Está en la página 1de 10

Inda PacificJaunDl at Phenanenalagy

Valune 14, Editian1

Nay201A

P a q e1 o t 7

(onlitr.): 11457377 tSSN

DAt. t4.2989/tPJ tA.| 0. 2.1r1 P. 2A l.

ISSN hrint): 2479-7222

r'1N00'pAcI

..r0,rsrrr!.L

Interdisciptinarity within Phenomenology


b), Lcstcr llmD.ec

n bstmct Rrtnsiitiar .tf ph.rouanaloSi.dl taxLrni.tt i


nitct thc tucslior oIhaq tl1t..Dtcn.los," tt sae tuiSht t). d4ir&l trit, to:t)ctiliu iul nl lctur\ .l th( asotla\ ol Ih. toin\tkrt .lit.it)lincs. lll.t to attcmpt dt a, dr*\t h ltit qutslitrl !,rc absctr4liors.or14 tir! tht losril)lt l)qalils t irl! listillrnrr! erNairta$. e:W.itll\ lr, t)hik\athktt I t)luom a@lott, !k ttfcttd.

\r\ral do.at .liscil,litl.tbeynd thib th\

To judSc Ihc s\rffircs thcc-n jl rddrcsscs by ol ofrhc

Tlrod is rcrvnr (o bclicvc. howovcr, th{r whrt hi '' , .l'('ll . t l' 1'r , ',r-;: tl, l, {h.r - \ i l - r l , J" , t t t , { i , . , y r l . . ! l . r ( , ' . 1 ,. p , ., ') l (\'.'.1 I 'i {l i.l' i,'cl',.h 'c r- h ri .,1 1 phonotncnobgisrs .rc undcLrcpr.scnrcd.' It wot'kl (|cr. p,.baLlc, s.c LLrt rortsphil{Jsop[i.rl phcdoilcnobsisrs will iI conjng ycars considcrNbly lrcrc.sc dre counrs jlst oJlcrcd ol collcdgucs dnl . { ! .r i l i . o . I ' , ' I I r l l , n I t l , i'.r|. f, Ersl Asn rrc xludy rostcnng rh s rrc.d. Thcrc is ttlso rcN$n lo beliele thll rclatir)nsbctvcon plicDo'ncnology rnd philosophy could bonciit lrom morc coDtact wilh phenoncn.logl in discidilcs b.yo"d Dl'l.' Dh\.1nl if (r .. ,k I'on rl' . iq I
r orr ri\ c'.hi.er f.. u. ..df ,l 'p .. rL I a' .' f 1 ... r ! i , ! r . 1 . I. , a , . t J . . , ^ , f . \ . r ' ! . \ ' d Ethuology, Ethnonrcdrodol.sy. FilD Srudies. Frencl', ..wd,-tF/ r.o.. p \ .F-t.r'o''.,,. '1ro. IIenrr-ri. Hr..) ro Ir -.. \l"d .r ''. v' . .ar) \'' f vcJ..l Al h t \ri'.. Ph oopr) . Rri ar -tri lJ!\r.ir). 1 . . . 1 . , P , J p . r lp ) R o r n F , f , r ' , S o c i a lW o r k , S o c i o l o g y . ! n d T h e o l o s y . .or"i.ol

. 5. i(.. L.'LLN...,.'n,.,|1.,\.,",...,i.ia . ( . | | A l.-vi . cl'- Jdrrl: ..1td"r",, cro .g .' .rli\L i.1..) '1 ll(.! ' . o I j - t - l r\ t . r l r h J o r r l i n , r r - . ' l ' ( . d ( n " . ' r o l o I gisls &ross Ihc DlaDcthavc r|ts h, id.ntificd olcr l q n I n . . , l l , d ' { , , . , ' r l o J i .| , .I, . i Jlr.l; r "x oic h Sibe.ir, dDd coDsklcnblcnprog,css hrs bccn , , . . ' d r o r . ' , J c r " . * . . E L - r / 1 . i o r ' .r ' , l w n r l , . \ ^ r J , . i / j i . . , i P t , . o , . n o. f . 1 t i n ! . r , , / t r r . . . " Ncll ds ro est$lish livc fceional orgaoizalbns lo. thcn Ol r|csc, rhc Ci.culo LatinoAorcricaro de FtnoDrcDologix wns rhe fiNl, lDd thc Ulth, the nrbrdrsciphrary CodlitioD ol No h Americrn Phenonenologisrs, jLRtbccn fornded. has r,{rsuLinn, Ausrrli{ nr'ia, Bclnns, Belgiurn, Brazil, .-.l .\ilr..\',...or.'l'.,'. B.rf ...\Rrplbl , r' . l'l I lr r... ud',.rr. . . . H 4 . g 1 , .' ! H ' ' " . u J .l c r a o . I ' d ' , , 1 .' . j krn,Iret$d, hmc1,krry, rTan, KoE\ Ldvir, Lcbrnoo, I r h , r . r x \ t . . . \ 4 . . a . \ a t _ e r t d , d..i , . 1 , / , 3 t r I , \ ' r " . . P . r . . l l ' " ' , l ' . ' ' - s . ,R " r ' ' i . . F . i " . Scibir, Slolcni!, Sourh AJrica. SFid. Sqirdndnd, -.'i\.{ rr''. n \ , \ U nL . l K , r ! o ' | | ' . d \ : ot moi.a. lid Venezuel..

Th. /P/'r aro;r pFJed.f16. Humrnoc Li!1LtL! ottrr rir!..r j oi t..nru.tiurt tsdrh AJ; c) mJ Elr'!.:Fr.. llft1trlri d R.g6DLrr Pri$5iorur sadr.-\ iArn,.h), prr,lLshai! ejso!rron rv rh Nrs(.1.:irv!-(.1 rL ar rL Good n ra-x ippls Tli \o!k 6 nr.$ed to it. t|u,rtr. r d Ltrtcr$,r con,no r rFiLafiooi Li!!trr I 0

ti.lnl

Inda Pacific )ournal of Phenomenalo.ty

valume 1a, Editian 1

May 2o1a

l " p o " n .A n d$ h e no n er . e r l o g e to r ) o n J . ! r f f i r i l l r phllosophical lhcnomcnology, the question also nfises whatphenoDenology generalmight of ln bc. An atlemptis madein what fouows to answerthj questiontroforctlD fi6tsecond What is Phenomenology? This quesriolr has been struggledlrith cvcf snrce Edmnnd Husserlnancd cffofi morcthanncentDry his ago. Most altomplslo answerit hale coDlcftom philosophers focuson plilosophical and phenomeno 'r 's Iog). l-ur 1o{ a r c g . l . , rq ' F . r i o n : . "L\o d i s c i p l i n p \e v . , l t h r l o \ ^ t i l y .J r d r h c i n $ \ . r m . . , b n be different one sccksto covorall the disciplines ii within our multidisciplina.y tmdition.Thereis need for a Scncic an$verthat cdn be spcci{icd iccordjng to thc disciplim.Havingpondcrud issucfor somc thi! time,lct |nc offcr a ltmlified answeC' whichI go by | 1 J c r r c rl c \ c l . . K - o r d r n r o h o " . ' r . o ! h r . - r ( c \ l E w h e nI L D . ' ( k ( dr l ' c \ c c r s s h . r p n L n i m c n .Jl . ; . l d I f u s rc ( t h i r r h r rl l J ' \ u d , o u g h l h c $ nf o , r n J r n s u r r c f o r l u i r ; a - s r p l r i i o . o p nx s i \ r n c r \ c j r n { c , x r ) h c , . eL a \ ( i r . , n r r cc n d j n gn o . o r y ; : w o u l d c ' b appropriarc a science. for but rhat if onc wcr! dr) intellectualhistorian onc might well speak of c s n r ) r c t h ilnk . ' t c f i c c r i v J c . . I p r . v i c m. , 1 dn r t l , . ! , ig s i n d h rf J s i r ' o i s .j u c l ' . ' s r h o . co f 8 c r t s , 1 .D j l r h " . andthc c.rly Jirmcs. ThenI suggcst i1is bcttcrto tlal . l ' N a . l c n z cl h c I l u . s c i r D c f l c r t L ) i r \ r f t r o r J h ' . . r 1 ( r l , . , n ) i r . r c n r h , . r d h c n . c . c p o .{(h r r I l i k ( r b J mostsi ply to call it'tcflcctivc .D lysis" (Er)rbree, 2003.2006).Il this dnswcrdocs rot slrtisfy,I go downlo deeper lcvchofdcfinition. T o . r . t r J ( r e r i z el , c J p p r o r c h h , ? o n o : " ( i p | 1 ( \ r ^g b c y o l do h , l o . . p h ) \ w c l l r \ i n p h c n o , r e n o r ( . . r philosophy, I then propose thrcc dciiring
char{clcrislics by s^ying lhrt lhis rpproaol is! i

v . , | | ' n f . b r d q r l . r g . l f . . c r l - c r (J r p , . r r ' .d l . components be positive.negallveor neutnl i can r , r c d r l i r ) .r d r o r e o \ e - .- o r l r i r e l ) . r h e, h , B L J \ n . o u F r c r c d\ . h n h \ u , L , \ . d c . .d \ . l l c . r c " l i , d l r i f r c n . r h c r . p 1 f i o c r r o o r J ., \ s c l r . , J L r c l r ( m p J r a l - i n . l u l ( a p p r J . . r - 1 r r J nr ( , \ ' t . g.cnr,c.. rrd rrlr.nic Jr'd crrrrFtr po!,i. . r ' c 8 J r i v c Ln p u . r x l b . l .c. ll . r . ' . l , . I n ' . . . l r c : n d nd i h 1 . . . . R c l . c r r . o b 5 c . \ c r . osn . r c i r ' . ' . " i l l I n . L needs be cultlvated, 1o discloses greatdealthatthis a tuxonomy only bcgins sortout.' to A \ r , { 1 . , , {l l , r , , u ( l , J ) i . d , } i r , . i , . I . - ) , , r Jr.. if i . In\vl\L\ lln I L rlrl r r' . Jr' rur' ll'. graspingof lhilgr rcflcctivcly or unrcl'lccrivcly t q o r . l r L n i n d h n J( 1 , r f t ( r o i 7 . r .l ! c r n .r n L - L l dI n - r . I q l l h r , h - r i , J f L h i , r o 1 c r h u \t , J c ( c J ' \ . . speechor a text. it is app()pLidte sp:LL of to nilerprerrtion, Lhcninterp.ctation ! sncoilsof bul is d c \ i p r i o r . i u r . . y b r o J Js i 8 n , 1 : c .nr.! F . a l - . 1 n . r . ' dcscfiptions be of universal can essences. concepls, ( r . L l b o r l , ' l . u v c l r r . , o s c i i o u s l )e \ p c r e . . L c d. 1 things. Morcoverj dcscriftionis pri te cxplorrlion, k owi g wl13t soDethingis bcing neccssfy for i k n o w i . r e h y \ o n r c r h i n ti : . F I ' a l l ) . J e c . r r . r . r . . . invite the renderor hcucr to look for hcrscllLoscc whedrer dringsdcscribcd ro s dcscribcd nd, ii dre n.i. !r JfiJJr ,f i'nf.ovc tl.c dci. ln oi, .'ndtl1L'J ro ndvancc investignti0n. drc Wlnrt I hrvr .LiJ rlN. r1.r'. hrnly ncw _J" c t h ( l ' m r n u l o g i . s .h ' . r. . o n n 1 r )b c i n r ' g u c b y n \ rr..crtion rh{rtpl'cn.mennl'rtti. n,tn12-I l't.aalt\' I-.trcro'.coeizcrrc,'rpflrn.c(lrhsrr.rDCflyI askingwhal it is lhAt pheno enologyin All of the discipljrrcs I know Anything th{t ,bout is opposcd to. That contritstirgpositjon is called "nnt|ndlisrn", ''otjccrir,- or "o\'rivi,m. HusefL t{cienL,r ''obj.cri\.,r'. b,r rl'i c(pc\.on hJ\ ror (.omc widcly acccptcd. While positivjsnjs { tnovcNcnt in r \ e . r y o f . o i i J l . c r c n J c a d D hl o \ o p h yr h . r t ( J
br.( ,v-

(a) (b) osscncc, rcflective, descriptivc. (c) cnllnreand apprecirlive. l lsually slill needro go deeper. Bul I describe tho rcflctivehess phcnotucnolos! or as i r v o l v i n ! ' h ( u b . c f l L t no n - r l ' r - d . , n ( . C - c u ! . i on . n d . _ o r h c r .a r d r L e . -g r o l D . .o l e n . u r n l c r . n g s o things. thin8s!s encountered,and also of thc collccive and individual $rbjec$ who cncounicr (I thjngs. quicklyclarify tharI lrse'lhing" lo rcfcr to . n y , L i n a ra l l r n d r ' o 'r r e l ) ^ . F i r l o b i e . r ., I f c l g I explair ftat I prcfer words brsed on thc vob "to e n c o r n , P b - . a u i cm c d r . oo t " e c o l ' r F i n s n i , e , l . n raiscs tlB questionof what ; cncounrercd. rnd (at becausc is easier leastin English)to rccoenize it ihat encounlcrings coDcrctely lnchde, in addilionto experiencings, componcnts calledbeliellngs. the best

' l . u l J b c . o r b c ' n o d c l c do n . - i , u , . l \ t : . . . : ( r ( < . 'nnrrl:\m rem. 1 (d,'v(yl\( i{odc\r cor'-cf,. one that cxtcndsbcyond scienceinto a spre.ding worldticw thdr somc considcra nrdlar so!rce of today's For ecologicalorisis. nlturalism, cvoythirg rs D h v . i . t l1 . . u . r ( J n J w \ r . r s , . o r p 1 ) \ i f l d e . n n l .
' An iDcomtlcrc clrartnay bc usctulhere: Thtugs-d-[!counlcred hftinsi. &.xdnsic !!es dtra beliefcha2ctcristics (perceplual, experiencnrg rccorlccrio.ar. cctarionrl) cxt

lso ye.A

.,-d h.Us

tl.at oll l(nowlcd8.

T6e/P/tn r joi'rpr.l.n.atfr. HunEnr,. Fadlq,oatu Un,$trpllh]Llla , aego,"rDo-.,or. ,dr' ', ,, " .


t l L " o r , . - e o , ot 1 , . . . . t . . o " |

(\ort Afo.r, Jr.tLt !,.r L ,tr ,nrsF{urry I I r .,or.o. ,.r.. :

, . . , " o . o . A . . h , o , . , 1 . . .

connt; thisexcludes. and abovc culture mental !ll, and life. L . r m . . n . . 4 r h . ' . , . . u o A . J n o f C c o l f i c JL l o ) d o / l ' ) a l r d c s c r \ cL o n . . d e a , i . n .l - ; i s r h c\ u g g c . l o n . T thattheWestis diffcrcntfrom olherculrures bccausc, in effccl,it Ieunedearlyon to abstracr lioni culture and mind in ordc! to focuson physical naturc.with . l ' - r u r e l c l : o c . o.n pc c n d p v p l o p u l . n r ) n . . rm | | . I c n scicncc aho naturalistic-scicntific but lechnology and c v c rI n o r er c $ e ro v ( r f r a c r i c r l l y ' e r ) l hn 8 .B u r .J . e . . , F e . : f ' h L o b s t r L c l oln o r , t i l \ l l ( . o u r L c . r o l . I t r r l i . ( . l n J r f o r ( S o e s n r o c o n . ( r h cr c s L . l o that is. naturE- 10 be conqete, which dcfincs n . ' r u r . ' l i slm e n l ' ( t a L l J co I I r s p l . L e J . o n ! t r . n ( * h. r y i s . o m i r r e db < ( J J \ c h c I r c w o r l d \ u r . d i L l l yr r d . r concrelely only natlrral alsosocio,cultuful. mt but P h . n . m r - o r o g r {r r p . u m n . l y q u ' r c I n r c r c . r e.d . n h o q v c c n c c u n r e r, n p r .d n J . . r c c n c n , r . , t e . t .J o r thc , so socialityis now rcccivingits due rrcndon. A \ i o r l , o k r h ew o r Ui o r , B r u , , lc u l l , r ' . ' 1 . l - u v ( \ c r . .) J o n o tb c l i e " c h i . h d r ( ( c i , ( J ' l E - r k . i , r . i " ! u ^ r , ' - d . i o Dt | | r t i r J e . e r v e .I. .b . . c \ c t h i t r h es . y U i , r u l r ' t r r l1 , w o $ . $ s o r . r h en i s h i rl c v c t h c r c . r r . r r A l f r c J ! h i i , 7 h ' ( . h o s n . c c n c e f r u r'l u i \ l r u c r \o r l h i n g . n \ o m m o l s c n s cl ' a rw c c h r c n )r c . c . v c r o ' i l l cor'rern|or:ric,r1!l prrdece.\.a rh.ou8\ ord.nary l x n g u 0 gB . . u n d . t c , r r : , rr no f l t . n 8 , , : t c c r c i r er t. {t r . u b c u n c c p t u : 'rl: r l u nrrl . ( | . i l l _ b i c c L l r u r c rEmbrec. 2008, On rhi. Jccpc-Icvcl.rcflccUon c:... ). d ' s c l o . c l c o u n t c d s . r t u l r h L r r l u c J r 1 ' l u . e <o f c t r h ' _ 8 . - . s - c n c o u n r c $ ld . r l ' ( r i r n o t r h c . c . r ( L ,c consmcls, nd thcsc Sraspcdln commonscnsc n D r c r .o ' b : ' : i Lc u h u r c r cx l . o c \ i ( n ) l c . r c J r l o f L and rharcdwilh individualxnd couecrive orhcrs. lt rnaybc dlrt thcoriginalcultural chrracter ofAllrhings is oftcn mist.kcnly overlookcd bcc,uscthcreis so T l ' .| \ e q o ' l d i r " o co - . h t , J l r . c r D r 1 a ' ( .pprcci.tedin thc hum.., sociohistoficul. bcst, of, l h c i u l r u r - l \ c : e n c e c l , d r i n o h e l o r e l .l o g r J a l r p h i l o . o p h,)l n A h . I r r c f c r r o c . l l , l " e - c u l r u - r l s c ' _ ( e \ r l . o b c c J ' A c,,. G r . r " ( { h i . n d \ 4 . 1 e , 1 ( f o o D . l r c " J ) ' r x i r | . 1 q 1 0 . . .i " ' p J ' , < \ | a \ ! k bnsjc cuilurc(Enbree,2008b) Thisjs cnhnrcas oftcn l h . u . ( Jo n j 1 c r h n o l o $ ( u l r .t u l : . n r h p ,I n g y b r . r o o . ir is distinctively present rhc subjcctDatteBof al1 in o l t h e c u l r u r ud \ c i p l ' r ( \ i I o . c l o o k , , , r - t r l , ) l (Enbree, 1994). Ednund Huserl, of couNe, recognized thc G p n P i , i " e h , r h ! t t " rb l t I r . , r J h i . c r l y o l l o s e\ . saw thc n@d io aialyrc tlic fonnd.tionsof rocjo. u i r , t r .r h r n g l.1 r , . , h u s. o . , J C \ c l ) f o c u \ p d r r h . I o - o n qr u l i o n l c r D c . i e n c p dl u r ( .d r d d i d l o r I r , l o nl c o m et u l l y o g i r c . u I L r . . - J ' . c ( l ) l l r c d r . . ni o )

- h f ) J c . c r \ c . T h c o J r u . u | | . mn . 1 , -m c n r . . l , r t u l I r l r | r e . ' d e r . . \ n o , h r o - d i n r h\ ' o n . Fr ! . lJ N \ . r h , l . * : . l ( , c l d \ c b . c , ,r l r . c . l b , . a l u , , , p . d '


ui li"J r .J rl.L\ ,

o r o i e ..Ir l e r r \ i r e h ( - n - l ) / r J n " \ t r r . J r . to becourageous his Prolesonena rcinen" u r r l in bSik zu of 1900.and, if lookcd tbr, theseaspects llso aN q r ' - e v i J p r r n h \ / d " ,' / , . r ' J / / | o l a 1 l . (Embrcc, elsewfiere 1992.1996). I nopeI havesaid enoughto clurify how I bclicvc pheiomenology gcncrd is not only rcllectiveand iD desfipdve,but alsoclllturc-appsirtive.Let me now tlm ro rheropicofin1cdisciplil.rity. Phenomenology Be More Irtcrdisciplinary Crn Thcrc seemsa disciplinnr) inbalaicc within ou. n r ' . . d i u o rC.o l l c - E - e \ . n ' h " r J . - j f l . . ( . \ u n r i ' , J .r o . I c r n r N c h f r c n t h i l o s ' n f i ! J lp l ( n J , c r o l o t ) . . i , d p l d . " . o p h e ^ u i r o r p r u u do l r h . ' rb . I t h e ) o o n o r m . b e n e f i rn n l u r n ' ( u , y r ' I r . . c h f l . r h . y m i g h r . i R e . e , . r J n. . i r , k f . l ' \ . . p l i r n . r )$ n c u - c n v e r t e . . . r c i c a r r l 'i r o n e t r n n f e r h ( r d . s .p , n c ' I n k c . . lh( qLc\tron r lrdllru^ns rJ min! nrurr 'rrc1 o b d;( pl "J ) h{ rcndcdro bL .,tparehJJ ocr'1ri,rd fiom lhc disciplincs thenconridcring nnd londoncics, o'icnt. ions ^r scho.h J rhouBh,. \uch L. pLcno'TnoloEy. .,rbc,LscJoidrry.Al'c. rl . rltc,r a. out p oti.jic ll rdenh{ir\trreeorJcnc]. n1o.rol rt nrc philo$ophcrs, ccohonrjsls,politic{l sciclxists, psychologisls, $cioloeisrs aid so lorth J4nt dDd Mrrxists,positivists, phcnolrenologisrs d ro lbrtlr only second. Thc shrcturcsof academic insriruriont .,1d deg'rc [r)gtumrc, nrppolIdr\ rppr\..(|. AnJ $ a r . ' v c \ 0 . 1d \ r i t l ' r r y J i . l c r . n , . s> : - c cA " n ^ n < n n J r h ( , c v c n l , o - h l . , . r so r ' r h eN ' l i . l d tA J r 5 . ' t l L l c hercI shallignorcodrcf tradilions suchas M rxisnr - n d D o \ i r : \ m x - J l o c r . .\ f c r , r : r d y o " l - n w .r r ' l , r v o u n w n h n g . p n r _ o ' n . ' . ' g n . . lr . r d i ' . o r ' . c r . . ' . n disciplinarydilTcrcNcsrhal can be dealr with tbl mdidrm bencfitto all involved.
'Thc phcnoflenologi$ Joseph Kockclniais(1979)oiGEd r l . d f i n r , n ^ l d . c r oi 1 r ' ' e r r l . ) c r ' , . r ' t - ^ btunchof len ng or a ficld oi stud! ch roterizcd a I l'^'1. . 'nre rbl..1r\-lJ .co'c..'.tvnlA! t.LIr.e 1 to r welldelined Edn of ctrriries,stsLemadcdl esnblished rhe basisof ge[era]lyaccepred on pnnciplcs w ' r r l e L e . f ! r 1 h J d o o f " Jd . . . ' . ^ d r ' . . ( . d ' ar rr'\erhri, . .lctr-r') L rur). lr 'e.-\c. r t : K ' . n . 1 n J r , d J v . , " o ' b 1 , c , e l r . r r " c l( 1 . l-v jodi r , eo '1 i '('Ji.!irlir,. r') oI rh, phq. m.r !. Cu.do J' . '.r. f i. . i..iplnr F the E|tclclopa..lia An e^alis 1196613) n<l of Las sci(ac\ Hu'nuind er lu Pat4e Oukleltal. (.1966-Ba).

u w!\ o".l I .d"'ulug.

. llL\\J l

-1'h.1P/P;aFin!FrFc.o.tL.HU'nantLAF:dr/o.thun!o!!d|.It'{|llL1]lg(so(l]^f.ta)Jrd]j.Il|]rcdtdLr]'iv0]iFfdq o r P c q . o , i , J P , o .- - s | d o c,, .. p.o,- "dr "..o1'....,t L..J" 3o ,_ -L_

Thn rvork r ]i.oE.J io rhe pubtishd lndr

Lfrt c, 4r k coNnons Artritulion5 Li!.,n.

Inda Pacitic Joumal af Phenomenology

Valume 10, Editian 1

May 2014

PaQe4 ot' 7

Thrs fd. and as intimaled. while disciplines beyond philosophy have adapted conccprs. distinctioDs. methods, terninologyAnd so on fiom philosolhical phcnoncnologists. rcldtivcly liltlc has bccn lc.mcd phenonenologistr by philosophical f'on disciplincs b e y o n p h i l no p h r . l . b c \ . , c . n t c n i J \ l c r . e d i n J lhe pasl by Gurwitsch and Mcrlcau-Ponty from GestuLhco/ie,by Schlrz froDrVefsrcrcrd. sociology andmarginal utility ecoDomics, by hermeneutical and phcnomcnologists iiom classical philology. and others have gained much ffon studying psycho analysis and olher schoolsof psychialrylbut thasc pastcases seemexceptions Norc than the rule, and today lhcrc sccms little olher than thc phenonenolosi.al intcrcstin the multidiscipline ol' cognjtive science. But whdt if cncoLrtrrcrs non wirh philosophicalplDnonenology could help scllidentified philosophical phcnomenologisrs become hefi thenomenologists? er Please permil nrc to prcceed now somcwhrt a tobiographically.was n undc.grudrate t major1n philosophy wirh A minor i,, psyohology, drarwas bul psycholoSy behaviourislic rnd ralh$ oil-pll(iig. In my doc(&l studicsar dre New School fttr Social Rcscarch, which was sLill undq Wcnnrf iifl enue 'l rl,ur u,,likc An'cri.{r programmcs i}pically of monodjsciplinary Britirh iDflLoncc, *0s rcquhedto I hrvc nrinor.So I look courscs Wilhcl|n Dilthey on rnd on Cermrn sociolosywilh drc Weber scholar Albe Solomon.Thcr, fbr alnost 30 ycars rftcr tridu.(rng. I qr\ rmnrcrlcd.r Amcrcrn rc.'d(mic philo$ophy, which wN thc11, and stili is, quirc nnomlisric and,I wouldadd,anti-inrerdiscipliMry, vcry fcw philosoplicnl colle{gucs cvcn rccognizing lhc human orcultufalscicoccs scienccs. as At DuqLrcsnc University. howcvcr. did havef.ie.ds I in the psychology dcpartnEntwherc phcnoDcnological psychologywas developedN ^ hnnni (ID sciencc. rctospecl,I nust also rccognizc rhrr I vns ulways f.scin.ted by tho phcnoncnological lhcory of value and thcorclicalethics of Dorion CairDs, wellas bl how Arcn Cuiwitsch as relaled rhe anilysisof Zdls in lhe edly Heidcggcr Wolfgang !o K.ehlers occounr of functbnal objccts as cDcoutered chiopanzccs.) by WhcnI cameLoFloridaAnartic UniveniLyin 1990 ad hadaBrcdtincrcascjn reacred rcsources.I againsr 1lD inrcllectualis.n nost Huserlianr in my of by, the SeneratioD as noledabove,srudyinS noerlc!noemalic lmlyses ol valuation actionin BooksI and andII of Hussed\ /.lcrr. By thcr I was aho deply involvcdin srudyingLhethouglrtof Schijtz,whose Mjrcnr.natrlcnl. focuscs theAenus, on sDecics, and r o m cp d r i c ' r l i ^i ' h . ( u l r u r d\l c i c d ! e , x n J . 1 . . I n . reflecling on the history ard philosophy ol

J , . t a e . t o $ . - c o t . t ) . t p n d F r . ' n d e ,L n o l . o ) . I fctrospcct. I caD now rccognizc thal I was then tufljng towdd culture. seriously Ncxt. AlcxaDdo SchimDcbcnnincklfoposcd in lr)o2 hn I xrd .) c llp.glp :n rhe.enrrFio. Advanced Research Phenomenology, edlt the ln Inc. t ) , . r u p ! J , ' , . t 11 ' r - r e a o l o l \ . t r r b r c e e l , . 1 l a q 7. l r k . . . r n r l h r c o r n c ! r or r h n l b c g . . rr , { , 1 1 . . ) . o r ( o t n r r . ^ l n n l )h n v . j . i l , . . . u " p c l . ' . . c ( n r u t )o u rr - L l i r : u h a l . p r - ' r J - r . . . r h (p h n J r b L . . n J rlso how it was pusued in over a scoreof non p | i l " s ,- ' l L . i l . l . s f . p l i r c . . n - n c . y . i . 1 , . r . ! rr.c . b c l , . ' \ i o ' r nB e 0 6 . . . p I c o r n : r i \ e c . e n . pc o . .I n ' r n i l . y. colosy,danco. ecology, econolrlcs, education, elhnlc ' r u J : e .e , h r . l . r y . f i m . | l r r i . , . , . . \ . . 1 1 . ' n . . . musjc. nuNing. political science, psychialry, . t \ ) ( h o l u F y . r J l : d : J n s o c i . . lB c o s , r p l , ) . o L i o l o s y . . 1 J ' | c ! r L I k c p r i n J I ' g . n o r c . ' n d . nd ir. - r p L . r ( . t o . philosophy with plrenornenological bclond tcndoncies. not schoohol lhonght,within thenl if I S , ,c c r l | c n 1 , . . \ c .i . o u F c ,i J r . , l i f . e m o r e r J . n o r . o J r I n r l r c i n r r n J ' . t l i . ' n \ \ n ' . r c r r y J l J f . .J i ' . J i r c n t \'luhri,) . 1d I tkctclfo dr evollrion nf rl.r .r;rnJu - nr..r.s. how .s nc. wcrc tl.Lnumenul('!ri.'l . ' J J J d o i r d ( . . ' . l c ) . l c . . , d c .u c l d . g c n d cb y E d i r l l r r b s , Stcnr in tirc 1920s(Srcin. I996) nnd genenrioinl d r f l i r c n c b y S i n ( n cJ c B c ' u ' u : r : r 9 - 0 ( B C J U \ o , ( . c 1 9 8 9 \R c - n r J i n Ch r ri n r r o ( l , c i i J:d p r c pr . . t : o o . r . lhe !rcsent cssAy,howcycr.I sclf-criticlly llnd it r r n r | ] ep h i l . . . f h ) - e e | l | ' ir - J h c n c c n N r , . , yt h . . r r r n x thrt rirne I srill had iol lully appfcciarcd ho, nrullidjscipliu'Ly lrnditionhlrs bng bocn.Bur I our ' ) . u l l o r . \ , dr n . . g l i n r h i : r c \ p c co f l h e o p e i , n t _ p mgrnph our ;nrroducrioD quorc now: of ro il Althoughunticitaiions can bc lbund in the works of Hcnri Belrson, Frx z Brentano. Wilhcl'nDilthcy,William Jamesj othors, ard tho thcnonrcnologic.l movcmcn!bcganin theretlelrions ofEdDrund Ilnsscddnlingthe mi.l'1890s dnd is 6us morc thana ccntury old. 11 sprcad fiom Germmy to Jara!. Russia. SPaiD also fro pl,ilosupll and and to psychia[y bclbrc World War I! ro Ansralia.FraDcc. ijuDgdfy,the Nerherlands rnd Flundcrs, PolaDd, ihe UnitedStales ard andro education, musjc,aDdrcliSio. dunng the 1920si and kr Czcchoslov.ki.,Irdy, Korca,and Yugoslalinand to afchitccrurc, lilcratrre, and theare during thc 1930s. PhcDomenology then spread to Porlugrl, Scardinavl.,rnd Soudr.Africa,and llso to ethnicstudies, fcn Dism,filD, and polirical theory soon riler Wo.ld War Il: tiicn to Clnada, ChiDa, and Indir and 1() darcc.

Th. -/P/P aroinrpL.rrd oath. I_luh'.ni6 F{ub, ofrh llrlrdrnllllllar]rbq n (sdrL Aana) rd EdrL c.'m t rnik si,rs Frut.,a yidr NlsatIPLrI!.!! tr an b.6und;i rrlv{prp;ero orRcgionrl Prcf8toBr srudralAu$iil'i], pntlah<lLo anorialon
, H o + . , , " o . " f i I i r . , | , - , " , , o . a . , . t . , o . . , 1 . .I

lnda-Pdcifi.Journalaf Phenohenaloqy

geo8rrphyj laivj andpsychology rhe 1960s in and I970s:md finally to CfeatBirlin and also lo ecology, ethnoloey. and nursirg in the 1980* rnd 1990s. civen its sp.eld to otherdlsciplircs well asacross planet, as thc phcnonrenology afSnably the majof is philosophical rnovcDent the20thCcDtury. of Gmbroc,i997, p. l) In relrospec!however, can now recognize I thxt I t h c n s l i l l h " L l w l r r I n i r l r b c c . . l . e dc n c ( . ) r. i n r e l l ed d l r p p r e c i . . r i 4u ' t h c n o np r r . \ o p h . . r l n d r c i n 1 c . r i t h j . r r e n ,I n c r o l o ! ) . T n i . , ( c m s r o hnle still beenthe cascibr my paperat tlD second meeting, Lima in 2005, of the Orgdnjzltionof in l h e o o m e n o l o g t rO r r . , n i l - r r o n \ , E m b e . . 2 0 0 _ r . il T t u c c n o ec v f 1 t .t o o kr r o e ) . ' n dh t . lT h el a t q " \ ( . I a conforence Taipci in Septembc. in 2006.and ihe second ras a confcrcncc Seoulin Fcbrurry2007. in w h r h . . p p c n erdr l , o . c ( o n t e r e n c r i({ s r t . . . r/ ' arcountere.l as thenorlenalogy adtaLLr ben3 dotiz h! colleaSut, d,,c,t,ltr.s tt!^ud !t,ilosotlh\ lt i: ia amuing ttutr this h,d nol h.ppenedfor mc before then,or at le$r rhatI h d not recognizcd And rhc it. r h i r J i n g v a s s h r n T o n N c n o n n d I c , r cr n q d , . . t r lhe itrtrcduction lhc voluineon Nofth Americn ro for Phan|ftaoloS, 2A05$tJ I bcgonto $uspoct rtro thrt LI(rirLuvc f.xrdrc of phcnonrcnotoEy uu geoin resionisns DrulddisciplinArity. Srlphical T h c . ( t | r q r \ ( n r . I r . d * f . i $ o t c I n i d h t o 1 !d c r . . c . u n . u sr m b . , c l n r n c .I h r v c l o D t o c c l . . r - o 1 8h o r o r who lrr\L conlpl. incJ rhrt rhc vr\r m.Urrir)ot it1osc who c0ll rhctr.dvcc f|Jnomcnotngr:r. lrc oity scholffswho contribulcto thc sccondrrJlireralorc. Much of nry own coDtriburjon of lhis sort. of is . o u r ' ( .r n J I d o b e l i e v ec i c c J , c . o n J L r yi r e r u r c { l i b c c r u " co a l ( h o ' , h . w n r i n go t r h eS a n r \n t o u l r prsl is difficnlt to undcrsrard wc musrhelpcach and othcrund&stand thcN. Bul suchsccond.ry lireRrurc i. l mcr-. l^ lhc cnd ol fhrno*cnnt.t....t i n v e \ t i l u t i o n .' r h ( t h i n C l.h e r . c l v c s r l - . , i' . . i n l o o h : l ^ l o E yb u r t h < n u , , ,,c l o t y . r n d . h u . i . o production primlry litcratu.e. of This is whatI hopc . h i l u \ o p h c i l . u r r r h d i r i os - , , h d \ c n o . p , F \ ' . . r . t ) 6 n o n r\ F y n n ,il' r . F - e r i . , no f r . x ' \ . 1 n t c l r . r o d . t . < 1 o u l r c r : _ gp h ( r o r n c l o t y r r ! c r u . . t t )J . n c . . o d i 5 c i p l(,\, b c y o n d l - , l u . o f \ ) .A n d , h . . \ $ h ) t h r \ p i sou8h|n iould rh" l1r(-Ji.ciptiDry oati,ior l C o N o r h A m e r i c uP h p n o - < n o l o e i r lr q\ A f I h o p . n qC ir wll be d pl:.c w-(,( \r/ .rr,,r ftritusoohic.,l phcnomenologists be renrindcd wjll ofrhe neod1l)bc or bccome phenoncnologists. L c rm e - e n i o no n po ' h F u ! . o r .W t - e nJ l t c do , n o l . r o L i r ' \ o r s i t r d o o u L . r ' t r r o t ' c n o r n e n o l oo u l c gy acluallyto do phcrcmenobgy, Nspecl that mlny I c o l i e i g r . r|\| c r l e c r , , . . l - c m \ e r v eI\ h c v c o ' d b .

the rext McrlcauPonty and quickly answerin the o c g : | \ c I. . r h . Ic . r e .f $ ( . J r . . l i . \ t i l l t o . n o c " atteml modcst t and concise reflective analyscs, I a
' ,'( 1..c1.rnE.J .-.J r. J. rl ,.r m) (l I' rc!c .l

) c n . x n dx l o \ r r r e J " b , o l \ c l e \ w I I / q c B . + . . Pheno,ie'tologicdl lyotkthop ftrlJ. for collcctionsof

A rinal Catrtion Havingnow Dot only ihoughtaboutphcnonrcnology A - t a d i r i o n r 1 . . .h . . b c ' u m c c \ q i n . e . . . i r t y , , " u l r . d j . c i p l j n . tJ ,). r . n gl . r d e o v e r . J " n r ' r ' ) .b ' f r h r \ i n Bc o c o , , n r . . J . u r cp h c r o m p . 4^,) r . a . r u r l ' ) l J J r . cI n d . \ i p l i n e h ( j u r d o h r . o p h \ . . e r m r ' r r f l o r I n c l i n t . l . e t ' k \ r J f r l . u w t n c r ' o m e n n l o A iiri \ ph.ln(U) lo begrn .rh. I u !c nolJL.rrr-.fi.r t $ + o r kb y . u L [ 1 B L c . r J r \ i p l i ) r \ h r ) u r L I . n i . o , o p l ' ) . l brt also hcariig theh prescnlrrions dnd dis.rssint r h e . .q o A $ ( h r n c r r l r c . ' n \ . \ c . y c o c o L r r t i . , l whencollelg!'cs different ir discipliacs urcet find and theyhavcoonvcrycnt pmcLical n$cll ,$ theorerical n t c r e r s / D i . , . v r n ' , 9r h . i . , n L , , r i . f JJ c r ' r u o u . . nL'Ningschool is r phenoncnologist hlls ilredy inprovedc olmc rs io oneolmy cou$esl) ! l N c r d i- i t n : r L . r(), ' . w . . r r ( r i . r \ . i 1 . . b c g n u n v c t r a l ' c nu n u - l l yJ i f l i r u l rr x l t u r c n . n f , \ r r b l J . l I n i r / sir srr.igc rhints rnJ '.nr\pccrcddc.rlotm,'ln5.crcf .. i ) p c 4 t c u l r u n . h o c k s p c : r i h k .l r I r i f . . . l c t yl i ( l T w . u d i r g , l ' h r l . \ s ! . n r . rc n n b l r o N n : t . , t c db y r '-iju.ed krmi_olo$ rd Jrefl) *ijundc\r.^d * c r l " o d : \ c dh ) n l n t l l o c o p l r L r l L , , l l c J l uOsr.e x . u c. I run confc.. I rlnJ x _Ji..iflinrry 5upcr'.or'.ry conplcx", as it mightbc c llcd, acruAlly nysclf 0s in l $ c l i x . i r o r l c . . I . i r n u rc r . ! y . . o w e \ d .r v r m . . t s i n c lhat an cconomist simildly bclieves rhdt lrq d s c i r l i n c^ l J r ( \ c . , h c m o . r r m N r r n r r . p c c , . l 'rJi!l lili. o rh.n r o\).hol.gi.l { ro.iolog:.r bclicvcs hersdocs? that If.no's srpcrioriryconrplcx overr,it c$ bc crucd is ''disciplimry ariogancc", somelhing havc scclrl I D h c r o , n c n o l o g ip.\,i l o o p h c 6 k h , ' 1 , . . , k o q I o " . d . o t . a l r e n r :t . . n u - c j , x 4 | , ' i o r | | . S , r . philosophicul collcagncs would do well, howvoi. to - djculo. ,(rr f'!' idc ho\ . I hjlo.ophi.ll p e..(u.Juon\ n ,h {c|| ,l-int. r. ul i|r.,rc d q 3 r o ,' , i _ cb ( . 1 8 u . b en t t r | ( r h c " r l . s o r ' J ( , i r . , why drirc is sonrerling rurhcr rhan noLhing. r r x r - n d e r r l l r n c r . rb j p c l \ \ . h I d . o I n n . . r ' ' . o o , . : b l )x o p . , r c o l l c a B U c r J r . . r ! l i n - r o e ) . r . i. lliilosophy, cspccially rhe pfacrical onesl Benr8 ' ' d\ c i p l i r e { ( I r i ! s e en . i n ( \ $ c d . : f . t ' . , b , ] " n o rJ b .J r c i , ' s$ l c c , h ea F \( o t m c l r o r \ p e . r t r 7 knowicdgc .nd skill a,t concerned. just as sith Bnt. ( 1 o. . e r n r ct ) . g ( r d c r J J n ,r r 1 r , l r ' \ ,{ l e r c r r e r , ' r p . l \ . r r n d c n c . eo t r . J . u r " . o r . t c o m l t r \ r . o n d

IferPlr1onpnrenoa,.llumrn!eFLr,ryot+erlpkd"v!t[.f?,rn.r&kg(sdrt,{nict d[.hhco{r,{],rLoM!:irtu[), . , ( \ i a , : r . . a . , , d , o " " . , , 1 ! ! Thtr wolk n li.e.kd r r. lubLhc {ndr !h. Crtxrir. c1nhno{ Aftitruriois L c.nr 3 O

tndD-ad.tt. oLtrdtarDhpto--,ooa,

\aLn6

0 t.1f;af 1

ya, 2a1a

arogance. it ir wise ro p.aclrse tolerance. "disciplinary tolcrancc" it migh!bc callcd, thcn as for

\ r l ' e_ e n p f i ro r : , r pd . : c r p | | nr.r ) u . r ' , 1. . ( . . . _ h r '

I llrank Elnraf Holenrein, Rich..d L.nigan, Daniel Ma.celle, Nru Hisashi. Fred lvertz and Yoshida Akihirc tbf coDrmcnts an cdlicf draft, bnt cortirring eirors ir thls esay are dy ianlt. on

Proicssor Lcstcr Enbrcc currentlyholdsthe positionof Willian F. Dictfich Enincnt Scholarin rhc Dcpdlmcnt of Philosophy Floridr Adanlic UDivcNiIy,USA. llc aI conrplctcd doctoralstudies philo$phy at (he New Schoolfof SocialRcscarch his in (Ncw Yofk) i| 1972nrder Aron Gnrqitsch. alsostudied He rith DorionCrims, ldd is curcntly leading teanseditingthe nn'ltivohune lhe couected sofks of thesc lcadcrs oi A'nc.icrnphcnoncnology. jn Pn)lcssol Embrcc puluccd olcr200 publicrrions thc rrcasoi Drulcr. philosottry, h6 phcnomcnology, thc lhcoryols.icn.c rnd constitutilc inciLdiDg thrccbooksr ,4cll.c/it? ntr.trlr (2006ii Euslishialsonr CrstiliaD, Chincse, Japancsc, Polish,RoDlurir[ luld Ilus$idn wilh lranslltions Czcch, irto frcnch,Ccrnrrn,KorcM rnd Poftuglcsc vr.iols in (21)01)^n.l EirilrrrcilL, T..hnrbg, and stttgot, /'?tror'crdlr8ia Ca11ti11uddd ./'/rr f',n ' (2009).Cutrcrrly hc is ir thc Dn)ccss conrddine r tcrt on Alr'r(*lSchijrT trrcory rhc.trhrd oi s of scicnocs. hr$ rlso cditcd.t.rnslrtedandco-cdircd llc scvcral dozci collcc(ilcvolunrcs, scNcdrs Cci*rl Edir(r' ud of tt\ctrcltk4tuetlk1ol l'hakofi.r.bsr \1997) a.lbrc bccoming willirnr F. DicrrichllnritrcntScholu rr lloridr A(hnic Urilosity jr 1990.PrcbssorDnrbrcc r^ughrrr No,rhcm lllinois rnd DuqucsncUDilcrsiiics.P.csidcDt thc Ccir,.c lbr Adv0 ccd Rcsc0Lch of i PhcnoDciology, Irrc. lbr 20 yclrs, hc rlro prccipitrrcd thc lbudiuS of (hc Orgrdizltion oi' PhcrronDrologic0l Orgrtrizdrio rnd rhcNarr/.tt.r ol t,hanorEhobl!. Uid$ thc Ausficcs Zch Rooks,Lcslc. DDbrccir co-cdi(or thc scrics/?v ,tofrrrr-OPo and is cunontly ol ai dcvcloping DLltiliDgu' scti.!, Phut.,v"obrr Wa lq)T.tts. rhc Lasrcr Embrcc bc contrcrcd crn at:Edirrcc@rir!.cdu

Rcauloir,S. dc (1989).The seond sd lH. M. Prrsl,lcy, Tfdns.).Loidon, UKr Vhtlgc Books.(OriBiINivolt published 1949) . l n r b r e eL . E . ( 1 9 9 2 )S o m d n d c r i c o c n r a l ia n r l y s co f f u n o , . f l d p r : c t , c r lL t e1 n l D r ' , n n , n J & L . E . E m b i e e . no c s (Els.),The phenarteholag! oIlhe noona(pp. 157-210).D. fccht,Ncthcrlands: Kluwcr AcrdcmicPublishm. lnlbrcc. L. E. (l!94). Int.oducrnnr: Rcrcctionon th! culrur.Ll (E.ls.), dscrplLncs. M. Diniel & L. h. hrnbree Lr PhenomenaloS!thecLllr t dl .liciri]ts (tp. I "31).Dr\ drcchl, qf Ncihcdands: KlLrwcr Acadcnric Publishc$. Embrcc, E. (1996). L. Advances conce.rnrg cvaluation dctjon Husserl\ /deri Z In T. Nenor & L. E. Enrbree aDd in (Eds.). ^re!r r, H4rrarl'r /lees lI(pp.113 198).Dodrcchl,Netherl&ds: Khwef Academic Pnblishe6. lnbrce, L. E. (sitb Mohanty,J. N.). (1997).Irt.oducrrod. L. E. Embreeet In (pp. I l0). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwcf AcadcDic Publislics. tihenatnerola$ . tE\l\.r. Lk\rbpuetlia oJ

Tf. /P/P, ijonrfbjr( oarhir h,n!r8 F:erlr oflf. ( hr.a+j{J!,!!!!a (sorh Atuol d !t!L!!!!q_itjrr$1! rr , rJrrf oaR.gn,mlPrcii$ioD,snrd (tu{r,],), publd ii as.na]o yrh Ntslt ht!1. c ft -D b. rorndr lr:qpr..'*
Th I \orl f lftrfd ro dr prtlislErbds $. c 4t y. r_om,non5 arnh.or r_,ftD* 3 0

lndo-Pacific Jaurnal of Phenanehola1y

Embree, E. (2003).,,lalliris rcfexiro: Una prinela intrcdu.ci6n u la Jenonehotisica I Rclcclire andlysis:A ltst L. (Edicion iatrcductiotto phenonenaLog bilingii6)(Lus Ramrin Rrb.nlquc.Trms.). Morelia.Mexico:Editodal

Enbre. L.E. (2006). R.tc.tiye ,,al''r6. Buchucst. Romani.:Zcta Booll. & EmbreqL. E. (2007). Disciplincs bcyondphilosophy: Rccollcclins phcnoDcnolosical a fioDtid. ln L. E E,nbree T. Ncnon (Eds.),Phehahtenotog! 2005, vD|. 5: Selecte.t.stt! Irort Noflh Nherica (Paft l, !p.211-2E2). Bucha.cst, Romania: ZctaBools. (pp. Enrbree, E. (2008a) constitulion L. The ofbusiccultuc. lr 1,.E. Enbtcc.Enyirontaent, technabsr, .iunificdtbtu 8' l0 ). Bucharcsr. RoNdnir.Zf,rdBool. .l.gy h)utnul,1 E\tit)kht Embrcc, E. (2008b) begin L. A ningfor the phenome n.log,(u ihco1 o f nrimn( erh l -4 Phil.. rh\.5t)\.61 tat

EDbrcqL. 8.. Behnke, A., Car, D., E! ns.J. C., HrldayJourdu, KockclnHN, J , Mckcnnr,W., M;ckun s, EJ., J A-, Mohnnty, J. N., Ncnon. T., Sccbolxn.T. M.. & Z.re., R. M. (Eds.). (1997). Eacrclopaedio al e o N.dredaldsr Kltwer Ac.dernic Pnblishers. fu " na,h nol et. Dnftlrcrbt, (connalssance). Enctclopaettia Guldorf,G. (1966-73). Inte.disciplinaire tn univels4lir(Vol.8) (pp. lu86-l0q0l. Prir. nancc Px)or. pensue (Vats.t-t3).Pxtis, Frnncor Ctrsdorf. (1966-88). rcie,c.s huDtiiteset La C. rcr acckle,t4te Payot. Kockelnrans, J. (Ed.).(1979).ktektiscitli'turiq tlLl hishercducation. J. UnivcrsilyPllrk, PAr TIlc Ponnsylvrniil Stnrc Univcrsiry Pres. Lloyd,C.E.R.(1991).ThciventionofnatMe.Irc.LbynlE/J.),MettrcdsahdptobLenthGrctkscicnce(Dp.417. 434).NewYork.NY: Cnnrbridgc ivclsiryPress. U Stcin, (1996). E. rrMlr o, ]'onnn.Thc colLected wotks Etlith Steit\vol.2 (2ndte.v. (L. Gelber R. Le ven, o! ed.) & . f d s . :F r e , l l M r r y b c nT r L n 5 . w . . j l ' i i 8 r o nD C : I C SP u o . r c i c n \ . O . ,. r

The /P/P s a joN proj( of rh. I ldrlinis Faq,l9,6a rhe LlnrnvNjtilslra (sourL Arn.O md !irl, o o t , o . L l b ^ . . , J . d i , - r , . , , ,, . . D .. - . , . " , . o . . . o . , . 5 \ ' | ,, Jr n1 col i. F- ,o r', o, i-. b,..,,

cld

Unirsalvl

F{dL),

.-.".r.

Inda Pacific Joutnal af Phenonenaloqy

Valune14, Editian 1

May2UA I:jSNl])rint): 2479"7222

(onlin.): U45'7177 IS:jN

DOt. I 0.2959/tP.t I 0.I A.l. l. I AlJ P.20

THE !NDO.PACIFIC JOURNAL OF,I

Editorial
hy (lhrisnlthn R. SloDcs Editor-irlCIiet

1 1 ' . 1 o P , . irl " t 1 r . . , t1 . . , 1 , . . i r [ . . . 1 r c \ q , ' c . . . . . . c i r . Jr r r ' 1 { r ' t r . r ' l i t t ' . , P h " l \ U , '\ ( r r . . i , J .r . r n r|. . . r i l ) . r l , .I i v . J . i r r { ( " t l . . . r n h . r ' .-r. , , l i A b . 1 , ' r ' l c ( . r t r c r ' n r . . ' i..".. l - , l l ' C u ^ ' . ' r . \ ( . . . r ). ' . r..1 Aus(ftLia. lbwclcr. rhis hrs rlwrys bc$ on thc r , ' . l 1 r . r ' . | | rr'l!, . (l | | ( 1 { , . 1 r 1 i r l J v , . l r J $ . r ! t \ w l , r r . r ! . l r ' - r . 1 u r :t . r ' ^ r i ( r ' ( . . r ' 1 , ! r ! r I sttstrinrlrililyConrcqrcdlly, licr scvc.rl nlo0lhsol . l ( i l ( , r ' ' { , . r , \ L , : , i ' { ,. , , ' l , l A , . , ' . ' . , . . L o r l s p . ' 1 n r _J , h ct u b . . l . i r ; u , . 1' - . , . 1 . . , . r . , . . i t w r $l i M l l y a g r c c dh r t 2 0 1 0w o u l d s h c rr . n c l v t u i . , . . . r h i ^ r , ' . | , \ , . u ; l r l . r . r ' r ' . l ' . 1 1d .r " au(hor bNcd proccsriiS ior s,Lnnissions lcc rcccplcd h , p ' . 1( r L i _ N . 1 . { ) q o r r ( lr l l l ' i y : v ov cI i n . 1 vl l l L ' r ' . endcavour, it wonld cnrblc drc //'.//' l() rcnrai but r e k) thc orcn rcccss Dodcl, wirh rl1cjoumrl's rcdcrs thnscoDlintring Lre ro rblo ro ll.cclydorvnlord l' 1,r1 i,l. Ir"l r"r. \ l r-J " . o r . o o r. , c n ' , I n l i . , f n ) j". ' o;, L' . , " "up lr l l o 1 r . n J ofhieh qualiry s'bhnsions Lom bothhcmisphcfcs. s pr't of ils ne*, tublishing Drodcl.tlrc 1P./P,in u . ' i ' I a . 1 , w i l l t , : . \ J n , t u 1la q " ,) . , . t . \ a . i ! , /v/54.1'. .l.oer'rrl J'r..{," t{inro dc..' o .clca\cof suitably bonndcopies thc rcgulafonlinc of
. l ' i o r , , 1 q . l , . . u i J Li l L J ' J . , 1 i . \ . . f r l ' Sfcoid llditions rcle.sed froh tiDe b tnnc.

iIc'o'.c" oE.... ^\ll ' 'r'. .r.r.r.c. | .'r'cri dciirrilions I hcnonrcnoloSy gcncral,h rclatio of io |..1 .itrr..'.rr. . l,- l|(.ro..crr o olo-lical tfudilio'. Ciriig ii(trc lhun rhrdo dolo discipliircsinto whiclr phcronrcnobgy h j hcc j r L ,r , { r ' J . . t . . , 1 | . h . : . r . . f . , ' i . J \ ' . , . , . . r . trrditkDs. I]nrbBc klcnlilics NLLtidiscitlinarity rs ''th. disrircrivclbr(Lirc" ol'phcioDcnolosyiu hYonh n I ! r : . v h r | l r . r . l J { . n r . r . . ' . r n ;r r r l l discjtljnNrityN iolrblc rspcor ol' phcioDciologyr, dcvcbpDcnt ovcr rhc frsr ccrt ry. Cilcn ti)c J , ( " ' - . r \ " , ' 1 . , . . r . r' , , , tl i . l _ ) , , r , l r ' ' l J t l , r r . ' r . phcnoDrcnolosy howcvc., g!iiing $ith philosophicrl litrlc ii rcnm lio.r odreriirciplincJ rdoftion of its pcrstcc(ivc rpprcach. n trlrbr.c's prpcLchrllcd8cs ,nd.,J r'o\. l ..{' i 'l I lr,o ^rolor|o inrcrdiscilli'raLy. Poiiriig ro thc posiblc bcdcfitsto phjlo$dricrl phcnonrcmloey, rvcll as to thc as 'c: i .l iPhrr$r'n f r ' q r 1 _ r ' lr ! ) , n J I ' l ' f r ' l ilsell: or' cngxscnrcnl with, rlnl cnxblcnrcDt rlll.oeh. phedoNenologyin nonthilo$phicrl discitlincs. Ernrree neve.thclcss foinls our thal opcnirg thc J : . , t l , n e . r n ( . r ( . t ' t n r . , . l-| r l l , . . r). \ . l l . r . 1 lirJ Ll. rr._ui'. ',.^c o', '. p..r ol ' , .n . c o . l , . l " J t f ( . . 1 l ' .r o r , . r ' o l o g i r o , r ''disciplinry l a.rcgancc", und thus bcyond cenbic... superioriLy complexes". whal "discipli're b he tcnns 'drscitlinrry(tcnncc . 'Ihe six trlers that lbllow dcnionstrtc tiic ,,i,l.il.ipli,.,.r. t Dl-rn.,n.'11' JnJ ,r. i sylrb1ot1c felationship wrrh the ma.y h!m$ and . o . i . . lr o . : . t , b r - p \ f r e . . . L ' D r J l ). i e , . e . covering rhe fields oi cducatior, unthrolology. . n , ' , ' o . l , i . . l r r . i , r ' n Jl \ ) . h o l o e \ . \ " l l . "'

Tl i. l' r .di.io ot 20 n..-oij.. \ r . 1 ' I r . . l , f\ . . r . d x book rcvicw. Appfoprirtely, Lhe tcndr ycar ot thc o.mal..\\rcrcc..L\hc-aIq h1.lle iu L'. L.s.crE,,'b.... x d"y.r in h. fi(lJ vf fIrl.sotl,ic.'l t r.,.o en,l^ )..i r'e .L rn, .tn,, oipl-ilo\.!l'.c.'l

TM /P/P r 3 jorr pi.rd of tht Honnnc FxdJq .a L I !,y,\ir!!j!!!!!s!qE r Soodr A6n lrd lixl, C.hi Li'i *r F-,,]r, orR.g,oiJldliNonitsudain.\uixln-_rsdouxdrrn,lj{LLo.opri,J,laa.dn3r,noth!crroJo.edirrolto,,ir,.rL,,.,.fr Dldor rndrourllt .rfni! !tm,siff of $. rtr6rirrr, s T)k hda !,.;t;rjDu J at P/,{Dn o/o-sli7,/1,rin ljt tuud r!-r!r.,!u,!x

IndD-PacticJournalaf Phenomenalogy

lnrpll.aiing olherfieldsir thcir foci on phcnomeDa r l i \ c ,{ a r . o m n , u n r c . r r oe c l ' n o l " g i ep r.oe s . o n j i ln s dcvclopment, sexurl storytellinS in relalion to fenjdst crniquc ol McrlcatrPonty's livcd body, a r c d t c l r . e n m " . rm " d r l i r y r \ e J f e r m a r h t L , . l J , . . o r , n d r f c l i n l b q s p e n. , n p . . r ow o ' h t a , J l - ( J l r hA comnonlhemethatemerged thM offic lapds nr in this edition is _tolerance' in addiiion io Lcstef Embree's advocaljngof disciplinary toleiance', I t u ) ' . l l - , r " . , " t , . { . o n l o . e r x o co l J i l t e r e n . e e andDavidBogopa's clltuel tolerance'. on

1i$1. recognhed as authoitativc cnough". and 'ne,b" e,,o,.gh b) ev.nr."ll) r. !?J . p \ r . , b lh p d m p m b p ^ l r l p p o i p \ i o . c s e l l J , i n r . r . . i \ , n A . n . \ . 1 - r .u . h .T h i i . d i n g-. l . h . q , 1 . l u d l , c! . i n r r " . u p . r ( n . ( a \ . v e . l n . . r ' c \ . , J . r p r o d u - ru f . J ( . " 1 i r l ( . d . r . u n d r l( ' h 1 J f i n ' . . ' -

R . ) u H u n g t . ' t p . , o o .' J \ r J r . . r ' . n . . | n f l i c i r i n. . . . i s ] - h . 1 1, \ h ' . n , h . u u , ' c u ll , c , , f l ( 1 . r { ' . n thefeminist crjtiqle of M0rlcd!-Ponly's nolionof Lhe 'li\"d b"d) .,.1 ir' i{tl.Jion ot 1'ony,ij In her thought'provoking pxpc. titlcd "IeacheN Conceptualising Merleru-Ponty\notion of body as Building Dwolline ThinkinS with Slidcwarc". scli:autho|in8, and as such as incorporating the CALhe.ine Adams rcflccts on both researchaid oapacity rcsislanonyDrity bcirg bolhthc iuthor 10 by tcachingmclhodology. on Lhe poetic proccssof J r ' d r I c n . r r . r n .o f : ' s . q . L i r \ l n r ) . . . 1 , e . s r L . d phenonrnolosical writing .nd ihe rcronynnc cxanrincs role of rhe body in rhe consrruction the of tcchniqne composing of prcsenlations, r PowcrPoint o \ j f i n n L r r : J n u . f i | \ l . y . M c r l c " L - P o r , r r 'c r L . . .. 1 e p f ' e . rn ' " f r 1 s ' l - . l ' . m nr ^ r h pr o o i o n r " : ' r . 1 r u f r L c s o l d . . r d r l , c. c l f . " r . c . f r o . , l l ) "hrr tact and intcntionality nNch as on the act of as .onsnu!rcd. -nd. .c-n.'Jl). Ker llurn.f4 s t e . ( h i n L..' o Jr h , . n , . Jo u \ : r n L c n c c u r . . el i f e " . r l , l o clucidarion ftc iitcrplay between privatear)d of thc o f r I c c l x . r o o r , o lr h e . h - l l a ) s u J g c J l c . l , n o l c e . c . t , . h l i cs n r u s i n , f r m \ " l i t n r t i r l . w r ' ( x u x l n _ " spcuk10 !s", Foclsing in pArticular thc usc of on r c l l i u s r . d i n r i n r . ' r .i r i k n . h i r . h r l r p \ . . r . r l l u - o . P o w c , P o i n rr c s e r . r . , r crn . h n . J i d m o r c o n r c u r p . points lhc parddox lo ofcocxistcnocs cruciul sclilo d f l . v c q r l h cp o n { c ( o n d r r y h . v n u m .^ J . , m ru s ( . L .'iJ ),1 f!iJuf'vc ro Joi1d..(c-r a Hcidcggcrh franreworkin an irtcrvic$-b$cd i r n , n e r . . iio n n u n y I u u ,c x i \ l , r r r u r l L , s h cl r r | c ri . nr L r hcflncnctic pheno'nenological ilvcsigrrion of the r c \ n r l d . I n \ a l i r : . r c : i i i i d . ' r o n y n r . I )i m p l . c . livcd mrrcr on rl,ceduL rh,,nrl cnvirunnrrr.rcrch.ng snstdningprrticulNily rnd diltiruncc 0Ddrcllcs or) o L . r ( t i c c . . nh er c r - f c r s r r d c " tc I f o n \ l r p . r . w e l l rd tu ongoi'rg prpccss ofsclf-nulhoring, cmphasis the of ason lcacher experjcncc studcnr rnd cxpcctArio ol s, cducrtion oricncd rowards rcshtingnnonyrriry kl wo rhc ilcrc..si18 diJc+pr( y inrlcrcntu on of r l r r r f , { c .\ L r } h r . . r J l ) b . o i p r o D ' on s r o l c | r . " co r c . ini.ar:iiun .i,l (o r,nunicauon rrhnulJdjc. r differencc and thc rscrtion ol pr(iculariLythrough ed crlionxl sctti'r8s.Concludingrhrt "cducrrionrl scif-cxpression llmugh a laricty ol-modcs, wilh duo tcchnologics nNst no longcr bc vicwcd N ncunrl regdrdfor thc nccd ftn du boundry bclwcc thc . , r e l n c r :t l , x t r . r y b c : d d c d s i r \ . u l \ i J t i r L d r p r . v ^ r c i I h e p L b l i r .w r r l , i n n r J h c u n . l . t r ) l r w 0 b c f . n r c n c u r i . 0 l n J c N r c n , i . , lc o " . c q u c n . cr n r n ( r . c o " s r r u . , i oo \ c L r . .r . b e c l r l l c n ; r J r | J I ' r . i r . 1 l i f c w o r l .o i r h c ( h s n o . , m , A d . , a , c 0 u , , o 1 r l . limiion sh.l andhow onethinks,lives ucts. and l ( r h r u l o e L : l ' c . ' . h i n gx r J . r ( e d , o b . c r i r : . | ) . r \ r l ' r L r c d. n d c i ' ( u n . F - r l y u s o l . h c n d t u n r L h ( l Thc lbcus of TcssaTherklesonis prcscnrt(ion an oi inrpoft thcl "silenrl ngudgeC'. (r of r t n l i c d d c - i p r . v . p \ e " ^ , , , e n , , 1 , ,l t ' r u J ) . t r f < effctof gingcrcoDrprcss thcrapyb dD trcflrmerrt of c " , n .i n , n gw h - ' h ( c l u * r i o r r l . l o - . : n .' ' " - . . . ,'n Jle.i"g o{.ohdh:'i. r rwo'.lJ rl'< (o of ThomasFricdrich\ paper,"Bccoming'McDter eflcctivcnc$ ofthc rcscarch Dethodin relarion rhe E n o u g h. i o n t h e d ( \ c l o t m c N o l : . o n f i J e n ( . u r p o . cl b r s h i c l i , s 1 \ p r p l n ) ( J . r 1 J o r ' r . c . r . " p r o f c q i o n i.l' l e l t i r y1 c J .r r o r cs f c c i f i . -r y . , h p \ ( J l tbc cffccllvenesof. prrticulartrcatmcnt nxxhlity iD c r p c . ' c r c .o ' c o m p . r j n - ! J r ' . 1n - o ' r p c ' . n . n . h ( , {<n-'rL." i. i e . llR JL e. .'i h\,,lu.i t r'prc-scrvicc pioces of movingfrom doctoralsrudies (\pJrid,-( of l0 p.ollc $ h \re.. rl-ir . \l'.1( '(.cr\rng and a lcachingasistant-ship towardsbcconinS a t s i n 8 cc o , , , p F \ . p p l i i r : . n , ^ ! e J F , . u l _ t n i \ c r . ' l ) p ' o " e s . . W q i r l h i . m e . . n \ .r n d l , of scvcD consecntive days, Lhe nudy. oonduclcd ir n L d n c c .l l o w r l ' i ' i F v e l o p | r J n u l jn 'rc y h m l i . t r o o \usrralir r_d Ncw Zeilin.l, .(r-on.lrdtJ. rl'lo nany of our readers is expe.icnccd, caltured is systcnrtic applicltion of an applied descliptive l h , o u g la h c n , ' p 1 e . p h ( n . m c l o l o g j c Jl l p r v i " s , iu i ol(ror,c oloSic.l mer',d in ,h. ,-(li,rl Jo J,,' b x \ e d. r s ( \ r u d ) o l r h c e \ p - , e n . - o r . t c m a . c T l ' e r k l r \ o nf , r n r , ' - I i g o r o u ,! r o , c ' o + d l c n o n d . . r a i r l c a o J i J r ch c d d p d o r . ' 1 a . r J ( m i ( c d c c t r( . nd im.,Si1..r \ar.ar.o :.. rhc \py ,o d ..o\ei r F r e d i . I i d . a i l ' , r .r r u c c - q r e r | . J r . t e , i - i l . I : . . ' l r F * p n r ' . |c h J r 1 1 . . r . . . t n c n o n c r J r l o . . r L i \ slown lo be an oftendcnoralisiry proce$. moling i n , i n - c . e r : b l i r g . , I i n d i .J , i ^ | o r l c ] r o . c r ' r . o . I o m m d g j o d l ' \ J r i o n . n,d l l i J n r o w d r db c c o - i n 6 . o benelits of drc trcatmcnt modalily invesrisated. She

Thc /P/P is r joior prqer oa rhe Huminr,s FrdT ol th. Un8dnrlll o Soodr Afid r lin, h c.,a, Unr{sdi F].rltf |oh!@Sa .l RcstoEl pref$lonxl sn'da r Auncl6. Th6 Joonen. r i'[J!TL Lo coFyriehr ard D3r no! L! rcp.odrt..l i" - ," F"n ,. ",h"1. """ md$)stliortdr.xpr$pnns,onofdrpoLl her 1h. tnJa-P2ati Jounnl at PLrnon ,o/ogj, a/P/P, m L. adutJ afl.sF c! e.

Indo Pacific)aurnal of Phenahenolaav

volume 10, Edition I

May 2A10

Page3 af3

. n n . l u d e ,r l - . r h e r , e r h o d o l o S )p \ p n r p dh 1 , r ' e p r potentiaL. crcltively applled,to prove useful iD if olhcr scieDtifi rcsearch. c Tlncc South Afrlcanpsychologistsccnie Pretorins. JuliaHalstcad Cleakand Brandon Morgan- cxplorc l \ c b o e J \ e m e n , \ p p i ( c o t y o n 8 J d u l r .i n r l . r e allcrnuLh the mlrdcr of a sibling.As rhe aurho.s of p o i n ' o u l . , h e \ t u J )l n o l r t r . d e i r \ . v ^ b e r e " v f m c l l o r i r c l - r : \ e l )k , r n r d c - o . . . I ! r c s ri n , h p . r . ! . . n . . . o m r n n . r ys ' h t r o r ,\ l u J . c ,. n t h ej l e l dh . . \ n gb p e n i . o n d r c r P.d r h e a . t l 5 r c . d o r l ) . s . l h :r r h " o . ( 1 . . a . ) ( o J c l , a . d n o r n c r ! l . r u r\e - , - l ' - d l . . . I e I o m ( r d e , cn d r i c l r F l h u 5\ l i l l u n J c r d c \ c l o p p d J u . . p e ! i f i ( O v e r r l l .r L e f , J r n c \ o f l h e ' , r J ! e l e r l n r c d s u p p o ,f o r h c c r b u n g o e r e . ^ e f f . r c r . . r . r . . . r r siblinglossand honricide Gilcn thc dcatl of 8def. r e e r r c h! n . i I p - i c u l . ' . . i b l ) r h r r r i ( . J cg n c L . . \ r r ) o r . n - J r l r . . , s c \ e r h F \ r ' r ' y. k . t . , . i s r ' i l i r i n l t ( o n u . b L r . o n 4 f c r i n r L t r l . cl r c l di n r l ' . n h p \ r L \ . i witl its sensitive comprchcnsive and accoml ol thc r t . . 8 cl\i \ e d l h r o , r gb y r h . y o L . I B . ' d , r l r .t p a' s . . 1 h in in dcrling wnh both lhe violcnt nrturc of thc dcrrh . ' o dr h cu n n r r u LD : , r - r o f r h eJ f J r ho t . , \ i o l i n g l r J c l u r l l r cp o i r r .' o , l " cn c c dr o b c c o t n ' \ r n r r d i f f c r c n r r o cuhuft prrctices in rclation to mourning and b c ' ! J v ( n r c D rJ u f I ' u d r l ( r ( p . . ( t i ( e i n u L i J , r l . . .r' cxpcricrcc losstluough of hoDricidc. 't'c f i n . . 1 ' F r ' 1 ' 1 " : (c J i u o n .D L \ . d S o g o p x . n ''tlc.lth rnd .Anccstors , dcrivcs ftom rhc fictd oi mdxopology dcrls with thc renliry. and cormologicl .crrrlny. nnd prcvulcncc .rncc.rir Uehcfin rl , of SouthAfricrn contcxt,highlighting rho cxp$icnlirl rcxlity poi cd ro by rhc c|scs prcsenred thc of cullurulbclicf thrt issues hcrtlrh artribnrabtc of arc I

theidueDcc of drc anccstors thc fotuncsofthc ovcr living. The pefbnnarce of rltual ceremonies to appease ancestors the and cnsurc thcir protcclion could thus,in .elatior to heuldr.be rcgdcd !s. nr nedical tcminology, r lrcrcquisitc prcvcntativc neasure. Withir multicultural connunilics and p . r . i . . . ' r l yt \ e r r f e h : J h . n r i r r i o n \ .I ' o $ c \ c r . r "nd levelsof etlmocendcity SoNh Afti0a, contliarcc in w i r hc l l L r . . r . ' J i r . n n r\ ! t t ( n ' . u n b r l ( r u l l u r " l l . o r t l i l , . P r o , . o , i r g r h e h p rL \ . '/'\1 I . u , l r |r- r S o u r l , A . r . . i n p " p , r l . ' . r " . h ) 1 . .i,l : r . r ' r B r ,r p p . t o , . ' . . , n . p t r e \ e n J \ ( r i r u r l .r | l , . . B w d , , .t fguesi rcljcs10a larSccxtcnlon edtrcation orlented towads pronrotirg clltural lolcra cc. aDdhcncc both irxra and inler-cLilturrl uD(lcrstaDdine ollnd rcspcct for culLurc-stcoific t.aditiorNand bellefs.amonga A , h r . ' 1 rl ! l ' o t ' c c o r I r . p n u e r . 'n . - . - n r - l i . i . . . c i of the.1AlP. edniondrass $ I oloscwith I book this r c \ . c $ T l . . t r i n rr i , a . . : . . . n . 1 . e ln F f ) ( r o l o C . l l . u v c l r c di n f r o f p s : o n . . l, n . i n i n E ' , r J p . . r r i c r ' l . . r , l . intocstcd in intcgrative lhcrq.utic rpprodohcr. rcvicwshn Rory Owc 's n)ostrecentbook,"ldlk. . A c r j o n . l . l c f ( 2 0 0 9 ) L \ h i c h n e r . r i J u J- h i s I r n o J c o f i n E n r i . { r l ' U i i _ r c g . . r . vtc 5 ) c l ' o r l ( r . ' f , r l . andexplores potcntial lltcilimte its to rrlpprccheDrenr ^ l r r . , c h ' n r nu r i , . n , 1 lp s ) d r o J y n d n ir h e r r p ). ' n d c r cogtrirlvc bchavioml dreropy. O n b e l , r l , f r h cl i J , r o r . tB o . , r dI, c o n c l u Jrcr u r r l , s i I l,.pe Llr.i ,hc eolrci,. of rhis cdri^n , f rhr //,., p ' u \ i J ( r n i n ' c r - , , ; n g. . n d i n s p n r r in r l b o J y . . f I n - l u J r s l r p l. t r ) D hl o \ o p h i c . . ln J m c r h , , 1 ,S i J r l n + ' , r s i g h r .h r l t r l l r f r o v cr i . r c u l i 1 ) . u r ^ i n E ( L r ! l r c _ d e . . v o f-r,r{ I n t l y m r l c ) o 0 \ v c " J e x n d| ^ n J d .

Profcssor prcviolsl)'ofRhodcsUnivc,siry crtrham*owD, Chistophd Storcs, id SoulhAflico and curently Prclossor Psychology thc Frcllry of Hunraniries rhc Univcsiiy of of in rr Johanncsburg, enjoyed ]cngthy has a academjc resealch and c.rccr.jr thc couse oi. whichhe hastaught rheareas physioloeicrl, iu of clinical,forlsic,&,cialaDd rcsc.rchpsychology. lle is Vice Prcsidcnr rhc SouthAlricun Associatior Psychothrapy !.sr Chairoran of for and of theSonthAfricanSocicty ClinicalPsychology. for Ediiotsitchlel ol t]hc Indo-PaciJic Jarn.l aI Ph.nonv@lo|r sincc 2003, he is also on thc cditorirl panelsof rwo othu on linc joumals. Using bodr Dalunl sciendficquantilatiyc mcthodologies and phcnonDnological aPlroaehcs. Prolessor Sloncs rcsclrchinreresrs in drc arcls of idendry,alLnldes s a.e and attilrde changc.phenolrenolosical pExjs .nd methodolosies. lbnonnal psychology and psychotherapy, spiriluality religiolr exlcdcncc. all ofwhich urcrshc haspublished ard h exrensively. A$ocrtc An psychologist, profcssor Fcllowol theBntish Psychologic.l Society. with whichhe is alsorcgisrcrcd a Chtutered as Stoncs regisiered is with thc SouthAtiican trotcssion.lboardas botha rcscuch.nd a ctinlcrt psychotogist, und conducts pdt line clinical practiccwith paiicular focusoD adolescents. a youngldutts ind tadilles. as well as oflc.inglon8 termpsychothcmpy.In addition. is rcgululy c.lled on ro $ervcas an cxpot wirnes i in medicohe (civil andcnninal)courlproceedingr. lcgal

Thc 1PlP ir . joinr p6,.( oa rhc HuD3nnis Fi.{l.y oa drr u\u sntrjil4llElllg in sd|h Atl]. 3nd Ed,,h ao,io Uin dsrv,r F<lrlr of ResioDi P,.asrionil Srudi4 i,, Aosftil;. ThE Joenrn! r ruL <r ro..prngk ud mr.ot he reprodr..d $ vholc u D !-. -. -,r i{JuN qrhoor rh .+rts tsnn$,on of tl]e poLtrh*. Ii tnlo-pt.i. Ja"L)al./ pLrx,Dflolq9.r, a/p/p). b.1ou.d r rn3 irp!!s.