S xut hin xung thay i theo ng dy
in thoi. Tuy nhin, nh xung thng xuyn xy ra gia cc ngy t th 2
n th 6 trn ng dy in thoi khu vc thng mi. vng dn c, xung
c xu hng xy ra vo sng sm v m. M hnh ho thi gian gy nhiu cn
s dng khi lng ln s liu. Xc sut thi gian, Ti, gia cc xung vt qu t
giy c th c tnh l
) ).( ( ) ( . } Pr{
t
t
r
e P t T u P t T
r r r i

+ = > 1 1 (3.71)
Trong Pr l xc sut m xung u tin do tn hiu chung gy ra (khong 0,7
hoc 70% s xung), Tr l "nhp" chung (thi gian gia cc chung rung in
thoi, thng thng khong 3 giy), v Tc (gi tr thng thng l 70 giy) l
hng s thi gian lin quan ti phn b hm m m hnh ho cc dng xung
khc. M hnh cho chng ta bit rng i vi cc khong thi gian gy nhiu nh
hn 3 giy, hiu ng ch yu l rung chung. Tuy nhin, phn b ny cho bit
thm l ni chung cc m hnh khong thi gian c phn b theo hm m.
Phn b ny c v trong Hnh III-7 vi cc gi tr danh nh c a ra trn
th.
Hnh III-7 Xc xut thi gian ti cho cc xung
Phn b in p nh, xc sut thi gian gy nhiu v hnh dng ca xung Cook
(hoc cc dng xung khc) cho php o hay tnh ton c xc xut m mt k
thut truyn dn no c li trong mt khong thi gian cho trc. u tin
ngi ta phi xc nh in p nh ca xung Cook s gy ra mt hoc nhiu li
bt vi k thut truyn dn , m c th l mt hm ca thi gian gia cc xung
nu nh h thng s dng sa li c ci xen vo. Xc sut in p nh vt
qu sau phi c nhn vi xc sut tng ng ca thi gian ti bin
nh (ngi ta c th gi thit rng xung th hai cao bng xung th nht, c l


158
l gi thit trng hp xu nht) t c xc sut li xy ra trn mt khong
thi gian tng ng vi thi gian gy nhiu. Xc xut sau c chia cho
thi gian gy nhiu xc nh xc sut li trn mt giy.
(9) Tng thch ph
Tng thch ph l thut ng thng c s dng ni ln mc ca xuyn
m tng tc gia cc dch v DSL khc nhau. N cng thng lin quan ti s
pht RF. Khi s dch v DSL trin khai tng ln, iu quan tm l cc gi thit
a ra thit k modem cho mt dng dch v s gy ra li trong thit b
modem khc dng chung cp. Vi ISDN, HDSL, ADSL, VDSL v thit b khng
tiu chun cng c trin khai, c th quan st thy kh nng cc trng thi
xuyn m khng th chp nhn c tng ln. Nhm ANSI c d n tiu chun
nghin cu vn ny. Phn ny ch a ra cc vn v lit k cc mt ph
nng lng bit.
a/ Can nhiu gia cc DSL v ghp knh
Tng thch ph lin quan ti kh nng chng ln ca cc bng truyn dn trn
cc DSL khc nhau dng chung mt cp hoc t hn na l cng b cp. Mc
xuyn m c th ln tn s cao ph v dch v khc. V d c bit ch l
mch T1. Mch T1 c cc cng ty in thoi trin khai nhiu nm v c
thit k v chun ho thi im khi m cc k thut truyn dn cha hiu bit
r v vn tng thch ph. Mch T1 thc cht chia nng lng t DC ti 3
n 4 MHz vo mt knh truyn tn hiu s 1,544 Mbit/s s dng k thut
truyn dn c rt tn bng tn v nng lng. Xuyn m t dch v ny ln hn
bt c loi no khc. Rt may l, cc ng dy T1 ngy cng t ph bin do c
s thay th dn dn bng cc bin php mi hn v hiu qu hn trong HDSL
(Cc ng dy T1 ch c thay th khi khng s dng na). Xuyn m HDSL
nh hng ti cc dch v khc thp hn rt nhiu. Truyn dn ADSL 6 Mbit/s
gp 4 ln tc T1, nhng thm nhp xuyn m kh thp. N ch lan trn sang
cc dch v mi hn nh VDSL.
Do vy, vn l qui nh bng tn s dng cho cc dch v khc nhau theo cch
sao cho s xm nhp sang cc dch v khc trong cng mt cp l thp nht.
Mt nguyn tc thng c p dng l mt dch v mi cn phi c xm
nhp khng ln hn bt c dch v no c. Hnh III-8 ch ra nhiu bng tn
khc nhau ca tn hiu xDSL v mc nng lng gn ng. Nh chng ta c th
thy, trong khi cc dch v mi hn c xu hng s dng bng tn ln hn, ph
nng lng ca chng li thp hn cc dch v hin ti trong bng tn ca cc
dch v c hn.
Nhiu nn danh ngha trn i dy xon khng c ln hn 140 dBm/Hz, v
th cc nhiu ny r rng l rt quan trng. Cc DSL bng tn rng hn thng
truyn tn s ln hn trn cc ng dy ngn hn trong xuyn m t cc
dch v hin ti l tng i nh bi v tn hiu ng dy b suy gim t hn.

159
-34
-40
-38
-60
ISDN
VDSL
US-ADSL HDSL
DS-ADSL
PSD (dBm/Hz)
f







Hnh III-8 So snh cc mt n ca cc DSL khc nhau
b/ T can nhiu
T xuyn m l xuyn m vo mt dch v t DSL cng loi. Dng tng thch
ph ny l quan trng nht khi mt nh cung cp dch v chon cung cp mt dch
v no trn phm vi rng. Sau , cc DSL cng loi s xuyn m vo nhau.
Khng i xng u tin do Joe Lechleider ca Bellcore a vo ADSL. ADSL
truyn trn bng tn thu rng hn nhiu so vi pht, v do vy phn ln tn hiu
thu khng c t xuyn m. iu ny cho php tn hiu thu chy tc ln hn
nhiu so vi truyn dn i xng c th (n tt c cc iu kin khc l ging
nhau). Bi v c hai dch v gii tr (TV trc tip v phim theo yu cu) v cc
bng tn khng i xng ca cc ng dng Internet ph hp vi tnh cht khng
i xng ca ADSL, s dng truyn dn khng i xng, v cc l do k thut,
cng ph hp nhu cu th trng i vi cc dch v. Cc DSL mi nh g.lite v
VDSL cng c t nht mt vi ch lm vic khng i xng.
T xuyn m u gn c th lm gim hoc theo tn s (bng cch s dng ph
tn s khng chng ln) hoc theo thi gian (bng cch ng b tt c cc DSL
theo ng h mng v th n truyn thu v pht trn cc khe thi gian khc
nhau). Tuy nhin, FEXT s c a ra, theo phng php ring r theo thi
gian hoc theo tn s.
3.2.2.2 Cc bi o kim mng cp ng
Mc ch: Cc bi o ny s dng o cc mng cp ng khi cha c dch v
ADSL v c khi c dch v ADSL. Thng qua cc bi o ny c th nh gi
c cht lng mng ngoi vi i vi dch POSTs v xDSL.
nh gi cht lng ca mng ngoi vi th cc bi o ny cn c p dng
o cho nhiu tuyn khc nhau theo th t u tin nh sau:
- o cc tuyn c di 1 km, 2 km, 3 km, 4 km, 5 km.
- o cc tuyn c cu hnh khc nhau v u ni bng mng sng v t,
hp cp d so snh.
- Trong mt si cp nhiu i nn o c 5% s lng i cp
(1) o in p mt chiu v xoay chiu

160
Mc ch: o cc in p l mt chiu v xoay chiu trn cc i dy bao gm
gia hai si vi nhau v gia hai si vi t.
Rx Tx
MDF

Cu hnh 1
Cc thit b cn thit:
- ng h vn nng hoc my o cp chuyn dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 1
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u vi my o
- h mch u xa ca i dy
- Tin hnh o cc in p mt chiu DCV: T-R, T-G, R-G
- Tin hnh o cc in p xoay chiu ACV: T-R, T-G, R-G
Kt qu:
- Cc in p mt chiu phi nh hn 10 V
- Cc in p xoay chiu phi nh hn 10 V
(2) o in tr cch in
Mc ch: Kim tra in tr cch in ca i dy bao gm gia hai si vi
nhau, v gia hai si vi t
Cc thit b cn thit:
- ng h vn nng, ngun dng, ngun p hoc my o cp chuyn
dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 1
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u vi my o
- h mch u xa ca i dy
- Tin hnh o cc in tr cch in T-R, T-G, R-G
Kt qu:
- Tt c cc in tr cch in phi c gi tr ln hn 5 M

161
(3) o TDR
Mc ch: Kim tra TDR ca i dy bao gm o di cp, tm v pht hin v
tr coil v cc im r nhnh (BT).
Cc thit b cn thit:
- Thit b o cp chuyn dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 1
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u vi my o
- h mch u xa ca i dy
- Tin hnh o, xem th phn x tm cc im coil v BT, di cp.
Kt qu:
- Cp cho dch v xDSL khng c c coil v cn phi xem xt cc BT.
(4) o in tr mch vng
Mc ch: Kim tra in tr mch vng ca i dy.
Rx Tx

Cu hnh 2
Cc thit b cn thit:
- ng h vn nng, ngun dng, ngun p hoc my o cp chuyn
dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 2
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u i dy vi my o
- Ngn mch u xa ca i dy
- Tin hnh o cc in tr T-R
Kt qu:
- in tr mch vng phi nh hn 2 k v c gi tr tng ng vi
di ca cp.
Bng III-12 in tr dng 1 chiu ca li dn

162
in tr mt chiu ca li dn /km ng knh dy dn mm
Trung bnh cc i C bit cc i
0,32 220,0 239,0
0,40 139,0 147,0
0,50 88,7 93,5
0,65 52,5 56,0
0,90 27,4 29,0
Bng III-13 Mc mt cn bng in tr ca li dn
ng knh dy dn Gi tr trung bnh cc
i
Gi tr c bit cc i
0,32 2,0 5,0
0,40 2,0 5,0
0,50 1,5 5,0
0,65 1,5 4,0
0,90 1,5 4,0
(5) o in dung
Mc ch: Kim tra in dung gia hai si ca i dy v gia hai si vi t.
Cc thit b cn thit:
- My o RLC hoc my o cp chuyn dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 1
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u vi my o
- h mch u xa ca i dy
- Tin hnh o cc in dung cch in T-R, T-G, R-G
Kt qu:
- in dung ca i cp phi tho mn chnh lch in dung ca hai si
so vi t C < 2%
Bng III-14 in dung cng tc
Gi tr trung bnh cc i,
nF/km
Gi tr c bit cc i,
nF/km
Loi cp

S i cp
FSP CCP FSP CCP
12 i tr xung 52 4 55 58 60
13 i tr ln 52 2 55 57 60

163

(6) o suy hao truyn dn
Mc ch: o suy hao truyn dn ca i dy
Pht Thu Pht Thu
Rx Tx Rx Tx

Cu hnh 3
Cc thit b cn thit:
My phn tch tri ph hoc my o cp chuyn dng bao gm:
- My pht cc tn s khc nhau
- My thu c th o cng sut ti cc tn s khc nhau
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 3
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi my pht tn s
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi my thu
- Tin hnh o cng sut thu c, t tnh ton suy hao truyn dn.
Kt qu:
- Suy hao truyn dn trn i dy phi tun theo bng sau
Bng III-15 Suy hao truyn dn
Gi tr trung bnh cc i ca suy hao truyn dn, dB/km ng knh dy
dn mm
1 kHz 150 kHz 772 kHz
0,32 2,37 3% 16,3 31,6
0,40 1,85 3% 12,3 23,6
0,50 1,44 3% 8,9 19,8
0,65 1,13 3% 6,0 13,9
0,90 0,82 3% 5,4 12,0
- i vi trin khai dch v xDSL th suy hao truyn dn phi nm trong
gii hn sau:

164
Bng III-16 Suy hao truyn dn i vi dch v xDSL
H xDSL Cc tn s test
(kHz)
Suy hao chn ln
nht (dB)

ISDN (M) 40 42
ISDN (Chu u) 40 36
HDSL 150 30
ADSL 300 41dB i vi 6 Mbit/s
ADSL 300 47dB i vi 4 Mbit/s
ADSL 300 49dB i vi 2Mbit/s
UADSL 300 49dB i vi 1,5
Mbit/s

(7) Suy hao xuyn m u xa
Mc ch: o suy hao xuyn m gia cc i dy vi nhau.
Rx Tx
Rx Tx

Cu hnh 4
Cc thit b cn thit:
My phn tch tri ph hoc my o cp chuyn dng bao gm:
- My pht cc tn s khc nhau
- My thu c th o cng sut ti cc tn s khc nhau
- Hp in tr mu
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 4
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy th nht ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi my pht tn s
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi in tr 100 (600 i vi di m tn)
- Tch ri i dy th hai ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi in tr 100 (600 i vi di m tn)
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi my thu
- Tin hnh o cng sut thu c, t tnh ton suy hao xuyn m u
xa.

165
Kt qu:
- Suy hao xuyn m u xa phi tun th bng sau:
Bng III-17 Suy hao xuyn m u xa
Gi tr trung bnh ti thiu
dB/km
Gi tr c bit ti thiu dB/km
0,9 0,65 0,5 0,4 0,32 0,9 0,65 0,5 0,4 0,32
150 kHz 60 58 58 56 54 54 52 52 52 52
772 kHz 46 44 44 42 40 40 8 38 38 38
- i vi trin khai dch v xDSL th suy hao xuyn m u xa phi nm
trong gii hn tri ph ca tiu chun cp ng.

(8) Suy hao xuyn m u gn
Mc ch: o suy hao xuyn m gia cc i dy vi nhau.
Rx Tx

Cu hnh 5
Cc thit b cn thit:
My phn tch tri ph hoc my o cp chuyn dng bao gm:
- My pht cc tn s khc nhau
- My thu c th o cng sut ti cc tn s khc nhau
- Hp in tr mu
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 5
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy th hai ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi u pht ca my pht tn s
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi in tr 100 (600 i vi di m tn)
- Tch ri i dy th hai ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi u thu ca my thu
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi in tr 100 (600 i vi di m tn)

166
- Tin hnh o cng sut thu c, t tnh ton suy hao xuyn m u
gn.
Kt qu:
- Suy hao xuyn m u gn phi tun th bng sau:
Bng III-18 Suy hao xuyn m u gn
Gi tr trung bnh ti thiu
dB/km
Gi tr c bit ti thiu dB/km
150 kHz 58 53
772 kHz 47 42
- i vi ISDN gi tr suy hao phi nh hn 50 dB 40 kHz, 44 dB
160 kHz v gim 15 dB/decade theo tn s.
- i vi trin khai dch v xDSL th suy hao xuyn m u gn phi nm
trong gii hn a ra trong ph lc ca tiu chun cp ng.
(9) o suy hao bin i dc
Mc ch: o suy hao bin i dc ca i dy s dng dch v ADSL.
Rx Tx

Cu hnh 6
Cc thit b cn thit:
- My phn tch ph c kh nng thu v pht
- Hp in tr
Cu hnh test: Cu hnh 6
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy th hai ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi u pht ca my pht tn s
- Ti u xa ni 2 u dy vi in tr 100 (600 i vi di m tn)
- my phn tch ph ch va thu v va pht,
Kt qu:

167
- Suy hao bin i dc phi ln hn 40 dB tn s 4 kHz v gim 5
dB/decade theo tn s.
(10) o nhiu xung
Mc ch: Kim tra s xut hin cc nhiu in trong mt khang thi gian.
Cc thit b cn thit:
- My o cp chuyn dng
Cu hnh test: Cu hnh 6
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy th hai ra khi MDF,
- Ti MDF ni 2 u dy vi my o
- t thi gian o v cc tham s in p mc trn v mc di.
- Sau khi o xong tnh ton kt qu nhiu xung
Kt qu:
- Kt qu nhiu xung phi nm trong gii hn
T0603920-96
1 10 300
10
100
Frequency (kHz)
Hz / V u

(11) o nn nhiu
Mc ch: Kim tra nhiu do cc i dy khc sinh ra trn cp hoc do cc
ngun nhiu gy ra trn cp.
Cc thit b cn thit:
- Thit b o cp chuyn dng
Cu hnh o: Cu hnh 6
Cc bc thc hin:
- Tch ri i dy ra khi MDF, sau ni 2 u vi my o
- Ni u xa ca i dy vi in tr 100
- Tin hnh o nn nhiu theo hng dn ca my o
- Ghi, lu li kt qu

168
Kt qu:
- So snh vi mt n tri ph trong tiu chun cp ng cho dch v
xDSL.
3.2.3 o kim lp ADSL: quy trnh o kim lp ADSL
3.2.3.1 Kim tra cc tham s in
(1) Phm vi p dng
Cc bi o sau y c thc hin kim tra cc tham s ca POTS splitter,
ATU-C/R.
Cc bi o ny kim tra s phi hp tr khng trnh nh hng n tn hiu
s trong di tn ADSL cng nh tn hiu tng t trong di m tn. Cc bi o
trong mc ny nhm kim tra cc tham s sau trong di m tn:
Insertion Loss,
Attenuation Distortion,
Delay Distortion,
Return Loss,
Longitudinal Balance,
Transparent Testing Capacitance,
Trong di ADSL cc bi o bao gm:
ADSL band attenuation,
Input impedance,
DC resistance.
(2) o in tr mt chiu
Nhn kim tra: resistance.dc.dmt.adsl
Mc ch: Kim tra tr khng vo mt chiu ca cng ca ADSL splitter ti
giao din U-R hoc U-C (trong cu hnh o kim) c ph hp vi tiu chun
ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E.
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C cng vi splitter (internal hoc external)
ng h vn nng
Ngun dng v ngun p
Cu hnh o kim:

169
:
Cu
hnh 8Cu hnh 7
Hng dn: Khi kt ni phi hp hot ng gia cc thit b th tr khng ca
chng phi bng nhau. Tr khng khng ph hp s gy ra hin tng phn x v
gy ra nhiu v suy gim tn hiu, nu tn hiu phn x ln s khng phn bit
c gia n vi tn hiu nhn c.
Tr khng c tnh ca cc thit b ADSL bao gm ATU-C hoc ATU-R v cc
splitter tng ng phi bng nhau khi phi hp kt ni. in tr mt chiu
hng vo ca ATU-R hoc ATU-C ti giao din U-R hoc U-C phi ln hn
hoc bng 5 M. Ngoi ra:

170
in tr mt chiu Tip-Ring ti giao din PSTN hoc POTS khi ngn mch
giao din U-C hoc U-R phi nh hn hoc bng 25. y thc cht l in
tr dy dn ni chng vi nhau v splitter b ngn mch ti cc giao din
U-C hoc U-R
in tr mt chiu Tip-Ground hoc Ring-Ground ti giao din PSTN hoc
POTS khi h mch U-C hoc U-R phi ln hn hoc bng 5 M.
Cc gi tr ny phi c gi nguyn khi dng in trong mch vng thay i
trong khong 0mA-100mA, v in p mch vng thay i trong khong 0V-m
60V.
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b theo setup 1.
H mch giao din U-C hoc U-R.
o in tr Ring-Ground.
o in tr Tip-Ground.
Kt ni cc thit b theo setup 2.
Ngn mch giao din U-C hoc U-R.
o in tr mt chiu ca UUT.
Kt ni cc thit b theo setup 3.
Ngn mch giao din U-C hoc U-R.
o in tr mt chiu Ring to tip.
Lp li cc bc trn trong khi thay i dng in mch vng t 0mA n
100mA vi bc thay i 10mA.
Lp li cc bc trn trong khi thay i in p mch vng t 0V n m
60V vi bc thay i 5V.
Kt qu:
in tr DC t Tip to Ground hoc t Ring to Ground khi giao din U-
C hoc U-R h mch phi ln hn hoc bng 5M vi tt c cc dng
in mch vng thay i trong khong 0mA to 100mA v vi tt c cc
in p mch vng thay i trong khong 0V n m 60V.
in tr DC hng vo ca UUT phi ln hn hoc bng 5M khi
dng in mch vng thay i trong khong 0mA n 100mA v in
p mch vng thay i trong khong 0V n m 60V.
in tr mt chiu t Tip n Ring khi giao din U-C hoc U-R ngn
mch phi nh hn hoc bng 25 khi dng in mch vng thay i
trong khong 0mA n 100mA v in p mch vng thay i trong
khong 0V n m 60V.

171
Ghi li kt qu o ng vi dng in thay i trong khong 0mA-100mA vi
bc tng 10 mA v in p thay i trong khong 0V-m 60V vi bc tng
5V.


Cu hnh 8

(3) o suy hao trong bng thoi
Mc ch:

172
o v xc nh Insertion loss ti tn s 1004 Hz, t u ny ti u kia ca mch
vng nh c th hin trn Cu hnh 9 kt qu c so snh yu cu k thut
ca tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E, ANSI T1.601 v T1 TR No. 28
(CSA Loops). Cu hnh o kim c th hin trn Cu hnh 9.



Cu hnh 9
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C vi Splitter (internal hoc external)
ng h vn nng
My o suy hao
Hai in tr kt cui 600 v 900 1%
By t 0.12mF 2.5%
Hai t 0.10mF 2.5%
Hai cun cm 0.47mH 5%
Hai in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:

173
Insertion loss l suy hao b sung ca tn hiu do nguyn nhn ni thm splitter v
tr khng thng cao (ZHP) vo h thng. Php o ny c thc hin tn s
1004Hz i vi Splitter c pha ATU-R v pha ATU-C. Php o ny c
thc hin i vi tng splitter km theo cc cu hnh mch vng.
ZHP l tr khng kt cui cho di tn hiu xDSL s dng kim tra khi splitter
tch ri khi modem. Cu trc v gi tr cc thnh phn ca ZHP i vi splitter
pha tng i cng nh pha thu bao c th hin trn Cu hnh 9.
ZHP ch s dng khi splitter tch ri khi modem. Vi splitter bn trong coi nh
c kt cui (khng cn s dng ZHP).
Trc ht Insertion loss c o khi cha ni splitter v ZHP. Sau lp li
php o khi ni splitter v ZHP so snh rt ra nh hng ca splitter v
ZHP. Khi o splitter c pha ATU-R ln pha ATU-C trong di tn hiu thoi ta
phi ni u kia vi mt in tr thch hp. i vi splitter pha ATU R th in
tr c gi tr 600 v i vi splitter pha ATU-C th in tr c gi tr
900. Khong gi tr ca Insertion loss c quy nh trong Bng III-19 .
Bng III-19

Mch vng ngn ZTc = 900W ZTr = 600W Nh hn 1.0dB i
vi pha ATU C
Mch vng di ZTc = 900W ZTr = 600W Nh hn 0.75dB i
vi pha ATU C
Mch vng ngn ZTc = 900W ZTr = 600W Nh hn 1.0dB i
vi pha ATU R
Mch vng di ZTc = 900W ZTr = 600W Nh hn 0.75dB i
vi pha ATU R
Lu
- Mch vng ngn l mch vng c di 0, 0.5kft, 2.0kft, 5kft ng vi cp
26 AWG.
- Mch vng di l cc mch vng ANSI T1.601 loops 7, 9, 13, and T1 TR
No. 28 CSA Loops 4, 6, 7, 8.

174
Cu hnh 10
Cc bc thc hin:
S dng test loop 1, kt ni cc thit b nh th hin trn Setup 1 khng
c splitter v ZHP.
Truyn tn hiu 1004Hz bit ln.
o mc tn hiu u bn kia.
Ni splitter v ZHP vo mch.
Truyn tn hiu 1004Hz bit ln.
o mc tn hiu u bn kia
Lp li cc bc trn vi Setup 2
Chuyn i kt qu sang dB
(4) o mo suy hao trong bng thoi
Mc ch:
o v xc nh Attenuation Distortion, hoc s thay i ca Insertion loss theo
tn s t ngun ti ch i vi mi mch vng cn kim tra. Kt qu c nh
gi theo cc tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E, ANSI T1.601, T1 TR No.
28 (CSA Loops).

175
Cu hnh o kim: Setup 2 - cu hnh 10
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
Thit b o tng ng
Hai in tr kt cui 600 v 900 1%
07 t 0.12uF 2.5%
02 t 0.10uF 2.5%
02 cun cm 0.47mH 5%
02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
Theo tiu chun ANSI T1E1.413-1998 c quy nh cc gi tr ca Attenuation
Distortion hoc s thay i ca Insertion Loss theo tn s tn s 1004Hz. i
vi splitter c hai u cng nh mch vng phi nm trong gii hn c quy
nh trong Bng III-20. Di tn s t 3.4kHz n 4.0kHz rt t khi c s dng
trong mng in thoi; v vy trong tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 cc tham s
trong di tn s ny c khong dao ng ln hn.
Bng III-20
0.2 - 3.4kHz 3.4 - 4.0kHz
Mch vng
ngn
CO Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 +1.5 -1.5 +2.0 -2.0
Mch vng
di
CO Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 +0.5 -1.5 +1.0 -1.5
Mch vng
ngn
R Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 +1.5 -1.5 +2.0 -2.0
Mch vng
di
R Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 +0.5 -1.5 +1.0 -1.5
Lu :
Attenuation c gi tr dng; cn Gain c gi tr m.
Mch vng ngn l cc mch vng c di 0, 0.5kft, 2.0kft, 5kft ng vi
cp 26 AWG.
Mch vng di c nh ngha trong tiu chun ANSI T1.601 l cc mch
vng 7, 9, 13, v trong tiu chun T1 TR No. 28 CSA l cc mch vng 4,
6, 7, 8.


176

Cu hnh 11
Cu hnh o kim:Cu hnh 11
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b theo setup 1 hoc 2 tu i tng cn o khng c
splitter v ZHP
Truyn cc tn hiu bit ln v c tn s thay i trong khong t
200Hz n 3.4kHz t pha ngun n ch.
o tn hiu nhn c ti pha nhn.
Ni thm splitter v ZHP vo mch.
Truyn cc tn hiu bit ln v c tn s thay i trong khong t
200Hz n 3.4kHz t pha ngun n ch.
o v so snh tn hiu nhn c trong di tn s ny v so snh vi
Insertion Loss o tn s 1004Hz.
Thc hin cc bc trn vi di tn s trong khong 3.4 n 4.0kHz
Chuyn i kt qu sang dB nu cn.
(5) o mo tr trong di tn thoi
Mc ch:

177
Xc nh splitter pha ATU-R cng nh pha ATU-C xem c tho mn quy nh
trong tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C (UUT) vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
Cc my o tng ng
02 in tr kt cui 600 v 900 1%
04 t in 0.12uF 2.5%
02 t in 0.10uF 2.5%
02 cun cm 0.47mH 5%
02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
Trong tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 quy nh v mc tng ca Delay Distortion
gy ra bi POTS i vi mi mch vng phi nh hn cc gi tr trong Bng
III-21.
Bng III-21
0.6 - 3.2 kHz 0.2 - 4.0 kHz
Short Loop CO Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 200 S 250 S
Long Loop CO Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 200 S 250 S
Short Loop R Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 200 S 250 S
Long Loop R Splitter ZTc = 900 ZTr = 600 200 S 250 S

Cu hnh o kim:Cu hnh 12
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b theo Setup 1 o CO Splitter.
Truyn cc tn hiu bit ln v c tn s thay i trong khong t
0.6 n 3.2 kHz t pha ngun n ch.
o tn hiu nhn c ti pha nhn.
Kt ni cc thit b theo Setup 2 o Remote POTS splitter.
Lp li cc bc trn o cc tham s ca Remote POTS splitter.
Lp li tt c cc bc trn vi tn hiu nm trong di tn s t 0.2 n 4.0 kHz.

178


Cu hnh 12
(6) o suy hao phn x trong di tn thoi
Mc ch:
Xc nh xem ch tiu Return Loss ca CO v Remote POTS splitter c tho mn
yu cu trong tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E hay khng.
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
ng h vn nng
Cc thit b o tng ng
in tr 600/900 1%
04 t in 0.12uF 2.5%
02 t in 0.10uF 2.5%
02 cun cm 0.47mH 5%
03 in tr 100 1%
Cc in tr 800, 1330 v 348
Cc t in 50 v 100 nF

179


Cu hnh 13
Hng dn:
Trong tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 c a ra ch tiu Return Loss ca splitter
trong cc iu kin nht nh. Cc iu kin ny gm c hoc khng c ZHP kt
ni vi mch vng ngn hoc di. Bng III-22 a ra gi tr nh nht ca Return
Loss o bng dB. Gi tr ny ng vi cc tn hiu trong di tn s t 2,2 kHz ti
3,4 kHz. Cc php o c thc hin i vi c CO splitter v Remote splitter v
cc thit b o c kt ni theo .
ZNL-c bao gm mt in tr 800 song song vi mt nhnh gm in tr 100
ni tip vi t in 50 nF (m hnh mch vng khng ti nhn t pha CO).
Cc gi tr ny do Telcordia Technologies LSSGR xut lm tr khng chun
thay th cho mch vng khng ti.
ZNL-r bao gm mt in tr 1330 song song vi mt nhnh gm in tr 348
ni tip vi t in 100 nF (m hnh mch vng khng ti nhn t pha RT).



180
Bng III-22
Zref Zterm ERL
(dB)
SRL-L
(dB)
SRL-H
(dB)
Comments
CO splitter ZNL-c 600 ohm 8 5 5
CO splitter ZNL-c 600 ohm N/A N/A 2 single
frequency
RT splitter ZNL-r 900 ohm+2.16 F 6 5 3
RT splitter ZNL-r 900 ohm+2.16 F N/A N/A 2 single
frequency
Cu hnh o kim: Cu hnh 13
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b o theo setup 1 Error! Bookmark not defined..
o gi tr tr khng v ghi li kt qu.
Kt ni cc thit b o theo setup 2 Error! Bookmark not defined..
o gi tr tr khng v ghi li kt qu.
Kt qu:
i vi CO splitter v Remote splitter, gi tr Return Loss phi ln hn hoc
bng cc gi tr c quy nh trong Bng III-22.
(7) o mt cn bng trong di tn thoi
Mc ch:
Xc nh tham s Longitudinal Balance ca CO splitter v Remote POTS splitter
so vi tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E v IEEE Standard 455
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
ng h vn nng
Cc thit b o tng ng
in tr 600/900 1%
02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
C hai phng php o Longitudinal Balance ca POTS splitter. Phng php
th nht coi POTS splitter nh l mt phn t c lp, phng php ny c
gi l phng php 2 PORT. Phng php th hai coi POTS splitter, ATU-C, v
Card CO line kt hp li thnh mt cng mng, phng php ny c gi l
phng php 1 PORT.
Chng ta c th chn mt trong hai phng php o Longitudinal Balance ca
CO POTS splitter.
Longitudinal Balance (khng bao gm mch vng) ca POTS splitter c o
theo tiu chun IEEE Standard 455. Php o c thc hin trn c hai hng
bao gm: t POTS/PSTN v line port nh l mt thit b c hai cng. Trc khi

181
o mch in cn bng c Calibration 77 dB (58 + 19 dB) t c
chnh xc l 1 dB. Longitudinal Balance phi nh hn 58 dB trong di tn s 0,2
- 1 kHz gi tr ln nht ny gim xung cn 53 dB tn s 3 kHz.
Phng php 1 PORT c s dng o kim CO splitter khi splitter, ATU-C
v CO line card kt hp vi nhau v coi nh l mt cng mng. Longitudinal
Balance ca POTS splitter s c o theo tiu chun IEEE standard 455.
Longitudinal Balance phi nh hn 52 dB di tn s 0.2 - 3 kHz. t c
chnh xc 1 dB, mch in cn bng phi c Calibration 71 dB (52 + 19
dB) trc khi o kim.
Cu hnh o kim: Cu hnh 14
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b o kim CO splitter theo setup 1 Cu hnh 14.
Tt c cc php o c thc hin theo tiu chun IEEE Standard 455.
Kt ni cc thit b o kim Remote POTS splitter theo setup 2. Cu hnh
14Tt c cc php o c thc hin theo tiu chun IEEE Standard 455.
Kt ni cc thit b o kim CO splitter (phng php mt cng) theo
setup 3 Cu hnh 14.
Tt c cc php o c thc hin theo tiu chun IEEE Standard 455.



Cu hnh 14
Kt qu:
i vi phng php o 2 cng, CO splitter v Remote splitter phi c gi tr
Longitudinal Balance ln hn 58 dB trong di tn 0.2 -1kHz v gi tr gii hn
ny gim xung cn 53 dB tn s 3 kHz.

182
i vi phng php o 1 cng khi o kim kt hp CO splitter, ATU-C v CO
line card, Longitudinal Balance phi c gi tr ln hn 52 dB trong di tn s 0.2
- 3 kHz.
(8) o in dung trong di tn thoi
Nhn kim tra: transparent_testing_cap.voice_band.dmt.adsl
Mc ch:
Kim tra tham s in dung CO splitter and Remote POTS splitter theo tiu
chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E
Cc thit b cn thit:
- ATU-R/C (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
- ng h vn nng
- Cc my o tng ng
- in tr kt cui 600/900 1%
- 02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
Trong di tn s 20 - 30 Hz, in dung ti giao din POTS hoc PSTN phi c
gi tr nh hn 250 nF, gi tr ny bao gm c in dung ca 2 POTS splitter c
ni vi modem. Sau y l cc gi tr ln nht v nh nht ca in dung gia
hai cc Tip v Ring.
POTS splitter (CO hoc Remote) khng ni vi modem:
- 90 nF Max
- 20 nF Min
in dung vo ca Modem, bao gm c t ngn in p mt chiu pha CO:
- 35 nF Max
- 20 nF Min
in dung vo ca Modem c tch hp c POTS splitter hoc POTS splitter
bn ngoi gm cc b lc HPF v LPF s c gi tr in dung bng tng ca
hai gi tr trn:
- 125 nF Max
- 40 nF Min
chnh lch in tr t hai cc Tip v Ring so vi t ca POST splitter phi
nh hn 1,0 nF


Cu hnh 15


183
Kt qu:
Gi tr in dung ca POTS phi nm trong di cho php nu trn.
(9) o suy hao trong di tn ADSL
Mc ch:
o suy hao qua CO splitter v Remote splitter trong di tn ADSL, kt qu nh
gi theo tiu chun ANSI T1.413-1998 Annex E.
Cc thit b cn thit:
ATU-R/C unit (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
ng h vn nng
in tr kt cui 600/900 1%
04 t in 0.12uF 2.5%
02 t in 0.10uF 2.5% (ch s dng i vi b lc thng cao ZHP
pha Remote Splitter)
02 cun cm 0.47mH 5%
02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
Suy hao sinh ra do b lc thng thp ZLP v b lc thng cao ZHP chnh l hiu
ca suy hao khi c v khng c b lc. Gi tr suy hao ny phi ln hn 65 dB
trong di tn s t 30k n 300 kHz v 55 dB trong di tn s 300 n 1104 kHz
vi mc tn hiu vo l 10 dBm.


Cu hnh 16

184
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b o theo CO POTS splitter test Cu hnh 16
Truyn i tn hiu bit bin trong di tn s t 30kHz n 300kHz
trn giao din ng dy.
o mc tn hiu nhn c pha thu
Truyn i tn hiu bit bin trong di tn s t 300kHz n
1104kHz trn giao din ng dy.
o mc tn hiu nhn c pha thu
Chuyn kt qu sang n v dB
Kt ni cc thit b o theo Remote POTS splitter test Cu hnh 16
Lp li cc bc t 2 n 6 trn y.
Kt qu:
i vi c CO splitter v Remote splitter, gi tr ca Insertion Loss i
vi b lc thng thp phi ln hn 65 dB trong di tn s t 30kHz n
300kHz.
i vi c CO splitter v Remote splitter, gi tr ca Insertion Loss i
vi b lc thng thp phi ln hn 55 dB trong di tn s t 300kHz n
1104kHz.
(10) o in dung u vo di tn ADSL
Mc ch:
o tr khng vo ca CO v Remote splitter trong di tn ADSL theo tiu chun
T1.413-1998 Annex E.
Cc yu cu v thit b o:
ATU-R/C (UUT) cng vi splitter (trong hoc ngoi)
ng h vn nng
Cc my o tng ng
in tr kt cui 600/900 1%
02 in tr 100 1%
Hng dn:
Insertion Loss do b lc thng thp gy ra trong di tn 30 n 1140 kHz ng vi
mc tn hiu vo -10 dB phi nh hn 0.25 dB.


185

Cu hnh 17
Cc bc thc hin:
Kt ni cc thit b o CO POTS splitter (Cu hnh 17).
Truyn i tn hiu bit bin trong di tn s t 300kHz n
1104kHz trn giao din ng dy.
o mc tn hiu nhn c pha thu.
Chuyn kt qu nhn c sang dB.
Kt ni cc thit b o Remote POTS splitter (Cu hnh 17).
Lp li cc bc 2 n 4.
Kt qu:
3.2.3.2 o tr khng
i vi c hai CO splitter v Remote splitters, tr khng vo ca b lc thng
thp phi nh hn 0.25 dB trong di tn t 30kHz n 1104kHz khi mc tn hiu
vo l -10 dB. o giao thc
(1) Kim tra khi to ATU-R
a/ Activation v Acknowledgement
Phm vi: Bi ny p dng cho chuyn tip trng thi trong phn Activation v
Acknowledgement ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R.
Tng quan: Cc bi kim tra ny c xy dng kim tra cc chuyn tip
trng thi v hot ng khc nhau trong phn Activation v Acknowledgement
ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R. Sau khi hon thnh thnh cng phn
kch hot v xc nhn th Tranceiver Training bt u.
Cc chuyn tip trng thi Activation v Acknowledgement i vi c hai ATU-
R v ATU-C nh sau:

186
C-IDLE/
C-QUIET 1/
C-TONE
C-ACT
1, 2, 3, 4
C-QUIET 2
ATU-C
R-ACT-REQ/
R-QUIET 1
R-ACK 1,2
ATU-R
Thi gian
Ch : Trng thi c xc nh qua th tc ny l khong thi gian m mt tn
hiu thc c pht i. Ch mt tn hiu c pht i trong sut trng thi a ra.
Khong thi gian ca trng thi c th no v tn hiu tng ng lun lun
bng nhau.
b/ Tranceiver Training
C-REVELLE
ATU-C
R-QUIET 2
ATU-R
Thi gian
C-PILOT1A v
C-QUIET3A
C-PILOT1
C-QUIET3
C-REVEB1
C-PILOT2
C-QUIET4
C-ECT C-REVEB2
C-PILOT3
C-QUIET5
C-REVEB3
R-REVERB1 R-REVERB2
R-QUIET3
R-ECT
R-PILOT1
Phm vi: Cc bi o trong phn ny cho chuyn dch gia cc trng thi trong
phn Tranceiver Training ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R.
Tng quan:
Cc bi o ny c thit k kim tra chuyn trng thi v hot ng cn thit
trong sut phn Tranceiver Training ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R.
Bt u bng truyn tn hiu R-REVERB1 cc trng thi ATU-C v ATU-R
c ng b. Sau khi hon thnh phn Tranceiver Training, Channel Analyis
bt u. Cc chuyn trng thi Tranceiver Training c ch ra di y:

187
c/ Phn tch knh (Channel Analysis)
Phm vi: Cc bi kim tra dng kim tra chuyn trng thi trong phn
Channel Analysis ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R.
Tng quan:
- Cc bi o ny c thit k kim tra chuyn cc trng thi khc nhau
v cc hot ng cn thit trong phn Channel Analysis ca trnh t khi
to ADSL DMT ATU-R. ATU-R s reset v trng thi R-ACT-REQ nu
xy ra timeout hoc c bt k mt li no trong d liu iu khin nhn
c state c ch th bng checksum C-CRC1 v C-CRC2. Sau khi
hon thnh phn Channel Analysis phn Exchange bt u. Chuyn dch
trng thi Channel Analysis c ch ra di y:
d/ Trao i (Exchange)
Cc bi kim tra trong phn ny bao gm cc chuyn dch trn thi trong phn
Exchange ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-R.
ATU-R s reset v RACT-REQ nu xy ra timeout hoc c bt k li no trong
d liu iu khin nhn c (checksum C-CRC1 v C-CRC2). Nu trnh t trao
i ngn (SES) c s dng th test bt u vi tn hiu R-SEGUE3, ADSL
Test 4.019 v tip tc vi tn hiu R-MSGS2 signal, ADSL Test 4.026. Nu EES
c s dng test bt u vi tn hiu R-SEGUE3, ADSL Test 4.019 v tip tc
trng thi R-MSGRA state, ADSL Test 4.020. Sau khi hon thnh phn
Exchange, ATU-R sn sng cho truyn d liu trng thi n nh.
Cc chuyn dch trng thi Exchange c ch ra di y:

188

(2) Cc bi o khi to ATU-C
a/ Activation v Acknowledgement


189

Bi ny p dng cho chuyn tip trng thi trong phn Activation v
Acknowledgement ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-C.
Cc bi kim tra ny c thit k kim tra nhiu trng thi khc nhau v cc
hot ng cn thit trong phn Activation v Acknowledgement ca trnh t khi
to ADSL DMT ATU-C. Sau khi hon thnh phn Activation v
Acknowledgement, Transceiver Training bt u. Cc chuyn dch trng thi
Activation v Acknowledgeme i vi c hai ATU-C v ATU-R c ch ra
trong hnh.
b/ Tranceiver Training
Cc bi o trong phn ny cho chuyn dch gia cc trng thi trong phn
Tranceiver Training ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-C.
Cc bi kim tra ny c thit k kim tra cc chuyn dch trng thi v cc
hot ng cn thit trong phn Transceiver Training ca trnh t khi to ADSL
DMT ATU-C. Bt u vi truyn tn hiu R-REVERB1, cc trng thi ATU-C
v ATU-R c ng b. Sau khi hon thnh phn Transceiver Training,
Channel Analysis bt u. Chuyn dch trng thi Transceiver Training nh sau:

c/ Phn tch knh (Channel Analysis)
Cc bi kim tra dng kim tra chuyn trng thi trong phn Channel Analysis
ca trnh t khi to ADSL DMT ATU-C.
Cc bi o ny c thit k kim tra chuyn trng thi v hot ng cn thit
trong phn Channel Analysis ca trnh t khi to. ATU-C s reset ti trng thi
R-ACT-REQ nu pht hin xy ra hoc nu nh c bt k li no trong d liu
iu khin nhn c bng checksum R-CRC1 v R-CRC2. Sau khi thnh cng

190
phn Channel Analysis, Exchange begins. Chuyn dch trng thi Channel
Analysis c ch ra trong bng sau:

d/ Exchange

Mc ch: Kim tra qu trnh thay i trng thi trong phn trao i thng tin.
Cc bi o ny c thit k kim tra chuyn dch trng thi trong sut phn
Exchange ca khi to ATU-C. S khi di m t trnh t trao i c m
rng (EES), m n s c s dng nu c hai ATU-C v ATU-R c bit 15 c
thit lp l 1 tng ng trong C-MSG1 v R-MSG1. Nu bit 15 c thit lp l
0 trong C-MSG1 v R-MSG1, th EES s c b qua v oc gi l trnh t trao
i ngn SES. ATU-C s reset v trng thi C-QUEIT1 khi timeout hoc pht
hin li bng checksum CRC. Exchange c ng b tng phn gia ATU-C v

191
ATU-R v tng tc tng phn. Timeouts trng thi C-REVERB4 (>6000
mu), C-REVERB-RA, v C-REVERB5 (c hai >4000 mu) xy ra. Cc trng
thi ny c th c xem xt trong phn tng tc. Lu di y m t cc
chuyn dch trng thi.
(3) Cc chc nng ng vi t bo ATM (ATM Cell-TC Layer)
Mc ch: Cc bi kim tra ny kim tra cc chc nng ring ca lp TC t
bo ATM. ng thi cng bao gm cc bi kim tra cng i lin vi cc th tc
"bt tay" cn c thc hin trc khi mt t bo ATM c pht i hay nhn
v. Cc bi kim tra ny p dng cho c hai ATU.
Cc bi kim tra ny c thit k cho cc chc nng ring c th xy ra khi mt
t bo ATM c truyn i theo mt hwongs Mt s cc chc nng ny bao gm
chn t bo khi ri, b to iu khin li tiu (HEC) v ghp phn d liu t
bo. nh thi v th t bit phi c kim tra trn c hai hng chc chn
rng truyn ti bit ng. Kim tra HEC v m t t bo phi c thc thin ti
u cui thu sao cho cc li c th c chun ho v nh vy th c th nhn
dng c cc t bo ring l. Mt t bo c th ch wocj pht t lp ATM ti
lp vt l hoc nguc li nu xy ra th tc bt tay gia hai lp. Gii thch y
hn v th tc ny c th xem trong Annex J ca ANSI T1.413-1998. dn
gin ho phn 6.2.1 ca ANSI T1.413-1998 c s dng thay cho thng tin
trong Annex J.

3.2.4 o kim lp dch v: o kim s dng cc tnh nng IP ping v ATM
OEM; phng php o kim xc nh li ti lp dch v
3.2.4.1 o kim tng tc tnh PPP
PPP over ATM truyn khung PPP qua AAL5. Khung PPP c to ra v trao i
gia hai im (mng khch hng v mng nh cung cp dch v).
Ti liu ny a ra o kim tng tc tnh ca PPP v cch thc hin n trn
ATM v DSL.
Gn y, PPP over Ethernet c a vo danh sch cc giao thc h tr. N
thuc v ngn giao thc khc.


192

S A10 T U V
Customer
Premise
Customer
Premises
Network
Network
Termination
Access
Node
Regional
Broadband
Network
Service
Provider
A11
PPP
PPPoA
PPPoE
IP
L3
L2
L2 or
Covered in this document
L2TP

Hnh III-9 M hnh tham kho, Ngn giao thc, Phm vi
Yu cu PPP over ATM c s dng cho cc kt ni end-to-end gia mng
khch hng v mng ngi cung cp dch.
PPP l mt giao thc, bao gm ba giai on: (lin kt, xc thc v mng)Link,
Authentication and Network, chng c th c xem nh l ba giao thc khc
nhau:
Giao thc giai on lin kt gi l LCP (Giao thc iu khin lin kt-
Link Control Protocol).
Giai on xc thc khng c mt giao thc c bit no. Xc thc c
khuyn ngh ch khng bt buc. Giao thc Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol, CHAP, c s dng rng ri.
V cui cng giai on mng c gi l NCP (Giao thc iu khin
mng-Network Control Protocol). C NCP ring cho mi giao thc mng
c s dng. IPCP c s dng nhiu nht l giao thc Internet (IP)
ang c trin khai rng ri.
Hai giao thc, LCP v IPCP c cc la chn c th c tho thun. o kim
tng tc tnh s kim tra kh nng trin khai v thc hin cc la chn ny v
tng tc hon ho vi cc dch v khc.
o kim tng tc tnh cho PPP LCP, xc thc v NCP (IPCP) cng nh ng
gi PPP qua ADSL s gn nh l o kim tun th. Cc bi o kim s c m
t chi tit trong cc phn ca cc nhm o kim.
a/ Nhm 1 - RFC 2684, ng gi a giao thc qua AAL5
Nhm ny tp trung vo ng gi cc giao thc qua ATM. V ATM l cng ngh
c la chn truyn d liu qua DSL, cc bi o kim phi bao hm tt c
cc vn ca RFC ny.
b/ Nhm 2 - RFC 2131, chc nng DHCP
Nhm ny tp trung vo chc nng DHCP ca ATU-R.

193
c/ Nhm 3 RFC 1661, RFC 2364, PPP over ATM
Tp trung vo giao thc Point-to-Point Protocol. N c chia thnh nm nhm
nh phn bit gia cc tng phn bit ca PPP vi nhau.
d/ Nhm ph 3.1 Encapsulation
Tp trung o kim v ng gi ca PPP over ATM.
e/ Nhm ph 3.2 PPP LCP
Tp trung o kim giao thc iu khin lin kt ca PPP.
f/ Nhm ph 3.3 PPP Authentication
Tp trung o kim qu trnh xc thc trong PPP.
g/ Nhm ph 3.4 PPP IPCP
Tp trung o kim giao thc iu khin IP ca PPP
h/ Nhm ph 3.5 PPP extensions
Tp trung o kim phn m rng ca PPP. N lit k cc phn m rng c th
nhng khng ch ra bt k mt bi o no. Thc hin vic o kim ph thuc vo
mi quan tm v vn ny.
3.2.4.2 Tng tc ADSL ng
Mt ATU-C v ATU-R c tng tc ng vi nhau nu chng c ci t
cc tnh nng chung v tng thch vi nhau, cc chc nng v cc la chn v
c th c chng minh tho mn cc giao tip chung trong mi trng mng
thc nh cc iu kin o kim hot ng c phn loi v thc hin. "Tng
thch" c ngha l s khng c nhng yu cu mu thun chng li hot ng
tng tc ca h thng ADSL.
o kim tng tc ng thng m ch ti o kim hot ng trong ADSL v
cc tiu chun vin thng khc.
H thng c th c kim tra trn cc mch vng tiu chun v trn cc mch
vng ph.
Th tc cho mi bi o kim s ghi li tnh nng no t tiu chun lin quan
c s dng. Phn 4 phn bit nhm cc bi o kim c yu cu cho o kim
tng tc ng t vic s dng cc mch vng khng tiu chun hoc t cc iu
kin. Kt qu t cc nhm o kim s dng mch vng khng tiu chun hoc
cc iu kin c th c s dng cho m t c im ca tng tc ng.
Annex A: Cung cp thng tin lm th no o kim t l li bt trong mi
trng ATM based ADSL.
Annex B: Cung cp thng tin v phng php thc hin o kim ATM da trn
BER m khng cn thit b BER ngoi.
Annex C: Cung cp thit lp o kim lin quan cho ATM da trn h thng
ADSL.


194
Tham kho o kim tun th:
(1) H thng T1.413
H thng yu cu tun th theo [ANSI] c o kim hot ng s dng cc
mch vng v mi trng nhiu nh l c ch ra trong phn 11 ca [ANSI].
Phn 11 ca [ANSI] cng m t phng php o kim v a ra s liu thc hin
c yu cu.
(2) H thng ITU-T
a/ G.992.1 (G.DMT)
Khu vc A (ngoi Europe)
H thng yu cu tun th theo [GDMT] khu vc A c o kim hot ng s
dng cc mch vng v mi trng nhiu nh l c ch ra trong Annex F ca
[GDMT]. Cc s liu thc hin c yu cu cng c a ra trong Annex F
ca [GDMT] trong khi phng php o c m t trong [GTEST].
Khu vc B (Europe)
H thng yu cu tun th theo [GDMT] khu vc B c o kim hot ng s
dng cc mch vng v mi trng nhiu nh l c ch ra trong Annex G ca
[GDMT]. Cc s liu thc hin c yu cu cng c a ra trong Annex G
ca [GDMT] trong khi phng php o c m t trong [GTEST].
b/ G.992.2 [GLITE]
Bc M
H thng yu cu tun th theo [GLITE] Bc M c o kim hot ng s
dng cc mch vng v mi trng nhiu nh l c ch ra trong Annex D ca
[GLITE]. Cc s liu thc hin c yu cu cng c a ra trong Annex D
ca [GLITE] trong khi phng php o c m t trong [GTEST].
Europe
H thng yu cu tun th theo [GLITE] Bc M c o kim hot ng s
dng cc mch vng v mi trng nhiu nh l c ch ra trong Annex D ca
[GLITE]. Cc s liu thc hin c yu cu cng c a ra trong Annex E
ca [GLITE] trong khi phng php o c m t trong [GTEST].


IV TRIN KHAI LP T H THNG ADSL
4.1 Mng ngoi vi
Mng ngoi vi l mt trong ba thnh phn chnh cu thnh mng vin thng ca
Tng cng ty Bu chnh Vin thng Vit nam (thit b chuyn mch, thit b
truyn dn v mng ngoi vi).
Qua tng thi k pht trin, mng ngoi vi lun c Tng cng ty Bu chnh
Vin thng b sung cc vn bn php quy trong cng tc qun l, xy dng
ng b vi s pht trin ca mng vin thng hin i ngy nay. Cho n nay

195
mng ngoi vi vn c tht k v xy dng vi mc ch cung cp dch v thoi
PSTN. vi vic a cc dch v bng rng trn mng cp ng th vn nng
cao cht lng mng ngoi vi, r sot li cc tiu chun thit k v xy dng
mng ngoi vi l vn cp bch.
Mng ngoi vi l phn ca mng li vin thng bn ngoi nh trm, bao gm
cc phng tin ng vai tr vt dn in nh cc loi dy, cp thng tin, k c
cc phng tin thit b h tr, bo v chng. Nh vy mng ngoi vi gm cc
phn chnh sau:
a/ Mng cp ng ni ht bao gm:
Cp ngm (l cp c lun trong tunnel, v h thng cng, b cp)
Cp treo ( l cp c treo trn cc ct bng b tng, ct g, ct st), dy
thu bao
Mng xng ni cp,
Phin u dy.
Gi MDF
b/ Mng cp quang ni ht, trung k ni ht, trung k ng di(ng trc)
bao gm:
- Cp quang ngm (chn trc tip hoc lun trong cng b cp)
- Cp quang treo (treo trn ct b tng, ct st)
- Cp quang th sng, bin.
c/ H thng h tr, bo v:
H thng h tr, bo v mng cp thng tin bao gm: ng hm (Tunnel), cng
cp, ng nha, hm, h cp, T cp, ct b tng cp, thit b chng st cho
mng ngoi vi.
Tiu chun mng ngoi vi l tp hp tiu chun cc trang thit b, vt t ca h
thng dn in v h thng h tr, bo v, chng nu trn.
4.1.2 Cc vn bn php quy
Cc tiu chun ngnh lin quan n mng ngoi vi ang c p dng u c
xy dng trn c s QPN 07-72; Quy phm ny ban hnh t nm 1972 qu
lc hu, do quy phm ny xy dng p dng cho thi cng cp ch, cng b
tng, ko cp bng tay, hin nay khng cn ph hp.
Tiu chun ngnh TCN 68 - 153:1995 (Cng, b cp v t u cp - Yu cu k
thut) c khng cn ph hp, khng p ng c yu cu v ti trng v
kch thc b, khng ph hp vi cc th hin i.
Tiu chun ngnh 68 - 144:1995 (ng nha dng cho tuyn cp ngm - Yu cu
k thut): Cn b xung thm c ng v dng ng un cong.

196
Tiu chun ngnh TCN 18 - 73, TCN 86 - 78 (Ct b tng cho dy trn thng
tin v treo cp ni th) cc TCN ny c v lc hu cn xy dng tiu chun
mi ph hp vi vic treo cp thng tin si ng, si quang hin nay.
Quy nh v vic (o kim mng ngoi vi s dng cp ng trc khi a vo
khai thc s dng) ban hnh nm 2001. Quy nh ny cha y cho mng
ngoi vi cn xy dng mi
Tuy nhin trong 10 nm i mi v tng tc ca ngnh cho n nay TCT b
xung cc vn bn php quy hin ang p dng xy dng cc cng trnh ngoi
vi, p ng vi s pht trin ca mng vin thng cng nh cc dch v vin
thng trn mng.
Cc vn bn php quy l:
o TCN 68 - 132:1998 (Cp thng tin kim loi dng cho mng in thoi ni
ht - Cc yu cu k thut)
o TCN 68 - 1960: 1996 (Cp si quang - Yu cu k thut)
o TCN 68 -141:1999 (Tip t cho cc cng trnh vin thng - yu cu k
thut)
o Quy nh bo dng cp ni ht - Phn cp ng (Ban hnh nm 1998)
o Quy nh v lp t ng dy thu bao in thoi (Ban hnh nm 1998)
o Quy nh v ch tiu k thut c bn ng ng nha HDPE dng cho cp
quang chn ngm.(Ban hnh nm 2002)
o Hng dn k thut lp t ng nha HDPE v bn cp quang trong ng
nha HDPE (Ban hnh nm 2002).
o Tiu chun Np Hm - B - H cp thng tin bng gang cu - Ch tiu k
thut c bn. (ban hnh nm 2002)
o Quy nh s dng cp nhp i ni ht (ban hnh nm 2002)
4.1.3 Nhng vn cn lu i vi mng ngoi vi hi n nay
4.1.3.1 Mng cp ng
Mng cp ng ni ht l mng dy, cp ng cng cc thit b h tr, (ct cp,
mng xng cp, phin u dy, t cp, hp cp) ng vai tr vt dn in kt
ni t cc thu bao (in thoi, fax..) n thit b chuyn mch qua gi u dy
MDF.
o Mng bao gm Gi MDF, cp gc, cp nhnh, cp thu bao v cc t cp,
hp cp. Cp gc(cp chnh) l cp t MDF ni vi t cp s cp; Cp
nhnh l cp t t cp s cp n cc t cp th cp; Cp phi(cp thu
bao) l cp ni t t cp th cp n cc hp cp.
o ng knh cp gc (cp chnh) thng l 0,4mm, cp nhnh (cp phn
b) thng dng c ng knh t 0,4mm 0,5mm, cp thu bao (cp
phi) thng dng c ng knh 0,5 0,9mm.

197
o Bn knh vng phc v ca cc tng i HOST v cc tng i v tinh ti
cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph t 1500m 5000m, cc vng ngoi bn
knh phc v c ni ln ti trn 10.000m.
o Phng tin thi cng cp cn th s, s cn b v cng nhn k thut
trc tip ch o, thi cng rt t, a s thu lc lng lao ng ph thng
ngoi x hi lun cp vo cng cp v ko cp nn cp d b tn
thng sau khi thi cng, nh hng ln n cc tham s in mt chiu
cng nh xoay chiu ca cp.
o Vic phi cp ti cc BT, TP hin nay qua rt nhiu cp, cp t t s cp
(nh cp) n hp cp kt cui cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph l t 1n
5 cp ( tc l mt i dy thu bao cung cp cc dch v vin thng t nht
phi qua t 02 06 ln u chuyn qua phin u dy ti cc t, hp cp
mi n gi MDF; C bit c ni thc hin t 8 10 cp phi cp; Vic
phi cp nhiu cp l mt trong cc nguyn nhn gy nn nn nhiu trong
cp, lm cc tham s in xoay chiu ca li dn cp phn ln khng t
yu cu so vi tiu chun ngnh (TCN 68-132: 1998), dn n xuyn
nhiu gia cc i cp, suy hao truyn dn ln, suy hao phn x nh, nh
hng rt ln n tc truyn dn d liu ca cc dch v xDSL.
o Khng thc hin hoc thc hin khng ng cc ch tiu v tip t chng
st cho cp ti MDF cng nh ti cc t cp, hp cp; y l mt trong cc
nguyn nhn gy ln nn nhiu cao trong cc i cp nh hng n tc
truyn dn ca cc dch v xDSL
o Cng tc bo v, bo dng ti cc t cp, hp cp khng thng xuyn,
bi bn ti cc phin ni dy l nguyn nhn gy ln xuyn nhiu gia cc
i cp.
o Xuyn m u gn i vi cc i cp nm trong cng mt quard rt ln,
suy hao truyn dn tn s 1kHz, 150kHz, 300kHz, 772kHz phn ln
khng t yu cu
4.1.3.2 H thng cng, b cp
o H thng ng hm, cng, b, h cp l cu trc ngm di mt t
lp t cc cp c dung lng ln nh cp gc, cp nhnh, cp trung k
ni ht, cp trung k ng di, h thng ny hu ht c lp t di
ng giao thng cng cng, v mt phn di h ng; a s h thng
cng b cp trn mng u c thit k v thi cng theo TCN 68- 153:
1995 ca Tng cc bu in, tuy nhin khng t cc h thng cng b cp
cc BT,TP thi cng khng ng so vi thit k, hoc thit k khng st
vi thc t, nn khng tun theo TCN c ban hnh.
o Vn thit k cng b cha st vi thc t pht trin ca mng vin
thng, gy nn vic thng xuyn o bi lng ng v va h tng
dung lng cng cp lm mt m quan th, nh hng n giao thng.

198
o Cng tc gim st thi cng cn bung lng dn n cht lng cng trnh
khng cao, nhiu lp b cp bng b tng b dn, v hoc bo dng rt
kh khn do thi cng khng ng theo thit k.
o St ch T np an b tng v chn rc rt nhiu ni khng c, nn
trong b cp c rt nhiu rc v t. Khong cch gia cc khong b c
nhiu ni ch 50m 70m, trong khi TCN 68 - 153:1995 a ra ch tiu
ny l 100m 270m.....
o Ct cp trn mng s dng nhiu chng loi (ct b tng, ct st..) cc
loi ct ny sn xut theo tiu chun ngnh TCN 18-73; TCN 86-78 (ct
b tng cho dy trn thng tin v cp treo ni th) c v lc hu,
khng ph hp vi s pht trin ca mng ngoi vi, vi s pht trin ca
cc th hin i.
4.1.4 Mt s quy nh mi v mng ngoi vi
4.1.4.1 Cu trc mng cp ng ni ht
MDF
in thoi
in thoi
in thoi
MX TC
HC

im u ni:
- MX : Mng xng cp
- TC : T cp.
- HC : Hp cp
Cc n v cn thit k vng phc v ca cc tng i ti cc trung tm tnh,
thnh ph sao cho bn knh vng phc v 3Km i vi cp c ng knh
0,4mm; 4Km i vi cp c ng knh 0,5mm; Ch tiu ny m bo
cht lng thoi cho cc thu bao thng thng (suy hao truyn dn tn s
800Hz t thu bao n tng i l 7dB
Thc hin vic phi cp mt cp (i dy thu bao ch qua mt t cp v mt
hp cp) ti cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph, huyn, th x; Cha p dng ch
tiu ny i vi cc vng su, vng xa.
Nhng ni s dng cp gc 0,4mm th cp nhnh c th s dng c dy:
0,5mm 0,9mm tu theo bn knh phc v p ng yu cu v tc dch v
bng rng, cn lu trn mt i dy thu bao khng c qu 2 ln thay i
c dy.
T cp phi t v tr hp l, tin cho vic s dng v khng nh hng ti
m quan th; T cp phi t trn gi bng st v c c nh vo ct,

199
nhng ni khng c ct th phi xy b chc chn, dng bu loong c
nh t cp vo b.
Ti cc t, hp cp phi thc hin vic tip t chng st cho cp v tip t
cho cc mn che tnh in ca cc cp, vic tip t chng st cho cp phi
trnh xa im tip t ca cc trm bin th in v cc nh cao tng t 20m
tr nn. Phin u dy trang b ti cc gi MDF, cc t cp phi r ngun gc,
c y thuyt minh cc ch tiu k thut, trnh hng gi nh hng n
cht lng truyn dn ca cc dch v vin thng.
i vi nhng ni c c tim nng pht trin dch xDSL m cp ng khng
p ng c cc ch tiu v suy hao th c th dng cp quang + thit b truy
nhp + cp ng.
4.1.4.2 Cu trc mng truy nhp gm c cp quang v cp ng nh sau:
in thoi
in thoi
SDP
in thoi
in thoi
OLT OLU
Cp quang
SDP
Cp ng

Cc im u ni l:
OLT : Kt cui ng dy quang
ONU : n v mng quang
SDP : im r nhnh thu (hp cp)
4.1.4.3 H thng cng b cp:
Cc BT,TP ln k hoch sa cha, nng cp cc b cp di lng
ng, thay dn np b cp b tng bng lp b cp gang cu.
Tng cng cng tc kim tra, pht hin v sa cha kp thi cc b cp
b st n, lp b b dn,v m bo an ton cho cp, ngi v phng
tin giao thng qua li.
Tng cng ty ang ch o bin son, sa i, b xung mt s cc vn bn
php quy v vic xy dng cc cng trnh mng ngoi vi; Trong khi cha
c cc vn bn mi, cc n v khi thit k, xy dng cc cng trnh mng
ngoi vi phi tuyt i tun theo cc quy phm, quy trnh, tiu chun
ngnh ban hnh.
4.2 Quy hoch ADSL
a/ Cc bc quy hoch

200
d bo nhu cu ADSL
d bo k thut ADSL
kho st hin trngmng thu bao in thoi ni ht v gii php
cc con ng tin trin ca DSL
d bo lu lng ADSL
quy hoch cht lng ADSL
quy hoch cu hnh mng ADSL
quy hoch thit b ADSL
o th lp t v trin khai ADSL
b/ D bo nhu cu ADSL
xc nh mc tiu d bo
sp xp cc iu kin ban u
nghin cu d liu
phn tch khuynh hng nhu cu
xc nh k thut d bo
c/ D bo k thut ADSL
D bo s tin trin ca k thut ADSL v d bo s tin trin ca cng ngh,
thit b ADSL cng nh gi thnh.
d/ Con ng tin trin ca ADSL
T modem tng t sang ADSL, t cc DLC sang ADSL, t ISDN sang ADSL,
v t ADSL sang NGDLC, t ADSL ti VDSL.







e/ Quy hoch cht lng ADSL
Da trn ba tiu chun:
tc nghn kt ni
cch ly gia cc thu bao
thc hin cht lng c m bo

POST
(Analog
modem)
ADSL
DLC
ISDN
Truy nhp Internet/ATM ti
cc mng cung cp dcg v
ADSL
t tng
i
ADSL
t
NGD
LC
VDSL
1
2
3
4
5

201
T l tc nghn kt ni da vo 4 yu t: s thu bao tng cng khi quy hoch, s
thu bao ca tng dch v cng tc d liu ti a, dung lng tng cng vo
gi cao im khi tt c u on-line v h s ghp thng k da vo quan im
cho php ca khch hng.
Cch ly thu bao:cc loi d liu gm: UBR, GFR, CBR, VBR. Cng nhiu thu
bao vo mng th cht lng ca UBR cng gim. C ch qun l ca ATM
khng phn bit cc loi VC trong mt VP. cch ly thu bao c tt th phi
hnh thnh cc virtual tunnel trong cc VP. Hnh thnh mc u tin cho cc
virtual tunnel s gip mng ATM khng b i cc cell mt cch lng ph.
Thc hin c m bo cht lng: m bo cho cc thu bao nhn c lu
lng cao nht, khng b chim dng ti nguyn, khng ln chim cc thu bao
khc. Trong chuyn mch VP ngi ta s dng c ch EPD/PPD: v cc gi IP b
hng phi truyn li lm tr d liu ca khch hng. Cc b DSLAM dng
chuyn mch VP phi c c ch bo v lu lng IP ring IP access layer.
GFR l dng cho cc thu bao cn tc thp v cn chnh xc nht bng c ch
EPD/PPD. Hnh thnh mc u tin cho tng virtual tunnel s m bo tc .
4.3 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s
S pht trin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s ph thuc vo cht lng v
thit k mng cp ni ht. Vic nh gi ban u mch vng thu bao l rt cn
thit xc nh xem mch vng thu bao c kh nng p ng tc truyn
dn thu bao s hay khng. Trong nhiu trng hp, mng cp c thit k t
hng chc nm trc cho dch v in thoi n thun, do n s to ra mt s
bt li c th cn tr hay thm ch khng thc hin c DSL. Chng hn, cng
ngh DSL s khng thc hin c vi ng dy thu bao c cun ti hoc cc
nhnh r v di ng dy. Trc khi c th cung cp dch v DSL cn phi
o th xc nh ng dy c th dung np cng ngh DSL c khng.
S pht trin nhanh trng ca cc phin bn dch v DSL i hi mnh m kh
nng o kim t ng x l s ln ng dy cn o. ti u ho dch v
v li ch ca nh cung cp dch v, vic nh gi cht lng ng dy thu bao
cho vic cung cp dch v DSL phi tri qua cc giai on sau.
4.3.1 o th trc hp ng
o th trc hp ng c th c cc tng i thc hin trc khi a dch v
DSL n khch hng. tng ti a doanh thu, i ng tip th c th nh
hng khch hng qua cht lng ng dy thu bao c o kim trc. Vic
o th trc hp ng thng bao gm: nghin cu v tr a l, nghin cu h
s cp, o th cp kim loi.
a/ Nghin cu v tr a l
Nghin cu v tr a l bao gm mt bn v mt cy thc. Cng vic ny
bao gm nhm tm kim cc khch hng nm trong tm 4,5 km k t tng i.
b/ Nghin cu h s cp
Nghin cu h s cp bao gm vic xem xt h s cp vi cc vng thu bao c
di di 4,5 km m khng c cun ti hay cc nhn t bt li khc cho truyn

202
dn tn hiu DSL. Nu h s cp cho thy ng dy thu bao l tt th t l 80
n 90 phn trm cc trng hp cung cp dch v DSL thnh cng. Nhng kh
khn l cc tng i t nhn khng qun l h s cp trong khi cc tng i nh
nc do lch s ln n hng trm nm nn tht lc h s cp rt nhiu.
c/ o th cp kim loi
o th cp trc hp ng bao gm vic s dng cc thit b o xc nh cc
c tnh ca vng thu bao c th. C hai phng php thc hin l o mt u
ti tng i v o hai u ti tng i v v tr thu bao. o th cp kim loi ch
nhm mc ch xem th vng thu bao c th truyn dn c tn hiu DSL hay
khng ch khng thc hin bt c mt sa cha no trn vng thu bao.
4.3.2 o th trc lp t
Sau khi khch hng c qung co dch v cc CLEC cn phi thc hin o
th trc lp t. Cc CLEC thng khng c ng dy thu bao ti khch
hng cho ti khi c cc ILEC cung cp. Vic o th trc lp t c th c
thc hin sau khi ILEC chuyn ng dy thu bao cho CLEC. Nu vng thu
bao khng p ng yu cu ti thiu cho tn hiu DSL th CLEC phi loi b
ng dy bng cch xin thm mt ng dy khc hay thng bo cho khch
hng l khng th thc hin cung cp dch v c. C th o th mt u hay
hai u, o th mt u cho php o th t cc thit b t tng i, o th hai
u cn thc hin thm v tr thu bao.
4.3.3 o th khi lp t
Mt vi kiu DSL cho php khch hng t lp t modem v cc b lc tn hiu
trn ng dy. Khi khch hng mun t lp t cc thit b nh vy th c th
thnh cng hay tht bi. Khi khng t lp t c th khch hng gi c
khc phc v nh vy ng dy thu bao phi c o th khi lp t.
4.3.4 o th xc nhn sau khi lp t
Sau khi khch hng c c dch v DSL th c nhiu yu t nh hng n dch
v v d nh:
Thi tit ma lm gim tc s liu hay thm ch ngn cn dch v
S c trn ng dy cp kim loi nh hng ti dch v
Trong mi trng tn ti c ILEC v CLEC th c kh nng ILEC i
ng dy thu bao m khng bo trc
Nhiu cm ng lm cho tc truyn s liu trn ng dy thu bao
gim xung
H s ca ng dy thu bao ang o th rt cn thit cung cp cc php o
ng n cho ng dy thu bao. Vic ghi li h s lc tin hnh lp t l cn
thit sau ny thc hin o kim c th so snh. Do vy ngay sau khi lp t
thnh cng phi thc hin bc o th sau lp t. Vic o th c th thc hin
bng ba phng php: o th hai u, o th mt u v o th qua thit b cung
cp dch v nh DSLAM chng hn.

203
4.4 Quy trnh o th v lp t DSL
Khi vic o th c thc hin th kt qu c truyn cho chng trnh my
tnh xc nh tc chiu ln v chiu xung cho dch v DSL c th nh
ADSL chng hn. Chng trnh my tnh c kh nng cung cp cc hot ng
sau:
Thc hin d bo cho cc dch v DSL khc nhau nh ADSL, G-lite,
modem 1 Meg,...
Thc hin nghin cu d liu cho thng tin cp
To ra cc m hnh vng thu bao bao gm c thay i c dy
X l cc mi trng bt ng bin
X l cc phin bn DSL khc nhau
Cung cp cc quy trnh m hnh ho nh ci thin cht lng ng
truyn dn da trn vic g b nhnh r
Chng trnh my tnh phi c kh nng x l cc mi trng khng ng nht
khi c nhiu nh cung cp dch v DSL khc nhau v nhiu kiu mng cng tn
ti. d bo chnh xc, cn phi tnh ton n vic s dng knh ca mi nh
cung cp v c tnh mt ph nng lng. Nu mt nh cung cp thit b DSL
khng tun th hng dn ANSI T1.413 cho mt phin bn DSL no th
chng trnh phi khuyn khch hng thay i ph hp vi thit b ca nh
cung cp .
(1) nh gi cht lng ng dy
bc ny trung tm iu hnh mng phi thc hin mt lot cc php o th
nh gi kh nng m bo x l tt dch v ADSL ca ng dy trc khi
gi nhn vin ti tn nh thu bao. y phi thc hin cc php o th mt u.
(2) Tin hnh o th ti NIC
a/ Bc 1: Kim tra ti hp u dy
Thc hin kim tra ti hp u dy xc nh xem i dy xon c cung cp
c ng hay khng. Khi tm c i dy cung cp dch v th phi dng
cc dng c o th v d cun ti xc nhn l ng dy khng c cun ti v
cn bng. Ti thi im ny phi dng my o thc hin kim tra cc thng s c
bn ca ng dy. Dng mt butt set kim tra s hin din ca m hiu mi
quay s.
b/ Bc 2: ng b vi DSLAM v xc nh tc d liu hp u dy

204










Hnh IV-1 V tr ca NID v b tch dch v ADSL/POST CPE
NID (Network Interface Device) l ranh gii ca mng v CPE. NIC i khi cn
c gi l NIU hay NT (Network Terminal). Trong ADSL c hai loi NID: Wet
wire NID v Dry wire NID. Trong Wet wire NID l NID tch cc dng trong
mi trng cha c cnh tranh, c trin khai ti cc nc Bc M; cn Dry
wire NID l NID th ng dng trong mi trng c cnh tranh, khng cung cp
ngun trn ng dy DSL. Vi Dry wire NID khch hng t do mua sm ATU-
R vi gi c cnh tranh.




Hnh IV-2 Hnh Wet wire DSL







Hnh IV-3 Dry wire DSL
Kt thc ng dy dch v bng mt dng c o th ADSL, bt ngun v c
gng thit lp ng b vi DSLAM. Nu thit lp c ng b th dng c o
th s hin th d liu ti a theo chiu ln v chiu xung. Khi DSLAM hot
ng ng n v ng dy sn sng cho dch v s DSL.Nu dng c o
th ADSL cho kt qu thit lp ng b vi b DSLAM tht bi th gi h tr
NID
ADSL
splitter

Mng
thoi d
liu
CO POST
ADSL
N
I
D
ATU-R
Cc ng dng
Non-DSL Interface
10Base-T, CEBus,
Wet DSL
Cc gi ca CPE
N
I
D
ATU-R
Cc ng dng
AC power
Dry DSL

205
v tr t DSLAM xc nhn li l b DSLAM c thit lp ng n. Nu b
DSLAM hot ng ng n m tc d liu theo cc chiu xung hay
chiu ln cao hn hoc thp hn tc d liu cn thit th phi lin h li h tr
v tr t DSLAM xc nhn mt ln na s hot ng ng n ca b
DSLAM. Kim tra mt ln na cc tham s c bn ca ng dy ri thc hin
u dy cho NID.
c/ Bc 3: Lp t b tch dch v ADSL/POST cho G.DMT
t hp NID pha ti sn khch hng v lp t b tch dch v ADSL/POST
mt v tr thun tin . Ci jumper port Network ri ni ng dy cho dch v
thoi cng thoi v kt ni i dy cho dch v ADSL cng s liu.
d/ Bc 4:Kim tra cc thng s c bn, gim st v cht lng thoi
NID phi thc hin mt ln na vic o th cc thng s c bn. Cc php o
th phi c thc hin chc chn rng ng dy s c s dng h tr
dch v d liu tc cao ADSL. Cui cng, dch v thoi c xem li mt ln
na bng cch ni ng dy vi butt set qua cng thoi, chuyn sang ch ni
chuyn v nghe m mi quay s.
e/ Bc 5: ng b vi DSLAM v xc nhn tc bit NID
Vi ADSL G.DMT: Kt ni cng s liu trn b tch dch v POTS bng my
o th ADSL, m ngung my o v kim tra mt ln na s ng b vi
DSLAMv tc bit cn thit theo cc chiu upstream v downstream.
Vi ADSL G.Lite: Trc tin, kim tra m hiu mi quay s bng butt set ti
NID. G butt set ra khi ng dy, ni my o th ADSL vo ng dy, m
ngung my o v kim tra mt ln na s ng b vi DSLAM v tc bit
cn thit theo cc chiu upstream v downstream.Nu khch hng khng yu cu
dch v in thoi trn jack in thoi ny th ni dy nhy cng mt idy gn
cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch v thoi v ADSL
trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu cha c. Phi chc
rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht (port 1) v i dy
dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng th 2 (port 2). Tiu chun quy nh
ng ra ca b moden phi ni vo dy th 2.
Nu khch hng khng yu cu dch v thoi trn jack thoi ny th ni dy nhy
cng mt i dy gn cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch
v thoi v ADSL trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu
cha c Phi chc rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht
(port 1) v i dy dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng th 2 (port 2).
Tiu chun quy nh ng ra ca b modem phi ni vo dy th 2.
(3) Lp t ti nh thu bao nu c
Xc nh ch khch hng cn ni my tnh c nhn vi ADSL. Tm v tr gn
jack in thoi nht trong phng v xem th ng dy c dng c hay
khng.
a/ Trng hp G.DMT

206
Nu khch hng khng yu cu dch v thoi trn jack thoi ny th ni dy nhy
cng mt i dy gn cho cng s liu NID. Nu khch hng yu cu c dch
v thoi v ADSL trn jack in thoi ny th lp t b jack i gn tng nu
cha c. Phi chc rng i dy dnh cho dch v thoi gn vo cng th nht
(port 1)v i dy dnh cho dch v s liu c gn vi cng th 2 (port 2).
Tiu chun quy nh ng ra ca b modem phi ni vo dy th 2.
b/ Trng hp G.Lite
Vi cu hnh ny c dch v ADSL v dch v thoi u c ni vo ng
dy in thoi. Nu cn thit ni li jack tng thch vi u ra ca modem
ADSL hay dng mt on dy tha chuyn i dy.
(4) Lp t modem ADSL
Hin nay, c ba loi cu hnh modem ADSL thng dng. Ba loi ny gm bao
gm hai loi lp ri (External) vi giao tip vi my tnh c nhn l Ethernet hay
USB v mt loi lp bn trong my tnh c nhn (Internal) vi giao tip chun
PCI. Nu PCE l modenlp bn trong my tnh c nhn th k thut vin cn phi
c mt vi k nng, kinh nghim v hiu bit v my tnh c nhn hon tt lp
t. Lu rng, mt vi loi dy trong nh (v d nh dy phng IW) khng cho
php kt ni vi hn mt dch v v phi thay bng dy xon i CAT3.
a/ Modem ADSL loi ri, giao tip Ethernet
Nu CPE s dng moden loi ri (External) c giao tip Ethernet th trn my
tnh c nhn phi c card giao tip mng Ethernet (Internal hoc Onboard) th
mi c th hon tt vic lp t c. Nu khng c th phi ngh khch hng
trang b thm card giao tip mng Ethernet (NIC:Network Interface Card) cho
my tnh c nhn. Khi my tnh c nhn c kh nng giao tip c mng
Ethernet th kim tra u ni Ethernet trn my tnh c nhn phi tng thch.
Lu rng trong lc cc u ni RJ-45 l ph bin th cng c mt s giao tip
Ethernet c c dng u ni khc. Trong trng hp th phi s dng b
chuyn i u ni. Khi chuyn giao xong s tng thch u ni hy lp dy
ni gia modem ADSL v cng d liu trn jack gn tng ri ci t b iu
khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn.
b/ Modem ADSL loi ri, giao tip USB
Nu CPE l modem ADSL dng ri c giao tip USB th my tnh c nhn phi
c sn cng USB v sn sng hot ng. Ni cp USB gia modem ADSL v
my tnh c nhn, ni dy gia modem ADSL v cng d liu trn jack gn
tng ri ci t b iu khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn.
c/ Modem ADSL loi lp trong my tnh c nhn vi giao tip PCI
Nu CPE l dng modem ADSL Internal vi giao tip PCI th phi xem my tnh
c nhn c cn trng khe cm PCI no khng. Lp t card modem ADSL vo
khe PCI cn trng trong my tnh c nhn, ni dy gia modem v cng d liu
trn jack gn tng ri ci t b iu khin phn mm cho my tnh c nhn.
(5) Bc cui cng: o th hai u

207
a/ ADSL
Bt ngun my tnh cc nhn v c modem ADSL (nu l modem ri). Cu hnh
li my tnh c nhn theo cc c tnh cn thit do nh cung cp dch v Internet
quy nh. Modem ADSL ri c mt n LED bo sync bo modem ADSL
thit lp kt ni vi DSLAM (vi cc modem ADSL thng dngth Led sync
s chp chp khi mi bt ngun in v chuyn sang sng xanh lin tc bo
ng b mng vi DSLAM). Vi cc modem lp trong my tnh c nhn th phn
mm iu khin lun c mt biu tng dng thanh trng thi dng theo di
tnh hnh trng thi kt ni ca modem. Khi a ch IP c cu hnh ng th
kim tra kt ni bng cch chy mt trnh duyt Internet. Vo lc , khi my
tnh c nhn download v trang web home page ngha l kt ni thnh cng
im ni im vi nh cung cp dch v Internet.
b/ POST
Sau khi thc hin song vic lp t v kim tra dch v ADSL im ni im, k
thut vin phi kim tra dch v in thoi trong nh khch hng. Nn nh rng
dch v ADSL phi khng b nh hng bi dch v thoi.
4.5 Khc phc s c
a/ Thu thp thng tin
Cc s c pht sinh trong qu trnh hay sau khi lp t dch v ADSL, do yu
cu k thut vin phi xc nh c sai hng trn CPE hay phn i dy. Khi s
c c bo co th cn phi m t tht chi tit v ghi li trc khi khc phc.
b/ Cc sai hng nghim trng ti my mc ca khch hng
Sau khi thu thp c cc thng tin v s c, th phi bt u thc hin khc
phc s c t nh khch hng. Nu Modem ADSL vn hot ng tt vi b
DSLAM th hy kim tra tnh trng hot ng ca my tnh cc nhn. Khch
hng c th thay i a ch IP, mt li thng gp khi khch hng ci mt
ng dng lin quan ti kt mng v s dng cc gi tr ci t mc nh ca
chng trnh ci t . Nu vn cha gii quyt c th gi n nh iu hnh
ADSL v kim tra xem gn y mng c mi hu b dch v ADSL ca thu bao
ny hay khng hay thc hin cu hnh mng ging nh bn nh ln cn.
Nu loi tr c nghi vn t my tnh c nhn th g b modem ra khi jack
gn tng, dng my o th ADSL v thc hin gi lp modem. Nu my o th
ADSL ng b c vi DSLAM th modem ADSL ca khch hng b hng.
Ni vi mt modem ADSL khc v c gng thit lp li kt ni. Nu vic gn
my o th vo ng dy vn khng thit lp c ng b vi DSLAM (khi
c ni cng v tr vi modem ADSL ca khch hng) th c gng cch ly s c
gia jack gn tng v NID. Nu my o ADSL ng b c vi DSLAM khi
kt ni ti v tr NID th nguyn nhn l vic i dy trong nh. Xc nh mc
sai hng bng my o th v chy dy mi nu cn thit.
c/ Cc sai hng nghim trng ng dy cp ng
Nu cc vn ti my khch hng u b loi tr m my o ADSL vn khng
ng b c vi DSLAM NID th vn c l nm trn ng dy ca

208
mng cp ni ht. Thc hin php o th gi lp modem ADSL ti im ln
mng k tip trong mch vng thu bao (c th l hp u dy,...). C tip tc
tin dn v pha MDF trn vng thu bao cho ti khi thit lp c thnh cng
kt ni th ngay ti thc hin kim tra k li chiu xung ca vng thu bao v
ti, r nhnh, in tr hay dung khng khng cn bng ca i dy.
Khi tt c u khng thnh cng th phi cp ng dy khc cho khch hng v
nh kim tra li, ng dy mi ny phi c nh gi cht lng trc l tt
v khng c cun ti r nhnh. Thc hin li cc bc kim tra c bn cho mt
ng dy mi. Sau chy th modem gi lp vi my o th ADSL pha
khch hng m bo ng dy mi c cung cp tt cho dch v.
4.6 K thut gi lp ng dy thu bao
Nu ang trong giai on pht trin ng dy modem ADSL mi th u tin l
phi mua b modem. Tuy nhin trc khi u t cc b modem t gi l phi
nghin cu kh nng thc hin ca modem trn vng thu bao. C ba phng
php o th kh nng ca modem DSL: phng php o th modem trn kt
ni vng thu bao ni ht, phng php gi lp ng dy thu bao bng cun
cp v phng php o th modem bng b gi lp DSL. C ba phng php u
c th tm tt trong mt php o thc hin hn ch t s BER ca modem qua
ng dy thu bao mt khong cch xc nh v trong mt mi trng nhiu
xc nh. Di y l cc cu hnh o th modem ca ba phng php trn.





Hnh IV-4 o th modem trn kt ni vng thu bao ni ht





Hnh IV-5 Phng php gi lp ng dy thu bao bng cun cp
B to mu d
liu o th
B to mu d
liu o th
Modem Modem
Vng ni ht
B to mu d
liu o th
B to mu d
liu o th
Modem Modem
cun dy
xon i

209










Hnh IV-6 S o th modem bng b gi lp ng dy
Modem Under
Test
B m phng mch
vng ni ht bng
rng
Meter
Modem Under
Test
B m phng nhiu
giao thoa mch vng

210
TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] ITU-T Recommendation G.961 (1993), Digital transmission system on
metallic local lines for ISDN basic rate access.
[2] ITU-T Recommendation G.994.1 (1999), Handshake procedures for
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) transceivers.
[3] ITU-T Recommendation G.996.1 (1999), Test procedures for Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) transceivers.
[4] ITU-T Recommendation G.997.1 (1999), Physical layer management for
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) transceivers.
[5] ITU-T Recommendation I.361 (1999), B-ISDN ATM layer specification.
[6] ITU-T Recommendation I.432.1 (1999), B-ISDN user-network interface
Physical layer specification: General characteristics.
[7] ETSI TS 102 080 V1.3.1 (1998), Transmission and Multiplexing (TM);
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) basic rate access; Digital
transmission system on metallic local lines.
[8] ITU-T Recommendation G.117 (1996), Transmission aspects of unbalance
about earth.
[9] ITU-T Recommendation Q.552 (1996), Transmission characteristics at 2-
wire analogue interfaces of digital exchanges.
[10] ETSI ETS 300 001 ed.4 (1997), Attachments to the Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN); General technical requirements for equipment
connected to an analogue subscriber interface in the PSTN.
[11] ANSI T413
[12] Cng ngh ADSL: Thc tin-Gii php-Trin khai. ng Quc Anh.
[13] Nguyn Anh Dng, "Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s xDSL"