Está en la página 1de 2

On KARMA, VIKARMA & AKARMA: The translation of the above Gita(IV-17) may run like-'For, you have to know

something even of action(karma), something to know of unlawful action(vikarma) and something to know of inaction; hard to understand is the nature of action. Acharya Shankara,Madhusoodana & Neelakantha(the celebrated commentator of the MahaaBhaarata) unanimous in their interpretation to be 'KARMA as action enjoined by the scriptures, VIKARMA as action unlawful & AKARMA as inaction. Hence KARMA kriyate(=being done) iti chalanaatmakam(=where there is motion,there is action) atra KARMA-shabdena pravruttir uktaa. It should be vihita-karmi.e. right action enjoined by scriptures. A-KARMA-shabdena atra nivruttir uchyatei.e. shaastravihita-anaacharanam = absence of Karma as enjoined by scriptures.This is a-chalanaatmakam(=where there is no motion, there is actionlessness). VIKARMA tu shaastranisiddhaacharanami.e.action forbidden(vigata=avihita) by scriptures. This we may call also apakarma. The above is of course according to our Advatic viewpoint. Acharya Shankara explains that in Aatmaa, there is no action, in the body however there is no rest, even when there seems to be rest. Acharya Ramanuja holds Karma is that done by the people desirous of liberation, Vikarma is kaamyakarma opposed to jnaanam & akarma to be atma-jnaanam.The wise man is he, who sees jnaanam in the true performance of karman. For him jnaanam&karman go together. Acharya Madhvasays akarma is the inactivity of the Self and activity of Visnu. Therefore, the wise man is he who sees the ativity of the Lord, whether the individual is active or not. In addition to the above, HanumatSwami interprets the above mentioned three as physical activity of sense organs, forbidden action & absence of action; BaladevaVidyabhoosana as action done by man desirous of liberation, kaamyakarma done for achieving desired ends out of ignorance & doing something else not ought tobe. The followers of different Acharyas may go according to their line of teaching with due deference to others, but of the all the Advaitic view seems to be suitable and proper for the following reasons. Karma(or Action) means what is done, an act in general. Inaction can be seen in action, since both inaction(nivrutti) and action(pravrutti) presuppose an agent. It has been said that action should be seen in action and viceversa because in both an agent is presupposed. This cannot be objected to on the ground that nivrutti or inaction is resorted to only when the One real Self is known, and that therefore it presupposes no agency of the Self. For action or inaction,

Pravrutti or nivrutti, is resoted to only before obtaining a knowledge of Real Self as a means of its attainment through realization.