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AKNOWLEDGEMENT

I firmly believe that a work of significant proportions cannot be attributed to a single person or a single effort, its overall success depends upon all those individuals who contributed in their unique way to the accomplishment of its broader objectives. I express my deepest and most sincere thanks to Mr. R. K. Kajla, Deputy G.M.-HR for giving me an opportunity to work on this project and extending support to me during my stint with HAVELLS INDIA LTD. I acknowledge my indebtness to Mr S. K. Yadav, for giving me inspiring support, guidance, valuable suggestions and encouragement throughout this project.

Above all I wish to thank my family for being my constant support and source of encouragement during the project.

APROVAL FROM GUIDE
This is to certify that Mr. Sumit Bansal student of NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA has completed project work on “STUDY ON ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM” under my guidance and supervision. I certify that this is an original work and has not been copied from any source.

DATE:

Signature of Guide Name of Project Guide Mr. S. K. Yadav

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this Project Report entitled “STUDY OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM” in HAVELLS INDIA LTD. submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of B.TECH. of SEEDLING ACADEMY OF DESIGN TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, Jaipur is based on primary & secondary data found by me in various departments, books, and websites & Collected by me in under guidance of Mr. S. K. Yadav.

DATE:

SUMIT BANSAL B.TECH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING N.I.T.K.

) .4 D.1 Historic Development 4.6 Audio Transformer 6.3 A. Company’s Profile And History 3.1 Power Transformer 5.2 Auto-Transformer 5.2 Principle 3.3 Polyphase Transformer 5.4 Oil Cooled Transformer 5.2 Principle 4.4 Faraday’s Disk 5. Electric Generator Or Dynamo 4. Electric Motor 3. Transformer 5.5 Pulse Transformer 5. Motor 3. Substation(S.CONTENTS 1.5 Universal Motor 4.1 History Of A.D.C. Motor 3.C. Electrical Industry 2.C.3 Jedlik’s Dynamo 4. Motor 3.L.

Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept.Bibliography ABOUT ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY The electrical industry contributed and helped reshape the modern technology. Nikola Tesla invented the rotating magnetic field. It all started with Allessandro Volta's development of the battery in 1800 and Joseph Henry's work on electromagnets. Morse. powering the tools and appliances used in daily life. In 1888. his teacher. The production of arc light with the help of direct current (DC) generator invented by Charles Brush in 1876 illuminated the 19th century Thomas Edison. In 1882. stated that would be . Professor Poeschel.B. He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883. and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines. In 1885. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. the Telegraph by Samuel F. recognizing the desire for electric lighting similar to existing gas lights. Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force. invented in 1879 an Incandescent Lamp that produced light when current passed through a high resistance filament in a vacuum. Michael faraday’s invention of the generator in 1830 marked an era of modern technologies followed with the first commercial application of electricity.

After Edison GE and Thomson Houston merged in 1892 to form the general electric company. the Indian electrical equipment industry is seeing a revival in the last couple of years with the growth rate averaging 7 per cent per annum. radios. electrical utilities adopted nuclear reactor technology.194. at Niagara Falls delivered abundant electricity to industries demonstrating AC's full potential. Yet consumer demand for electricity increased as they grew more dependent on reliable electric power to heat and cool buildings. which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos. Electric Motor (December 1889). irons. and supply indoor and outdoor illumination. AC. promotes business development . Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890.S. governments established programs to promote wind. Nuclear‐power plants proved not only expensive to build but difficult to manage and prone to dangerous accidents. and vacuum cleaners. while Thomson Houston assisted fledgling utilities to fund power stations. the first hydroelectric power station. predictions were that electricity would soon be “too cheap to meter” went unfulfilled. Many households in this decade acquired electric stoves.[11] Tesla would later attain U. Patent 0. incandescent lamp manufacture. control machinery. the electrical industry in the 1920s campaigned to increase domestic consumption.akin to building a perpetual motion machine. By 1890. however. It provides the nation with the most prevalent energy form known in history “electricity”. and solar power. In 1896. Seeking lower costs. and the manufacture of steam turbines to power generators. This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor. It advances the nation’s economic growth and productivity. The worldwide electric power industry provides a vital service essential to modern life. operate appliances and computers. After greatly expanding generating capacity. Westinghouse aggressively promoted the use of alternating current (AC). the new firm dominated in finance. and the Thomson Houston electric company were the key players.416. soon became the industry standard. which could serve more customers over a wider area. Edison general electric. water. the Westinghouse electric and manufacturing company founded by George Westinghouse. washing machines. AFTER BEING in the doldrums towards the end of the 1990s.

051.935 321.221 730.8 billion in 2006. As per the recent surveys.201 119.735 139.216.168. and provides solid employment opportunities to workers globally in general and India in particular. It is a robust industry that contributes to the progress and prosperity of our nation.307 258. The new Electricity Act 2003 provides the provision of competition in several sectors.038.307 338.131 258. electronic equipment manufacturers Power industry restructuring. If we talk of electrical & electronics production statistics.588 2008 119. which is forecasted to grow to $ 1. suppliers.928 330.201 345. electricians. since 1991.308 1.216. has a strong impact on Asian power industry as well. dealers. The worldwide electrical and electronics industry is growing at a fast pace which consist of manufacturers.439 1.307 258. It is felt that the prevailing conditions in the country are good only for wholesale competition and not for the retail competition at this moment.834 248. has already been introduced at generation level by allowing participation of independent power producers (IPPs). around the world.5 billion in future. the industry accounted for $1. Indian power industry restructuring with a limited level of competition.8 billion. retailers.895 . the global electrical & electronics market is worth $1. which is forecasted to reach $ 1.424 11.025. Today the electric power industry operates in a hybrid model of competition and regulation. OUTLOOK OF THE WORLD'S ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS MARKET Classification Home Use Industrial Use Information Device Communication Device Office Devices Others Electronics Parts Total 2007 116.and expansion.8 billion at the end of the year 2008.

Japan.7% of the total. The World's electrical market size was $1038.e. Chinese electrical products certainly are lower in cost. The Quality Control Order of February 2003. President of the Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA). Eastern Europe is forecasted to grow about $ 24 billion in 2013 from $ 9 billion in 2006. contributing around 62. The industrial electrical goods industry size was $651. Western Europe is developing gradually to contribute this industry.SIZE OF THE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY Top three electrical and electronic goods manufacturing countries in the world are: United States of America. Furthermore. Chinese compact fluorescent lamps proved to be a failure in India. of India. Singapore and India are the top manufacturer of electrical and electronic products. According to Mr. USA is at the forefront to have the largest market share with around 29% in the Global market. Among these Asian countries. With regard to electronics parts and components sector. If we talk of Asia Pacific region. Western Europe comprising of 16 countries is contributing around 22% of the global market share.3 billion. China is becoming the manufacturing region of electronic products on the globe. has specified that unless a product conforms to the Bureau of Indian . Japan and Korea respectively.2% while home electronics was $ 104.7 billion. MAJOR PRODUCTION AND EXPORT CENTERS As electrical manufacturing industry is growing with a fast pace. Krishnakumar. Simultaneously. China. since last year an increase of 10. the total market share was around $282.6% is forecasted to grow even more. so long as the products from there are conforming to quality standards. 27.7 billion i. For example. One of the issues often raised is the fear of flood of imports from China. The Indian industry is not afraid of Chinese competition. This figure is supposed to increase in this decade. but their quality is suspect. North & South Korea. promulgated by the Govt. The United States of America being the largest producer of electronic products worldwide contributes the total share of around 21%.8 billion in 2006.

the electrical industry is experiencing phenomenal and remarkable changes worldwide. it cannot be marketed in India. Asia occupied 41% of total electronics market share. The Electrical/Electronics Industry in India is growing to its full potential in the coming years and no doubt that India will soon come to be recognized for quality products and services which in turn. At persent. low price products coming from China. Companies indulged in manufacturing electrical products are investing a lot on research and development for the best products to meet the demand of the market. This should go a long way in preventing the flood of low quality. In 2002. Asia is growing with more speed in comparision to Americas and Europe. and one must firstly satisfy this market with products that meet international quality standards. The worldwide electrical industry is distinguished by fast technological advances and has grown rapidly than most other industries over the past 30 years. With increasing globalization. The domestic market in India is itself large. Those days are not far away when Asia will become the market leader globally. Products are heading towards new destination where cost is less than other place with higher costs involved. Once we deliver high quality products and services within the domestic market.Standards criteria. They are manufacturing the product with best quality at reduced cost due to many competitors. which grew upto 56% in 2007. accessing the international market for exports should not pose a serious challenge. providing goods and services complying with international quality. FACTORS GOVERNING THE GROWTH OF ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY . every international player is now operating in India. will bring this industry to a position of true leadership. These places offer the most long term potential for market growth. FUTURE OUTLOOK OF ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY Today.

To expand their business.Every industry thrives on some supporting factors. It led to a consistent demand for newer and faster products and applications • • . Asia Pacific region is emerging as the most spinning place for the consumer electronics industry. Industrial & Automotive industries have been cordially supported by electrical & electronics industry. as the markets remain still unbroached. there are few factors governing the growth of electrical and electronics industry: • Research & development played an important role to the increased productivity and higher-value added electrical and electronics products. • • Electric & Electrical industry is highly fragmented which comprises of many small and medium size enterprises resulting into a huge industry. In this connection. • • Global industries like Medical. Foreign investments accelerated growth in production and export as well. it increased the demand of electronics especially consumer electronics products globally. foreign companies have done huge investment which lead developing countries in establishing production units. Innovation has played importantly in this industry. As a result. Increase in income changed living standards of the common mass. Telecommunications.

50.. The Company was promoted by S/Shri Qimat Rai Gupta and Surjit Kumar Gupta.The Company was originally incorporated as Havell's India Private Limited on 8th August.ABOUT HAVELLS Company History .Havells India YEAR 1983 . 1991 . under the Companies Act. . Germany for the manufacture of Miniature Circuit Breakers in India. which had facilities for manufacture of HRC fuses with an installed capacity of 2. The Company also entered into a Technical Collaboration with M/s Christian Geyer GmbH & Co.The company undertook addition to its tool room facilities by going in for manufacturing of sheet metal and molding tools in-house. It has facilities for manufacture of switchgear items viz.The company amalgamated with itself Elymer Havbell's Pvt.000 pcs. MCB Distribution Boards (DB) and HRC fuses at Samepur Badli. 1956 and subsequently the name was changed to Havell's India Limited vide Certificate dated 31st March. Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB). 1992 . the Company signed another Technical Collaboration with M/s Schiele Industrieworke. Germany. Delhi. Ltd.For the manufacture of ELCBs. 1992. 1989 .

Electrical switchgear makers Havell's India has entered into a strategic partnership with Cambridge Technology Partners . The Company also launched Crabtree brand modular plate switches which is being perceived as the best available product in the market. Havell's Dorman Smith Pvt.. Havell's group has signed a new JV agreement with the Deutsche Zahiergesellschaft (DZG). UK with the introduction of state-of-the-art ‘DORMAN SMITH’ brand Moulded Case Circuit Breakers in India. wherein Havell's India Ltd is a 25% shareholder.The Company has introduced Product Managers and Industrial Teams to emphasize the product mix and to strengthen its presence in all market segments. Havell's group. Germany. Kuwait and Egypt for marketing its vast range of products in these countries.. The company has finalized tie-ups in UAE. is a 25% shareholder had launched Moulded Case Circuit Breakers last year in the Indian market.One of the biggest achievements during the year is that the JV partners have tested the MCBs and have entered into an agreement with the Company to exclusively market the MCBs in the worldwide markets. with Electrium Ltd. The company decided to enter into the manufacture of Three Phase Energy Meters for industrial applications. Ltd. The 50:50 JV company Havell's Dorman Smith Ltd. one of the top ten Companies of UK.K. relays. the Company has entered into the manufacture of low tension power cables. in which Havell's India Ltd. and motor starters for the first time in India which have been well received in the market. Havell's group signed a Joint Venture Agreement with Hanson Electrical. Germany. Hanson Plc. Keeping in view business synergy's with the Cable Industry. Oman. 1995 .The company successfully launched the latest IEC design contractors.Schiele industriwerke.Cable division at Alwar is now ISO-9001 certified. a group company of the UK Pound 11 Billion Anglo-American conglomerate. UK. U. JV company.. 1996 . who have been our collaborators for ELCBs. 1997 . 1998 . has signed a new JV agreement with Ampy Automation Digilog Ltd. 1999 . have entered into a new technical collaboration with the company for quality up gradation for its products in the control gear division.1994 .

Havell's India is a company worth US$ 1 billion and is one of the leading companies in India's equipment-power distribution industry. 2001 .e. Havell`s India Ltd has informed BSE that the company had earlier acquired 60% shareholding of Standard Electricals Ltd..Havells India Ltd has informed that Ms Sabina Geyer has resigned from the Directorship of the Company with immediate effect. an unlisted company wherein the company hold 60% shareholding.Havells India Limited has appointed Mr. with Schiele Industriewerke of Germany for RCCBs and with Peterriens Schaltechik Gmbh for changeover switches. Consequently.. 2007 .. 2000 . For MCBs. with its corporate office in Noida. an unlisted company. produces and supplies . with effect from such transfer. 2006 . 2004 . The company has a 50:50 joint venture with DZG of Germany for manufacture of high-end electromechanical and electronic energy meters.The Company has been awarded the highest revenue payer award for the year 2000 in the organised sector category. The Company has entered into a joint venture agreement with Standard Electricals Ltd.. The Standard Electricals Ltd. December 31.Havell's entered into a technical collaboration with Geyer in 1998 to manufacture miniature circuit-breakers. by purchasing balance 40% shareholding of the company.f. The company has acquired the entire 100% shareholding of Standard Electricals Ltd. Jalandhar.India for implementing ERP on a fast-track. Havell's India is under the QRG group and was set up in 1958. the company has a technical collaboration with Geyer AG of Germany.N Balasubramanian as additional director of the Company who shall hold office up to the date of next Annual General Meeting. has thus become a 100% subsidiary of company w.2001. Havell's India Ltd has acquired a 60 per cent stake in Hyderabad-based Duke Arnics Electronics Ltd. an un-listed public limited company which was a 100% subsidiary of the Company. Havell's India Ltd.Forays into the luxury bathroom fittings and accessories segment under the Crabtree Frattini brand name Havells India Limited has sold out its entire shareholding of Standard Electricals Limited. Standard Electricals Limited is no longer a subsidiary of the Company.

and Rs. 66538. ASTA. The various products manufactured by the Havell's India are: • • • • • • Cables Fans Switches Capacitor Bath accessories and fittings Lightning solutions Havell's India Ltd. Rs. Its latest automatic laser controlled machines are also of international standards. SEMKO. It has entered into alliances with electrical companies like DZG. 41922.40 lakh in 2004. and CSA have been acquired by Havell's India. The company entered the fan business in 2003 and offers great variety in order to satisfy client requirements. This has ensured that the wires and cables manufactured by Havell's India are of the best quality. The bath accessories and fittings manufactured by the company are of the best quality and are available in a wide variety. and switchgears. 29308. had established its cables plant in Alwar in 1996. Havell's India has become the top-most company in India on the basis of its . Havell's India Company designs and produces capacitors by using S3 technology.46 lakh in 2005. Electrium. all the products are of the best quality. amounted to Rs. wires and cables.low-voltage electrical equipments in India. The turnover of the Havell's India Ltd. and Geyer AG and this has helped the company improve their technical expertise in the segment of electrical products.25 lakh in 2003. A lot many international certifications such as KEMA. It is a unit which has been certified with ISO: 9001-2000 for its standards in manufacturing cables and wires from the best quality of raw materials. All the manufacturing plants of Havell's India are highly technologically developed and as a result. Havell's India Company has 3 divisions – consumer electrical durables.

Its consolidated revenues amounted to EUR 207 million in 2005. Havell’s exports its products to approximately 55 countries across the globe and has marketing offices in the EU. It has also initiated various segment-wise growth plans to drive growth in its overall operations.quality of products which are of the world class standards and its pricing which is accessible by the common man. contributing approximately 40 per cent to its total revenues.The company has developed a strong brand presence through alliances with and the acquisition of leading electrical equipment manufacturers in the region. Geyer AG. Havell’s is taking initiatives to tap potential markets in the EU.Europe is critical to the company’s business. DZG. FACTORS FOR SUCCESS STRATEGIC ALLIANCES The company has formed strategic alliances and partnerships with many leading players operating in the end-to-end solutions in the power distribution equipment industry. It also aims to leverage its established brand presence in these segments.The company has plans to increase its brand presence and reach in the EU through strong acquisitions. Havell’s also plans to increase its capacity to ward off cost pressures and reduce development costs. It has plans to expand its operations in the EU inorganically and enhance its international presence. Havell’s has entered manufacturing alliances with several leading electrical companies such as Electrium. etc. The company has identified the housing and power sectors as future growth drivers and plans to tap these spheres. generated by exports in 2005. FUTURE PLANS As a part of its growth strategy. which has assisted the company to leverage the technical . Havell’s has plans to diversify its product portfolio by venturing into the electrical motors and power capacitors space.The company is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange. The company expects to increase its exports by approximately 100 per cent from 2005-07. the Middle East and the USA..

and computer disk drives. Havell’s has efficiently leveraged alliances to gain an entry into global markets. at the same time. machine tools. household appliances.The company has developed efficient partnerships to increase its market penetration in the EU. by their internal construction.expertise and developing quality products in the electrical products segment. reducing cost and upgrading the quality of its products. thereby facilitating sharing of technology. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. which has enabled it to penetrate the market ELECTRIC MOTOR An electric motor is a device using electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. power tools. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. among many other applications. It has developed a good brand name by introducing innovative products in the market.The company has a skilled workforce that works on its R&D projects. and by application. blowers and pumps. LEADING THE WAY THROUGH INNOVATION Havell’s has focussed on research and development to produce novel products. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interaction of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. It has also entered into alliances with several companies. nearly always by the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. developing a strong product portfolio to capture them. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. . Electric motors are found in myriad uses such as industrial fans. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.

416. Alternating Current (AC) types.Principle The principle of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821 and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury. Categorization Of Electric Motors The classic division of electric motors is:1). Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. Tesla would later attain U. In 1888. Patent 0. his teacher. 2). Electric Motor (December 1889). A typical AC motor consists of two parts: . In 1885. Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force. When a current was passed through the wire. This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor.194. the wire rotated around the magnet. showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos. and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines. Universal Motor ( DC motors that runs on AC power). This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. 3). Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883. Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. Nikola Tesla invented the rotating magnetic field. AC Motors In 1882.S. A permanent magnet was placed in the middle of the pool of mercury. Professor Poeschel. Direct Current (DC) types. stated that would be akin to building a perpetual motion machine.

An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field. although in practice they are nearly always used with AC supplies. which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source—so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense.There are four types of DC motor: • • • • DC series motor DC shunt motor Permanent Magnet DC Motor DC compound motor DC compound motor . The name derives from the fact that it may use AC or DC supply current. The principle is that in a wound field DC motor the current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) at the same time. and. Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon). and the resultant motor is generally less efficient than an equivalent pure DC motor. DC Motors A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. In practice.there are also two types: o o Cumulative compound Differentially compounded Universal Motors A variant of the wound field DC motor is the universal motor. . and the ball bearing motor. the motor must be specially designed to cope with the AC (impedance must be taken into account. An inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. as must the pulsating force). which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types. and hence the mechanical force generated is always in the same direction.

a motor causes a propellor or wide. and microwave ovens use motors to turn the tray food sits on. electric motors are used to turn saws and blades in cutting and slicing processes. along with helicopters.The advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have the typical characteristics of DC motors. Toaster ovens also use electric motors to turn a conveyor in order to move food over heating elements. Linear motors are often used to push products into containers horizontally. specifically high starting torque and very compact design if high running speeds are used. Blenders use electric motors to mix liquids. and conveyor belts. Many kitchen appliances also use electric motors to accomlish various jobs. allowing vertical motion. Food processors and grinders spin blades to chop and break up foods. In flying robots. Obvious uses would be in rotating machines such as fans. Also. modern machines. Electric motors are also popular in robotics. turbines. As a result such motors are usually used in AC devices such as food mixers and power tools which are used only intermittently. Continuous speed control of a universal motor running on AC is easily obtained by use of a thyristor circuit. causing it to appear to be moving up and down. if not most. The negative aspect is the maintenance and short life problems caused by the commutator. . an electric motor spins an irregular figure with more area on one side of the axle than the other. In industrial and manufacturing businesses. in many vibrating or oscillsting machines. while stepped speed control can be accomplished using multiple taps on the field coil. Uses Electric motors are used in many. drills. Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave rectified AC). the wheels on electric cars. and servo motors are used to turn arms and legs in humanoid robots. They are used to turn the wheels of vehicular robots. and to spin gears and mixers (the latter very common in food manufacturing). flat blades to spin and create drag force.

. Historic Developments Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered. where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential electrode. generally using electromagnetic induction. a wind turbine. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: • • Electrostatic induction The turboelectric effect.ELECTRICAL GENERATOR In electricity generation. electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially-significant quantities of electric power. an internal combustion engine. motors and generators have many similarities. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. which is already present in the wire of its windings. compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. but it does not create electricity or charge. A generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit. an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. These generated very high voltages and low currents. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. a hand crank. electrostatic generators were invented that used electrostatic principles. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts. which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside.

It produced a small DC voltage. and large amounts of current. called the 'Faraday disc'. is that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. the current would circulate backwards in regions outside the influence of the magnetic field. The principle. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher more useful voltages. two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He also built the first electromagnetic generator. due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. later called Faraday's law. Jedlik's invention was decades ahead of its time. The first Turbo generator Designed by the Hungarian engineer Ottó Bláthy in 1903 . and induces waste heating of the copper disc. While current flow was induced directly underneath the magnet. This design was inefficient due to self-cancelling counter flows of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic field.Jedlik's Dynamo In 1827. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns. Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. This counter flow limits the power output to the pickup wires. Faraday Disk In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets.

larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets. and the rotary converter. alternator. Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power conversion. including the DC electric motor. very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. Through a series of accidental discoveries. which provides a constant magnetic field. dynamo or motor. In a generator. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets. and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. Electrical: • Armature: The power-producing component of an alternator. Terminology The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. . generator.The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. dynamo or motor. Stator: The stationary part of an alternator. But before the principles of AC were discovered. Mechanical: • • Rotor: The rotating part of an alternator. The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. generator. the AC alternator. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through the use of a commutator. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure. the AC synchronous motor. generator. or dynamo the armature windings generate the electrical current. Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity. which are usually called field coils. dynamo or motor. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. the dynamo became the source of many later inventions.

• Field: The magnetic field component of an alternator. and share several key functional parts. • Power Transformers This is the most common type of transformer. refer to the Field coil article. Mumetal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in Occasionally seen in low profile format for use in restricted spaces • • • • • • . Direct current machines necessarily have the commutator on the rotating shaft. the various types employ the same basic principle as discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday. widely used in appliances to convert mains voltage to low voltage to power electronics • • • Widely available in power ratings ranging from mW to MW Insulated laminations minimize eddy current losses Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin. generator. dynamo or motor. AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator. Other shape pairs are sometimes used. Despite their design differences. so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. (For a more technical discussion. using slip rings.) Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit. TRANSFORMER A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor. giving a high level of insulation between the windings Rectangular core Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs.

Since the current in the windings is lower. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. smaller and more efficient than an isolating (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together.• laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability Auto-Transformer An autotransformer has only a single winding. For example. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. lighter. The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. Delta-Delta and Y-Y. the transformer is smaller. A . the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). an autotransformer is cheaper. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. The most common connections are Y-Delta. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. which is tapped at some point along the winding. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. Polyphase Transformers For three-phase power. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. This is true of isolated winding transformers too. for example. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. In practice. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. and 115 volts between one end and the tap. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. lighter cheaper and more efficient. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Delta-Y. to interconnect 33 kV and 66 kV sub-transmission networks. If the secondary is a Delta winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. Large three-phase autotransformers are used in electric power distribution systems.

since these are now banned. In powertype pulse transformers. For the same reason. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a relatively constant amplitude).[1] Formerly. particle accelerators. substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used. Pulse Transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. or where the transformer is used in a building or underground. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. or other high energy pulsed power applications. the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings. . • Oil Cooled Transformer For large transformers used in power distribution or electrical substations. and a high open-circuit inductance. oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the highvoltage gates of power semiconductors. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers.special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly. Where a higher rating is required. and in larger ratings an air-cooled radiator is used. moved by convection.

Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. Output transformers are on the left. the larger this product. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker.The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. bass guitar) to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console. Generally speaking.g. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. The power supply toroidal transformer is on right. . A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be "dumped" out before the pulse is fired again. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals (e. Audio Transformers Transformers in a tube amplifier. the larger and more expensive the transformer. Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used.) Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. high power handling increases the required core size. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. the speakers require high current at low voltage. Pulse transformers by definition have a duty cycle of less than 1. All this makes for an expensive component. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design.

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM HT SIDE 33 KV Supply (R.O) With Earthing Drop Out Fuse (33KV) Lightning Arrester (33KV) M.C.B or V.S.) Gang Operated Switch (G.E.O.C.B (33KV) Current Transformer (5 A ) .B.

These fuses stop the flow of current in the event of an internal fault or short-circuit in the transformer. or "interrupt" the relatively small "magnetizing current" of the substation transformer. (This is the small amount of current needed to set up the magnetic field in the transformer core.V. Overloads due to faults or short circuits on the distribution side of the substation are prevented by low voltage protective equipment. The brush type phosphor bronze contacts provide positive high pressure multilane connection and wiping and cleaning action on closing. It can only break. Side .At No Load (433 V / 2666.Potential Transformer (33KV / 110 V) Three Phase Step Down Transformer (Delta .7 A) The first device encountered in a substation is typically a disconnect switch. they may be up to six feet long. The most commonly used switch in small to medium substations is a GANG-OPERATED SWITCH. not to disconnect the transformer from the load. "Gang-operated" because the three separate switches for each phase are operated as a group from a single control. It is like a large safety switch with no load breaking capability. Drop out fuse are complete with fuse carrier of fiber glass tube with both end heavily tinned non ferrous metal parts.Star) 2000 KVA.) A substation must first be disconnected from its secondary or load side before the primary or high voltage side can be disconnected using the disconnect switch. The next device encountered in a substation is the HIGH VOLTAGE POWER FUSES / DROP OUT FUSE. The purpose of this switch is to disconnect the substation from the incoming line. L. Depending on the line voltage. The pressure exerted by the contacts initiates the .

The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. The Fault Clearing Process . The arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts is interrupted by a suitable medium and by adopting suitable techniques for arc extinction. They are utilized when there is a need to remotely switch the incoming or outgoing transmission circuits in a substation. The next device encountered in a substation is LIGHTNING ARRESTER A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. A Circuit Breaker suitable for three phase system is called a ‘triple-pole Circuit Breaker. The next device encountered in a substation is TRANSMISSION LEVEL CIRCUIT BREAKERS OR CIRCUIT SWITCHERS / MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER are some of the last devices found in a substation. the current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth. The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault currents. They also may be used in place of high voltage power fuses. Metal oxide varistors (movs) have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. Fuse units are manufactured up to and including 33kv system.opening movement of the fuse carrier copper & copper alloys high pressure heavily tinned metal contacts for fix top contacts assembly and bottom contact assembly. The interrupter encloses a set of fixed and moving contact's The moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the operating links of the operating mechanism. The operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker gives the necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the Circuit Breakers. The D. The part of the Circuit Breakers connected in one phase is called the pole.O. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester. The Circuit Breaker can be classified on the basis of the arc extinction medium. Each pole of the Circuit Breaker comprises one or more interrupter or arc-extinguishing chambers.

Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized. These correspond to open Circuit Breaker contacts and closed Circuit Breaker contacts respectively. The classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows: (1) Air break' Circuit Breaker.Fault Occurs. . The current reaches final zero as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again. The arc is extinguished in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques. The fault is said to be cleared. During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the fault and close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker. wave. (2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil) (3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker. The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction. The Circuit Breaker contacts separate. The relay takes some time to close its contacts. Thereafter the Circuit Breaker opens. The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating torque. 3 .The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation. The arc is extinguished at some natural current zero of A. As the relay contacts close. The process of current interruption is completed when the arc is extinguished and the current reaches final zero value. (Miniature Circuit Breaker). the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker starts the opening operation.During the normal operating condition the Circuit Breaker can be opened or closed by a station operator for the purpose of Switching and maintenance. the fault impedance being low. The operation of automatic opening and closing the contacts is achieved by means of the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker. As the fault occurs. 4 . (4) Air blast Circuit Breaker. open and closed. The contacts of the Circuit Breaker open and an arc is draw between them.C.Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts. the currents increase and the relay gets actuated. 2 . The process of fault clearing has the following sequence: 1. The Circuit Breaker has two working positions.

7500 MVA 7 – Vacuum CB. Breaking Capacity Air at atmospheric pressure (430 – 600) V– (5-15)MVA (3. 2000 MVA 145 KV. a magnetic core. Type 1 – Air break Circuit Breaker 2 – Miniature CB. 4 – Minimum Oil CB. (6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker. (Single pressure or Double Pressure). The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core.6 .(5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker. 5 – Air Blast CB.e.500 MVA Air at atmospheric pressure (430-600 ) V Dielectric oil (3. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. 8 – H.V. A primary . Current Transformer & Potential Transformer In electrical engineering. and a secondary winding. Vacuum Vacuum . 1000 MVA 36 KV . SF6 Gas 245 KV . a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. 35000 MVA (20 – 40 ) bar SF6 Gas up to 1100 KV. a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit. which then induces current flow in the secondary winding circuit.DC CB.6 – 12) KV Dielectric oil (3.145 )KV Compressed Air 245 KV. 6 – SF6 CB. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments. Current transformers are also known as instrument transformers. Design Like any other transformer. which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. 3 – Tank Type oil CB. Medium Voltage.6-12) KV . 10000 MVA 36 KV. 50000 MVA 12 KV. 750 MVA 500 KV DC The next device encountered in a substation is INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS i. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the primary circuit. a current transformer has a primary winding.

which may cause arcing. Window-type current transformers are also common. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer. revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. . Often. slight inaccuracies may occur.objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled. multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. and every residence with greater than 200 amp service. This will produce a high voltage across the open secondary (into the range of several kilovolts in some cases). Similarly potential transformers are used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid. so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Safety Precautions Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. The high voltage produced will compromise operator and equipment safety and permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply Usage Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. as the transformer secondary will attempt to continue driving current across the effectively infinite impedance. with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. Along with voltage leads. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor.

This applies to current transformers as well. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. X1. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits.) are often referred to as polarity. X2. etc. VTs are typically used in circuits . Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Y2. for multi-ratio CT's Voltage Transformers Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. The selected tap. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. Y1. The terminal identifications (H1. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. to match the input ratings of protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.Accuracy The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including: • • • • • • • • Burden Burden class/saturation class Rating factor Load External electromagnetic fields Temperature and Physical configuration.

and less weight than their modular counterparts. special Three-Phase transformers are built for those tasks. This is only partially true. Three-Phase Transformer Circuits Since Three-Phase is used so often for power distribution systems. Fused Transformer models are designated by a suffix of “F” for one fuse or “FF” for two fuses. Essentially it looks like three single Phase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure below. each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. eliminating the requirement for a special Three-Phase transformer. However.where the system voltage level is above 600 V. . Potential Transformer is designed for monitoring single phase and three phase power line voltages in power metering applications The primary terminal can be connected either in line to line or in line to neutral configuration. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply. less size. and are able to perform with less material requirement. it makes sense that we would need Three-Phase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. A Potential Transformer is a special type of transformer that allows meters to take readings from electrical service connections with higher voltage (potential) than the meter is normally capable of handling without at Potential Transformer. A Three-Phase Transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings. as regular single-phase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two three-Phase systems in a variety of configurations.

. Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of Δ and Y: (Figure below) .Secondary Y Δ Y Δ Y Y Δ Δ The reasons for choosing a Y or Δ configuration for Transformer winding connections are the same as for any other Three-Phase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages.Three-Phase Transformer core has three set of windings. Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate Transformer. the winding connection options are the same: • Primary • • • • . The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. while Δ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either Δ or Y configurations to form a complete unit. Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a Three-Phase Transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings). the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load).

(Δ) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -). B3. as may outputs B1. starting with Figure below. . Let me illustrate. I'll show the wiring connections for a Δ -Y configuration: Figure below. Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one Three Phase system to another. First.(Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “-” or all the “+” winding points together. A3 may be wired either “Δ” or “Y”. A2. Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren't shown in regular Y or Δ configuration can be tricky. Inputs A1. B2.

from a source power system having no neutral.Phase wiring for “Δ-Y”Transformer. Such a configuration (Figure above) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (lineto-line or line-to-neutral) in the second power system. .