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Ging vin hng dn

Sinh vin thc hin


Lp

ThS Nguyn Vit Minh


ThS Phm Th Thy Hin
ThS L Tng Hoa
KS Nguyn Trung Hin
Nguyn Vn Qu
D07VT3

H Ni, thng 08 - 2011

Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

MC LC
MC LC ...............................................................................................................................................................
LI NI U .....................................................................................................................................................II
DANH SCH THUT NG VIT TT ........................................................................................................ III
DANH SCH HNH V ................................................................................................................................... IV
DANH SCH BNG BIU ................................................................................................................................ V
PHIU NHN XT NH GI THC TP TT NGHIP...................................................................... VI
NH GI KT QU THC TP TT NGHIP ..................................................................................... VII
CHNG I: GII THIU N V THC TP .............................................................................................8
1.1. V TR CHC NNG ......................................................................................................................................8
1.2. T CHC .....................................................................................................................................................9
1.3. CC LNH VC HOT NG .........................................................................................................................9
CHNG II: NI DUNG THC TP C S .............................................................................................. 10
2.1. TNG QUAN V HSDPA ............................................................................................................................ 10
2.2. CU TRC HSDPA.................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1. M hnh giao thc HSDPA ............................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2. Cu trc knh ................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3. CC K THUT S DNG TRONG HSDPA ................................................................................................. 12
2.3.1. iu ch v m ho thch ng .......................................................................................................... 12
2.3.2. K thut HARQ ................................................................................................................................ 13
2.3.3. Lp biu ph thuc knh .................................................................................................................. 14
CHNG III: NI DUNG THC TP CHUYN SU ............................................................................... 15
3.1. THIT B O DI NG AGILENT 8922M/S GSM TEST SET ......................................................................... 15
3.1.1. Gii thiu ......................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.2. Cc bi o ........................................................................................................................................ 15
3.2. H THNG SDH DMR 3000S .................................................................................................................... 19
3.2.1. Tng qut ......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.2.2. M t hot ng ............................................................................................................................... 28
3.3. THIT B VI BA S SDH RMD 904 .......................................................................................................... 30
3.3.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................................................ 30
3.3.2. Ch tiu k thut ca h thng RMD 904 ......................................................................................... 31
3.3.3 My pht RMD 904 ........................................................................................................................... 32
3.3.4. My thu RMD 904 ............................................................................................................................ 34
3.3.5. Cc phng php u ni thit b .................................................................................................... 37
3.3.6. Cnh bo .......................................................................................................................................... 37
KT LUN ......................................................................................................................................................... 39

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LI NI U
c s phn cng, sp xp ca Hc vin, trong sut t thc tp tt nghip va qua
em c tham gia lm vic ti Trung tm Vin thng huyn Lc Nam tnh Bc Giang.
Tuy thi gian thc tp khng di nhng em hc hi c rt nhiu kinh nghim trong
qu trnh lm vic thc t ti Trung tm. Ti y, em c tham gia vo cc cng vic
thc t ca cc cn b, hc hi c nhiu iu b ch, rt ra c nhng bi hc kinh
nghim cho bn thn. iu chc chn s gip ch cho em rt nhiu trong cng vic sau
ny.
Qua y, em xin gi li cm n su sc n Ban Gim c Hc vin Cng ngh Bu
chnh Vin thng, Trung tm Vin thng huyn Lc Nam to iu kin cho em c
c thi gian thc tp v cng qu bu. Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n ch
Nguyn c Cng Trng Trung tm, ngi trc tip hng dn em trong t thc
tp va qua. Em xin gi li cm n su sc n cc thy cc c trong b mn V tuyn:
ThS Nguyn Vit Minh, ThS Phm Th Thy Hin, ThS L Tng Hoa, v KS
Nguyn Trung Hin - Ging vin b mn Mng vin thng trc tip hng dn thc
tp em bn pha Hc vin. Cm n cc thy, cc c rt nhit tnh, trch nhim, gip
em rt nhiu trong thi gian va qua.
Trong qu trnh thc tp, chc chn khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st trong cng
vic do cha c nhiu k nng lm vic thc t, em mong cc thy c, cc c ch cn b
b qua v ch bo em ngy cng hon thin hn, trang b nhng k nng cn thit
v cng vic trong tng lai.
Em xin chn thnh cm n!

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DANH SCH THUT NG VIT TT

T vit tt

Thut ng ting Anh

Thut ng ting Vit

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

iu ch v m ha thch ng

ARQ

Automatic Repeat Requetst

Yu cu pht li t ng

BLER

Block Error Rate

T l li khi

CC

Chase Combining

Kt hp theo ui

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

Ch s cht lng knh

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Yu cu pht li t ng li ghp

HSDPA

HS-DSCH
IR
QAM

High-Speed Downlink Packet

Truy cp gi ng xung tc

Access

cao

High Speed Downlink Shared

Knh chia s ng xung tc

Channel

cao

Incremental Redundancy

Tng d

Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation

iu ch bin cu phng

RNC

Radio Network Controller

Trm iu khin v tuyn

SIR

Signal to Inteference Ratio

T l tn hiu trn nhiu

TTI

Time Transfer Interval

Khong thi gian an xen truyn dn

UE

User Equipment

Thit b ngi dng

Vietnam Posts and

Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit

Telecommunications Group

Nam

Wideband Code Division

a truy nhp phn chia theo m

Multiple Access

bng rng

VNPT

WCDMA

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DANH SCH HNH V

Hnh 2.1: Kin trc giao din v tuyn ca knh truyn ti HS-DSCH ...................... 11
Hnh 2.2: Giao din v tuyn ca HSDPA ................................................................. 12
Hnh 2.3: Nguyn l tng qut HARQ ti NodeB ....................................................... 13
Hnh 2.4: Lp biu ph thuc knh cho HSDPA ......................................................... 14
Hnh 3.1: Ph RF u ra............................................................................................... 17
Hnh 3.2: Sn ln ca xung........................................................................................ 17
Hnh 3.3: Sn xung ca xung .................................................................................. 18
Hnh 3.4: Phn tch ph tn hiu .................................................................................. 19
Hnh 3.5: Cu hnh thit b ca h thng 3+1 .............................................................. 21
Hnh 3.6: S khi thit b cu hnh N+1 FD/SD ti trm u cui ........................ 22
Hnh 3.7: S khi h thng thit b cu hnh N+1 FD/SD ti trm lp .................. 23
Hnh 3.8: S khi cu hnh h thng 3000S SDH DMR ti phng thc hnh ....... 27
Hnh 3.9: Phn b tn s theo khuyn ngh F.384-6.................................................... 28
Hnh 3.10: S khi thit b thu pht RMD 904 ....................................................... 30
Hnh 3.11: S khi my pht RMD 904 ................................................................. 32
Hnh 3.12: S khi my thu RMD 904 ................................................................... 35

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DANH SCH BNG BIU


Bng 3.1: Single burst .................................................................................................. 15
Bng 3.2: Phase Error View ......................................................................................... 16
Bng 3.3: Cu hnh h thng 3000S ............................................................................ 20
Bng 3.4: Cc c tnh k thut ca h thng 3000S .................................................. 23

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PHIU NHN XT NH GI THC TP TT NGHIP

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NH GI KT QU THC TP TT NGHIP

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CHNG I: GII THIU N V THC TP


c s phn cng ca Hc vin, em c phn cng thc tp ti Trung tm Vin
thng huyn Lc Nam tnh Bc Giang. Trung tm Vin thng Lc Nam trc thuc Vin
thng Bc Giang.
1.1. V tr chc nng
VNPT Bc Giang l mt thnh vin trong i gia nh VNPT, t ho c truyn ti
v thc hin nhng gi tr lch s ct li, trit l kinh doanh ca VNPT:
Trit l kinh doanh th hin c ng trong 10 ch vng truyn thng:
"Trung thnh, Dng cm, Tn ty, Sng to, Ngha tnh"
K t ngy 1/1/2008, Vin thng Bc Giang chnh thc c thnh lp v bt u i
vo hot ng c lp.
Vin Thng Bc Giang, l n v kinh t trc thuc, hch ton ph thuc Tp on
Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam; C chc nng hot ng sn xut kinh doanh v phc
v chuyn ngnh vin thng cng ngh thng tin nh sau: T chc, xy dng, qun l,
vn hnh, lp t, khai thc, bo dng, sa cha mng vin thng trn a bn ton tnh;
T chc, xy dng, qun l, vn hnh, lp t, khai thc, bo dng, sa cha mng vin
thng trn a bn ton tnh; Sn xut, kinh doanh, cung ng, i l vt t, thit b vin
thng Cng ngh thng tin theo yu cu sn xut kinh doanh ca n v v nhu cu ca
khch hng; Kho st, t vn, lp t, bo dng cc cng trnh vin thng cng ngh
thng tin; Kinh doanh bt ng sn, cho thu vn phng; Kinh doanh bt ng sn, cho
thu vn phng; T chc phc v thng tin t xut theo yu cu ca cp y ng, chnh
quyn a phng v cp trn; Kinh doanh cc ngnh ngh khc khi c Tp on cho
php.
Ha nhp vi s pht trin i ln ca t nc, di s lnh o trc tip ca Tnh y,
y ban nhn dn tnh, thc hin chin lc tng tc ca ngnh, vi t tng ch o ca
lnh o ngnh Vin thng tnh l on kt, i mi i ln, nm bt thi c, khai thc
pht huy mi ngun lc, ni lc; tranh th s hp tc gip ca trung ng v ng
nghip, i tt n u, tin vo cng nghip hin i.

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1.2. T chc

1.3. Cc lnh vc hot ng


T chc xy dng, qun l, vn hnh, lp t, khai thc, bo dng, sa cha
mng Vin thng trn a bn tnh Bc Giang.
T chc, qun l, kinh doanh v cung cp cc dch v Vin thng - Cng ngh
Thng tin trn a bn tnh Bc Giang.
Sn xut, kinh doanh, cung ng, i l vt t, thit b Vin thng - Cng ngh
Thng tin theo yu cu sn xut kinh doanh ca n v v nhu cu ca khch
hng.
Kho st, t vn, thit k, lp t, bo dng cc cng trnh Vin thng - Cng
ngh Thng tin.
Kinh doanh dch v qung co, dch v truyn thng.
T chc phc v thng tin t xut theo yu cu ca cp y ng, Chnh
quyn a phng v cp trn.
Kinh doanh cc nghnh ngh khc trong phm vi c Tp on Bu chnh
Vin thng Vit Nam cho php v ph hp vi quy nh ca php lut.

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CHNG II: NI DUNG THC TP C S


2.1. Tng quan v HSDPA
Mc d cng ngh 3G WCDMA cho php tc d liu gi ln n 2Mbps. Tuy
nhin, cc tiu chun thit k h thng WCDMA c mt s hn ch nh:
Khng tn dng cc u th ca d liu gi vn rt ph bin i vi ng
trc hu tuyn
Thit k dch v 2Mbps hin nay l khng hiu qu v cng cha p ng
c nhu cu s dng dch v s liu
Khng th x l tc d liu cao ln n 10Mbps
Do , R5 tip tc c pht trin khc phc nhng hn ch ny. R5 l s pht
trin quan trng ca mng v tuyn 3G k t khi WCDMA c chp nhn l cng
ngh mng v tuyn 3G t nm 1997 vi cc tnh nng k thut ca cng ngh
HSDPA gm:

Tng ng vi CDMA2000 1xEV


iu ch v m ho thch ng
Sng mang tc d liu cao trong bng tn 5MHz
64 QAM h tr tc nh tng ng 7.2 Mbps
M Turbo
Kh nng sa li gn vi gii hn l thuyt
ARQ ghp thch ng
T ng thch ng lin tc theo iu kin knh bng cch ghp chn thm
thng tin khi cn
S dng AMC khi c kt hp vi HARQ nhm ci thin dung lng ca
h thng
Cc k thut c s dng cho php HSDPA h tr tc 10 Mbps
Trong mt h thng d liu v thoi c tch hp vi ngi s dng thoi
(12.2 Kbps) ti khong 30 Erl/sector v thng lng sector ca d liu
khong 1 Mbps.
HSDPA gm cc gii php:

Thc hin an xen thi gian truyn dn ngn TTI = 2ms


M ho v iu ch thch ng AMC
Truyn dn a m, lp vt l tc cao L1
Yu cu lp t ng lai ghp HARQ.

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2.2. Cu trc HSDPA


2.2.1. M hnh giao thc HSDPA

Hnh 2.1: Kin trc giao din v tuyn ca knh truyn ti HS-DSCH
Trong cu trc HSDPA, thit b sp xp gi tin s c chuyn t b iu khin
mng v tuyn RNC ti NodeB nhm gip ngi s dng d dng truy nhp vo cc
chc nng thng k giao din v tuyn. K thut sp xp gi tin tin tin s gip iu
chnh c tc d liu ngi s dng sao cho thch hp vi cc iu kin knh v
tuyn tc thi.
Nu nh tt c cc knh truyn ti theo kin trc R99, chng u chm dt ti
RNC th knh HS-DSCH li chm dt ti NodeB nhm mc ch iu khin knh HSDSCH, lp MAC-hs (lp iu khin truy cp trung gian tc cao), s iu khin cc
ti nguyn ca knh ny v nm ngay ti NodeB. Do , cho php nhn cc bn tin v
cht lng knh hin thi c th tip tc theo di gim st cht lng knh hin
thi c th lin tc theo di gim st cht lng tn hiu cho thu bao tc thp.
V tr ny ca MAC-hs ti NodeB cng cho php kch hot giao thc HARQ t lp vt
l, n gip cho cc qu trnh pht li din ra nhanh hn.
Lp MAC-hs cng lu gi d liu ca user c pht qua giao din v tuyn, iu
to ra mt s thch thc i vi vic ti u ha dung lng b nh m ca
NodeB.
Trong qu trnh kt ni, thit b ngi s dng (UE) s nh k gi mt ch th cht
lng knh CQI ti NodeB cho bit tc d liu no (bao gm k thut iu ch v
m ho, s lng cc m s dng) m thit b ny c th h tr khi di cc iu
kin v tuyn hin thi. ng thi, UE gi mt bo nhn (Ack/Nack) ng vi mi gi
gip NodeB bit c thi im lp li qu trnh truyn d liu. Cng vi chc nng
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thng k cht lng knh tng ng cho tng UE trong mt cell, thit b sp xp gi
tin s thc hin sp xp cc gi ca cc UE mt cch cng bng.
2.2.2. Cu trc knh

Hnh 2.2: Giao din v tuyn ca HSDPA


Ti nguyn chung ca ngi s dng trong t bo bao gm cc b m knh v
cng sut pht. Khi nim HSDPA c gii thiu bao gm mt s knh vt l thm
vo:
Knh vt l chia s ng xung tc cao HS-PDSCH (High Speed
Physical Downlink Shared Channel)
Knh chia s ng xung tc cao HS-DSCH (HS-Downlink Shared
Channel)
Knh iu khin chia s tc cao HS-SCCH (HS-Shared Control
Channel)
Knh iu khin vt l tc cao HS-DPCCH (High Speed Physical
Control Channel).
2.3. Cc k thut s dng trong HSDPA
2.3.1. iu ch v m ho thch ng
Vi AMC, t l m ha v phng n iu ch cho mi ngi dung c t ng
iu chnh da trn cc iu kin trung bnh ca cc lin kt v tuyn. Vic thch ng
lien kt c thc hin bng cch ch nh mt phng n iu ch khc hoc tc

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m ha cho tng ngi s dng da trn cc iu kin knh c bo co nh k bi


cc u cui nhng v c bn khng lm thay i nng lng knh.
Trong HSDPA, NodeB s xc nh tc truyn dn d liu da trn cc bo co
v ch th cht lng knh CQI cng nh cc thng k cng sut trn cc knh dnh
ring. Tc d liu c iu chnh bng cch thay i s iu ch, tc m
ho cng nh s lng m ho knh HS-PDSCH. S dng iu ch thch ng v m
ho AMC cho php ngi s dng tin gn hn ti NodeB, c th yu cu iu ch
vi t l m ho cao hn (chng hn nh iu ch 16QAM vi t l m ho 3/4).
2.3.2. K thut HARQ
HARQ ci thin thng lng bng cch kt hp vic truyn b li vi c gng
truyn li, thc s to ra mt chng trnh sa li mnh hn.HARQ c th c kt
hp vi iu ch v m ho thch ng(AMC), lm cho vic la chn ban u ca iu
ch v m ha t li hn.
HSDPA nh ngha hai phng php HARQ khc nhau: kt hp theo ui (CC
v tng d (IR s c la chn da trn cc loi UE v cu hnh mng. Vi kt
hp theo ui, d liu truyn li trng vi d liu ban u, trong khi vi tng d,
mi qu trnh pht li cung cp cc bit m mi t m gc xy dng m c tc
thp hn.

RNC

6. RLC ACK

1. Gi n b
m nt B
Nt B

4. Pht li

2. Pht ln u

3. NACK

5. Kt hp
pht li

u cui

Hnh 2.3: Nguyn l tng qut HARQ ti NodeB


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C nhng u im v nhc im trong c 2 thut ton. Kt hp theo ui l


lm cho AMC mnh m hn v tiu th b nh m t hn trong khi tng d
cung cp kh nng hot ng tt hn vi tc m cao ban u vi chi ph b nh b
sung gii m phc tp thit b cm tay.
HSDPA s dng giao thc HARQ da vo phng n N knh Dng v ch
(Stop And Wait). Trong c ch SAW, pha truyn dn lun lun qu trnh truyn dn
cc block ang hin hnh cho ti khi thit b ngi s dng hon ton nhn c d
liu. tn dng thi gian khi NodeB ch cc bo nhn, c th thit lp N tin trnh
SAW-ARQ song song cho thit b ngi dng. Do , cc tin trnh khc nhau truyn
dn trong cc TTI ring bit. S tin trnh SAW-ARQ song song c thit lp ti a
l 8 (N=8 , tuy nhin thng thng chn gi tr N t 4-6.
2.3.3. Lp biu ph thuc knh
Lp biu ngi s dng theo cc iu kin ng truyn v tuyn tc thi tt nht
thng c gi l lp biu t s tn hiu trn nhiu cc i (max-C/I) hay tc cc
i. V trong mt , cc iu kin ca cc ng truyn v tuyn khc nhau thng
thay i c lp, ti mi thi im hu nh lun c mt ng truyn v tuyn vi
cht lng gn nh cc i (hnh 5.2). V th knh c s dng cho truyn dn s c
cht lng cao nht v vi iu khin tc , tc s liu cao nht c th c s
dng. iu ny dn n dung lng h thng cao.

Hnh 2.4: Lp biu ph thuc knh cho HSDPA

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CHNG III: NI DUNG THC TP CHUYN SU


3.1. Thit b o di ng Agilent 8922M/S GSM Test Set
3.1.1. Gii thiu
Agilent 8922M/S l thit b th nghim di ng dng o kim cc thng s k
thut ca my di ng. My c 3 ch hot ng l ACTIVE CELL, TEST MODE
v CW GENERATOR.
Cc bi o c trnh by trong bo co ny s ch thc hin ch ACTIVE
CELL (ACTIVE CELL l ch mc nh ca my. Trong ch ny, 8922M/S
ng vai tr l mt b m phng BTS. N c th o c cc thng s k thut ca my
di ng thng qua vic thit lp cc cuc gi ti my di ng hoc ngc li t my di
ng ti 8922M/S).
3.1.2. Cc bi o
3.1.2.1. o cc thng s tn hiu ca MS h thng GSM
Bc 1: Chn ch ACTIVE CELL; lc ny my o Agilent 8922 lm vic nh
mt trm gc BTS trong GSM.
Bc 2: Thit lp cuc gi.
Thc hin cuc gi t MS ti Agilent 8922 hoc ngc li.
Thay i knh, khe thi gian, mc pht.
Cc s liu bo co ca MS hin th vng Call Status:
Cng sut pht ca MS (Tx Lev)
Mc thu ti MS (Rx Lev)
Cht lng tn hiu thu ti MS (Rx Qual)
Bc 3: o cc thng s
a) o li tn s v li pha
Chn Phase FRQ trn phn Measurements t mn hnh iu khin. Kt qu thu
c nh sau:
Bng 3.1: Single burst
Tx Phase error RMS

0.97

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deg

50

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Tx Phase error Peak

3.32

deg

200

Tx Frequency error

-23.60

Hz

90 Hz

Cc gi tr v li pha RMS, li pha nh v li tn s th hin trong bng u nm


trong gii hn o cho php.
Bng gi tr o tip theo l v li pha chi tit:
Bng 3.2: Phase Error View
Phase Error bit

0.74

deg

200

Phase Error at 55

-2.74

deg

200

Phase Error at 95

1.58

deg

200

Phase bit ...125

0.37

deg

200

Cc gi tr o th hin li pha theo cc bt s liu. Chng ta c th thy c rng


gi tr v li pha trong phn thc nghim tng i nh chng t php o kh chnh
xc.
b) o v v dng tn hiu PWR Ramp:
Chn PWR Ramp trn phn Measurements ca mn hnh iu khin.
Sau vo phn View chn cc cc trng cn quan st.
c) o t l li bt
Chn Bit Error trn phn Measurements t mn hnh iu khin.
3.1.2.2. o ph tn hiu RF ca MS
Bc 1 v bc 2 thc hin tng t trn.
Bc 3: Chn trng OUT RF SP t mn hnh iu khin Cell.
Mc cng sut nh thu c l P= 12.93 dBm. y l ph ca xung tn hiu pht
ca MS trong khong thi gian mt cm.

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Hnh 3.1: Ph RF u ra
Rise Edge

Hnh 3.2: Sn ln ca xung


Mn hnh Rise Edge View th hin mc cng sut nh 30dB trong phn sn tng
ca dng sng. Thang bin gii hn t -40 n 5 dBm, thang thi gian gii hn t 8 n 4 Tb. Trong phn thc hnh ny, sau khi o c v c c kt qu theo nh
sau:
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Rising Period

-3.20.2

Tb

-8Tb4 Tb

Level Range

-40 -0.21

dB

-405dB

Level at -2 Tb

-8.03

dB

Khong thi gian tng ca sn ln t t = -3,2Tb n t = 0,2 Tb. Mc cng sut


thp nht (-40dB) v cao nht (-0,21dB o c u nm trong gii gii hn. Ti v
tr bt trung tm (t = -2Tb o c mc cng sut l -8,03 dB.
Top 2dB
Mn hnh Top 2dB hin th tn hiu trong khong gia cm, cho php phn tch s
gn sng ca tn hiu t -10 n 160 Tb. Gii hn v cng sut o cho php trong
khong -1,2 n 1,2 dBm. Kt qu nh sau:
Time Range

5.9104.7

Tb

-10Tb160 Tb

Level Range

0.19 -0.18

dB

-1.21.2dB

o khong gia cm trong thi gian t 5,9 Tb n 104,7 Tb. Kt qu o c vi


gi tr cng sut ln nht v nh nht ln lt l 0,19 dBm v -0,18 dBm. Gi tr o
c nm trong di gii hn v sai s tng i nh.
Fall Edge

Hnh 3.3: Sn xung ca xung


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Mn hnh Fall Edge hin th mc cng sut tn hiu trong khong thi gian cui
ca cm ( sn xung ca xung , cho php xc nh thi gian gim ca tn hiu. Gii
hn v thang bin l t -40 dBm n 5 dBm v gii hn v thang thi gian l t 144
n 156 Tb. Sau khi tin hnh o thu c kt qu nh sau:
Falling Period

147150

Tb

144156Tb

Level Range

-40-0.45

dB

-405dB

Level at 148 Tb

-3.76

dB

Sau khi o xc nh khong thi gian gim ca tn hiu t 147 Tb n 150 Tb. Cc
mc cng sut ln nht v nh nht o c l -40 dBm v -0,45 dBm nm trong gii
hn o. Mc cng sut o c bit trung tm t=148 Tb l 3,76 dBm. Mc cng
sut ny so vi v tr trung tm ca sn ln chnh lch = -3,76 (-8,03)= -4,27 dB.
Phn tch ph tn hiu
Chn trng SPEC ANL trn mn hnh CEL CNT

Hnh 3.4: Phn tch ph tn hiu


3.2. H thng SDH DMR 3000S
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3.2.1. Tng qut


3.2.1.1 Mc ch s dng
H thng 3000S SDH DMR c thit k truyn dn ng di module truyn
ti ng b cp 1 (STM-1 . Dung lng truyn dn ca h thng l 155.52 Mbps v h
thng hot ng cc bng tn 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13 GHz, s dng phng php iu
ch 64-QAM hoc 128-QAM.
3.2.1.2 Cu hnh h thng
3000S SDH DMR bao gm TRP-[ ]G150MB[ ]-900[ ] Transmitter-Receiver v
MDP-150MB[ ]T-900C Modulator-Demodulator. Trm lp ti to li bao gm TRP[ ]G150MB[ ]-900[ ] Transmitter-Receiver v MDP-150MB[ ]R-900C ModulatorDemodulator. Cc chc nng khai thc, qun l, bo dng v ci t (OAM&P) v
mt in thoi nghip v c lp t trong khi MDP.
Cu hnh h thng ca thit b 3000S SDH DMR c ch ra trong bng 2.3
Bng 3.3: Cu hnh h thng 3000S
Loi thit b

Tn thit b

3000S SDH MICROWAVE RADIO


BR-[*]-3000

Mch phn nhnh RF

TRP-[*]G150MB[*]-900[ ]

My pht - my thu

MDP-150MB[*]T/R-900C

Thit b iu ch-gii iu ch

(Ghi ch: * ty thuc vo bng tn hoc h thng iu ch)


S khi h thng v s cu hnh thit b u cui v trm lp c trnh by
trong cc hnh di y.

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DMR-3000

BR CKT/DUP CKT
TX/RX/SD RX

TRP

TRP

TRP

TRP

(TX)
(RX)
(SD
RX)

(TX)
(RX)
(SD
RX)

(TX)
(RX)
(SD
RX)

(TX)
(RX)
(SD
RX)

R1

R2

R3

EQL BOARD
2 200 mm

PIO INTFC

NFB BOARD

INTERFACE
(IDB)

IRC
(OAM
&P/
SW)

IRC
(DC-DC)
(SW)
P/R1

MDP MDP
MDP MDP
(INTF) (INTF) (INTF) (INTF)
P

R1

R2

MDP
(MODEM/XPIC/
CLK)
P/R1/R2/R3

R3

MDP
(DC-DC)
(SW)
R2/R3

Chiu su: 300 mm

(OPTION RACK)

Gi my ETSI
600 mm

Hnh 3.5: Cu hnh thit b ca h thng 3+1


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ng ten chnh

ng ten phn tp khng gian

BR CKT
DUP CKT

BR CKT

TRP

TRP

MDP

MDP

DSC*
WS*
Cnh bo
DCCm
(D4 n D12)
E1/E2
NMS
Q
LCT
F
OW

Tn hiu STM-1
(knh d phng)*
Tn hiu STM-1
(knh lm vic 1)

Tn hiu STM-1
(knh lm vic N-1)
Tn hiu STM-1
(knh lm vic N)

Tn hiu STM-1
(knh lm vic 2)
Tn hiu STM-1
(knh lm vic 3)

Hnh 3.6: S khi thit b cu hnh N+1 FD/SD ti trm u cui


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Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

ng ten chnh

ng ten chnh

ng ten phn tp
khng gian

ng ten phn tp
khng gian

BR CKT
DUP CKT

BR CKT

BR CKT

BR CKT
DUP CKT

TRP

TRP

TRP

TRP

DSC*
WS*
Cnh bo

MDP

DCCr
(D1 n D3)

MDP

MDP

MDP

E1
NMS
Q
LCT
F
OW

Hnh 3.7: S khi h thng thit b cu hnh N+1 FD/SD ti trm lp


3.2.1.3 Cc c tnh k thut
Bng 3.4: Cc c tnh k thut ca h thng 3000S
Mc

Cc c tnh

Quy hoch tn s

ITU-RF.384-6

Khong cch knh tn s

40 MHz

Cng sut pht* (khng tnh suy hao mch phn


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nhnh)
(5W)

30 dBm 1 dB

(10W)

33 dBm 1 dB

C/N (dB) theo BER


10-3

21,5+1,0 dB

10-6

23+2,0 dB

RSL qu ti (khng tnh suy hao mch phn nhnh)

-12-5dB

RSL (dBm)theo BER (khng tnh suy hao BR CKT)


10-3

-76,1+2 dB

10-6

-74,6+3 dB

H s khuch i h thng (khng tnh suy hao BR


CKT)
(5W) 10-3

106,1-2 dB

-6

10

104,6-3 dB

Giao din ng dn sng

URD -70

*ATPC

Di ng
Bc iu khin
Tc bm phading

-12 ti +2 dB
1 dB
100 dB/s

*thit b MDP

Phng php iu ch
H thng gii iu ch
Tn s trung tn

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64 QAM
Tch sng nht qun
140 MHz
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Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

*OAM&P

Khun dng giao thc


Giao din ni tip vi LCT

*Giao din STM-1

Tc bit
Mc
Dng m
Tr khng

*Truyn dn knh b sung (Wayside)

Tc bit
Mc vo/ra danh nh
Dng m
Tr khng (danh nh)

Qecc/Q3
RS232C hoc 10 BASE-T
155,52 Mbps
1 Vp-p (danh nh)
CMI
75 khng cn bng

2 x 2,048 Mbps 50 ppm


2,37 Vp-p
HDB-3
75 khng cn bng

DCCr (D1-D3) (trn MDP)

Tc bit
Mc vo/ra
Tr khng

192 kbps
2 Vp-p (TTL)
100 cn bng

DCCm (D4-D12) (trn MDP)

Tc bit
Mc vo/ra
Tr khng

276 kbps cho mi knh


2 Vp-p (danh nh)
110 cn bng

E1, E2 (trn MDP, cho OW qung b v nhanh), F1


(trn MDP cho knh ngi iu hnh)

Tc bit
Mc vo/ra

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64 kbps cho mi knh E1,


E2 v F1
25

Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

Tr khng

2 Vp-p (danh nh)


110 cn bng

u vo xung nhp chun

Tn s/tc bit
Mc vo 2 MHz
Tr khng
Dng m

2,048 MHz hoc 2,048


Mbps
0,75 ti 1,5 Vo-p
75 khng cn bng
HDB-3

Giao din song song cho iu khin/cnh bo trm

Cc loi u vo
Giao din u vo
Cc loi u ra

Knh nghip v nhanh m tn v knh nghip v qung


b

ng dy
Bng tn
Mc danh nh
Tr khng

Cc c tnh chung

Ngun nui
Cng sut tiu th

Nhit lm vic

16
i t thu quang (2 chn)
8
4 dy
0,3 n 3,4 kHz
-6 dBm
600 , cn bng
-48 V DC (-36 n -72 V
DC)
Xp x 315 W i vi thit
b d phng nng 1+1
-5 n 50C

3.2.1.4 H thng ti phng thc hnh Viba s


H thng hot ng na cao bng tn 6 GHz theo khuyn ngh F.384-6, s dng
phng php iu ch 64 QAM, d phng kp.
S khi h thng ti phng thc hnh (hnh 3.8)
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TR DIST

TRX

TRX

RX
RF

TX
SW

RX
RF

MODEM

TX
RF

FET
AMP

BR CKT

TRX

RX
RF

RX
IF

MODEM

TX
RF

TX
RF

ATT

RX
RF

RX
IF

ATT

SD
RX
RF

FET
AMP

BR CKT

TX
RF

FET
AMP

TX
RF

MODEM

RX
IF

RX
RF

RF Coaxial
Cable

150M
INTFC

MODEM

DATA
OUT

SD
RX
RF

TRX

FET
AMP

TX
RF

MODEM

RX
IF

Each
Block
LMS

Each
Block

RX
RF

RX
RF

ATT

BR CKT

RX
RF

BR CKT

RX
IF

TX
RF

ATT

MODEM

LMS

DATA
IN

ATT

150M
INTFC

TRX

REP-B
FET
AMP

FET
AMP

DIST

HYB

BR CKT

DATA
IN

TX
SW

MODEM

TRX
TRX

TR DIST

FET
AMP

ATT

RX
IF

MODEM
DIST

RX
IF

TRX
RF Coaxial
Cable

BR CKT

FET
AMP

ATT

TX
RF

REP-A

RX
IF

HYB
DATA
OUT

SD
RX
RF

ATT

Each
Block

SD
RX
RF

LMS

LCT

TERMINAL - 1

TERMINAL - 2

REPEATER

LCT

LCT

Hnh 3.8: S khi cu hnh h thng 3000S SDH DMR ti phng thc hnh
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Phn b tn s:
340 MHz
fs
40 MHz

CH1

CH2

CH3

CH4

CH5

CH6

CH7

CH8

CH1'

CH2'

CH3'

CH4'

CH5'

CH6'

CH7'

CH8'

6460

6500

6540

6580

6620

6660

6700

6740 6770

6800

6840

6880

6920

6960

7000

7040

7080

Hnh 3.9: Phn b tn s theo khuyn ngh F.384-6


Cc cnh bo h thng:
NORM (xanh : n ny sng khi h thng hot ng bnh thng.
PM ()-Prompt Maintenance: n sng l cnh bo khn, yu cu khc
phc s c ngay.
DM ()-Deferred Maintenance: n sng l cnh bo khng khn, yu cu
khc phc s c trnh cc li nghim trng hn.
MAINT (vng : n sng bo hiu hin ang c hot ng bo dng hay
x l nhn cng trn thit b.
3.2.2. M t hot ng
3.2.2.1 Phn pht
(a) Phn chia tn hiu lng cc qua 150M UNIT SW (ty chn)
UNIT SW cung cp cho cu hnh d phng. Tn hiu d liu bng gc n t
thit b ghp knh bn ngoi c a vo module UNIT SW cha mt mch lai
ghp trn ng truyn dn v chia tn hiu vo thnh 2 v dn ti hai module
150M INTFC.
(b) OPT INTFC trong MSP (ty chn)
C 2 tn hiu t 2 u ra ca module OPT INTFC c chn module TR
DIST v MODEM bi tn hiu iu khin to ra vi module BB SW CTRL.
(c) Tn hiu STM-1 v C4
Tn hiu d liu chnh trn mi knh c a t thit b ghp knh ti module
()INTFC trong mt lung STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s in, STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s quang
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hoc lung d liu C4 139.264 Mbit/s. Cc module 150 INTFC, OPT INTFC v
140M INTFC cung cp cho giao din tn hiu vo/ra ny. Phn truyn dn vi mi
module ()INTFC p dng cho cc chc nng di y:
Chuyn i m v khi phc ng h
ng b khung F SYNC
Ngu nhin ha DESCRAMBLING
X l MSOH/RSOH/PTR/POH
(d) Chuyn mch TX
TX Switch ca module TR DIST thc hin chuyn mch tn hiu truyn t
knh thng thng sang knh d phng trong cu hnh h thng N+1. Chuyn
mch c iu khin t module SWO PROC.
(e) iu ch
Chn RSOH (ch ch MST)
Chn RFCOH
iu ch QAM
Mch QAM MOD cung cp 64 mc hoc 128 mc QAM. B lc Roll-off cung
cp gii hn bng tn tn hiu bng gc vi mt p ng xung hu hn
(f) Chuyn i tn s IF sang RF
Tn hiu IF iu ch 64/128QAM c a vo IF AMP qua b cn bng
trong module TX RF. IF AMP, tn hiu IF c khuch i ti mc danh nh
ri trn vi tn hiu RF ni b c to bi SYNTH (TX) bi b trn to ra tn
hiu RF pht nh tn s knh n nh.
(g) Lc thng di
phn li ra ca module TX RF kt ni vi mt 3BPF bao gm b lc thng
di 3 trng thi v mt circulator cui, lai b tt c cc tn hiu ngoi bng v
hp th cc tn hiu phn x t li vo ca module FET AMP.
(h) B dao ng ni my pht
Module SYNTH (TX) l mt b dao ng iu khin pha t ng APC OSC.
APC OSC l mt oscillator iu khin in p (VCO) to ra mt tn hiu cc b
ca tn s RF tng ng vi bng tn RF c s dng.
(i) Khuch i cng sut
Tn hiu RF c khuch i vi module FET AMP ti mc u ra danh nh.
Mc u ra ca FET AMP c iu chnh t ng ti mc nh trc nm trong
-12 dB ti +2 dB mc RF thu c my thu i din gi khng i ng dng
cho h thng ATPC v ALC.
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3.2.2.2 Phn thu


Ti phn thu tn hiu c bin i ngc li so vi phn pht. Ban u tn hiu tn
s v tuyn c bn i v tn s trung tn (RF - IF). Bn thu c thm phn bin i tn
s RF xung IF phn phn tp khng gian Rx SD. Tip tn hiu c gii iu ch
trong module MODEM, tn hiu sau khi tch sng c cn bng nh b cn bng vng
thi gian thch ng, sau tn hiu c pht hin v sa li. Modun TR DIST phn pht
tn hiu thu t knh bo v ti mi knh lm vic. Khi tn hiu truy nhp bo v cung cp
trong h thng, tn hiu thu t knh bo v c gi ti thit b kt hp bn ngoi khi
mi knh lm vic u hot ng bnh thng. Cui cng l khi phc tn hiu C-4 v
STM-1 ri a qua khi chuyn mch 150M la chn tn hiu lng cc.
3.3. Thit b vi ba s SDH RMD 904
3.3.1 Gii thiu chung
MY PHT

2 x 2048 kb/s

KH? I BANG T? N
CO S? PHT

KH? I KCH THCH

KH? I K CNG
SU? T

KH? I HI? N TH?

B? L? C SONG
CNG

Tn hi?u
RF

KH? I HI? N TH?

2 x 2048 kb/s

KH? I BANG T? N
CO S? THU

KH? I TRUNG T? N
THU

KH? I BI? N ? I H?
T? N

MY THU

Hnh 3.10: S khi thit b thu pht RMD 904


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Thit b thu pht RMD 904 l thit b vi ba s u tin c a vo lp t, khai thc


trn mng truyn dn vi ba s ca nc ta. y l thit b vi ba bng hp do hng AWA
ca c sn xut. Hin nay hu ht cc tnh, huyn u ang khai thc thit b ny.
3.3.2. Ch tiu k thut ca h thng RMD 904

Dung lng: 60 knh.


Bng tn v tuyn: 820 MHz 960 MHz.
Cng sut ra ch u anten: +36 dBm.
Ngng thu: -90 dBm.
iu ch tn hiu s: OQPSK.
u vo s liu: HDB3 2,048 Mbit/s, 75 khng cn bng.
iu ch knh nghip v: FM.
Di tn knh nghip v: 15kHz.
p tuyn tn s knh nghip v 3002200 Hz : +2dB 3 dB.
Mc vo knh nghip v (600 : 0dBm.
Mc ra knh nghip v (600 : 0dBm.
T s tn hiu / tp m: >40dB (dBm op/chng).
Tn s tone gi: 2,0 kHz.
iu ch knh gim st: FM.
Di tn knh gim st: 5 kHz/tone.
p tuyn tn s knh gim st 2,7 kHz 5,0 kHz : + 2 dB 3dB.
Mc vo knh gim st (600 : -10dBm.
Mc ra knh gim st (600 : -10dBm.
Ngun cung cp: in p mt chiu DC : -24 V hoc -48 V.
Cng sut tiu th ton b trn mt my u cui:
Vi cng sut ra 5W: 63W.
Vi cng sut ra 1W: 43W.
H thng vi ba c cc phng php d phng:
D phng m (warm standby).
D phng nng (hot standby).
Phn tp tn s (frequency diverity).
Phn tp khng gian (space diversity).
thc hin bo v, trm vi ba c d phng c lp b chuyn mch bo v
(protection switch).
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Thit b thu pht lm vic vi phi l cp ng trc tr khng 50.


Ty theo iu kin thc t yu cu, thit b vi ba lm vic vi anten parabol ng
knh: 0,9m; 1,2m; 1,8m; 2,4m.
3.3.3 My pht RMD 904

KHI HIN TH

2 x 2048kb/s

KHI BNG TN
C S PHT

KHI KCH THCH

KHI K CNG
SUT

RF

KHI NGUN
CUNG

Hnh 3.11: S khi my pht RMD 904


My pht RMD 904 gm c cc khi chnh:

Khi x l bng tn c s pht TxBB (Transmitter Base Band).


Khi kch thch (Exciter).
Khi khuch i cng sut pht PA: Power Amplifier.
Tm mch hin th my pht: Tx Display.

Ch tiu k thut ca my pht RMD 904:

Cng sut ra: +37dBm.


Tr khng ra: 50.
n nh tn s: +15ppm.
Bc nhy tn s: 100kHz.
Nhiu pht ra: <-60dBc.
Cng sut tiu th:
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Khi cng sut ra 5W: 51W.


Khi cng sut ra 1W: 31W.
3.3.3.1. Khi x l bng tn c s pht TxBaseband
Khi c chia thnh cc thnh phn chc nng: x l bng tn c s chnh (s); x
l bng tn c s ph (tng t); Cp ngun mt chiu; Mch khuch i logarit v cc
mch hin th cnh bo.
Mch bng tn c s bin i hai lung s liu vo HDB3 thnh hai lung s liu
c ngu nhin ha v m ha vi sai a n u vo b iu ch QPSK ( khi kch
thch) thc hin cc chc nng sau:
Khi phc CKL t lung s HDB3 vo.
Bin i lung s t m HDB3 thnh m NRZ.
Ghp hai lung s 2048 kb/s thnh lung s 4,245 Mb/s bao gm cc bit d liu,
cc bit t ng b khung truyn (pairty , cc bit nh tuyn (nu c), cc bit knh
nghip v s (nu c).
Ngu nhin ha lung s 4,245 Mb/s.
Bin i ni tip thnh song song lung s 4,245 Mb/s v m ha vi sai.
Chn AIS (Alarm Indication Signal trong trng hp cc lung s vo b s c.
Ngoi ra cn c mch hi chun a ra cc hin th cnh bo hay giao tip vi
mng qun l.
3.3.3.2. Khi kch thch
My pht thit b RMD 904 lm vic di siu cao tn nn khi kch thch l ht sc
quan trng, trung tm ca my (exciter module). Khi gm ba phn mch chnh:
B iu ch OPQSK.
B trn nng tn.
B tng hp tn s.
3.3.3.3. Khi khuch i cng sut
Khi khuch i cng sut bao gm bn tng khuch i siu cao tn dng Transistor
m bo khuch i cng sut t +8dBm ln mc yu cu 30-37 dBm vi h s
khuch i ca hai tng khuch i c iu khin c bng chit p. nh thin cho bn
tng khuch i cng sut bng tm nh thin ring.
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Khi cn thc hin cch li gia my pht v phi anten bng mt b cch sng
(Isolator).
Trch mt phn sng cao tn khng ch h s khuch i mch tin khuch i
trong khi kch thch l mch ALC.
3.3.3.4. Khi tm mch hin th my pht
Khi c nhim v nhn tt c cc tn hiu ch th v trng thi lm vic ca my v
cc s c nu c v thp sng cc Led trn mt my ph hp. Trong tm hin th c mch
to dao ng rng ca, mch gii m thp phn nh phn khi nhn mt ch th mc
pht n ch hin th mt vch Led tng ng trong thanh 20 vch Led. Cc vch Led lm
thnh thanh sng ch mc t 30 n 40 dBm. Tuy nhin cng sut cc i ca my ch
sng ti a l +37dBm.
Tm c ba n Led v mt hin th 20Led vch biu th mc pht t 30 n 40
dBm. Ngoi ra cn c Led ngun nm di cng pha bn tri mt my, khi c ngun
th Led ny sng xanh, nu ngun c s c th nhp nhy.
Led Data in sng bo mt s liu vo.
Led RF level sng bo mc cng sut ra hin thi nh hn cng sut danh
nh 3 dBm.
Led Tx Fail sng bo cc s c:
Hng cng sut pht.
Mt s liu vo.
Hng t hp tn s.
Hng cc dy s liu sau m ha a sang iu ch.
3.3.4. My thu RMD 904
Ch tiu k thut
My thu vi ba s RMD 904 c nhim v nhn sng mang siu cao tn t trm i
phng a n x l v gii iu ch ly ra cc tn hiu s v tn hiu tng t. Tn
hiu hai lung s 2 Mb/s HDB3 chuyn ti cc thit b thng tin khc. Tn hiu tng
t (analoge) ca bng tn c s ph gm ting thoi knh nghip v tone bo hiu v tn
hiu knh gim st. Thit b c nhng ch tiu k thut chnh nh sau:

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Gii tn cng tc v tuyn: 820-960 MHz.


n nh tn s: 15 ppm.
Bc nhy tn cng tc: 100 kHz.
Dung lng truyn dn 22 Mb/s tng ng 60 knh thoi.
Mc thu t -90 dBm n -50 dBm.
Mc thu t -93dBm vi BER l 10-6.
Mc thu t -94dBm vi BER l 10-3.

My thu lm vic vi sng mang iu ch OPQSK.


Tr khng u vo siu cao tn 50 u ni D.
in p ngun mt chiu t -20V n -60V (DC).
Cng sut tiu th: 31W.

S khi tng qut my thu RMD 904


My thu RMD 904 gm c cc khi chnh:

Khi x l bng tn c s thu RxBaseBand.


Khi trung tn (IF).
Khi bin i h tn.
Tm mch hin th my thu (Rx Display).

KHI HIN TH

2 x 2048kb/s

KHI BNG TN
C S THU

KHI TRUNG TN
THU

KHI BIN I H
TN

Tn hiu RF

KHI NGUN
CUNG

Hnh 3.12: S khi my thu RMD 904


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Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

3.3.4.1 Khi bin i h tn


Module ny c nhim v chnh l nhn sng mang siu cao tn vi mc nng lng
rt nh chuyn i thnh tn hiu trung tm thu (IF = 35 MHz) n nh, mc ln
a ti b gii iu ch. lm c yu cu khi c chia thnh 3 phn c bn
sau:
B khuch i cao tn tp m thp.
B to dao ng ni bng phng php t hp tn s.
B trn h tn v loi tr tn s nh ly c ra trung tn duy nht l 35 MHz.
3.3.4.2 Khi trung tn thu
Khi trung tn thu nhn tn hiu t b bin i h tn a ti. N lc v to ra mc tn
hiu n nh cho mch bng tn c s thu. Khi ny xc nh rng bng tn h thng
thu, n cha cc mch o tn hiu v tuyn v to ra tn hiu cnh bo.
3.3.4.3 Khi x l bng tn c s thu
S khi bng tn c s thu gm phn ngun cung cp cho my thu, phn x l
bng tn c s chnh, phn x l bng tn c s ph.
theo di v cc trng thi cng tc v cnh bo s c ca my thu, trong my c
lp cc mch khuch i v x l tn hiu thng tin v trng thi v cnh bo s c. Cc
mch gm:
Mch khuch i Logarit v x l thng tin ny ly t mch AGC trung tn ti
kch hot thp sng 1 trong 20 vch Led mt my.
Mch ch th s c v thu sng mang cao tn, cng ly thng tin t mch AGC qua
mch khuch i v so snh ngng, nu thu km s kch hot Led RF level.
Mt mch x l theo di cht lng tn hiu s ly t vi mch D1 bng tn c s
chnh, qua mch nh gi BER 10-3 hoc 10-6 dn ti lm sng n Led BER trn
mt my nu c li.
Mt mch tp hp cc s c ca my thu nu c xy ra s lm sng n Led Rx
Fail trn my. Cc loi thng tin l:
Mt sng mang thu.
Mt kha pha sng mang khi phc n gii iu ch costas.
Hng khi phc nh thi.
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Hng t hp tn s khi bin i h tn.


Hng trung tn thu.
3.3.4.4 Tm hin th my thu
Tm hin th c lp panel trc ca my thu. Tm c 3 n Led v mt hin
th 20 Led vch ch th mc cng sut v tuyn thu. Cc hin th thu nh sau:
20 Led vch ch th mc v tuyn thu trong di t -100 n -50 dB mi bc 5
dBm.
Led cnh bo BER sng khi BER ln hn 10-3 hay 10-6 ty theo mc lp (94/93
dBm).
Led cnh bo RF level sng khi mc thu thp hn -90dBm.
Led cnh bo s c thu (Led RF Fail) sng khi mt trong s cc mch thu c
kim tra vt qu mc cng tc bnh thng.
3.3.5. Cc phng php u ni thit b
C mt s phng thc u ni ty thuc cu hnh trm nh trm u cui, trm xen
k v trm lp.
Trm u cui: My ghp knh + V tuyn.
Trm xen r: V tuyn + My ghp knh + V tuyn.
Trm lp: V tuyn + V tuyn.
3.3.6. Cnh bo
2.2.6.1. Cnh bo
Cnh bo l qu trnh o, nh gi tn hiu (v cc thng s c trng ca tn hiu ti
mt im no a ra tnh trng ca tn hiu .
Kt qu ca php o, nh gi cung cp cho ngi s dng bit thng tin v x
l kp thi khi c s c xy ra.
2.2.6.2. Phn loi cnh bo
Cnh bo c chia lm 3 loi:
Tt, n bo hiu cho ngi dung bit thit b ang lm vic bnh thng.
Gim cp, tc l tn hiu b suy gim.
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Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

S c, n cho bit h thng khng lm vic bnh thng.


2.2.6.3. Hin th cnh bo
Cc cch hin th cnh bo bng: m thanh, nh sng, bn tin. C th hin th
ring l tng loi ny hoc kt hp cc loi hin th trn mt h thng.

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Bo co thc tp tt nghip 2011

KT LUN
Tri qua khong thi gian thc tp v cng qu bu chng em c th tip xc thc t
cng vic, hc hi c rt nhiu iu b ch, mt ln na em xin gi li cm n chn
thnh ti cc c, cc ch Trung tm vin thng huyn Lc Nam tnh Bc Giang, cc thy
c l ging vin b mn gip em rt tn tnh!
Trong sut 08 tun c tham gia lm vic, bn than em tm hiu c mt s vn
c bn sau:

Phng php truy cp gi ng xung tc cao HSDPA


Thit b o di ng Agilent 8922M/S GSM Test Set
H thng SDH DMR 3000S
Thit b vi ba s SDH RMD 904

Trong bi bo co ca em chc chn khng th khng mc phi nhng sai st nht


nh, knh mong cc thy c ng gp kin bi bo co ny c hon thin hn.
Em xin chn thnh cm n./.

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