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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG TRUNG TM O TO BU CHNH VIN THNG II

Ti liu lp o to t xa

O TH NH GI V LP T ADSL
Gio vin thc hin: ng Quc Anh

Thng 3 nm 2005 1

Ti liu tham kho


DSL Advances Thomas Starr, Massimo Sorbara, John M. Cioffi, Peter J. Silverman Prentice Hall PTR 2002 ISBN: 0-13-093810-6 The DSL Source Book The Comprehensive Resource On Digital Subscriber Line Technology Paradyne Corporation 2000 ISBN: 09706170-0-3 ADSL, VDSL, and Multicarrier Modulation John A. C. Bingham John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2000 ISBN: 0-471-20072-7 ADSL, thc t, gii php v trin khai ng Quc Anh Trung tm o to Bu chnh Vin thng II 2002

Mc lc
Ti liu tham kho .........................................................................................2 Mc lc ...........................................................................................................3 Chng 1: K THUT ADSL......................................................................11 xDSL...........................................................................................................11 Lch s hnh thnh xDSL v cc phin bn xDSL ...................................11 K thut iu ch dng trong xDSL .........................................................15 Cc thnh phn ca mt h thng xDSL.................................................17 Cng ngh ADSL ......................................................................................20 K thut c bn ADSL .............................................................................20 Kh nng ca ADSL ...........................................................................22 Cng ngh ADSL................................................................................23 Tiu chun ho ADSL..............................................................................24 ADSL Forum.......................................................................................25 ANSI ...................................................................................................26 ETSI....................................................................................................26 ITU-T ..................................................................................................26 Cc website v ADSL.........................................................................27 Cu hnh mng ADSL ..............................................................................28

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cu hnh mng ADSL.........................................................................28 Kt ni ADSL G.dmt ti thu bao .......................................................31 Kt ni ADSL G.lite ti thu bao.........................................................31 Cc k thut c trng dng trong ADSL................................................32 K thut chng nhiu xung .................................................................32 Bit swapping .......................................................................................33 Sp xp tn s....................................................................................36 Nghi thc kt ni ADSL ...........................................................................37 nh gi cc nghi thc mng dng cho ADSL ..................................37 Mi trng ly ATM lm c s ..........................................................39 Ethernet trc tip qua ADSL ..............................................................47 Cu hi t kim tra...................................................................................50 Chng 2: O TH NH GI MNG CP NG S DNG CHO ADSL .......................................................................................................................54 c tnh mng cp ng..........................................................................54 Cp ng trong thi i mi ....................................................................54 Hin trng cp ng ...........................................................................54 Nhng thay i ...................................................................................55 Hng v tng lai ............................................................................55 c tnh ng dy cp ng .................................................................56 Mch tng ng ng dy thu bao...........................................56 Tr khng c tnh .............................................................................56

Mc lc

Phi hp tr khng.............................................................................58 Suy hao phn hi (Return Loss).........................................................61 Suy hao chn (Insertion Loss)............................................................62 Cn bng dc (Longitudinal Balance) ................................................62 Xuyn knh (Crosstalk) ......................................................................64 Tc ng ca mi trng ........................................................................67 Nhiu trng (White Noise) ..................................................................70 Mt nhiu (Noise Density) .............................................................71 Nhiu thc (Real Noise).....................................................................72 Nhiu xung (Impulse Noise) ...............................................................73 Ngt (Interruptions).............................................................................75 Li cp ng ............................................................................................76 Cc loi li trn ng dy ................................................................76 nh v li ng dy .........................................................................79 o th cp ng.......................................................................................82 Tiu chun o th ng dy thu bao ..................................................82 Tiu chun quc t .............................................................................82 Tiu chun ngnh...............................................................................82 Cc tiu chun thit b ADSL..............................................................82 o th tng t.......................................................................................83 Suy hao phn hi................................................................................83 Nhiu ..................................................................................................83 5

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Xuyn knh u gn...........................................................................83 Cn bng dc .....................................................................................84 o TDR...............................................................................................84 o th nhiu my o ..........................................................................85 Suy hao chn......................................................................................85 Xuyn knh u xa.............................................................................86 nh gi tc bit..............................................................................86 Ngt qung .........................................................................................86 Cc php o dng cu kt ni............................................................86 Kh nng khng nhiu........................................................................87 Mt ph cng sut .........................................................................87 Cc phng php o th khc................................................................87 o th s............................................................................................87 Ghi li h s cho mng ......................................................................88 o tham s .........................................................................................89 nh gi cp ng ...................................................................................89 T chc vic nh gi mng cp ng....................................................89 Nhng yu t cn lu ......................................................................89 S dng my o .................................................................................90 Chin lc nh gi ................................................................................93 Giai on nh gi trc hp ng ...................................................93 nh gi hng lot trc hp ng ...................................................98 6

Mc lc

nh gi c chn la .......................................................................100 nh gi ngay khi lp t .................................................................101 nh gi ngay khi bo dng ..........................................................103 Thit b o th ADSL..............................................................................104 Thit b o th ADSL cm tay................................................................104 Dng c o th tng t.......................................................................104 So snh my o TDR thng thng v my o Dynatel 965DSP ca 3M.....................................................................................................104 My o in dung .............................................................................105 My o tm cun ti, nhnh r ..........................................................105 Dng c o th dch v s ADSL ..........................................................106 Cc loi my o khc ............................................................................107 My o cht lng ng dy.........................................................107 Dng c kim tra tn hiu thoi.........................................................107 Cu hi t kim tra.................................................................................108 Chng 3: LP T ADSL ......................................................................111 Lp t ng dy.................................................................................111 u chuyn ti dn MDF .......................................................................111 i vi thu bao c yu cu s dng in thoi..............................111 i vi thu bao khng c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL ................................................................................................112 o th ng dy .................................................................................113 Lp t trong nh ...................................................................................115 7

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Thu bao khng s dng in thoi ......................................................115 Thu bao s dng in thoi.................................................................116 Gii thiu Modem router ADSL.............................................................120 c tnh phn cng SpeedTouchTM Pro 530.........................................120 c tnh k thut modem ADSL SpeedTouchTM Pro 530 ......................120 H tr dch v SpeedTouchTM Pro 530..................................................120 Qun l SpeedTouchTM Pro 530 ............................................................121 Dng bn ngoi SpeedTouchTM Pro 530 ...............................................121 Ci t modem ADSL .............................................................................123 Nhng lu khi ci t modem ADSL ..................................................123 Ci t IP cho my tnh trong mng ......................................................123 Vi h iu hnh Windows XP ......................................................123 Vi h iu hnh Windows ME .....................................................127 Ci t modem router qua web server trn modem router....................130 X l s c lp t .................................................................................133 Thu thp thng tin..................................................................................133 Cc sai hng nghim trng ti my mc ca khch hng .....................134 Cc sai hng nghim trng ng dy cp ng ..............................135 Cu hi t kim tra.................................................................................136 Ch mc ......................................................................................................139

Mc lc

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Tng v v hai con ti

10

Chng 1: K THUT ADSL


xDSL Cng ngh ADSL

xDSL
Lch s hnh thnh xDSL v cc phin bn xDSL

Hnh 1.1 xDSL theo dng thi gian Lch s hnh thnh ca DSL v cc phin bn ca n c minh ho vn tt trn hnh v 1.1. Nm 1985 Bell Labs pht minh ra phng php truyn dch v s trn di tn s cao ca dy in thoi xon i truyn thng. 11

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Nm 1990 cc cng ty in thoi bt u s dng HDSL trn 2 i dy thay th cc ng truyn T1 trn dy xon i vi u im khng cn s dng cc trm tip vn (repeater). HDSL khng cn phi c cc trm tip vn hay cc iu kin c bit cho ng dy. Ngay c mt s nhnh r cng c th tn ti trong cc lin kt HDSL vi s lng khng qu 2 v di cng phi b gii hn. iu hp dn ca HDSL l gi thnh h v HDSL lm cp ng c v nh cp quang trong chng mc tin cy v t s sai bit kh hn cp ng trong T1/E1 nhiu. Nm 1995 cc cng ty in thoi trin khai ADSL thm nhp th trng video. ANSI tiu chun ho thnh cng ADSL vi tiu chun T1.413. Sau ADSL khng cnh tranh ni vi truyn hnh cp ng trc, truyn hnh v tinh nn b xp x v cui cng c s dng li rt hiu qu vi truy xut Internet tc cao nh bn cht bt i xng ca n. Bng 1.1 Cc loi ng dy thu bao s
Tn V.22 V.32 V.34 ISDL Integrated Digital 160 kbps Subscriber Line High data rate 1,544 kbps Digital Subscriber 2,048 kbps Line Single-line Digital 1,544 kbps Subscriber Line 2,048 kbps Asymmetric Digital 1,5 n Subscriber Line Mbps 16 n kbps VDSL Very high rate 13 n Digital Subscriber Mbps Line 1,5 n Mbps Song cng Dch v ISDN cho thng tin thoi v s liu Mng cung cp T1/E1, truy xut WAN, LAN, truy xut server Nh HDSL nhng thm phn truy xut i xng ngha Voice-grade modem Tc d liu Ch ng dng Thng tin s liu da trn PSTN

1200 bit/s n Song cng 33600 bit/s

HDSL

Song cng Song cng Song cng Song cng

SDSL

ADSL

9 Downstream Truy xut Internet, video demand, Upstream interactive 640 multimedia, truy xut LAN t xa 52 Downstream Nh ADSL nhng thm HDT 23 Upstream

n nm 1998 th tiu chun ADSL T1.413 c nng cp thnh release 2 vi kh nng thch ng tc v lng overhead gim xung. Cng nm ny vic tiu chun ho SDSL thnh cng. Thng t nm 1998 ETSI ban hnh tiu chun u tin v cc chc nng ca VDSL: TS 101 207-1. 12

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Vo nm 1998, nhm cng tc ADSL ton cu (UAWG: Universal ADSL Working Group) c thnh lp bao gm cc t chc hng u trong cng nghip vin thng mng v my tnh c nhn pht trin mt dng ADSL tc thp, gi thnh h c th nhanh chng ginh ly th trng. Kt qu cng vic ca nhm cng tc ny l mt chng loi ADSL da trn tiu chun mi l G.lite ra i. G.lite c ITU-T chp nhn khuyn ngh G.922.2 vo thng 6 nm 1999 v c th cung cp tc ln n 1,5 Mbps theo chiu downstream v 512 kbps theo chiu upstream. G.lite c thit k cung cp dch v ny qua ng dy in thoi m khng cn b tch dch v thoi n thun POTS m cc gii php ADSL tc y vn cn n.? Mt phn ca tiu chun G.lite l k thut gi l "fast retrain" gii hn nng lc dng d liu upstream ca tn hiu G.lite khi t hp in thoi ang s dng ti thiu ho xuyn knh v sau phc hi li nng lc ca dng tn hiu upstream khi t hp c gc tr li. Thng 6 nm 1999 ITU-T ban hnh cng lc hai khuyn ngh u tin v ADSL l G.992.1 cn gi l G.dmt v G.992.2 cn gi l G.lite. Cng nm ANSI ban hnh tiu chun T1.418 cho HDSL2 l loi HDSL s dng mt i dy. Thng 2 nm 2001 ETSI ra tip tiu chun TS 101 207-2 v c tnh my thu pht VDSL. Thng 11 nm 2001 ITU-T ban hnh khuyn ngh u tin v VDSL: G.993.1. Thng 7 nm 2002 ITU-T ban hnh tiu chun u tin v ADSL2 (prepublication) trong khuyn ngh G.992.3 v G.992.4. ADSL2 ra i nhm ci tin tt c cc ng dng trn ADSL v c thoi v s liu. Ngoi hai ch truyn dn trn ADSL l ch truyn dn ng b STM v ch truyn dn bt ng b ATM nh ADSL th h u tin ADSL2 cn h tr thm ch truyn dn th ba l ch truyn dn paket v h tr thoi khng gi ho gi l thoi knh ho (CV: Channelized Voice). Thoi knh ho c a vo dng d liu ca ADSL2 m khng cn qua b IAD. Ngoi ra ADSL2 cn thay i v di tn truyn dn theo hai chiu upstream v downstream. Nh cc ci thin ny m tc truyn dn ca cc ng dy di 3 dm tng t 560Kbps/276Kbps ln n 1560Kbps/596Kbps theo th t tng ng cho chiu downstream/upstream. di ng dy cho mt tc c nh tng c 300m. Vi nhng ci tin nh vy, ADSL2 em n dch v cho n 99% cc ng dy vng thnh th. Hn na ADSL2 li tng hp tt vi ADSL c tiu chun ho trong ITUT G.992.1. Mc tiu ca qun l ngun ADSL2 l thc hin tit kim nng lng cho tnh nng "Always on" ca ADSL. Vi hng triu modem ADSL qun l

13

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

ngun cc ch standby, sleep nh PC s tit kim lng in ng k. ADSL2 c 3 ch hot ng ngun l L0, L2 v L3. L0: cp ngun cho modem t tc d liu cao nht. L2: hn ch ngun ti a ti ATU-C khi lu lng Internet qua modem gim. L3: Hn ch ngun ti a ti ATU-C v ATU-R khi khch hng khng s dng ADSL2: ch sleep/standby, khi ng li phi mt 3 giy L2 l tin b ln nht ca ADSL2 S chuyn i trng thi qua li gia cc ch ngun L0 v L2 l hon ton t ng, ngi s dng khng bit c v khng gy ra sai bit cng nh khng ngt qung hot ng ca cc modem ADSL. Thng 5 nm 2003 ITU-T a ra khuyn ngh G.992.5 dnh cho ADSL2+. ReachDSL l cng ngh DSL i xng p ng nhu cu ca thu bao v ng dy DSL tc cao cc khong cch xa. b sung cho cng ngh ADSL tiu chun (DMT hay G.lite), cc sn phm ReachDSL cung cp tc d liu t 128 kbps n 1 Mbps v c thit k lm vic vi iu kin ng dy v i dy trong nh d di hn. Mt trong cc li ch ca ReachDSL l khng cn phi lp t cc b tch dch v thoi n thun POTS. iu ny cho php khch hng hon ton c th t lp t cc b microfilter. Khc vi cc h thng ADSL c di vng thu bao gii hn trong khong 6 Km k t tng i, cc h thng ReachDSL m rng dch v n hn 6 500 m v hin nay c cc ng dy vt qu 10 Km. ReachDSL c kh nng tng hp ph tn s. Gii php ReachDSL c s tng hp tn s mc cao. Mt trong cc thnh vin ca gia nh ReachDSL l MVL (Multiple Virtual Lines) l h thng DSL u tin c FCC cng nhn vi ph chun Part 68 ngha l n thn hu vi cc dch v khc trn mng in thoi v bn thn khng phi l mt tc nhn gy nhiu. Cc gii php ReachDSL khc cng ph hp vi tiu chun qun l ph tn s nhm 1 (Spectral Management Class One). ReachDSL c gi thnh sn phm thp v c tc ng, cho php dch v c nh hng khch hng cho cc ng dng khc nhau. Nhng thun li k trn rt quan trng iu chnh gi thnh v nh hng th trng dch v nhm n cc khu vc doanh nghip v ngi tiu dng. Mt phin bn mi nht ca DSL l VDSL (Very High Speed DSL). Cc h thng VDSL vn ang khng 14

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

ngng c pht trin nn khng th ni c chnh xc kh nng ti a ca chng. Tuy nhin, cc tiu chun d nh cho dng d liu upstream l 52 Mbps v i xng l 26 Mbps. B li tc cao ny l di vng thu bao rt hn ch, khong 330 m vi tc cao nht v c s thch ng tc gim xung khi di vng thu bao tng ln. Nhng hn ch ny lm cho vic a vo s dng VDSL dn ti s dng mt m hnh hi khc vi cc h thng DSL truyn thng. Trong m hnh VDSL cc b DSLAM c di ra khi tng i ni ht v a v gn thu bao hn. Cc b DSLAM c nui bng cc ng cp quang. Tc cao ca VDSL m ra mt c hi cho cc nh cung cp dch v a ra th h dch v mi ca DSL, vi video tr thnh dch v c s. tc 52 Mbps mt ng dy VDSL c th cung cp nhiu knh video MPEG-2 cht lng cao v ngay c mt hay mt vi knh truyn hnh nt cao (HDTV: High Definition Television). Nhiu nh cung cp dch v bt u th nghim cc h thng VDSL cung cp nhng dch v ny vi u bn pha thu bao ca VDSL dng nh mt my truyn hnh cp cng ng thi vi cc dch v d liu t my tnh c nhn. Gi thit c bn ca DSL l tr thnh mt cng ngh vng thu bao m cc thit b tng thch c b tr 2 u vng thu bao cp ng bo m cho nhiu cng ngh DSL mi s c a ra theo thi gian. Mc tiu chin lc ca cc nh cung cp dch v l bo m s chn la mt m hnh hay mt cng ngh DSL no cho dch v ngy nay s khng gii hn kh nng theo kp cc cng ngh mi trong tng lai. Nh vy l c nhiu dng DSL c th chn la. S la chn mt cng ngh v b qua cc cng ngh khc l ph thuc vo mt lot cc yu t t loi dch v, dng ch yu ca mng hin ti, d nh ca khch hng v cc dch v trong tng lai.

K thut iu ch dng trong xDSL


Vo cui nm 1992, 3 loi m ng dy c kh nng nht trong vic cung cp cho cc dch v video tc cao xut hin l: QAM: Quadrature Amplitude and Phase Modulation, mt loi m ng dy dng trong k thut MODEM t 20 nm qua. CAP lc u c a ra cho HDSL v thc ra l mt bin th ca QAM. DMT: Discrete MultiTone l k thut ng dy c AT&T Bell Labs ng k bn quyn (nhng khng s dng) t hn 20 nm nay. Khng ging nh 2B1Q s dng k thut tn hiu di nn (baseband) pht tn hiu gm c tn s 0 Hz (tn hiu mt chiu) cc loi m ng dy s dng di thng di (passband) v c th c thit k hot ng trn bt 15

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

k tm tn s no. ADSL ngay t u c thit k cho dch v dn dng nn cn tn ti c lp vi dch v in thoi thun ty. V vy, thuc tnh di tn ca ADSL phi c tn dng tch (hay ghp phn tn FDM) vi POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), knh thng tin upstream t ngi s dng dch v ti mng v knh thng tin downstream t mng ti ngi s dng dch v. Ngoi k thut FDM mt vi cng ngh DSL bao gm c DMT c thit k cung cp k thut trit ting di cho cc knh upstream v downstream ti thiu ho vic s dng tn s cao v ti u ho di vng thu bao. Tuy nhin vic s dng cc h thng trit ting di ny s gim khi s dch v cng loi trong mt b cp ngy cng tng.

Hnh 1.2 Tn hiu DMT ca ADSL Vo nm 1992 v u nm 1993 nhm lm vic ANSI T1E1.4 (ANSI T1E1.4 Working Group) chn mt loi m ng dy n cho tiu chun ADSL Video Dial Tone. Nhm lm vic tp trung vo cc dch v video khc nhau t video ghi sn nn sn (pre-recorded, pre-compressed) MPEG-1 (Motion Picture Experts Group) cho n h thng c th cung cp n 4 knh video MPEG-1 cng lc hay mt knh MPEG-2 m ho thi gian thc tc 6 Mbps. S tp trung cui cng hng n vic ti a ho di vng thu bao vi nhng tc xc nh ti u cho video. Bn cht video ng b bit yu cu mt tc d liu c nh trnh s suy gim cht lng hnh nh video. Mc d v l thuyt cc loi m ng dy u c hiu qu nh nhau nhng ch c DMT l m ng dy u tin c chn dng cung cp dch v 6 Mbps v c chn lm tiu chun chnh thc cho ADSL dng cho dch v Video Dial Tone. Bn cnh cc h thng da trn CAP cng c s dng trn ton th gii cho cc dch v ADSL v Video Dial Tone. Trn nhiu th trng Video Dial Tone kh c th cnh tranh gi c vi truyn hnh cp v truyn hnh v tinh nn n ang bt u nhanh chng bin khi th trng Bc M (Hoa K, Gia N i v M Ty C). Tiu chun gn y nht dnh cho ADSL c ITU (International Telecommunication Union) a ra trong khuyn ngh G.dmt hay G.992 v ANSI (T1.413 Issue 2) cng da trn k thut DMT v l c s cho hu ht cc dch v ADSL ngy nay. Tuy nhin, mt vi nh cung cp vn cn s dng h thng da vo k thut CAP trn mng ca mnh.

16

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Khi ng dng l video ng b bit ng dy DSL phi hot ng tc c nh. Tuy nhin d liu li hot ng mt tm tc rng hn. Tc ng duy nht l tc cng chm s cng mt nhiu thi gian vn chuyn cc file ln. V vy, vi ng dng s liu ta c th tu chn gim tc ng dy cho php dch v c cung cp cho cc ng dy thu bao di hn. C CAP v DMT u c sa i ti u ho dch v da trn c s tng vng thu bao v ng dng ny gi l ng dy thu bao s thch ng tc (RADSL: Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line). Cng ngh RADSL cung cp tu chn cho php my thu, pht bt u bng cch tng dn tc ng dy n tc ti a c th t c m vn tin cy trn mt ng dy c th. Trong khi c tnh ny ban u c thit k n gin ho vic lp t dch v th n cng gip cc nh cung cp dch v mt tu chn gim bt mc dch v khi cht lng vng thu bao gim. Ngy nay c nhiu cng ngh DSL khc cng cung cp tc bin i v cc nh cung cp dch v s dng chc nng thay i tc kim tra mc chp nhn i vi cc dch v khc nhau. Phng php iu ch DMT tho mn c cc yu cu ca VDSL v thc s hiu qu hn nhiu so vi cc phng php iu ch QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) hay CAP (Carrierless Amplitude-Phase modulation). V phng php iu ch DMT thc hin gn nh ti u trn tt c cc knh truyn nn n vt qua cc vn cn bn ca ng dy ngay c khi gp mt vng tn s b nhiu trm trng. DMT d dng khc phc c xuyn nhiu RF, thch ng vi cc knh truyn thay i v c nhiu, h tr c tt c cc tc truyn, h tr c vic chuyn thng tin i xng v bt i xng, trnh tc ng n di tn v tuyn nghip d v tng hp ph tt vi cc phin bn DSL khc.

Cc thnh phn ca mt h thng xDSL


Trong mt mng DSL in hnh cn phi thit lp mt vi loi thit b mng s liu thc hin cc dch v s liu tc cao. Phn chnh ca mng DSL l mt DSLAM a dch v c b tr tng i ni ht v mt im kt thc DSL c lp t vn phng hoc nh ring ca thu bao. Thng cc im kt thc DSL l cc b MODEM, cc b nh tuyn (router) hay cc thit b truy xut tch hp (IAD: Integrated Access Device) c kh nng chp nhn c thoi v s liu. Tc truyn dn c th ln n 8 Mbps hoc hn na ty thuc vo mt s yu t bao gm c thit b, di vng thu bao v tnh trng cht lng vng thu bao. Giao tip truyn dn chnh cho h thng DSLAM thng thng l T1/E1, T3/E3, OC-1, OC-3, OC-12, STS-1 v STS-3. Mng thu bao ni ht tn dng mng thu bao in thoi lin i lm c s. cung cp kh nng kt ni gia cc nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng dch v cn phi lp t thm nhiu thit b nh cc h thng chuyn 17

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

mch frame relay, ATM v cc b nh tuyn. Cc thit b chuyn mch ATM ang ngy cng c s dng nhiu v cc th h DSLAM sp ti s bao gm c chuyn mch ATM. Mt khi nim cn cp n l nt truy nhp (AN: Access Node) l ni t cc thit b chuyn mch v nh tuyn. Ty thuc vo quy m ca mng thu bao v gi thnh lin quan n vic chuyn vn m c th b tr mt hay nhiu AN trn mng thu bao ni ht. Vi cc th h DSLAM mi c tch hp c AN kt hp vi cc h thng chuyn mch ATM. DSLAM c b tr cnh tng i ni ht v l nn tng ca gii php DSL. V mt chc nng DSLAM tp hp lu lng d liu t cc vng thu bao DSL vo xng sng ca mng kt ni vi phn cn li ca mng. DSLAM cung cp dch v vn chuyn gi s liu, t bo s liu hay cc ng dng ch mch qua vic tp trung cc ng dy DSL vo cc ng ra 10Base-T, 100Base-T, T1/E1 T3/E3 hay ATM. tng cng hn na chc nng tp hp lu lng d liu t cc thu bao ngi ta pht trin cu hnh DSLAM hai cp. Khi tp trung lu lng d liu t cc DSLAM cn gi l DSLAM subs ngi ta b tr cc DSLAM DSLAM Hub. Ngy nay mt vi DSLAM c nhit i ho c th lp t nhng vng khng c iu ho nhit . iu ny cho php lp t cc DSLAM ti cc remote terminal hay cc t t bn l ng thay v phi lp t ti tng i ni ht. Kh nng di chuyn DSLAM ti nhng v tr xa tng i (cng vi cng ngh vng thu bao m rng) lm tng nhanh nh hng ca cc nh cung cp dch v, cho php cung cp dch v n nhng khch hng m bnh thng DSL khng th vn ti c. Ngoi chc nng tp trung th ty thuc vo tng dch v c cung cp mt DSLAM c th c thm cc chc nng khc. Trong mt vi trng hp mt DSLAM c th c kh nng c yu cu m cc gi s liu thc hin mt tc v no . V d, h tr vic gn a ch IP ng bng DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) mi gi phi c xem xt chuyn n ch ng ca n. Thit b kt thc (endpoint) DSL MODEM/router l thit b u cui pha ngi s dng dng kt ni ngi s dng dch v vi vng thu bao DSL. Kt ni kt thc DSL thng l 10Base-T, V.35, ATM hay T1/E1. Cc sn phm i mi ca ngi s dng cng h tr cc phng php giao tip internal khc nh USB, IEEE 1394 hay PCI. Thm vo thit b kt thc DSL ti CPE (Customer Premises Equipment: thit b ti sn khch hng) ang c pht trin vi cc cng c thit k h tr cho tng ng dng ring bit nh cng RJ11 dnh cho dch v thoi, cng video dnh cho dch v video da trn DSL v cc giao tip mng mi nh Home PNA (Home Phoneline Networking Alliance) hay cc giao tip mng nh Ethernet v tuyn 802.11. Cc thit b kt thc DSL ca ti sn khch hng c mt s cu hnh khc nhau ty thuc vo dch v c th c cung cp. Ngoi vic cung cp chc nng c bn ca mt MODEM DSL nhiu thit b kt thc 18

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

cn c thm mt s chc nng nh nh tuyn, ghp knh TDM hay ghp knh ATM. Cc thit b DSL endpoint phi c cc c tnh sau: c kh nng cung cp thng k qun l lp 1, lp 2 nh t s SNR chng hn, c kh nng cung cp thng k MIB lp 3 nh m gi chng hn, phi hon ton qun l c t pha cc nh cung cp dch v m khng cn c nhn vin n tn ni, h tr thc hin gim st trc tip nhanh chng d sai hng, cch ly v thc hin sa cha, c kh nng ti t xa cc phn mm nng cp, giao tip tt vi cc thit b ca hng khai thc trung gian nh thit b truy xut tch hp IAD chng hn. Cc thit b kt thc nh tuyn em li s mm do cho IP t v tr khch hng. Vi mt thit b kt thc IP-aware c th to ra v duy tr c cc mng ni b, cho php phn on hiu qu cc LAN t xa cng nh vic nhn dng dng d liu downstream l multicast hay unicast. Vng a dch v cng c th c cc ngi s dng LAN t xa tn dng cng lc. Vng a dch v tr nn quan trng khi ta c mt nhm ln cc ngi s dng cn truy nhp cc nh cung cp dch v khc nhau. Cc b tch dch v (splitter) POTS c lp thm c tng i ni ht v pha ngi s dng dch v cho php s dng vng thu bao cp ng truyn dn ng thi d liu tc cao v mt knh in thoi khi dch v da trn DSL ang s dng c h tr cc dch v ny. Cc b tch dch v POTS thng c 2 cu hnh: cu hnh n c thit k lp nh ring thu bao v cu hnh nhiu dy c thit k lp t tng i ni ht. Lu rng trong khi nhiu s m ng dy DSL h tr mt knh dch v in thoi n thun POTS th mt s s m ng dy DSL khc li khng h tr loi dch v ny. B tch dch v in thoi n thun POTS c th l dng tch cc hoc dng th ng: B tch dch v in thoi n thun POTS th ng khng cn phi c cp thm ngun in bn ngoi. B tch dch v in thoi n thun POTS th ng h tr cc dch v thng trc nh s in thoi khn cp 911 (

19

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hp chng quc Hoa K) ngay c khi ngun in nh n b mt DSLAM hay MODEM DSL. B tch dch v in thoi n thun POTS tch cc phi c cp ngun t bn ngoi cho in thoi v tn hiu DSL hot ng trn i dy cp ng. Khi mt in th mun duy tr cc dch v thng trc nh s in thoi khn cp 911 ( Hp chng quc Hoa K) ngay c khi ngun in nh n b mt DSLAM hay MODEM DSL phi c thm ngun in d phng. Ngy nay, cc loi DSL nh G.dmt ADSL, G.lite, ReachDSL v RADSL c th c lp t m khng cn b tch dch v in thoi POTS ring thit b ti sn khch hng (CPE: Customer Premises Equipment). Thay vo l cc thit b th ng gi l cc b microfilter c ngi s dng gn gia mi thit b in thoi n thun (nh my in thoi, my in thoi khng dy, my tr li in thoi, my fax nhm 3 hay MODEM tng t) vi ng dy. Mch microfilter thc cht ch l mt b lc thng thp cho php tn hiu di tn m thoi i qua v loi b tn hiu trong di tn DSL loi tr xuyn knh. u im ca phng php ny l trong khi cc b tch dch v POTS truyn thng c ngi lp t ca cc cng ty cung cp dch v lp thit b giao tip mng (NID: Network Interface Device) th cc b microfilter c ngi s dng t gn d dng khi phi gi cho cng ty cung cp n lp t. Vi cc loi dch v da trn DSL thc hin qua cc kt ni in thoi n thun POTS th y l chn la quan trng nht khi lp t.

Cng ngh ADSL


K thut c bn ADSL
Cng ngh ADSL l cng ngh bt i xng. ADSL cho php truyn theo chiu downstream t pha nh cung cp dch v ti khch hng vi tc d liu cao hn chiu upstream t pha khch hng ti nh cung cp dch v. c tnh bt i xng ny cng vi tnh nng lun kt ni (always-on) lm cho ADSL tr nn l tng cho truy xut Internet, dch v video-ondemand v truy xut mng LAN t xa. Ngi s dng ca nhng ng dng ny thng ti thng tin v nhiu hn l gi d liu i. ADSL thc hin truyn n thu bao vi tc trn 6Mbps v truyn 640kbps theo c hai chiu.

20

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Hnh 1.3 Kt ni ADSL Tc ny nhanh hn tc modem quay s n c trm ln m khng cn thay cp mi. Tht vy, ADSL lm thay i mng thng tin cng cng hin nay t ch ch ti c thoi, vn bn v cc hnh nh phn gii thp tr thnh h thng em li a phng tin k c video cho mi nh ngay t th k 20.
Internet Access Server

Central Office POTS 1

Customer 1 Access Node M U X ADSL 1 Customer n ADSL n POTS n ADSL n New Services ADSL 1 New Services

Work-athome Server

TCP/IP Router

Video-ondemand Server

ATM Switch

Info & Advertiser Server

Hnh 1.4 Mng ADSL ADSL s ng mt vai tr quan trng trong thp k ny hay s tr thnh ph bin khi cc cng ty in thoi cung cp cc thng tin nh video v a phng tin. Mun lp t cp mi dnh ring cho dch v s liu tc cao phc v tt c cc thu bao trong tng lai phi mt hng chc nm. Thnh cng ca cc dch v ny ph thuc vo s thu bao c th phc v ti a trong ch mt vi nm. Bng cch phc v cc dch v video theo danh mc, cung ng CD-ROM qua mng, mng LAN cng tc, Internet n tn nh ring v doanh nghip nh ADSL s gip cc cng ty in thoi v cc cng ty cung cp dch v thm nhp c vo th trng ny. 21

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Kh nng ca ADSL ng dy ADSL kt ni modem ADSL mi u cui ng dy in thoi xon i, to ra ba knh thng tin ring bit bao gm mt knh downstream tc cao, mt knh thng tin song cng tc trung bnh v knh in thoi cn bn. Knh dch v in thoi c tch ra khi modem s bng mt b tch splitter bo m khng lm ngt dch v in thoi ngay c khi dch v ADSL khng hot ng hay c s c. Knh n cng tc cao c tc t 1,5 n 6,1 Mbps v knh song cng c tc t 16 ti 640 kbps. Mi knh s liu ni trn li c phn chia na thnh nhng knh tc thp hn. Modem ADSL cung cp tc d liu theo c tiu chun Bc M ANSI T1 1.544 v tiu chun chu u E1 2.048 Mbps v c th c tr cc ph theo nhiu cp tc khc nhau. Cu hnh ti thiu h tr mt knh 1,5 Mbps hay 2,0 Mbps theo chiu downstream v mt knh song cng 16 kbps. Ngy nay c cc sn phm modem vi chiu downstream ln ti 8 Mbps v tc song cng ln ti 640 kbps cung cp chuyn vn ATM vi cc tc khc nhau v tr i cc phn overhead ca ATM cng nh cc nghi thc IP. Tc chiu down ph thuc vo mt s cc yu t khc nhau bao gm c chiu di ca ng dy thu bao, c dy, s hin din ca nhnh r v xuyn nhiu vo ng dy. Suy hao trn ng dy tng theo di ng dy v tn s tn hiu truyn dn v gim khi tng ng knh dy. B qua tc ng ca cc nhnh r, tc ADSL c lit k bng 1.2. Bng 1.2 Tc ADSL ph thuc vo ng knh v c dy
Tc d liu C (Mbps) (AWG) 1,5 hay 2 1,5 hay 2 6,1 6,1 24 26 24 26 dy Khong cch C (feet) (mm) 18.000 15.000 12.000 9.000 0,5 0,4 0,5 0,4 dy Khong cch (km) 5,5 4,6 3,7 2,7

Mc d s nh gi ca tng cng ty in thoi c th khc nhau nhng kh nng trin khai ADSL c th ln ti 95% s ng dy trn mng ngoi vi tu theo tc ADSL mong mun. Cc khch hng xa hn c th c c ADSL qua cc h thng DLC (Digital Loop Carrier). Khi cc h thng DLC c thng mi ho cc cng ty in thoi c th trong mt thi gian ngn em li dch v bt c ni u. Nhiu ng dng c th hnh dung c cho ADSL bao gm video nn. L tn hiu thi gian thc video s khng th dng cc th tc sa sai mc lin kt s liu hay mc mng nh trong cc h thng thng tin s liu c. V vy, modem ADSL kt hp vi c ch t sa sai gim ng k sai gy 22

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

ra bi nhiu xung (impulse noise). Vic sa sai da trn c s tng k hiu cng gim c cc sai cm do nhiu tc ng trn ng dy. Cng ngh ADSL ADSL ph thuc vo tin b ca k thut x l tn hiu s v phng php sng to dn nhiu thng tin qua ng dy in thoi. Thm vo , c nhiu tin b trong cc k thut cc b bin p, b lc tng t v cc b bin i tn hiu tng t sang s (ADC: analog/digital converters). ng dy in thoi di c th lm suy hao tn hiu tn s 1 MHz (gii hn trn di tn truyn dn tn hiu ADSL) khong 90 dB lm cho tn hiu tng t rt kh nhn c my thu. Nhn bn ngoi, ADSL c v n gin l mt dng s liu ng b nhng tc khc nhau truyn qua ng dy in thoi. Tuy nhin bn trong cc mch transistor mi cho thy ngh thut thit k thit b thu pht ADSL. Hnh 1.6 sau minh ho s khi thit b thu pht ADSL mng.

Hnh 1.5 Cc phng php song cng trong truyn dn tn hiu ADSL to ra cc knh truyn dn modem ADSL chia di tn ca ng dy in thoi bng hai phng php: song cng phn tn v trit tn hiu di (echo cancellation) nh minh ho hnh sau. Song cng phn tn thc hin hai chiu upstream v downstream trn hai di tn khc nhau. Song cng trit tn hiu di truyn chiu upstream chng di tn ln chiu downstream v tch chng ra bng k thut trit tn hiu di c bit trong cc khuyn ngh v modem V.32 v V.34 ca ITU-T. Trong c hai phng php song cng ny ADSL u tch di tn 4 kHz pha DC dnh cho dch v thoi ring ra bng hai b tch dch v POTS splitter hai u ng dy thu bao.

23

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 1.6 S khi modem pht tn hiu ADSL pha mng Trong cu trc ca modem ADSL dng d liu tng cng t chiu downstream, cc knh song cng, cc knh bo dng c t chc thnh cc khi d liu v thc hin m sa sai trn tng khi d liu ny. My thu thc hin sa sai xy ra trong qu trnh truyn dn. Kh nng sa sai ph thuc vo m sa sai v chiu di khi d liu. Modem c th tng cng kh nng sa sai bng cc ghp xen d liu, sa c cc sai cm di hn v nng cao hiu qu truyn dn d liu cng nh video.

Tiu chun ho ADSL

Hnh 1.7 Tng quan gia cc c quan tiu chun ho C bn c quan tiu chun ho quan trng nht thit lp cc tiu chun ADSL. Ngay t ban u, cc nh sn xut bn dn v cc nh sn xut thit b tin hnh cc cc th nghim ton cu. Nhng nh sn xut ni bt nht nhm vi nhau thnh lp din n ADSL gi l ADSL forum vi trang web chnh thc l: http://www.adsl.com. Trong s mt s nh sn xut li 24

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

thnh lp mt phn nhm ca ADSL forum gi l Nhm cng tc ADSL ton cu (UAWG: Universal ADSL Working Group) vi tiu ch l n gin ho ADSL ADSL tr thnh mt sn phm thn thin vi ngi tiu dng hn. Cc nhm cng tc tiu chun ho tip theo l nhng nhm ng cp quc gia bao gm ANSI v ETSI. ANSI l c quan ban hnh tiu chun u tin nht trn th gii v ADSL. Cui cng c quan tiu chun ho ITUT c gng kt hp tiu chun s dng ADSL trn ton th gii. ADSL Forum 39355 California Street, Suite 307, Fremont, CA 94538, Tel: (510) 608-5905, Fax: (510) 608-5917. Bng 1.3 Bn c quan tiu chun ho ADSL quan trng
C quan chun ho ADSL Forum ANSI T1 ETSI ITU-T tiu Nhm cng tc UAWG, SNAG T1E1.4 TM6 Study Group 15 G.992.1 G.992.2 G.992.3 G.992.4 G.992.5 G.994.1 G.995.1 G.996.1 G.997.1 Tiu chun TR-0xx T1.413, Issue 2 Mc tiu Khuyn ngh cng nghip v ADSL Tiu chun ADSL c bn Gn ANSI ging vi

Tiu chun quc t

ADSL Forum c thnh lp nm 1994, l t chc tin phong trong vic tiu chun ho ADSL v lm vic nh mt nhm cng tc kho st cc vn cha c cc c quan tiu chun ho cp ti. Hu ht cc vn k thut c cc thnh vin ca din n quan tm lin quan ti giao thc gia cc mng c k thut khc nhau. Din n c bn phn nhm l: UAWG ni trn, SNAG (System Network Architecture Group), MIB (Management Information Base) v nhm th nghim c trch nhim phi hp mi trng th nghim gia cc thnh vin trong din n v cc nh sn xut thit b khc. Nhiu vn k thut ca ADSL Forum cng l cc vn k thut ca ATM Forum (http://www.atmforum.com/). 25

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

ANSI 11 West 42nd Street, New York, N Y 10036, Tel: (212) 642-4900, Fax: (212) 398-0023. Vin tiu chun ho quc gia Hoa K (ANSI: The American National Standards Institute) c website chnh thc ti http://web.ansi.org bao gm nhiu u ban hp thnh t nhng thnh vin k thut cng nghip cn bn nht. U ban T1 v c bit hn l tiu ban T1E1 ph trch cc tiu chun lin quan ti ADSL. Tiu ban T1E1 chu trch nhim v cc tiu chun v giao tip, cp ngun v bo v cho mng li. Mi tiu ban li c phn thnh nhiu nhm cng tc. Nhm cng tc T1E1.4 mi thc s lm vic vi cc tiu chun ca phng php truy xut xDSL bao gm ADSL. Truy xut DSL bao gm cc tiu chun lp vt l v k thut truyn dn qua cc giao din. Nhm cng tc T1E1.4 ban hnh tiu chun T1.413 dnh cho ADSL c vo nm 1995. Mt phin bn mi ca n l T1.413, release 2 ra i vi s hp tc ca cc tiu chun n gin ho UAWG. ETSI 650 route des Lucioles, 06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France, Tel: +33 (0) 4 92 94 43 95/43 64, Fax: +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16. ETSI c website chnh thc l http://www.etsi.fr cng c phn chia thnh cc nhm v phn nhm. Nhm cng tc truyn dn v ghp knh (TM: The Transmission and Multiplexing group) c phn nhm TM6 tng t nh phn nhm T1E1A. TM6 thng xuyn lm vic vi T1E1.4 bo m tnh tng hp v sau cho cc tiu chun quc t. ITU-T Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, Tel: +41 22 730 5857 hay +41 22 730 5859, Fax: +41 22 730 5853. Lin minh vin thng quc t (ITU: International Telecommunications Union) thng l t chc cui cng tiu chun ho mt k thut mi. Tuy nhin, s kin t chc ny tham gia cc n lc tiu chun ho ADSL ngay t nm 1998 cho thy mong mun hp tc quc t tng ln vi dch v ny. ITU-T ban hnh cc khuyn ngh lin quan ti ADSL trong lot G l lot khuyn ngh v loi nghi thc lp vt l. Cc khuyn ngh hin thi G.DMT l mt bn sao ca T1.413 trong khi G.lite li hp tc nhiu hn vi UAWG. G.test tp trung vo c tnh o th dnh cho xDSL cn G.OAM th ch trng vo cc lnh vc iu hnh, qun l v bo dng xDSL. G.HS tp trung vo cc nghi thc bt tay dng trong giai on m phn lc thit lp phin kt ni. 26

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Cc website v ADSL http://www.dsllife.com http://www.dslforum.org http://www.uawg.org http://www.telechoice.com http://www.xdsl.com http://www.adsl.com http://www.point-topic.co.uk http://www.atis.org http://www.webtorials.com http://www.turnstonesystems.com http://www.telechoice.com http://www.generalbandwidth.com http://www.genband.com http://www.harris.com http://www.acceleratednetworks.com http://www.acti.com http://www.gdc.com http://www.paradyne.com http://www.sageresearch.com http://www.mitel.com http://www.itracs.com 27

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

http://www.northpointdsl.com http://www.efficient.com http://www.virata.com http://www.turnstone.com http://www.telephonyworld.com http://www.telogy.com http://www.techweb.com http://www.alcateldsl.com http://www.aliant.ca http://www.aware.com http://www.videotele.com

Cu hnh mng ADSL


Cu hnh mng ADSL ADSL l mt kin trc mng hon chnh. ADSL khng ch l mt cch truy xut nhanh cc trang web Internet m ADSL cn l mt phng tin h tr mnh m cc dch v s liu tc cao cho ngi s dng gia nh cng nh doanh nghip nh. Nhng dch v ny c cung cp di mt mi trng cnh tranh v rt phong ph t lnh vc gio dc cho ti lnh vc ti chnh. Hnh v 1.9 m t chi tit hn mt b ADSL Terminal Unit-Remote (ADSL ATU-R). Thit b c th l mt hp giao tip TV hay mt my tnh c nhn m khng cn thm mt thit b no na. Vic i dy t ATU-R n n thit b u cui c th ch n gin nh i dy 10BASE-T LAN, cng c th phc tp nh mng ATM ring hay mi m nh Consumer Electronics Bus s dng dy in lc sn c gi thng tin. D sao th khi s dng cho truyn d liu tc cao th vic i dy cho dch v thoi vn khng thay i v c cc b splitter dng tch ring cc tn hiu tng t.

28

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Hnh 1.8 Cu hnh ton mng ADSL tng i ni ht dch v thoi tng t c chuyn sang cho b chuyn mch thoi PSTN qua mt b tch dch v t ti tng i cn cc tn hiu ADSL c b DSLAM ghp li. D nhin l khc vi ISDN ta khng phi thc hin bt c mt thay i no trn phn mm chuyn mch ca tng i ni ht khi trin khai dch v ADSL. Hn na ADSL li lm gim lu thoi vn lm tc nghn cc thit b chuyn mch, truyn dn thoi do cc dch v d liu gy ra.
Services: Internet Education Video Corporate Commercial Government POTS Splitter Access Node ATU-C
M U X

Premises Access Set-top box PC 10BASE-T (LAN) ATM CEBus,...

ATU-C ATU-C

PSTN CO Switch

Telephone(s)

Hnh 1.9 Cc thnh phn thit yu ca mng ADSL Nhng dch v c cng ngh ADSL em li c th t ti tng i ni ht hoc mt ni khc. Cc dch v ny c th do chnh tng i ni ht thc hin hay do cc nh cung cp dch v t nhn c giy php. Cc dch v 29

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

nh vy bao gm truy xut Internet, cung cp cc ti liu o to, gio dc, video (on-demand hay broadcast), corporate (telecommuting), thng mi (bn sch, xe hi, ...) v ngay c thng tin ca chnh ph (nh thng tin thu chng hn). Lu rng cc ng lin kt ADSL vn phi s dng cc b DACS (Digital Access and Cross connect) gom lu lng a n cc nh cung cp dch v. D nhin cc nh cung cp dch v ny cng l cc nh cung cp cc ng lin kt ADSL nn tt c cc dch v c th t trc tip ti tng i ni ht nhng trn thc t c hai cch thc hin vic cung cp cc dch v ny. Theo cch th nht th cc ng lin kt ADSL c tp trung li ti DSLAM v chuyn sang cho thit b DACS. DACS a n h thng truyn dn tc cao nh ng truyn T3 khng phn knh chng hn c tc 45 Mbps dn n nh cung cp dch v Internet. Tt c cc lin kt u c kt thc ti b nh tuyn Internet v cc gi d liu c chuyn vn hai chiu nhanh chng vi Internet. Cc mng Intranet cng tc cng c cu hnh tng t. y l phng php n gin nht. Tuy nhin, tc tng cng ca cc lin kt ADSL theo phng php ny khng c qu 45 Mbps theo mi chiu. Phng php th hai l im truy xut (access node) c lin kt trc tip ti mt b nh tuyn IP hay b chuyn mch ATM t gn im truy xut. B nh tuyn IP thng dng trong trng hp ny l B-RAS (Broadband Remote Access Server). phng php ny, vn s dng vic tp trung lu lng vo mt ng truyn vt l t im truy xut ti b nh tuyn IP hay b chuyn mch ATM. im truy xut l mt tiu im gy nhiu ch trong cng vic tiu chun ho ADSL. Hin nay, hu ht cc im truy xut ADSL u ch thc hin vic ghp lu lng n gin. iu ny c ngha l tt c cc bit d liu v gi d liu vo ra im truy xut u c truyn ti bng cc mch n gin. Chng hn, trong trng hp tng i in hnh nu c 10 khch hng ADSL nhn d liu theo chiu downstream vi tc 2 Mbps v gi d liu theo chiu upstream vi tc 64 Kbps th lin kt gia im truy xut v mng dch v (nh Internet chng hn) phi c dung lng ti thiu l 10 2Mbps = 20Mbps cho mi chiu trnh hin tng tc nghn hay b b bt gi s liu. Mc d tc d liu theo chiu xung l 64 Kbps 10 = 640 Kbps nh hn 20 Mbps rt nhiu nhng do bn cht truyn dn i xng ca cc ng truyn ghp knh s nn tc hai chiu phi nh nhau. Vic ci tin cc h thng ADSL cn bn c th c l thc hin ghp knh thng k (statistical multiplexing) im truy xut ADSL hay cung cp cho b DSLAM ADSL mt vi kh nng chuyn mch gi trc tip. Nu thc hin ghp knh thng k th da trn bn cht xut hin tng cm ca s liu kiu gi b tr cc ng lin kt tc thp hn v khng phi lc no tt c cc khch hng u ang gi gi s liu. Trng hp nu im truy xut ADSL c sn b nh tuyn hay kh nng chuyn mch ATM th 30

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

dung lng ghp cng nh hn. D thc hin cch no th dung lng ghp cng gim hn 20 Mbps. Kt ni ADSL G.dmt ti thu bao

Hnh 1.10 Kt ni ADSL G.dmt ti thu bao B tch dch v POTS (POTS splitter) bao gm mt b lc thng thp cho tn hiu POTS i qua v mt b lc thng cao cho tn hiu ADSL i qua. Ngoi ra b tch dch v POTS cn c chc nng cch ly DC dng in mt chiu ca tng i in thoi khng chy qua modem ADSL. Tt c cc thit b trong mng thoi ca thu bao nh tng i in thoi ni b PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange), my in thoi, my tr li in thoi, my fax, modem quay s,... u phi nm ng ra PHONE ca b tch dch v POTS. Mng thit b ADSL c kt ni vi modem ADSL v ni vi ng dy qua ng ra MODEM ca POTS splitter. Kt ni ADSL G.lite ti thu bao

Hnh 1.11 Kt ni ADSL G.lite ti thu bao

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o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 1.12 B In-line filter Vi cu hnh G.lite ta khng cn s dng b POTS splitter m thay vo l cc b In-line filter hay cn gi l Microfilter l cc b lc thng thp c mc vo trc tt c cc thit b thoi trong mng hi ca tn hiu thoi t cc thit b ny khng gy nhiu cho tn hiu ADSL.

Cc k thut c trng dng trong ADSL


K thut chng nhiu xung Nhiu xm nhp xut hin my thu khi tn hiu trong khng kh trong di tn trng lp tc ng ln ng dy in thoi. Nhiu xung l nhng xung nhiu c thi gian tn ti ngn nhng li c nng lng ln c kh nng nht thi nhn chm thng tin trn knh truyn. Nhiu xung trn dy xon i thng l do cc thit b in t v in c cng nh cc dng in trong gia nh khc. Thm vo s phng in ca ng dy in lc cng nh st cng l ngun gy ra nhiu xung.

Hnh 1.13 Nhiu xung trong min thi gian v trong min tn s Trong min tn s sut khong thi gian tn ti, nhiu xung c c tnh ho bng mt ph nng lng phng v di rng nh minh ho hnh v 1.13. V s xut hin ca nhiu xung l khng th bit trc c nn nhiu xung c th ph hu nng nhng h thng khng c thit k tt.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

khc phc nhiu xung cc h thng c thit k tt s dng m sa sai FEC (Forward Error Correcting) kt hp vi ghp xen k d liu nh minh ho hnh v 1.14. M sa sai FEC thm thnh phn ph vo lung d liu truyn i sao cho khi c mt phn ca tn hiu b ph hu v nhiu xung th nhng phn cn li ca tn hiu cng cha thng tin c th phc hi li phn thng tin b mt. FEC c p dng theo tng byte ca khi d liu v c c tnh ho bi s byte n c th sa c trong mt khi d liu c di cho trc. Khi s byte sai trn thc t vt qu s byte b m c th sa c th dng d liu sau khi sa sai vn cn thng tin sai. ti u ho kh nng sa sai ca b m sa sai my pht s dng phng php ghp xen ln d liu. Sau khi p dng m sa sai FEC b ghp xen k (interleaver) sp xp li th t ca cc byte sao cho khi c tc ng ca nhiu xung ln dng d liu n s ph hu mt s byte m lc gii ghp xen k th cc byte sai s c tri ri rc ra. Nh vy ghp xen k lm gim thi gian nhiu xung ph hy d liu v to c hi cho m sa sai FEC pht huy tc dng.

Hnh 1.14 M hnh n gin ca vic tng cng hiu qu ca FEC bng tch ghp lung d liu Bit swapping Mt trong nhng c tnh quan trng v thit yu nht ca ADSL l k thut bit swapping. Bit swapping thc hin cc tnh nng ca ADSL bng cch: Cho php p ng lin tc s thay i iu kin vt l ca ng dy gy ra bi tc ng ca mi trng. p ng cc tnh hung xuyn knh thay i khi cc tc nhn xuyn knh mnh ln hay yu i. Cho php tc d liu c th thay i m khng cn phi khi ng li kt ni. Cho php nhiu ng dy ADSL c th tng hp ln nhau trong rng buc v mt ph cng sut. Cho php thc hin tnh nng SRA.

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Hnh 1.15 C ch knh AOC Hnh v 1.15 v 1.16 minh ho khi nim c bn v c ch ca hot ng bit swapping. Trong mi modem ADSL u c mt b iu khin iu ch DMT (DMT controller) B iu khin ny t s bit v mc tn hiu pht cho tng di tn con trong tn hiu ADSL. Trong knh AOC (ADSL Overhead Control hay Amati Overhead Control, Amati l cng ty u tin pht trin ADSL v s dng knh AOC) lin lc gia hai modem c mt nghi thc thc hin bit swapping.

Hnh 1.16 C ch knh AOC khi ACK b s c C ba kiu lnh quan trng trn knh AOC: swap request (yu cu swap), swap acknowledge (xc nhn swap) v extended swap request (yu cu swap m rng). Cc thng ip swapping c nhn dng trn ton b knh truyn nh vo byte u tin l header ca thng ip.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Bng 1.4 Cc loi thng ip trong knh AOC


Header 000011112 1100xxxx2 111100002 111111002 111111112 111111112 di thng ip (byte) Khng xc nh Khng xc nh 1 13 9 3 ngha Thng ip ti cu hnh Thng ip xc nh nh cung cp Thng ip ch c header Thng ip Extended bit swap request Thng ip Bit swap request Thng ip Bit swap acknowledge

Bit swap request Lnh swap request t my thu ti my pht trn knh AOC c thm 8 byte thng tin gm 4 trng 2 byte. Byte u xc nh s th t di tn con (t 0 ti 255) v byte th hai xc nh tc ng cn thit (tng/gim mt bit trong di tn con hay tng/gim cng sut pht trong di tn con 1, 2, 3 dB hoc chng thay i g). Bng 1.5 Thng ip Bit swap request
Message header {111111112} (8 bits) Message fields 1-4 Command (8 bits) Subchannel index (8 bits)

Thng thng s th t di tn con c pht hai ln vi ln u iu chnh s bit v ln th hai iu chnh cng sut pht. Bng 1.6 Cc loi thng ip trong bit swap request
Value 000000002 000000012 000000102 000000112 000001002 000001012 000001102 000001112 00001xxx2 ngha Khng thay i Tng s bit ln 1 Gim s bit i 1 Tng cng sut pht 1 dB Tng cng sut pht 2 dB Tng cng sut pht 3 dB Gim cng sut pht 1 dB Gim cng sut pht 2 dB Dnh cho nh sn xut

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Bit swap acknowledge Trong vng 400 ms sau khi nhn c thng ip yu cu bit swap, my pht s gi mt thng ip bit swap acknowledgment bao gm: message header v 2 byte ph, byte th nht l mu ton bit 1, byte th hai xc nh s th t ca superframe bt u iu chnh s bit/cng sut pht. Superframe c nh s th t t 0 ngay khi bt u truyn d liu khch hng theo module 256 trong vng 68 k hiu DMT (hay 69 nu tnh lun c k hiu ng b). Bng 1.7 Cu trc thng ip bit swap acknowledge
Message header 11111111 (8 bits) Acknowledge command 11111111 (8 bits) Bit swap superframe counter number (8 bits)

Extended bit swap request Thng ip extended swap c thm 12 byte, cho php xc nh c ti 6 di tn cn iu chnh s bit/cng sut. Thng ip extended swap c th c dng iu chnh t 2 bit ti 0 bit v ngc li trn mt di tn con bng cch pht i lnh tng gim hai ln v iu chnh cng sut pht trn cc di tn con. Bng 1.8 Cu trc thng ip Extended bit swap request
Message header {111111002} (8 bits) Message fields 1-6 Command (8 bits) Subchannel index (8 bits)

Sp xp tn s Tn hiu DMT trn min thi gian c t s gi tr nh trn gi tr trung bnh rt cao. Khi nh ca cc tn hiu ln, nhiu bit b b bin i s sang tng t DAC xn u to ra nhiu cng m. T s SNR cng ln, cng m ho bng nhiu bit v cng b xn nhiu. Nu d liu qua b Interleaver th c th dng m sa sai FEC loi tr c nhiu cng m ny. V l do ny ngi ta gn 8 Nf bit cho cc tone t bit v 8 Ni bit cho cc tone nhiu bit.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

SNR

7 bit

Tone ordered b0' = b5 = 0 b1' = b0 = 3 b2' = b4 = 3 b3' = b1 = 5 b4' = b3 = 5 b5' = b2 = 7

5 bit

5 bit

3 bit

3 bit tone index

0 bit

Data frame buffer 1sb d0 b0' + b1' - 1 d1 d2 Fast data buffer d3 d4 d5 d6 msb 1sb d7 d0 d1 Interleaved data buffer d2 d3 b4' + b5' - 3
T1532470-99

msb d6 d7

d4

d5

b2' + b3' - 3

tone 5 0 bit

tone 0 3 bit

tone 4 3 bit

tone 1 5 bit

tone 3 5 bit

tone 2 7 bit

Hnh 1.17 Tone ordering v tch bit (khng c m ho trellis)

Nghi thc kt ni ADSL


nh gi cc nghi thc mng dng cho ADSL DSL Forum tho lun trong TR-43 v mt vi kin trc nghi thc mng c cc nh khai thc s dng cho ADSL. Ti liu ny lit k nhng tiu chun nh gi thch hp ca mt kin trc nghi thc i vi dch v ADSL. Mc d TR-43 m t cc nghi thc hin ang s dng nhng tiu chun ny cng c th dng c cho bt c cc loi kin trc nghi thc no s c s dng cho ADSL trong tng lai. Hiu qu truyn ti ca payload Hiu qu truyn ti payload ca mt kin trc xp chng nghi thc ph thuc vo lng overhead. Hiu qu ny thc ra ph thuc vo kch thc header ca nghi thc v t s gia phn header v d liu truyn c. Kh nng d sai Khn nng d sai ca mt kin thc xp chng nghi thc l kh nng d ra cc sai do nhiu tc ng vo d liu trong qu trnh truyn dn trn knh 37

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truyn. Ngoi ra mt vi nghi thc c cho php sa c sai theo c ch FEC (Forward Error Correction). Ghp phin Cc nghi thc c kh nng h tr a phin t pha ngi s dng ln pha mng hay khng. Nhng phin ring bit ny c th h tr nhiu ngi s dng hay nhiu dch v t mt ng dy. Cc phin dch v ring bit c th gip kt ni vi cc nh cung cp dch v khc nhau. H tr a nghi thc L kh nng h tr nhiu nghi thc lp cao khc nhau qua nhng nghi thc lp di ging nhau. T cu hnh v qun l T quan im ca thit b v phn mm pha khch hng th nhng thng tin no cn thit cu hnh thit v v lin lc trn mng nu dng kin trc xp chng nghi thc ang xt. Lng thng tin ny c truyn sn trong nghi thc l bao nhiu? Nhng thng tin no c th c cung cp cho thit b ti sn khch hng qua nhng nghi thc qun l c bit? Nhng nghi thc qun l ny l g? Cn phi trao i thng tin v hp tc qun l gia nh cung cp mng v nh cung cp dch v mc nh th no cu hnh c dch v? Khch hng c cn phi c thng tin c th cu hnh nhn cng thit b ca h vi mng khng? La chn dch v Kin trc xp chng nghi thc c cho php ngi s dng chn la cc dch v qua mng hay khng? Kin trc xp chng nghi thc cung cp chc nng ny nh th no? Bo mt Thng tin trn lin kt s dng kin trc xp chng nghi thc ang xt c bo mt nh th no? Nhng c tnh no l vn c ca nghi thc cung cp bo mt cho ngi s dng v nh cung cp mng? Nhng nhc im c trng ca kin trc xp chng nghi thc l g? AAA (Authentication, authorization, and accounting) AAA l nhn thc, cp php v tnh cc. Kin trc xp chng nghi thc c xt h tr nhng chc nng ny nh th no? N tng tc vi cc cng c hin ti h tr chc nng ny nh th no?

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Tnh trng tiu chun ho Nhng phn no ca kin trc xp chng nghi thc c tiu chun ho? Vi nhng phn cha c tiu chun ho th hin trng tiu chun ho nh th no? Mi trng ly ATM lm c s Hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v ADSL trn th gii u s dng ATM cung cp kt ni hai u gia thit b ti sn ca khch hng (CPE) v nh cung cp dch v cung cp truy xut ti dch v c khch hng s dng. Vic s dng ATM lm mng li cho mng truy xut nh hnh v 1.18 c mt s thun li cho nh cung cp truy xut.

Hnh 1.18 Tng quan v s dng ATM trong kin trc truy xut DSL Cc cng ty in thoi ang s dng rng ri mng ATM cung cp cc dch v d liu khc cho khch hng ca h. H kh quen vi kin trc, k thut v qun l ATM. Bn cht nh hng kt ni ca ATM cung cp mt kin trc m cc cng ty in thoi thy thun tin v d qun l. Khi s khch hng trong mng tng nhanh th mng li dng ATM vn hot ng tt. Mng c th c thit k sao cho vic thm khch hng mi vn khng nh hng ti cht lng dch v ca mi khch hng c.

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Cc mng v cc nghi thc ATM h tr nhiu loi cht lng dch v khc nhau cho cc khch hng khc nhau trn cng mt mng hay cung cp nhiu dch v cho cng mt khch hng. iu ny lm cho cc nh cung cp mng tng c kh nng gii thiu vi khch hng nhiu dch v. Bng 1.9 Phm cht ca kin trc da trn ATM
Criteria Payload efficiency ATM Qualities ATM s dng header 5 byte cho mi cell 53 byte lm cho phn header chim 10% vi tt c cc dch v truyn trn ATM.

Session multiplexing V bn cht ATM cung cp a phin qua vic s dng cc mch o (VC: virtual circuit) gia mng v thit b ti sn khch hng. Multiprotocol support Mt mch o ATM c th h tr nhiu kin trc xp chng nghi thc khc nhau. Nhiu mi trng da trn c s IP c th c chp nhn qua AAL5. AAL1 thch hp cho chuyn vn nhng dch v cn m phng mt mch im ni im tc khng i v AAL2 c pht trin truyn tn hiu s mt cch hiu qu. Giao tip qun l cc b tch hp (ILMI: Integrated Local Management Interface) cung cp mt phng php cu hnh dch v ATM pha ti sn khch hng. TR-37 ca DSL Forum m t vic s dng ILMI cu hnh cho cc dch v DSL. Mc d vic s dng cc mch o c nh (PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit) i hi phi ti cu hnh, vic dng cc mch o c chuyn mch (PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit) cho php lin lc gia thit b khch hng v cc nh cung cp dch v c thit lp trong thi gian thc theo yu cu. Thit lp SVC c th c s dng nh mt phn ca qu trnh chn la dch v hay ngi s dng c th chn PVC c cu hnh trc thch hp cho dch v. S h tr cc VC hai u gi lin lc gia nhng khch hnh khc nhau v cc dch v khc nhau cho cung cp thm c ch bo mt. Cc chc nng bo mt ca cc lp trn ca kin trc xp chng nghi thc khng b nh hng bi vic s dng ATM. Nhng sai nhm header ca cc cell ATM trong qu trnh truyn dn s b d thy. ATM l tiu chun ca ITU-T v ATM Forum.

Autoconfiguration and management

Service selection

Security and AAA

Error detection Standards status

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

AAL5 Lp thch ng ATM 5 (AAL5) xc nh phng php truyn ti cc dch v gi (nh IP chng hn) qua cc mch o ATM. Mt PDU AAL5 ti trn nhiu cell ATM v c kh nng d sai trn d liu truyn dn. Bng 1.10 lit k nhng phm cht ca AAL5 khi s dng cho DSL. Bng 1.10 Phm cht ca AAL5
Criteria Payload efficiency AAL5 Qualities AAL5 thm 8 byte vo ui mi PDU. Hiu qu truyn dn ca trng ti tin payload ph thuc vo di ca PDU (di ti a 65,535 byte). AAL5 khng h tr ghp a phin trong mt VC. Cc mc cao ca kin trc xp chng nghi thc c AAL5 h tr s phi h tr a phin. RFC 2684 m t phng php ng gi (encapsulating) nhiu nghi thc khc nhau qua AAL5.

Session multiplexing

Multiprotocol support Autoconfiguration management Service selection Security and AAA

and Vic s dng AAL5 trn cc mch o trn kt ni ADSL c th lin lc vi thit b ti sn ca khch hng qua giao din ILMI. y l chc nng ca cc nghi thc lp cao. AAL5 khng m rng cng nh khng gim bt chc nng bo mt ca cc lp trn hay di n trong kin trc xpc chng nghi thc. AAL5 c tiu chun ho trong khuyn ngh ITU-T I.363.5.

Standards

Kin trc xp chng nghi thc da trn AAL5 c s dng c bn cho hu ht cc nghi thc hai u DSL. Hnh v 1.19 minh ho kin trc xp chng nghi thc ny.

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Hnh 1.19 Bn kin trc xp chng nghi thc thng dng qua ATM/AAL5 giao din ngi s dng mng (giao din U) Ghp cc nghi thc khc qua AAL5 RFC 2684 ca IETF xc nh mt vi phng php ng gi cc nghi th d liu qua cc mch o ATM. N nh ngha cc giao din cho php mch ATM c dng lm mt cu chuyn vn cc nghi thc mc lin kt s liu (nh Ethernet chng hn) n u bn kia. N cng xc nh cc giao din cho php cc nghi thc nh tuyn nh IP c chuyn vn trc tip qua cc mch o ATM. RFC 2684 h tr hai phng php khc nhau chuyn vn lu lng mng nh hng kt ni, cc PDU (Protocol Data Unit) qua mng ATM. Phng php th nht cho php ghp cc nghi thc khc nhau qua mt VCC (virtual circuit connection: kt ni mch o). Nghi thc c PDU chuyn vn c xc nh bi phn u ca PDU l LLC header IEEE 802.2. Phng php ny gi l ng gi LLC (LLC encapsulation). Phng php th hai thc hin ghp nghi thc lp cao hon ton bng VC v c gi l phng php ghp VC: VC multiplexing. ng gi LLC c dng chuyn vn Ethernet qua VC ATM trong mi trng ADSL v VC multiplexing c dng chuyn vn trc tip IP qua lp thch ng AAL5.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Hnh 1.20 Bridged Ethernet chuyn vn trc tip IP Bng 1.11 Phm cht ca IP over Ethernet
Criteria Payload efficiency IP over Ethernet Qualities Ethernet cn mt header 8 byte cho mi gi Ethernet 1.492 byte. Phng php ng gi LLC RFC 2684 cn thm mt trng header di 8 byte na. ng gi RFC 2684 khng h tr trc tip phin. Tuy nhin, cc nghi thc lp cao (nh PPPoE chng hn) c th h tr cc phin. RFC 2684 m t cc phng php ng gi a nghi thc qua AAL5. Ethernet c th h tr a nghi thc. ILMI ca ATM c th c s dng ch th rng ang dng ng gi LLC. Nu IP c truyn ti trc tip qua Ethernet th cc cng c IP tiu chun nh DHCP c th c dng cu hnh thit b khch hng qua mng. y l chc nng ca cc nghi thc lp cao. y khng phi l chc nng c RFC 2684 cung cp. Cc nghi thc lp cao c th c chuyn vn qua ng gi LLC v c th cung cp cc chc nng ny. IETF RFC 2684.

Session multiplexing

Multiprotocol support Autoconfiguration and management

Service selection Security and AAA

Standards

Hnh v 1.20 minh ho kin trc truy xut DSL dng IP qua bridged Ethernet. Dng phng php ng gi LLC RFC 2684 cho php cc gi Ethernet c chuyn vn qua cc VC ATM h tr thch ng AAL5. Nu cc PDU 43

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Ethernet chuyn vn cc gi IP th cc gi IP c thc hin trn mng LAN s c truyn ti qua Ethernet trn kt ni ADSL. PPP over Ethernet cng s dng Ethernet c ng gi LLC chuyn d liu mng LAN ti u kia ca mng. Bng 1.12 Phm cht ca IP trn AAL5
Criteria Payload efficiency IP on AAL5 Qualities Khng cn thm overhead ngoi lng overhead vn phi c ca cc thnh phn ATM, AAL5, and IP trong kin trc xp chng nghi thc. IP trc tip qua AAL5 khng h tr a phin H tr IP v cc nghi thc qua IP

Session multiplexing Multiprotocol support

Autoconfiguration and Vic s dng IP qua AAL5 c th c lin lc bng giao management din ILMI. Cc lp IP ca xp chng nghi thc c th c cu hnh bng cc cng c IP chun. Service selection Security and AAA y khng phi l mt chc nng ca xp chng nghi th ny Chc nng ny khng thuc v kin trc xp chng nghi thc ny. Tuy nhin cc cng c bo mt nh Ipsec c th c h tr qua IP. VC multiplexing c xc nh RFC 2684.

Standards

Hnh 1.21 IP trc tip trn AAL5 44

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

IP c th c truyn ti trc tip trn AAL5 dng ghp knh VC RFC 2684. Trong trng hp ny mt b nh tuyn pha khch hng kt cui mch DSL v VC ATM AAL5. Hnh v 1.21 minh ho mt mng truy xut h tr IP trc tip qua AAL5. S dng PPP Nghi thc im ni im (PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol) c xc nh l tiu chun Internet cho truyn dn cc gi IP qua cc ng truyn ni tip. PPP h tr vic gn v qun l cc a ch IP, ghp nghi thc mng, cu hnh lin kt, d sai v m phn nn d liu. Nghi thc ny c m t trong RFC 1661 ca IETF. Mc d ban u c xc nh cho kt ni im ni im nh kt ni qua modem quay s nghi thc ny c sa i cho cc kt ni tc cao nh DSL chng hn. C hai phin bn ca PPP c xy dng: PPPoA (PPP over ATM) PPPoA c m t trong RFC 2364 ca IETF v TR-17 ca DSL Forum. Hnh v sau minh ho kin trc xp chng nghi thc v kin trc mng ca PPPoA.

Hnh 1.22 PPP over ATM PPP over ATM c thit k c bit h tr mi trng m ngi thit b khch hng h tr kt cui c phin ATM ln phin PPP. V d, mt my tnh c nhn h tr kin trc xp chng nghi thc ATM trc tip v c modem ADSL lp trong c th h tr nghi thc ny. Tng t nh vy, mt b nh tuyn s dng ADSL lm truy xut WAN c th kt cui mt phin PPP over ATM vi nh cung cp dch v trong khi nh tuyn cc b mng LAN. 45

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Bng sau cho thy phm cht ca PPP over ATM nh mt nghi thc mng cho truy xut ADSL. Bng 1.13 Phm cht dch v PPP over ATM
Criteria Payload efficiency PPP over ATM Qualities Khng cn thm lng overhead ngoi lng cn thit cho cc thnh phn ca xp chng nghi thc ATM, AAL5, PPP. Ch c phin PPP mi c th c h tr qua VC ATM. PPP over ATM tha k kh nng h tr PPP a nghi thc.

Session multiplexing Multiprotocol support

Autoconfiguration and PPP over ATM tha k cc cng c qun l c cc management thnh phn ca kin trc xp chng nghi thc ATM v PPP cung cp. Service selection C th dng qu trnh m phn PPP chn truy xut n mt dch v nht nh. Hn na, cc VC ATM c th c dng truy xut cc dch v khc nhau. Chc nng c PPP cung cp cho php h tr bo mt v AAA cho PPP over ATM. Xc nh trong IETF RFC 2364.

Security and AAA Standards

Hnh 1.23 PPP over Ethernet 46

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Bng 1.14 Phm cht dch v PPP over Ethernet


Criteria Payload efficiency PPPoE Qualities PPPoE thm 6 byte vo header ngoi nhng lng header tng thm do AAL5, Ethernet v PPP. V Ethernet c th c truyn ti qua mng ATM, overhead ca Ethernet c thm vo lng overhead ca lin lc hai u. a phin PPP c th c ghp li qua mng LAN Ethernet v qua mt VC ATM. PPP cho php h tr a nghi thc qua mi phin. Nu PDU cha mt trng nhn dng nghi thc nhn dng loi trng ti tin. Hn na, v Ethernet c m rng qua WAN (dng RFC 2684), cc nghi thc khc vi PPP c th c h tr trn cng mt VC ATM ng thi vi cc phin PPPoE. Chc nng t cu hnh c ATM, PPP v IP h tr. Kh nng m phn mt phin PPP ring t mi u cui ca mng LAN cho php mi ngi s dng truy xut mt dch v pha mng khc nhau. Chc nng bo mt c PPP cung cp cng dng c vi PPPoE. Xc nh trong RFC 2516 ca IETF. y l mt RFC ca rt nhiu thc t cng nghip.

Session multiplexing Multiprotocol support

Autoconfiguration and management Service selection

Security and AAA Standards

PPP over Ethernet c thit k gii quyt vn kt ni nhiu thit b qua truy xut ADSL t pha thit b khch hng. Nghi thc gii quyt vn ny bng cch cho php truyn ti nhiu phin PPP qua mt LAN Ethernet sau khi c ghp vo AAL5 trn kt ni giao din WAN ADSL. Cng nh vi PPP over AAL5, PPP over Ethernet c th cung cp cho mt ngi s dng PC mt mi trng truy xut tng t nh modem quay s. Tuy nhin, cc phin PPP c th c ghp qua mt VC ATM, cho php h tr tng i n gin nhiu thit b truy xut cng lc qua giao din ADSL v kh nng cho tng ngi s dng trong mng LAN c th chn nh cung cp dch v qua mt VC ATM duy nht. V vy, cu hnh ca mng ATM rt n gin khi h tr PPP over Ethernet, mt VC c th h tr cng lc nhiu ngi s dng hay nhiu dch v m khng cn phc tp, tn km khi mua sm mt router pha khch hng. Hnh v 1.23 minh ho kin trc ca mng PPP over Ethernet. Ethernet trc tip qua ADSL Kh nng h tr cc mng rng ca Gigabit Ethernet da trn cp quang l mt cng ngh ni tri cho mng truy xut ca mt cng ty khai thc. Nu nhng mng ny pht trin th hin nhin ADSL tr thnh chn la hin nhin cung cp cho truy xut khch hng ti cc mng mi ny. Hnh v 47

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

1.24 cho mt cch nhn tng quan cc lp cao v vic s dng ADSL cung cp truy xut ti cc mng nh vy.

Hnh 1.24 Tng quan v s dng ADSL truy xut mng Ethernet dung lng cao Gigabit Ethernet c sc hp dn tr thnh mt chuyn vn li cho cc mng truy xut dung lng ln: Hu ht cc mng LAN pha ngi s dng u dng cng ngh Ethernet. V vy, m rng nhng mng LAN Ethernet ny trc tip qua mng truy xut tc cao cho mt kin trc mng n gin. S pht trin ca cc router c kh nng nh tuyn gi v phn phi tc gigabit hay cao hn lm cho s pht trin ca nhng mng ny tng i vng chc. Vn u t cho cc kin trc Ethernet dung lng ln nh hn khi so vi cc kin trc da trn ATM hay IP trn SONET. Mt iu chc chn l vic qun l nhng mng ny s n gin hn so vi cc mng khc nhiu. Khi nhng mng c pht trin, vic s dng ADSL truy xut thu bao cho nhiu khch hng tr nn khng cn thit. Kh nng h tr Gigabit Ethernet trc tip ca si quang n ch thu bao ch kinh t vi cc thu bao ln ca mng Ethernet dung lng cao. Cc thu bao khc vn cn giao din ADSL c tc thp nhng r tin hn.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Bng 1.15 Phm cht dch v Ethernet trc tip qua ADSL
Criteria Payload efficiency Ethernet Directly over DSL Khng cn hay ch cn mt lng nh overhead ngoi lng overhead cn thit cho Ethernet v cc nghi thc trn n trong kin trc xp chng nghi thc. Ethernet c kh nng h tr cc phin qua vic s dng PPPoE. V Ethernet c m rng qua WAN, bt c nghi thc no qua Ethernet u c th truyn ti c.

Session multiplexing Multiprotocol support Autoconfiguration management Service selection Security and AAA Standards

and Ethernet l t cu hnh. Cc chc nng chn la dch v ca cc nghi thc trn Ethernet vn dng c. Bo mt l mt chc nng ca cc lp cao trong kin trc xp chng nghi thc. Ethernet c xc nh lot tiu chun IEEE 802. S iu chnh Ethernet s dng vi ADSL cn phi c tiu chun ho.

Ch c ADSL truyn trn dy ng xon i mi c th cung cp truy xut cho bt c thu bao no c yu cu. Mc d c nhiu c gng c thc thi tiu chun ho mt lp vt l Ethernet qua dy in thoi xon i (phc tho Ethernet in the last mile ca IEEE), tiu chun v vic s dng ADSL vn l rng ri kh nng h tr Ethernet trc tip qua lp vt l ca ADSL. Cho d cn phi thm cc tiu chun cho Ethernet trc tip qua giao din ADSL, cng vic ny vn ang tin trin v da vo nn tng cc tiu chun lp vt l ca ADSL.

49

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cu hi t kim tra
1 Cho bit phng php iu ch b nh hng bi nhiu in lc mc thp nht. A. 2B1Q B. HDB3 C. AMI D. DMT E. NRZ Hng dn: l loi tn hiu c ph khng cha tn s in lc 50 Hz. 2 Tnh nng no khng c trong b POTS splitter? A. Gi ho thoi B. Lc thng thp C. Ngn dng mt chiu D. Lc thng cao E. Tt c u sai Hng dn: POTS splitter ch tch thoi phn tn. 3 Thit b mng no thc hin qun l cc ca thu bao ADSL? A. B-RAS B. DSLAM C. MDF (Main Distribution Frame) D. CO Modem ADSL (ATU-C) E. CO POTS Splitter Hng dn: l thit b qun l lp cao nht trong cc thit b c lit k. 4 Yu t no ca DLC ngn cn vic trin khai ng dy DSL? A. ng dy thu bao di B. Ch h tr ng dy thu bao tng t C. Suy hao ln D. Khng c chuyn mch E. M ho PCM Hng dn: Tn hiu DSL khng th qua c b lc thng thp 4 KHz. 5 Trong k thut ADSL nhiu xung c khc phc bng: A. S dng m sa sai FEC B. S dung nghi thc sa sai ARQ C. S dng m sa sai FEC kt hp m nn d liu D. S dng mch lc tn s thch hp E. S dng m sa sai kt hp tch ghp lung d liu Hng dn: 50

Chng 1: K thut ADSL

Nhiu xung lm sai cm nn c trn khc phc sai cm bng m sa sai t bit l Reed-Solomon 6 Dch v truy xut Internet no khng lm pht sinh cc in thoi quc t ngoi mun ca khch hng? A. MegaVNN B. VNN1260 C. VNN1267 D. VNN1268 E. VNN1269 Hng dn: Dch v khng lm pht sinh cc ph quc t, ng di l dch v khng qun l tn s thoi. 7 Nguyn nhn gy ra nhiu ISI? A. Xuyn knh B. c tnh tr ca knh truyn C. c tnh p ng tn s c hn ca knh truyn D. c tnh c nh ca knh truyn E. Tt c u ng Hng dn: Nhiu xung do ph tn ca tn hiu ban u khng c truyn y ti u thu. 8 Thoi phn tn trn ng dy ADSL s dng k thut chuyn mch no? A. Chuyn mch s B. Chuyn mch knh C. Chuyn mch gi D. Chuyn mch ATM E. Tt c u ng Hng dn: Thoi phn tn l thoi POTS ca mng PSTN thng thng. 9 A. B. C. D. E. Modem ADSL c t trong thit b no? B-RAS MDF POST Splitter DSLAM DLC

Hng dn: Trong cc thit b mng trn ngi ta thng t modem l mt ngn ca t my DSLAM. 10 Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s no c th c c ng dy thu bao di nht vi cng mt c dy? 51

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

A. ADSL2 B. ReachDSL C. M/SDSL D. ADSL2+ E. VDSL Hng dn: Cng ngh DSL dng iu ch tn s thp s c suy hao nh nht nn truyn ti c trn ng dy di nht. 11 Tng i no cn s dng c khi trin khai ADSL? A. Tng i in thoi ni b B. Tng i c in C. Tng i in t tng t D. Tng i in t s E. Tt c u ng Hng dn: ADSL khng dng tng i PSTN. 12 Tn hiu thoi v tn hiu ADSL ca mt thu bao c truyn dn nh th no? A. Phn tn B. Trn 2 i dy ring l C. Phn thi gian D. Trn ng cp quang E. Trn ng cp ng trc Hng dn: ADSL ch c hai phng php song cng l theo tn s v trit tn hiu di. 13 Cho bit kin trc xp chng nghi thc nhiu tng nht. A. IP over AAL5 B. IP over Ethernet C. PPPoA D. PPPoE E. Tt c u nh nhau Hng dn: Ch c PPPoE l phi qua nhiu nghi thc nht. 14 Nghi thc no lp cao nht trong cc nghi thc sau? A. PPP B. IP C. ADSL D. ATM E. AAL5 Hng dn: IP l nghi thc lp cao nht.

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Chng 1: K thut ADSL

15 Cho bit mc ch ca k thut tone ordering. A. Nn d liu truyn c nhanh hn B. Gim sai bit C. Tng di tn truyn dn tn hiu ADSL D. Thc hin song cng E. Pht hin v sa sai d liu trn ng truyn ADSL Hng dn: Tone ordering phc v mc ch gim sai bit lung d liu fast.

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Chng 2: O TH NH GI MNG CP NG S DNG CHO ADSL


c tnh mng cp ng o th cp ng nh gi cp ng Thit b o th ADSL

c tnh mng cp ng
Cp ng trong thi i mi
Hin trng cp ng H tng ng dy thu bao thng c cc cng ty c quyn vin thng xy dng quy m, lu i. Nhng cng ty ny s hu v qun l ng dy thu bao v dng cung cp dch v in thoi cho cc thu bao. Cng ngh c cc cng ty in thoi ny s dng cng kh n gin v khng yu cu cht lng mng cao lm. Thc t cc cng ty in thoi cung cp dch v thoi qua nhiu nm m khng gy s c no. Ngi ta c thc hin mt s k thut ci thin cht lng ng dy thu bao di nhng ch dng li cht lng thoi trn dy ng. Mng cp ni ht khng c mt ln m pht trin lin tc qua mt thi gian di cng vi s thu bao tng dn. Kt qu l mng cp ni ht khng c ti u v k thut nn cn phi hp l ho v xy dng li sau tng giai on. Bn mng ngoi vi c xy dng v duy tr nhng thng chu mt thi gian di khng sa i, b sung cng nh sa cha. Thng thng cc bn ny khng ghi li c kp thi v y s xung cp ca mng. Gn nh ton b vic lp t v bo dng c cng ty in thoi thc hin v cc cng ty lp t c lp hu nh khng c c hi tham gia. Mi vic vn n cho n khi cuc cch mng cng ngh trn cp ng bng n m khi u l DSL. 54

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Nhng thay i C 2 yu t to ra s thay i trong mng cp ng. Yu t th nht l s pht trin ca cng ngh trong vic li dng ng dy thu bao cp ng truyn ti d liu vi tc cao. Theo l s pht trin n tng nhu cu tc do s kin bng n Internet v s pht trin ca cc mng gia nh cng vi s thay i t ch tp trung sang phn tn ca cc cng ty, doanh nghip. Yu t th hai l s thay i dn ca mi trng kinh doanh t c quyn chuyn sang cnh tranh. Vic m ca th trng cho cnh tranh bt u t t do ho v cho thu mng cp ni ht lm cho nhiu cng ty c th u t vo cung cp cc dch v truy xut. Cc cng ty cnh tranh pht trin tr thnh nhng thch thc cho cc cng ty c quyn v cc cng ty cnh tranh thng c cc hp ng lp t bo dng c lp. Cnh tranh t cu trc gi thnh di sc p ngy cng tng v lc lng lao ng lnh ngh trong cc cng ty cnh tranh ang dn c thay th bi cc i ng t chuyn nghip hn. Nhng thay i ny to ra mt mi trng m nhu cu v s hiu bit v mng cp ng ngy cng tng nhng nhng kin thc nn tng li c chiu hng gim. Hin nay i ng k thut vin m trch vic trin khai cc dch v truy xut s liu tc cao i hi cht lng mng cp ng cao hn nhiu. Cng ngh truyn dn khng cn l chuyn mn ring ca tng nhm nh cc chuyn gia mng ngoi vi na. Hng v tng lai Nhng bc u tin trong vic s dng ng dy thu bao trong cc dch v ng dy thu bao s (DSL: Digital Subscriber Loop) tng i thnh cng khi cha k n cc nguy c tim n. Tuy nhin khi vic s dng cp cho DSL tng nhanh th cng vic tr nn kh khn v nhiu ri ro cho ti tnh trng bo ho khng th lp t thm DSL c na. Bng cch qun l nghim ngt vic lp t theo k hoch tn s chung v vic o th, nh gi mng cp ng im bo ho cho vic lp t DSL ny c th xa hn. Vic lp t cng nhiu th thu nhp cng cao v u t cng hiu qu. Cng ngh khng bao gi dng li nn cc k thut tin tin lun lun y tc d liu ln cao. Tc d liu cng cao th nhu cu v cht lng cp ng cng tng ln v chin lc nh gi mng cp ng cng tr nn quan trng hn. Khi mt cu hnh mng c a ra nh FTTKerb chng hn th mng cp ng c th khc phc c cc vn pht sinh khi dng cho truyn s liu tc cao. Tuy nhin, trong tng lai trc mt mng cp ni ht vn 55

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

gi v tr tip cn thu bao v nh vy vic nh gi chng vn l mt thch thc ngy cng tng.

c tnh ng dy cp ng
Mch tng ng ng dy thu bao Ta hy xt mch tng ng ca ng dy hiu c c tnh truyn dn ca ng dy tc ng ln kh nng truyn ti dch v s nh th no. Mi ng dy u tng ng vi cc phn t mch phn b dc theo chiu di ca chng. V dng in chy xuyn qua dy dn nn ng dy tng ng vi chui cm khng ni tip nhau v v n lun c ng dy v nn li tng ng vi cc dung khng mc song song. Nhng dung khng ni tip v v cm khng song song l nhng yu t hin nhin trong mch tng ng ng dy v n cng c tnh n trong cc m hnh thun tu l thuyt. Tuy nhin trong trng hp ng dy thc t th cc cht dn in l khng l tng nn n c cc thnh phn in tr ni tip v in mi gia cc dy dn cng khng l tng nn n cng sinh ra cc in tr song song. Cc in tr ni tip v song song ni trn kh nh hn cm khng v dung khng tr phi ng dy b h hng nng.

Hnh 2.1 Mch tng ng ng dy thu bao xon i Cn lu rng trong thc t cc phn t c phn b lin tc dc theo ng dy v dn cm nh trn hnh v. Mi tng ca mch tng ng c dng nh mt b lc thng thp nn nh hng ca cm khng v dung khng l hn ch di tn truyn dn tn hiu truyn trn ng dy lm cho tn hiu tn s cao suy hao nhiu hn tn hiu tn s thp. Cc in tr ni tip v song song lm tng thm suy hao v gim kh nng truyn ti tn hiu ng dy mt cch hiu qu. Tr khng c tnh Ta c th v n gin li mch tng ng ng dy bng cch dng cc hp thay cho mi tng nh trong hnh v di y v nh rng cc phn t trn thc t phn tn ch khng dn cm li tng on.

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Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.2 Hnh v n gin ho mch tng ng ng dy thu bao Ta c th o tr khng vo nhn t mt u ca ng dy v nu di ng dy l v hn th ta nh ngha tr khng ny l tr khng c tnh ca ng dy. nh ngha: Tr khng c tnh Z0 ca mt ng dy l tr khng ng vo ca mt ng dy c di v hn. Ta c th biu din ton b ng dy vi mt phn t c tr khng l Z0.

Hnh 2.3 Khi nim tr khng trn ng dy V ng dy ca chng ta l tng i di nn ta c th theo tnh cht ca gi tr v hn thm c nhiu tng tr khng na m khng lm thay i c tnh ca ng dy. V di ng dy xem nh v hn nn tr khng vo vn l tr khng c tnh. V vy c th v li thnh:

Hnh 2.4 M hnh ho tr khng ti Nh vy, mt on dy hu hn c kt thc bng tr khng c tnh ca n th tr khng ng vo s cng bng tr khng c tnh Z0. Tuy nhin tt nht l khng nn dng mch tng ng vi nhng tn ring r m nn biu din nh sau:

Hnh 2.5 M hnh ho tr khng ti v tr khng ng dy 57

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Tr khng c tnh ca ng dy bao gm cm khng ni tip v dung khng song song gim theo tn s. V d nh vi cc h thng di tn thp nh in thoi (600 Ohm) chng hn th tr khng c tnh cao hn so vi ADSL (120 Ohm).

Hnh 2.6 Cc ng cong tr khng c tnh ca dy xon i Hnh v 2.6 minh ho cc ng cong tr khng c tnh khc nhau ca ca cc ng dy xon i thc t khc nhau. 9/10 hay 4/10 chng hn l ng knh dy tng ng 0,9 mm v 0,4 mm. Lu rng khng c ng dy in thoi xon i no c tr khng nh hn 120 Ohm bt c tn s no. Phi hp tr khng Cng vic ca ng truyn trong cc ng dng vin thng l chuyn vn lng cng sut ln nht c th c t u ny sang u kia.

Hnh 2.7 Phi hp tr khng Hy xt mch mt chiu n gin bao gm ngun in mt chiu vi tr khng ra RO nui mt ti RL. D chng minh c bng php ton rng cng sut trn ti s t gi tr ln nht khi in tr ti bng in tr ngun. Sau y th minh ho l quan h gia truyn ti cng sut v t s gia 2 in tr trn cng mt mch in.

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Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.8 c tnh truyn t cng sut V d ny ch s dng ngun in mt chiu cho n gin, tuy nhin kt qu cng c th p dng c cho c ngun in xoay chiu.

Hnh 2.9 Phi hp tr khng ng dy By gi nu ta xt ng vo ca ng dy truyn dn v biu din bng mt tr khng c nh Z0 th cho cng sut truyn t l cc i ngun tn hiu phi c tr khng bng Z0. Tng t nh vy, ng ra ta c th thay th ng dy bng mt ngun p c tr khng bng Z0 v cng sut s t cc i nu tr khng ti cng bng Z0. Vy, cng sut cc i c truyn qua ng dy khi n c cung cp bi mt ngun c tr khng l Z0 v cp cho ti cng c tr khng Z0. Mt cch khc hnh dung nh lut ny l hnh nh tng t ca mt si dy n hi.

59

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 2.10 Tng t vi si dy n hi Nu ngi bn phi gi cht si dy v lm u dy dao ng ln xung th bt c chuyn ng no do ngi bn tri s lan truyn trn si dy v c tiu tn bi ngi bn phi. Lu rng iu ny ch xy ra nu tay ca hai ngi u nng v c kh nng n hi nh nhau v do do dai nh si dy. ng dy truyn dn cng cho thy t hiu sut ti a nu c hai u u c tr khng bng vi tr khng c tnh ca ng dy. By gi li xt trng hp thay th ngi u dy bn phi bng mt vt c nh.

Hnh 2.11 Trng hp u dy bn kia c nh Khi sng dao ng chy trn dy ti bc tng v c phn x tr li u dy to ra sng. iu ny tng ng vi trng hp ng dy b ngn mch u cui. Tt c cng sut u b phn x li v n khng b tiu tn ti. D nhin l v si dy khng bao gi l n hi tuyt i nn sng phn x nhn c pha ngi pht dao ng nh hn sng do ngi truyn i. Tng t nh vy, cng sut in trn ng dy truyn dn b tiu tn bi chnh ng dy v sng phn x c bin nh hn sng truyn i. Hin tng cng xy ra tng t khi u cui ca si dy c th cho chuyn ng t do d khng hon chnh lm do b ri xung sn. (Hy 60

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

tng tng rng c th thay th bng si dy treo thng ng khng c treo vt g u t do).

Hnh 2.12 Trng hp u dy bn kia t do Hin tng ny tng ng vi trng hp h mch u cui ca ng dy truyn dn, tt c cng sut u phn x li v khng c nng lng tiu tn ti ti. S dng tr khng thch hp c hai u ca ng dy gi l phi hp tr khng. Suy hao phn hi (Return Loss) Lng cng sut phn hi tr li ngun t mt ng dy phi hp tr khng khng tt l mt tham s rt quan trng gi l suy hao phn hi, v tr s o c ca suy hao phn hi c th cho thy li phi hp tr khng ca ng dy.

Hnh 2.13 Khi nim suy hao phn hi Nu cng sut pht ca ngun l PT v cng sut tn hiu phn x nhn c l PR th suy hao phn hi c tnh l PR chia cho PT. nh ngha: Suy hao phn hi ca mt ng dy l t s cng sut phn hi t ng dy v cng sut pht vo ng dy. Nng lng c th c phn hi t s phi hp tr khng khng ng u cui. Tuy nhin khi ng dy c di tng i di th s phi hp tr khng my pht tc ng ti suy hao phn hi nhiu hn s phi hp tr khng cui ng dy. iu ny l do nng lng phn x t u cui 61

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

ng dy b suy hao bi ng dy trc khi tr v ti u pht. Thng th s thay i tr khng c tnh ca cc mi ni cp gn u pht gy ra suy hao phn hi ln. truyn t c cng sut ln nht th suy hao phn hi phi gi mc nh nht c th c. iu ny c ngha l t s PR/PT phi nh nht c th c. Chng hn, suy hao phn hi -40dB tt hn suy hao phn hi -20dB. Suy hao chn (Insertion Loss) Ta xt nh hng ca kt cui ng dy i vi s phn x cng sut. Tuy nhin r rng l khng phi ton b cng sut c a vo ng dy u ny u n c u bn kia. l do suy hao trn ng dy do cc phn t khc nhau trong mch tng ng ca n. Suy hao do chn ng dy truyn dn vo gia ngun pht v ti gi l suy hao chn ca ng dy.

Hnh 2.14 Khi nim suy hao chn Nu cng sut pht ca ngun l PT v cng sut nhn c trn ti l PR th suy hao chn l t s gia PR v PT. R rng l t s ny s nh hn n v nn gi l li chn i khi li chnh xc hn l suy hao chn. nh ngha: Suy hao chn ca ng dy l t s ca cng sut nhn c cui ng dy v cng sut pht vo ng dy. c th truyn c ti a cng sut pht th suy hao chn phi gim mc nh nht c th c. Ni cch khc th t s PR/PT cng gn n v cng tt, hay cng gn bng 0dB cng tt. Cn bng dc (Longitudinal Balance)

Hnh 2.15 Mch tng ng ng dy khi xt cn bng dc 62

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Tr li mch tng ng ng dy ta phi thm vo vi chi tit ch r ng dy khng cch in hon ton m c quan h vi t. Ging nh cc phn t song song tn ti gia hai dy dn, mi dy dn s c mt in dung gia chng v t, v tr phi s cch in l hon ho vi mi dy dn ta vn c mt in tr so vi t. y mt ln na lu rng cc phn t in trn ng dy l lin tc ch khng dn cm nh hnh v m hnh ho. Tr khng ca mi dy dn so vi t cng gn bng nhau cng quan trng cho truyn dn hiu qu c bit l vi cc tn hiu tn s cao nh xDSL. S cn bng ny gi l cn bng dc ca ng dy.

Hnh 2.16 M hnh ho khi xt cn bng vi t Nu ta biu din tr khng vi t ca mi dy dn l Za v Zb nh hnh v th cn bng dc c nh ngha l: Cn bng = 20 (log10 (Za - Zb) / (Za + Zb)) dB. Cn bng dc c o bng cch p mt tn hiu im gia ca hai in tr bng nhau ni vi hai dy dn nh minh ho hnh v di y. Nu ng dy l cn bng th khng c chnh lch gia tn hiu trn hai dy dn.

Hnh 2.17 Nguyn l o cn bng dc in p chnh lch (VDiff) gia cc dy dn v in p ng pha (VComm) im gia c o tnh cn bng dc nh sau: Cn bng = 20 (log10 VDiff / VComm) dB. 63

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Xuyn knh (Crosstalk) Dng in chy trong mt dy dn gy ra trng in t xung quanh dy dn theo chiu ca quy tc bn tay phi.

Hnh 2.18 T trng cm ng ca cc dy dn Chng hn, dng in qua dy dn bn tri to ra mt t trng chy xung quanh dy dn theo chiu kim ng h. V tn hiu trn ng dy l dng in t trng lan truyn dc theo chiu di ca dy nn dng in chy trong mt dy dn ny s chy theo chiu ngc li dy dn kia. V vy cch xa i dy dn th hiu ng trng in t b kh ln nhau cn gn i dy dn th li mnh ln v cng chiu sut dc theo chiu di dy dn. Nu by gi ta em thm mt i dy li gn i dy th nht th t trng ca i dy th nht ct mt phng ca i dy th hai v n to ra mt dng in cm ng trn i dy th hai.

Hnh 2.19 Dng in cm ng ca cc dy dn to ra trn cc dy dn ln cn Nh vy ta to ra c mt bin p rt di v mng v to ra mt cch ghp gia hai ng dy gi l xuyn knh.

64

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

By gi hy xt xem iu g s xy ra nu chng ta xon cc i dy li.

Hnh 2.20 Tc dng ca vic xon i dy dn Trng in t vn xoay quanh cc dy dn theo cng mt hng v chng vn tc ng ti khng gian xung quanh gn . Tuy nhin, trong trng hp ny chng khng theo cng mt hng theo dc i dy. mi bc xon, hng trng in t li xoay c mt vng nn tc ng ln cc i dy k cn c kh i. Nu i dy th hai cng c xon th xuyn knh c kh i nhiu hn, nu bc xon trong hai i dy khng ng b vi nhau. iu ny rt quan trng i vi vic thit k ch to cp. Bng cch xon i cc i dy ta gim c xuyn knh. Xuyn knh c o hai dng.

Hnh 2.21 Xuyn knh u gn Xuyn kn u gn (NEXT: Near End Crosstalk) o c mt u cp bng cch pht tn hiu vo mt i dy v o kt qu xuyn knh trn i dy k cn cng mt u. Xuyn knh u gn c tnh bi: NEXT = POUT / PIN 65

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

= 10 (log10 POUT / PIN) dB bo m rng tn hiu o c l thc s do xuyn knh to ra v khng phi l ca bt c ngun nhiu no khc th my thu phi c chnh cng tn s ca my pht. Tn hiu ny phi l tn hiu mt tn s hay l cc tn s qut qua ph tn tn hiu.

Hnh 2.22 Xuyn knh u xa Xuyn knh u xa (FEXT: Far End Crosstalk) c o t hai u cp bng cch pht tn hiu vo mt i dy mt u v o kt qu xuyn knh trn i dy k cn u bn kia ca si cp. Xuyn knh u xa c tnh bi: FEXT = POUT / PIN = 10 (log10 POUT / PIN) dB Bng cch o c NEXT v FEXT, v lu rng s khc nhau gia hai php o ta c th xc nh c xuyn knh gy ra bi li gn u dy hay do cc mi ghp dc theo ng dy.

Hnh 2.23 Hin tng nhiu trn ng dy Trc khi ta kt thc vn xuyn knh cn lu rng tnh thun nghc cng ng vi mi hin tng xuyn knh ti ng dy truyn dn. 66

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

iu ny c ngha l mt ng dy pht x xuyn knh t th chu tc ng ca xuyn knh t. Ngc li ng dy pht x xuyn knh nhiu cng s d b tc ng ca xuyn knh t bn ngoi. V vy xon i dy dn s em li ch li cho c chnh dy dn v cc dy dn bn cnh. Cc li lm cho i dy chu tc ng ca xuyn knh cng lm cho i dy pht x v gy ra xuyn knh.

Tc ng ca mi trng
Cc ng dy dng trong vin thng c th b tc ng ca nhiu tc nhn trong mi trng v hu ht cc tc nhn ny u lm gim cht lng truyn dn. iu ny c th ng lu v c bit nghim trng tu thuc vo bn cht ca xuyn nhiu v kh nng khng nhiu ca tn hiu truyn ti. Phn ny ta s xt mt vi loi xuyn nhiu v cch o c chng.

Hnh 2.24 Cc thnh phn ca tn hiu thc t Cng sut tng cng trn ng truyn c c t hai thnh phn l tn hiu truyn dn v thnh phn khng mong mun gi l nhiu. Nhiu lun lun xut hin nhng v ta khng mong mun nhiu nn phi kim sot nhiu mc thp nht c th c so vi tn hiu. Quan h gia tn hiu v nhiu c biu din bng t s: S/N = Signal Power / Noise Power = 20 (log10 VSignal / VNoise) dB Mt vi ngun nhiu tc ng ln ng dy.

Mi dy dn in pht ra nhiu trong chnh n. iu ny l do chuyn ng ngu nhin ca cc in t trong cht dn in v v chuyn ng ny tng ln theo nhit nn ngi ta gi l nhiu nhit (thermal noise).

Nh ta thy, nhiu c th cm ng ln ng dy bi tn hiu ca mt ng dy k cn gi l xuyn knh. 67

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cc my pht sng v tuyn truyn hnh v pht thanh cng to ra trng in t tc ng vo cc ng dy gy ra nhiu.

H thng truyn ti v phn phi in to ra trng in t rt mnh cng c th ghp vo cc ng dy vin thng gn .

Cc tu in cng to ra cc trng in v trng t.

Dao ng c hc ca ng dy cng gy ra nhiu v l chuyn ng ca dy dn trong t trng (nh t trng ca qu t chng hn) sinh ra dng in cm ng.

S ng ngt mch in gy ra in trng cao c bit trong trng hp ng c in hay bng n hunh quang.

St cng gy ra nhiu xung vi cng rt cao trn ng dy cho d ng dy c bo v khi b h hi v mt vt l. 68

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

V tr lp y cc bc x pht ra t cc ngi sao v nu mt vi bc x nm trong di tn truyn dn tn hiu vin thng. Mc nhiu t cc ngun khc nhau tc ng vo cht lng truyn dn tu thuc vo nhiu yu t ngoi yu t nng lng ca nhiu. Nhiu gin on c hi cho tn hiu t hn nhiu lin tc c bit l tn hiu xDSL vn s dng m sa sai cho cc li sai cm vi di ngn. Mt vi ngun nhiu c minh ho di y theo khong thi gian tc ng v nh hng.

Hnh 2.25 Phn loi ngun nhiu theo thi gian tc ng v nh hng Mt vi ngun nhiu lin tc nh nhiu nhit v nhiu bc x t cc ngi sao li c nng lng thp nn khng nh hng my ti ng dy. Truyn ti v phn phi in cng l ngun nhiu lin tc v l mt ngun nhiu c nng lng ln nhng tc ng ca n li khng ln do b gii hn bi tn s. Xuyn knh nhiu sng truyn thng v tuyn, thng tin di ng cng l lin tc nhng li khng thng xuyn. Nhng ngun nhiu khc nh xe in, ng c in v st tuy c bn cht ngt qung nhng li c th tc ng rt nghim trng. V tr ca nhiu trong ph tn truyn dn cng rt quan trng.

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Hnh 2.26 Phn loi ngun nhiu theo tn s tc ng v nh hng Mt vi ngun nhiu l di rng nh nhiu nhit v nhiu sinh ra t cc bc x v tr l nhiu trng nhng khng nng lng tc ng. Nhiu in lc chim mt di tn khng trng vi xDSL v ngay c in thoi. Xuyn knh xy ra nhng tn s khc nhau trong ph tn tu thuc vo dch v to ra xuyn knh v nhng phn ny ca ph tn dn c th b v hiu ho bi mt ng dy bn cnh dng cng k thut. My in c th to ra nhiu ng k bt c ch no trong ph tn truyn dn tn hiu. Truyn thng v tuyn c di tn hp nhng li c nng lng ln v c th lm cho mt khong di tn no khng s dng c. Nhiu trng (White Noise) Nh ta thy, mt vi ngun nhiu pht ra cc tn s tri di ton b ph tn. Khi mc nhiu bng nhau tt c cc tn s th nhiu ny gi l nhiu trng theo cch gi ca nh sng trng l nh sng cha mi thnh phn tn s bng nhau. Trong thc t, khng c nhiu no thc s l trng v nu nh vy th nng lng tng cng ca n phi l hu hn cho d trong trng hp bc x v tr gn nh cha ton b cc tn s t tn s bc sng rt di cho ti bc sng rt ngn nh tia x chng hn. Di tn ca nhiu thc t rt hn ch nhng i khi vn c gi l trng nu n c mc bng nhau trong sut khong tn s m ta quan tm. Vi xDSL v in thoi th di tn cn quan tm trong khong t vi trm Hz cho ti vi MHz. Nhiu trng vi mc -25dBm c minh ho trong hnh v sau.

70

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.27 Nhiu trng Mt nhiu (Noise Density) Nu ta o nhiu trng thc s vi mt my o cng sut di rng nh hnh v di y th kt qu c c l v hn.

Hnh 2.28 o nhiu trng Trong thc t kt qu c c ph thuc vo di tn p ng ca my o. Do php o ny r rng l khng thc t v v ngha. V vy cn phi c cch o cng sut nhiu tt hn.

Hnh 2.29 o nhiu trng qua b lc Nu ta gii hn di tn ca my o bng cch t mt b lc thng di pha trc my o nh hnh v trn ri ta c th nh ngha mt i lng cn o gi l mt nhiu: Mt cng sut nhiu = Cng sut nhiu / rng di tn Nu ta ly nhiu trng -25dBm lm v d v o c vi mt my o di tn c rng 1200Hz, th mt cng sut nhiu l:

71

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Mt cng sut nhiu = -25dBm / 1200 Hz = -25 - (10 log10 1200) = -25 - 31 = -56 dBm / Hz Mt cng sut nhiu l cng sut nhiu trong mi on 1Hz ca ph tn truyn dn. N cng c th hin th trn my phn tch ph v my phn tch ph l mt my o mc cng sut trong mt rng di c nh trt theo tn s t u ny ti u kia ca ph tn. Bng cch s dng mt cng sut nhiu ta c th lm cho php o c lp vi di tn thu ca my thu. Nhiu thc (Real Noise) Trong thc t, nhiu khng phi l nhiu trng m c nhiu mc khc nhau mi tn s. l do nhiu thc t l hn hp ca nhiu ngun nhiu khc nhau gm c nhiu loi nhiu di tn rng v nhiu loi nhiu di tn hp. Bn cnh bt c thit b no dng o nhiu cng khng l hon ho v t to ra nhiu bn trong chng. iu ny hn ch mc nh nht m my thu c th d c v gi l thm nhiu (noise floor). Thm nhiu ca mt my thu cht lng cao in hnh c minh ho di y.

Hnh 2.30 Thm nhiu ca mt my thu cht lng cao Nhiu trn mt ng dy khng c li c minh ho di y.

72

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.31 Nhiu trn mt ng dy khng c li th c nhng phn ph m nhiu trn ng dy thp ti mc khng th phn bit c vi thm nhiu v mt vi phn ngun nhiu to ra nhiu vi mc cao hn c th thy c mt vi tn s.

Hnh 2.32 Nhiu c nng lng ln so vi thm nhiu Nu ngun nhiu c nng lng ln so vi thm nhiu nh tn s 120kHz trn hnh v trn chng hn th c th d c d dng. Nhiu xung (Impulse Noise) Mt loi nhiu c bit cn quan tm l nhiu xung. Loi nhiu ny l tiu biu v n gy ra bi cc ngun nhiu nh my in, da quay s v l nhng xung in ngn, nng lng ln, di tn rng.

73

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Hnh 2.33 Nhiu xung y l xung nhiu tiu chun c ANSI nh ngha cho mc ch o th gi l xung o th s 1 ANSI T1.413-1988. iu u tin cn lu l trc x ca th l trc thi gian ch khng phi l trc tn s nh trong cc my phn tch ph. Thi gian tn ti ca nhiu xung rt nh mc d bin ca n thng rt ln. iu th hai cn lu l trc tung c n v l dB ch khng phi l dBm c ngha l mc ca xung nhiu cc thi im c o tng i theo mc tn hiu trn ng dy ch khng phi l bin tuyt i ca nng lng nhiu o c. Nhiu xung khng nh hng nhiu ti cc dch v xDSL nh cc dch v tn thp v c ch sa sai c bit ca xDSL nhng d sao cng l mt ngun nhiu quan trng trn ng dy v phi c o th nh mt phn ca ton b lng nhiu trn ng dy. Nhiu xung c o nh sau.

Hnh 2.34 o nhiu xung

74

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

ng dy c ni vi thit b qua mt b lc thng di cho nhiu cc tn s c th tc ng ti dch v i qua. Vi dch v di tn thp th tn s ny c xc nh bi khuyn ngh ITU-T 0.71. Ch c nhng xung c mc cao hn mt mc no mi c th tc ng ti dch v nn ngi ta dng mt b d ngng phn bit vi cc nhiu vi mc thp. B m xung ch tng vi xung mi m khng tng trong thi gian ca mt xung nhiu. Trong mt h thng n gin ch c s cc xung nhiu c tnh. Trong cc h thng phc tp hn ngi ta cn ghi li thi gian m mc nhiu vt qu ngng v c s giy c t mt xung nhiu tr ln. Ngt (Interruptions) Ngt l cc gin on truyn dn hay mc tn hiu ca m hiu th o c di mc ngng cn thit nh c xc nh khuyn ngh ITU-T O.62. Ngt c th gy ra bi cc mi ni km cht lng, dao ng c hc hay cc ch h mch chp chn. Ngt c o nh sau.

Hnh 2.35 o ngt Mt my pht m hiu gi mt tn hiu tn s c nh mc 0dBm v b tr mt my o u kia ca ng dy d m hiu . Do suy hao chn ca ng dy (trong hnh v l mt v d: 10dB) m tn hiu thu c c mc nh hn tn hiu pht. My thu s d cc khong thi gian m mc tn hiu thu xung thp hn mt khong no (v d 6dB) so vi mc tn hiu thu bnh thng. Trong cc my o n gin ngi ta ch tnh s ln b ngt. Trong cc my o phc tp hn ngi ta o t l khong thi gian ngt so vi ton b thi gian o th v s giy c t mt ln ngt tr ln.

75

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Li cp ng
Cc loi li trn ng dy Li trn ng dy c th l h hi do s c trn ng dy hay i dy b sai

Hnh 2.36 Cc loi li cp thng dng trn mng ngoi vi Mt vi loi li trn ng dy c minh ho trn. Cng vic xy dng k c bn ngoi v bn trong cc to nh u thng gy ra h hi nghim trng cho cp hay c th gy ra cc li tim n m i lc ta cha th thy c. H hi do chut nhm l mt trng hp ph bin i vi cp ngm. Chut gm lp cch in v gy ra ngn mch hay thm ch h mch. Chim, th cng c th lm d cc hp u cp. Nc ngp cc hp u ni v cp, c bit l cc loi hp kiu c lm gim cht lng v c th tc ng n ng dy ngay c sau khi lm kh chng v b oxid ho. Nhng nguyn nhn thng gp nht ca li ng dy l do cc k thut vin ng dy gy ra. Ngi k thut vin c th gy ra li h mch hay ngn mch do sai st hay thc hin mi ni khng tt hoc thm ch do 76

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

khng lm v sinh tt hin trng sau khi lm vic. Quan trng hn l k thut vin c th gy ra nhng li cp khng r rng hin nhin nh h mch hay ngn mch nhng li gy ra hu qu khng km phn nghim trng. C nhiu loi li cp thng gp trong mng ngoi vi c th khng gy ra vn g cho cc dch v tn thp nh in thoi nhng li tr nn nghim trng khi a vo khai thc cc dch v tc cao xDSL. Ta s xt chi tit mt vi loi li cp ny. Ln dy (Split Pairs) Khi ni nhiu i dy trong mt si cp th thng gp li ni ln dy t i ny sang i kia.

Hnh 2.37 Li ln dy v li sa ln dy Sau ngi ta c th sa li li ln dy ch khc v pha khch hng bng cch ni ng i dy tr li. Cch sa li ny t ra kh tt cho dch v in thoi. Tuy nhin li ln dy lm gim nghim trng kh nng truyn ti dch v xDSL. Trc ht l tr khng c tnh ca on dy khc vi phn cn li ca ng dy thu bao to ra phi hp tr khng sai lm phn x tn hiu v tng suy hao chn ca i dy. Th hai l i dy khng cn xon vi nhau trong on ln dy v nh vy c ngha l s d b tc ng bi cm ng in t chu v to xuyn knh ln trong cho cp. Khng ch khng t xon vi nhau cc dy dn trong on dy b ln cn xon vi mt i dy khc lm tng xuyn knh ln i dy ny. Li ln dy gy ra nhiu, xuyn knh, pht x xuyn knh v suy hao chn trong cc ng dng xDSL v phi nh v v sa cha trc khi s dng ng dy. Thay i c dy Nhiu loi cp khc nhau vi ng knh dy dn khc nhau c th s dng c cho cc ng dng thoi v xDSL nn c nhiu loi cp c dng t lu trong xy dng h tng mng. Trong khi cc c dy khc nhau khng gy ra vn g th vic gp nhiu c dy trong mt ng dy thu bao c th gy ra s khng tng thch tr khng lm nh hng ti kh nng truyn ti tn hiu xDSL. l do tc ng ca s thay i c dy. Tr khng c tnh ca i dy ph thuc vo nhiu yu t trong c ng knh dy dn. Do ch no

77

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c s thay i c dy ch s c s thay i tr khng c tnh v nh ta bit s gy ra phi hp tr khng sai v to phn x tn hiu.

Hnh 2.38 C dy khc nhau gy ra hin tng phn x tn hiu Mt v d gip d hnh dung vn l trng hp mt ng ln chuyn sang mt ng nh lm vng ting ni do phn x t ch thay i ng knh. Thay i c dy lm tng suy hao phn hi v suy hao chn. S thay i c dy c th lm cho vic truyn ti tn hiu xDSL xu i v c th nh v d dng bng mt my o TDR. Nhnh r (Bridged Taps) Khi mng pht trin, nhu cu ca khch hng thay i v c s iu chnh, sa cha lm cho nhiu ng dy trong mng ngoi vi b b trng nhng khng s dng. V d mt i dy pht sinh li th ng l phi nh v v sa li th ngi ta thay dy khc cho khch hng. Khch hng v dch v c di sang mt i dy mi. ng l ra khch hng c chuyn sang mt i dy mi nhng i dy ny thc ra l mt i dy s dng trn nhnh r v by gi ht s dng cng khng b ct nhnh r ra.

Hnh 2.39 Li cp c nhnh r on dy khng s dng gi l nhnh r v thng l h. Nhnh r c ti v nhnh r h u to ra s phi hp tr khng sai trn ng dy nhnh r v lm tng suy hao chn. Nhng nhnh r h cn c tc dng nh mt antenna kh hiu qu thu cc loi nhiu trong mi trng v a vo ng dy. Ngoi ra n cn c th nh mt antenna pht kh mnh. Cc nhnh r lm tng nhiu, suy hao phn hi, suy hao chn v lm cho ng dy khng cht lng dng cho truyn dn tn hiu xDSL. Cc nhnh r c th tm c d dng bng cc my o TDR.

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Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Cun ti (Load Coils) Suy hao ca cc ng dy in thoi di tn s thp c th gim thiu bng cch a vo ng dy cc cun cm nhng khong cch u n trn ng dy.

Hnh 2.40 Li cp c cun ti Cc cun ti c s dng t lu tng tm ph ca dch v in thoi. Tuy nhin vi tn hiu tn s cao nh xDSL th cc cun ti c tc dng nh mt mch in b h nn phi nh v chng v ly ra trc khi trin khai dch v xDSL trn . Xon i khng tt Ta thy tm quan trng ca dy xon i trong vic gim nhy vi nhiu v kh nng pht x nhiu. Nhiu ng dy lc u ch dng cho in thoi nn ngi ta t ch n vic xon i tt st cc mi ni v c th lm gim cht lng ng dy khng dng c cho xDSL.

Hnh 2.41 Li xon i khng tt trn ng dy thu bao nh v li ng dy Nh thy c nhiu loi li ng dy phi c sa cha trc khi dng cho xDSL. V vy cn thit phi c mt phng php nh v li trn ng dy v r rng l khng cn phi kim tra trn ton b ng dy.

Hnh 2.42 Tng t vi ng dy n hi Hy tr li s so snh ca ta v ngi nm si dy n hi. Ta bit rng hu ht cc li trn ng dy u gy ra mt xung phn x ti u pht. Nu ta c th o c khong thi gian cn thit xung phn x tr li 79

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

u pht v nu ta bit c tc truyn sng th ta c th tnh c khong cch ti v tr b li v Khong cch = Tc x Thi gian / 2 Phi chia 2 v xung phi i ti v tr li v tr li u pht ngha l i bng 2 ln khong cch t u pht ti v tr li. Lm th no c th xc nh c vn tc lan truyn xung? Tht ng ngc nhin khi khng phi ph thuc vo dy dn m l ph thuc vo cht cch in gia hai dy dn. l do xung c dng sng tn ti nh mt trng in t xung quanh dy dn. S chuyn ng ca cc in t trong dy dn rt chm chp. Tc lan truyn c cho bi: Tc lan truyn = c / k Vi c l vn tc truyn nh sng trong chn khng v k l h s in mi ca cht cch in. thun tin ta nh ngha h s tc l tc tng i so vi tc ca nh sng trong chn khng: H s tc = Tc lan truyn / Tc nh sng = 1 / k H s in mi ca cc cht cch in thng dng khong 2,5 nn h s tc thng thng l khong 0,65. Gi tr thc t ca cp c th tham kho nh sn xut cp. Tuy nhin c th tnh c chng bng cch o th mt on cp c di bit trc v tnh ngc li. My o xung Reflectometers) di theo min thi gian TDR (Time Domain

My o TDR dng nguyn l trn nh v li trn ng dy.

Hnh 2.43 S nguyn l my o TDR 80

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Mt xung in c pht ra v truyn trn ng dy v ngay lc bt u pht cng bt u b o thi gian. Xung phn x c tch ri khi xung pht i bng mt mch in c bit gi l mch hybrid dng ngng b o thi gian. Qua h s tc c th tnh c khong cch ti v tr li v hin th. Hnh dng v cc tnh ca xung phn x c th gip on ra c l li h mch hay ngn mch. Trn y l kt qu c trc tip t mt my o TDR.

Hnh 2.44 Kt qu c t mt my o TDR Mt cch khc l xung phn x c th hin th trn mt my o TDR c mn hnh ho. My o ny cho php ngi s dng c th dch hnh dng ca xung phn x hiu c chi tit hn v bn cht ca sai hng trn ng dy. H s tc xung phn x vn c dng cho php di chuyn mt con tr ch n v tr dy b li v c c khong cch. Mt vi loi li, c bit l nhng li gy ra xuyn knh c d tt nht bng cch tch my pht v my thu ra cc kt ni khc nhau nh trong mt my o xuyn knh TDR.

Hnh 2.45 Li ln dy v sa ln dy o bng my o TDR Xung pht i c truyn bnh thng nhng nhn xung phn x trn ng dy k cn do c th xc nh c khong cch ti li gy ra xuyn knh. Trong v d minh ho trn li ln dy v sa ln dy gy ra hai xung phn x mi xung mi u ca on ln dy v u c th d dng thy c trn mt TDR c mn hnh ho v c th nh v c c hai u ca on dy b ln. 81

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cc phng php nh v khc Ngoi TDR cc phng php nh v li ng dy l thc hin o in tr hay in dung nu bit c gi tr in tr, in dung trn mt n v chiu di ng dy ri tnh c khong cch. So snh NEXT v FEXT c th gip ta nh v c li gy ra xuyn knh. Suy hao phn hi cao trong khi suy hao chn thp cho bit c v tr li ng dy gn u ang thc hin o.

o th cp ng
Tiu chun o th ng dy thu bao
Tiu chun quc t ITU-T L.19: Tiu chun cp ng dnh cho ISDN, HDSL, ADSL v UADSL ETSI ETR-328: Cc yu cu ca ng dy thu bao s ANSI T1.413: Giao din vt l ADSL Tiu chun ngnh Quy nh v lp t ng dy in thoi s 1264Q-NV/VT TCN 68-135 (1995) V kim tra chng st tip t TCN 68-141 Tip t cho cc cng trnh vin thng TCN 68-132 Cp thng tin kim loi dnh cho mng ni ht Cc tiu chun thit b ADSL ITU-T G.992.1, G.992.2: Tiu chun thit b thu pht ADSL ANSI T1.413: Giao din vt l ADSL ITU-T G.994.1: Th tc bt tay ca b thu pht ADSL ITU-T G.996.1: Th tc o th thit b thu pht ADSL 82

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

o th tng t
o th mt u (Single-ended Tests) Cc php o th thng thng nht l thc hin m ch cn kt ni vi mt u ng dy v khi ch cn mt my o v mt ngi cng nh khng phi i n u bn kia. Mt vi php o yu cu phi c kt cui c bit nhng nh vic ci t t xa qua modem nn vn c th o c m khng cn i n u bn kia ca ng dy. Suy hao phn hi Suy hao phn hi c o t mt u ca ng dy bng cch pht i mt m hiu (hay mt di m hiu) mt mc c nh (v d nh 0dBm) v o tn hiu phn x cng mt u. t kt qu chnh xc cao nht, ng dy phi c kt cui ng bng tr khng c tnh ca n nhng vi nhng ng dy kh di th tn hiu phn x t u xa kh nh hn cc tn hiu phn x t cc li trn ng dy do thay i tr khng c tnh nn vic kt cui ng tr khng c tnh ca ng dy khng quan trng lm.

Hnh 2.46 o suy hao phn hi Suy hao phn hi ln cho bit v tr li ng dy kh gn vi u dy ang thc hin o th. Nu suy hao phn hi ln qu s lm cho ng dy khng truyn tn hiu xDSL c nn phi nh v v sa cha li. Nhiu Nhiu c o bng cch kt ni c chnh tn s cn o (hay di tn s cn o) vo mt u ng dy. t c chnh xc cao ng dy phi c kt cui u bn kia tuy nhin iu ny cng khng quan trng lm. Xuyn knh u gn o c xuyn knh u gn phi pht m hiu o (hay di m hiu o) vo mt i dy v tn hiu xuyn knh c d bng mt my thu kt ni vi mt i dy k cn. kt qu o c chnh xc th c hai ng dy phi c kt cui.

83

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 2.47 o xuyn knh u gn Xuyn knh u xa ln cho bit c li ng dy gn u ang tin hnh o. Cn bng dc Cn bng ca ng dy vi t c o t mt u bng cch kt ni mt my o qua mt mch in thch hp vi ng dy v t. Nu thun li th c th kt cui u dy bn kia.

Hnh 2.48 o cn bng dc Phng php ny cng c th dng c o cn bng ca i dy vi dy dn hay i dy khc. Nhng ng dy khng c li cn bng kh tt vi t. V vy nu d c mt cn bng ln th cho thy c li tip t v cn phi nh v sa cha. o TDR Mt trong nhng php o mt u hu dng nht l o TDR.

Hnh 2.49 TDR o h dy u cui thy c u kia ca ng dy bng my o TDR th ng dy phi c h mch hay ngn mch. Nu c kt cui ng dy th khng c xung phn x v khng thy c qua my o TDR nhng bt c li no trn ng dy gy ra s thay i tr khng c tnh u c th d c bng my o TDR.

84

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

o th nhiu my o Mt vi thng tin hu ch v ng dy c th xc nh bng cch thc hin cc php o n gin t mt u ng dy v in tr cch in, in tr vng v in dung. o in tr ni tip ca vng thu bao ta phi ni tt u bn kia, o in dung ca vng thu bao ta phi h u bn kia. in dung ca i dy v t hay dy dn khc hoc i dy khc c th o m khng cn phi quan tm ti kt cui ng dy. o c in tr cch in ca i dy vi t hay mt dy dn khc hoc i dy khc cn phi c mt ngun p ln (chng hn, 95V) a vo tc ng ln cht cch in v pht hin c li tim n. o th hai u (Double-ended Tests) Mt vi php o cn phi s dng thit b o c hai u o. c th n gin l mt my thu hay mt my pht hoc nhng my o phc tp. Cn thy rng vi o th hai u th vic s dng nhn lc cng nh thit b o l rt quan trng v cc k thut vin o th phi hot ng ch ch t cho php c hai u c iu khin bi ngi t mt u vic o t hiu qu cao. Suy hao chn Suy hao chn ch c th c o chnh xc bng cch pht mt m hiu (hay mt di m hiu) mt u v o mc tn hiu thu c u bn kia bng mt my thu chnh tn s phn bit gia cc tn hiu v nhiu.

Hnh 2.50 o suy hao chn C th nh gi suy hao chn t mt u bng my o TDR v xung in b suy hao khi truyn dc theo ng dy hai ln theo hai chiu. Nu t u bn kia tnh trng ngn mch hay h mch th xung in c phn x hon ton v bin ca xung nhn c c em so snh vi bin ca xung pht i tnh ra suy hao chn. Tuy nhin, cn phi lu rng gi tr o c ch ng vi mt tn s l tn s c bn ca xung pht i (v thm vo mt vi nh hng ca cc hi ca n). Vi cc ng dng xDSL cn phi o suy hao chn tn s Nyquist ca tn hiu cng nh ton b 85

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

ph tn v iu ny ch c th thc hin c khi phi dng thit b c hai u. Xuyn knh u xa Nh nh ngha, FEXT phi c o bng cch dng mt my pht mt u ca cp v mt my thu u kia ca cp.

Hnh 2.51 o xuyn knh u xa nh gi tc bit Mt vi dch v xDSL l thch ng tc (v d nh ADSL) trong khi mt vi loi li c ci hot ng cc tc bit khc nhau tu thuc cht lng ca ng dy (v d nh SDSL). Bng cch o th cc thng s ng dy khc nhau bao gm c suy hao chn c th nh gi v tc bit m ng dy c th truyn ti. V suy hao chn l mt tham s bt buc phi o nn php nh gi tc bit phi c thc hin bng my o c hai u (dng phng php o TDR s cho kt qu nh gi t mt u rt sai lch).

Hnh 2.52 nh gi tc bit Vi cc dch v bt i xng (ADSL chng hn) cn phi thc hin o th theo c hai chiu v ngi o ph phi chuyn kt qu cho ngi o chnh c th tnh ton, nh gi kh nng ca ng dy. Ngt qung o c ngt qung i hi phi truyn m hiu mu vo mt u ng dy v m s c ngt qung u bn kia. Cc php o dng cu kt ni C nhiu php o nng ch cn mt thit b o ni song song vi ng dy. 86

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Kh nng khng nhiu nh gi kh nng khng nhiu ca mt thit b mng ngi ta dng mt my pht nhiu trng vi ng ra tr khng cao ghp theo kiu cu song song vi ng dy bt c im no.

Hnh 2.53 o kh nng khng nhiu Bng cch tng mc nhiu a vo ng dy cho ti khi thit b cnh bo (hay ti khi mt my o tn hiu s ch ra li) th kh nng khng nhiu c ghi nhn. Mt ph cng sut trnh nhng dch v no khng to ra nhiu xuyn knh lm cho cc ng dy khc trong cng cho cp khng hot ng c ban qun l tn s quc gia xc nh nng lng cc i m thit b mng c cho php pht trong ph tn. Bng cch kt ni my o kiu cu ngang qua ng dy c th o c mt ph cng sut v pht hin c cc vi phm loi ny.

Hnh 2.54 o mt ph cng sut

Cc phng php o th khc


o th s Khng ging nh vic nh gi bng phng php tng t, my o k thut s nh gi thit b dch v v pht tn hiu s trn hn l ch o c cc thng s ng dy.

87

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 2.55 S o th dch v s Trong v d ny my o thay th modem ADSL v n thch nghi vi DSLAM. Tc bit thc t ca dch v s c nh gi v my o cng d cc li xy ra. o th bng k thut s rt quan trng xc nhn rng dch v c lp t c lm vic hay khng nhng khng ging nh o th tng t n khng th cho bit c kh nng ca sai v cht lng ca ng dy khng t. Do vy o th k thut s ch b sung ch khng phi thay th o th tng t. Ghi li h s cho mng

Gi li h s chnh xc l rt cn thit qun l bt c mng cp ng no. Cc bn cho thy ng cp chy v hnh dng ca ng cp cho bit cch mt thu bao bt k c cung cp dch v. Thng c th dng di ng dy thu bao c m t trn h s mng ngoi vi xt kh nng cung cp dch v mi nh xDSL ca ng dy, c bit l khi ng dy rt ngn. Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp cc h s khng cn chnh xc do thc t b iu chnh, sa cha hay h hng. o th cc tham s tng t ca ng dy c th dng cp nht cc h s ny. H s ca mt ng dy cng phi c nghin cu vi cc dch v trn cc ng dy k cn v cc dch v mi thng khng c ghi ln h s mng ngoi vi. S dng h s mng ngoi vi gip ta c th xc nh ng dy no c th dng c cho xDSL. Tuy nhin s c nhiu ng dy khc cng dng c cho xDSL nu thc hin mt s php o nh gi nn con s ti a cc ng dy thc t dng c cho xDSL c c khng th ch da vo h s mng cp ngoi vi. 88

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

o tham s Bn cnh vic s dng h s mng cp ngoi vi mt vi php o n gin cc tham s ca ng dy c th c thc hin ci thin chnh xc ca kt qu nh gi. Chng hn, vi dung khng ng dy o c ca ng dy khng li c th nh gi c di ca dy.

nh gi cp ng
T chc vic nh gi mng cp ng
Gi thnh nh gi mng cp ng c th ln rt cao. Gi thnh ca vic khng nh gi mng cp ng cn cao hn. ti u s cn bng cn phi xt cn thn vic t chc s dng hiu qu nht thit b o. Nhng yu t cn lu Nhng yu t no cn phi tnh n khi lp k hoch t chc nh gi mng cp ng? Chi ph ln nht l chi ph nhn s nn mt chin lc s dng hiu qu nhn lc l ti cn thit. Vy ta phi xc nh cch t chc o th v cc thit b o cn thit cho php chng ta ti thiu ho s nhn lc cn thit thc hin vic nh gi. Ta cng phi c gng ti thiu ho k nng cn thit cho mi cng tc bng cch s dng mc k nng thp nht c th p ng c cho tng tnh hung. iu ny khng ch do gi thnh m cn do nhn lc lnh ngh rt kh tuyn dng cng nh gi li. Ti a ho thi gian thc s lm vic l mt bi ton khng km phn quan trng. Thi gian cng v gi thnh di chuyn l phn khng trc tip sn xut. Thi gian ny i lc c gi l truck-roll v ti thiu ho truck-roll l mt trong nhng mc tiu v l mt trong nhng tiu chun nh gi tnh hiu qu ca chin lc o th nh gi mng cp ng. Mc d gi thnh u t cho thit b o th nh hn nhiu so vi gi thnh nhn s nhng vic vch ra chin lc s dng hiu qu n cng rt quan trng. La chn thit b o t n quyt nh vic thc hin nh th no. Khng cn phi ti thiu ho s lng thit b o cn thit. Tuy nhin kt hp cc chc nng khc nhau vo mt thit b o v n gin ho cc thao tc o s tit kim c chuyn mn cn thit khi vn hnh my o. Cn phi t ng ho vic o kim ti a. iu s tng nng sut o, gim gi thnh o v trnh c cc sai st do con ngi gy ra trong qu trnh o.

89

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cn phi gi mt h s c nh cc kt qu o th khch hng c th tin cy vo cht lng, cc php o c th hng n. Cc kt qu c th in ra c hay c th lu tr c trong b nh my o cp nht vo c s d liu. S dng my o C nhiu cch kt ni my o v thit k ca my o ng vai tr quan trng trong hiu qu s dng cn c xem xt. Xt cch lp t mt dy DSLAM m mi DSLAM kt ni vi cc ng dy thu bao qua mt dn MDF (Main Distribution Frame).

Hnh 2.56 Cc thu bao c ni vi DSLAM qua mt dn MDF Cc php o th mt u c th c thc hin bng cch cch ly ng dy dn MDF v ni my o vo ng dy.

Hnh 2.57 o th mt u K thut vin ng dy ngoi vi c th tin hnh mt lot cc php o th cho ng dy mt cch hon ho nh vo quy trnh o th t ng c lp trnh trc cho dch v v c th in ra bn bo co v kt qu nh 90

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

gi ng dy hay lu tr kt qu lu li trn c s d liu. V tt c cc php o th c thc hin t u dy pha tng i nn khng cn phi tn km chi ph di chuyn. Nu k thut vin ang pha khch hng hay ang t cp trn ng ph th c th o mt u thun tin t .

Hnh 2.58 o th mt u t pha khch hng C th khng cn phi ngt kt ni vi DSLAM, my o c ch to kt cui ng dy mt cch th ng v khng cp ngun mt chiu cho ng dy khi nh hng ti php o. Phng php o th mt chiu cn s dng hai my o, nhng trnh phi s dng hai ngi nn chn thit b o c ch ch t (master/slave mode) ngi mt u c th iu khin c hai u. My o ch c th c t mt trong hai u ng dy v my o t u bn kia. Mt quy trnh o hp l c thit lp trc cho dch v cn o s tit kim thi gian v chi ph v c th hn ch c nhng sai st do con ngi gy ra.

Hnh 2.59 o th hai u bng ch Master - Slave

91

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Mt trong nhng ngun cn nhn lc pht sinh l vic to kt ni dn MDF. Ngun ph tri ny c th c hn ch bng vic s dng mt b chuyn mch Test Access Switch gia DSLAM v dn MDF:

Hnh 2.60 o th qua b chuyn ng dy My o c ni vo bus test access trn b chuyn mch c cc k s lp trnh bn qun l ngt kt ni DSLAM khi ng dy v kt ni my o vo thay th. Cng mt k s c th vn hnh mt my o v nh trong v d trn thc hin tt c cc php o mt u cho ng dy m khng cn phi ri khi bn iu khin. C hai cch thc hin phng php o th hai u. K thut vin o th ng dy c th ni v vn hnh my o v c th yu cu kt ni vi mt my o t t ngi k s bn qun l c th xa dn MDF:

Hnh 2.61 o th hai u dng Master Slave c phi hp b chuyn ng dy ti u Slave Mt cch khc l mt cng nhn lp t cp bnh thng khng cn o to nhiu c th ni my o t v k s qun l vn hnh my o ch. 92

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.62 o th hai u dng Master Slave c phi hp b chuyn ng dy ti u Master Trong cch o ny k s ng dy khng cn phi c bt c kin thc no v o v khng cn thit phi di chuyn xa.

Chin lc nh gi
Trong tt c cc cng vic kinh doanh dch v c nhiu quyt nh c a ra v s cn bng gia gi c v cht lng v t c s cn bng s t c hiu qu ng k v li nhun ca dch v. Cung cp cc dch v xDSL cng khng l mt ngoi l. Trong phn ny ta s xem xt cc chin lc nh gi cp ng khc nhau, nhng thun li v kh khn ca tng chin lc v mt vi chi tit ca chng. Giai on nh gi trc hp ng nh gi trc hp ng c ngha l o th trc khi trin khai dch v. Quy trnh cho vic nh gi trc hp ng cho mt ng dy c minh ho nh sau.

93

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Thc hin cc php o tng t

Kt qu u tt? N Thuc vng xm? N

ng dy tt

Y Cht lng ng dy cn lu Thc hin cc php o s

Kt qu tt? Y

Test Failed

Test Passed

Hnh 2.63 Quy trnh nh gi trc hp ng Nu tt c cc php o tng t u cho kt qu tt th thc hin o th s v nu cng cho kt qu tt th ng dy sn sng trin khai dch v. C th c mt vi vng xm trong cc php o th tng t. l trng hp ng dy d khng qua c tt c cc php o th tng t vn c th dng c nu qua c cc php o th s. Tuy nhin phi ghi li lu phng trng hp cht lng ng dy ny suy gim. Nu cc php th khng cho kt qu tt th ng dy khng dng c cho dch v xDSL v cn phi sa cha c c cht lng theo yu cu ca dch v. Vng xm Mi dch v u cn nhng thng s tng t ti thiu c th hot ng n nh. Nhng gi tr ngng ny ly t nhng tiu chun quc t, nhng 94

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

nh sn xut thit b v cc khuyn ngh cng nh kinh nghim o th. Tuy nhin vi mi dch v u c vng xm m vn c th trin khai dch v nhng cht lng bp bnh, chp chn. Hnh v sau minh ho th ph ca mt thng s k thut vi mc ngng m di mc th dch v khng th hot ng c. Trong v d ny kt qu o th di hn mc ngng trn phn ln ph tn v kt qu xem nh khng t.

Hnh 2.64 Vng chc chn khng t yu cu k thut Trng hp ngc li l kt qu o c cho thy cc thng s k thut u trn mc ngng th ng dy l t.

Hnh 2.65 Vng chc chn t yu cu k thut Nu gi tr o th ca cc thng s k thut gn vi mc ngng hay nu chng ch di mc ngng mt vi phn ca ph tn th kt qu khng r rng v phi ghi li l trng hp thuc vng khng n nh.

95

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 2.66 Vng khng chc chn t hay khng t yu cu k thut vng xm Trong mt vi trng hp hot ng h thng ph thuc khng ch vo vi thng s k thut ring l m cn ph thuc vo s kt hp ca cc thng s k thut . Chng hn nh s kt hp gia nhiu v suy ho chn s nh hng ti tc bit ti a ca ADSL m ng dy c th thc hin c. Hy minh ho bng mt so snh tng t.

Hnh 2.67 Trng hp chc chn t yu cu k thut ng phng v khng dc Mt chic xe hi chy dc theo mt con ng phng c th t c tc ti a theo thit k. Nu nhiu v suy hao chn u vng xanh, tc ca ADSL l 10Mbit/s hn hn tc cn thit 4Mbit/s th cht lng ng dy t. By gi xt n khi c thm suy hao chn.

96

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hnh 2.68 Trng hp cha chc t hay khng t yu cu k thut ng phng nhng dc Suy hao chn tng t vi trng hp xe hi i ln dc. Tc ca xe hi gim xung cn 7Mbit/s v kt qu cht lng ng dy vn t. Cn nhiu th sao? Nhiu tng ng vi con ng gp ghnh.

Hnh 2.69 Trng hp cha chc t hay khng t yu cu k thut ng khng dc nhng g gh Khi c gp ghnh th tc cng gim, nu gim cn 6Mbit/s th cht lng ng dy vn t.

Hnh 2.70 Trng hp chc chn khng t yu cu k thut ng va g gh va dc 97

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Nu ng i ca xe hi va ln dc va gp ghnh c ngha l trn ng dy va c suy hao chn va c nhiu th tc s ri vo vng nguy him. Tc gim xung cn 3Mbit/s v kt qu l cht lng ng dy khng t. Mc d xt ring th suy hao chn v nhiu u khng lm cht lng ng dy khng t nhng s kt hp ca hai tc nhn ny li lm cho cht lng ng dy khng t. nh gi hng lot trc hp ng H tng mng cho nh cung cp dch v xDSL cho d l nh cung cp c quyn hay nh cung cp cnh tranh u bao gm nhiu ng dy thu bao. Kh nng tng cng ca mng c tng ln ti a nh vo vic s dng cht lng tng ng dy mc cao nht. Mun c nh vy phi o kim tng ng dy thu bao. Cc php o th hng lot thc hin kim tra cht lng tng qut mng ng dy thu bao trc khi thc hin trin khai dch v. Cch lm ny c nhng thun li sau: Doanh nghip c c mt bc tranh r rng v kh nng ca mng ng dy thu bao. N cho php vic quy hoch s lng ng dy cho dch v c chnh xc. N cung cp thng tin v d tr ng dy khi mt ng dy gp s c c th thay th nhanh chng. N cho php chuyn cng vic lp t cho thu bao t lm. N lm tng ti a s tin tng ca khch hng v khch hng khng tht vng v nhng li ha hn cht lng khng thc hin c. N lm gim chi ph bo dng v n l mt chin lc chuyn nghip khng i pht sinh s c trong thi gian ch trin khai. Nhng bt tin: Chi ph ban u cao

98

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

C th tr hon thi im trin khai khi mng ng dy thu bao ang c kho st. nh gi trc hp ng hng lot l mt chin lc c gi thnh cao, cht lng cao rt thch hp vi vic lp t nhng vng c mt khch hng cao hay nhng vng khch hng kh tnh. Quy trnh nh gi trc hp ng hng lot c minh ho nh sau.

o ht s dy? N o ng dy tip theo

Kt thc o th

Cc tham s u t? N Loi b dy? Y Loi b ng dy

Y Sn sng phc v N

Sa cha dy

Hnh 2.71 Quy trnh nh gi hng lot trc hp ng Nu cc tham s o ca ng dy u t th ng dy c a qua phc v nhng nu khng t th phi quyt nh l loi b hay bt tay vo vic sa cha. Nu cn o th cho nhiu loi dch v th mt ng dy c th khng dng c cho dch v ny li dng c cho dch v khc. Chnh v vy nh gi hng lot trc hp ng t ra hiu qu. 99

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Trong phng php nh gi ny tt c cc ng dy c o c nhng ngi ta dng nhiu c tnh o cho nhiu loi dch v khc nhau. Php o th nht dng nhng c tnh o nghim ngt nht v ch nhng ng dy khng t mi c o cho dch v k tip vn vn. Mt cch lm khc l tin hnh ton b cc php o bt k kt qu ra sao v ghi li kh nng ng dy c th phc v dch v no tham kho v sau. Ch khi ng dy khng thch hp cho bt c dch v no th mi quyt nh l nn b ng dy hay bt tay vo sa cha n. nh gi c chn la Chin lc nh gi c chn la dng cc h s mng cp ni ht phn loi cc ng dy tt, khng tt v cht lng cn lu v ch o th cc ng dy c cht lng cn lu trc khi a cc ng dy vo truyn ti dch v. Nh thy, h s mng cp ni ht nu ng tin cy s tch ra c mt s ln cc ng dy c kh nng cung cp dch v theo yu cu. Tng t nh vy cc h s ny cng cho bit mt s ng dy nh qu di chng hn khng c th a vo truyn ti tn hiu cho dch v c. Phng php ny ch o th nhng ng dy m ta khng bit chc c th hoc khng c th truyn ti tn hiu ca dch v m thi. Thun li ca phng php nh gi c chn la l: Doanh nghip c c mt bc tranh hp l v s lng thu bao c th lp t c (tu thuc vo cht lng h s mng cp) C th giao cng on lp t cho thu bao To c nim tin cho khch hng mc trung bnh Chi ph mc trung bnh Nhng nhc im ca phng php ny l: Mt s ng dy c gn l tt trong khi khng dng c Mt s khch hng s gp s c do c nhiu ng dy cht lng cn xem xt li nm trong danh sch cc ng dy tt Nhiu ng dy c th dng c li c cho l v dng

100

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Tm li, nh gi c chn la l s cn i em li cht lng trung bnh v gi thnh trung bnh.

o ht s dy? N

Kt thc o th

Kim tra h s ng dy

Thuc vng xanh? N Thuc vng ? Y Loi b dy? Y Loi b ng dy

o th ng dy N

Cc php o OK?

N Sa cha dy

Sn sng phc v

Hnh 2.72 Quy trnh nh gi c chn la nh gi ngay khi lp t Chin lc o th ny ch thc hin o th cc ng dy khi ang tin hnh lp t. u im ca chin lc o th ny c th tm tt nh sau: Chi ph ban u thp 101

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Khng tn km thm chi ph di chuyn v k thut vin lp t ng no cng phi ti nh thu bao. Ngoi ra c th ghi li h s cht lng ng dy mt cch chnh xc v c th s dng c v sau. Nhc im ca chin lc nh gi ngay khi lp t c th thy c l: Doanh nghip khng th bit c s lng ng dy c th lp t c Mt s ng dy ti khi lp t mi bit c l khng t Chi ph bo dng va phi

o th t ng

Cc php o OK? N o th chi tit

Thc hin o th dch v s

G ri modem/DSLAM

N Y nh v c li? N

OK? Y Sn sng phc v

Sa li

Loi b ng dy

Kt thc o th

Hnh 2.73 Quy trnh nh gi ngay khi lp t y cng l mt chin lc nh gi c gi thnh tng i, nhng li cha nhiu ri ro hn chin lc nh gi trc hp ng c chn la. 102

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

nh gi ngay khi bo dng y l mt chin lc ch ch o th khi c s c c bo co. u im ca chin lc ny l: Chi ph thp Nhc im ca chin lc ny l: Doanh nghip s khng nm c s lng ng dy c th trin khai c dch v Nhiu khch hng khng hi lng Chi ph bo dng cao y l mt cch lm km cht lng nhng gi thnh khng thp do chi ph bo dng cao. y cng l mt chic lc cha nhiu ri ro dn n mt khch hng v khng nn thc hin. Quy trnh o th ging nh o th khi lp t.

Hnh 2.74 So snh cc chin lc nh gi cht lng mng cp ng

103

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Thit b o th ADSL
Thit b o th ADSL cm tay
Bng 2.1 Dng c o th cm tay
Dng c Tn gi Mc ch

B modem Dng c kim tra ng dy c ADSL cm tay cung cp dch v ADSL cha B microfilter B tch dch v t c nh gn NID trong hay b tch cu hnh G.DMT ADSL cn cc b lc c dch v gn trn ng dy mi ni c lp t thit b POTS B tch dch v Dng c x l cc b tch dch v hay cc b microfilter c s c cm tay

My o th cm tay My d cun ti Data-safe butt set My o TDR tm ngn

Dng c kim tra cht lng v sa cha ng dy trong nh Dng c d s hin din ca cc cun ti hay tm v tr cc cun ti Dng c kim tra xem dch v thoi c hot ng tt trn ng dy ADSL hay khng Dng c xc nh khong cch trn cc ng dy h mch, ngn mch hay khng cn bng vi khong cch ngn

Dng c o th tng t
So snh my o TDR thng thng v my o Dynatel 965DSP ca 3M My o TDR c th dng nh v li cp nhng ch trong mt khong cch ngn. My o Dynatel 965DSP v Dynatel 965 SLA l cc my o tng hp, va c th o cc thng s ca cp, va c th nh v li cp.

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Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Bng 2.2 So snh my o TDR thng thng v my o Dynatel 965DSP


My o TDR Dynatel 965DSP v Dynatel 965 SLA

o cc o c mt s thng s sau: o c cc thng s ca cp thng s nh: Xc nh chiu di cp. ng o cc gi tr in p trn Kim tra li vic lp t dy ng dy. cp trc khi xc nhn. o cc gi tr in tr Xc nh ng dy nh in tr cch in, "sch" cho dch v ADSL, in tr vng... HDSL v ISDN. o cc gi tr in dung, o gi tr dBRL (mc t tnh ra c chiu phn x) ca cc li. di ca tng dy dn trong i dy. nh v nh v c cc loi li cp sau: nh v c cc loi li cp sau: li cp Pht hin ra ng dy nh v tt c cc li in "n cp" dch v. tr nh ni t, ngn mch, chm dy, chm nh v cc li in tr v dy ngun. in dung nh ngn mch, h mch ton nh v tt c cc li in phn v mt phn, cp b dung nh h mch ton tch i... phn v mt phn, Dirty OPEN, cp b tch i. nh v cc v tr ni ghp nh v cun ti. cp. nh v nhnh r. nh v cp b dp, b xon li.

My o in dung C th dng my o Dynatel 965DSP v Dynatel 965 SLA hoc n gin ch dng Multi-meter o in dung. My o tm cun ti, nhnh r d tm cun ti, nhnh r c th dng cc thit b o chuyn dng cm tay nh my o TDR (tm nhnh r) v my o Dynatel 965DSP v Dynatel 965 SLA (tm cun ti).

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o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Dng c o th dch v s ADSL


Dng c o th dch v s ADSL c s dng kim tra ng dy c cung cp dch v ADSL hay cha v kim tra cht lng dch v ADSL. Cc my o c th s dng l TS1000 ca hng Harris v Aurora Presto ca hng Trend Communications. Bng 2.3 So snh my o Harris TS1000 v my o Aurora Presto ca
TS1000 Tng quan Cc chc nng chnh Aurora Presto

c dng o th ADSL, kim c dng ci t, bo dng tra v khc phc s c. v khc phc s c ng dy v dch v ADSL. ng b nh cung cp dch v o th ng dy tng t. ADSL DSLAM trc v sau b o th phn lp ADSL. splitter. Khi thay th modem ATU-C, c Cch ly li gia thit b u cui chc nng gi lp hot ng t pha khch hng v nh cung cp mng n modem/ DTE. dch v. Khi thay th modem ATU-R, c So snh tc thc s vi tc chc nng gi lp hot ng t yu cu ca khch hng. Modem n DTE v t Modem/ o dung lng ti a ca ng DTE n mng. dy. o tc bit theo chiu upstream Gim st mc nng lng v suy v downstream. hao truyn dn. o cc thng s hng upstream v downstream nh tc bit chu ng, tc bit ti a, tc bit knh truyn, nng lng u ra.

Ngoi ra cn phi k n my o TS1200 ca hng Harris. TS1200 c s dng o cht lng dch v ADSL v POTS ng thi. TS1200 cho php: o th ADSL khi ang s dng dch v POTS trn cng mt ng dy. o th trng thi nhc my ca dch v POTS m khng nh hng (gin on) n dch v d liu ADSL. TS1200 c th o th c POTS v ADSL nn s gim thiu vic s dng nhiu loi my o th cm tay khc nhau o th nhng dch v khc nhau. o th c cc thng s sau: cch ly li gia cc thit b ca khch hng v nh cung cp dch v, o th thng tuyn, 106

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

dung lng ng dy v nhiu thng s khc ch trong mt php o th.

Cc loi my o khc
My o cht lng ng dy My o LT2000 ca hng TREND c dng o th cht lng ng dy. My o LT2000 c th thc hin o cc gi tr nh nhiu, xuyn knh, suy hao truyn dn, suy hao phn hi, cn bng dc tuyn. Dng c kim tra tn hiu thoi Data-safe butt set l dng c c s dng kim tra xem dch v thoi c hot ng tt trn ng dy ADSL hay khng.

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o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cu hi t kim tra
1 Ti sao tn hiu thoi truyn trn ng dy khng b nh hng bi cc nhnh r? A. Do l tn hiu tng t B. Do nng lng tn hiu nh C. Do c nng lng tn hiu ln D. Do c tn s thp E. Tt c u sai Hng dn: Nhnh r cng di nh hng ti tn hiu tn s cng thp. 2 Mt peak trn vt ca TDR c th l do trng hp no? A. Ngn mch B. Sa ln dy C. Mi ni b m D. Cui ng dy E. on cp b m Hng dn: Peak ca vt TDR ng vi s kin tr khng c tnh ca ng dy tng. 3 Trng hp no vt TDR c peak cao nht? A. u ng dy B. Cui ng dy C. H mch ton phn D. Ln dy E. Cun ti Hng dn: Vt TDR gn c chiu cao ln hn do khng b suy hao. 4 Phng php song cng no khng chu tc ng ca xuyn knh u gn SNEXT? A. Song cng phn tn (FDD) B. Song cng phn thi (TDD) C. Song cng trn 2 i dy D. Trit tn hiu di (Eho Cancellation) E. Tt c u ng Hng dn: Ch c nhng phng php song cng truyn cc hng theo nhng tn s khc nhau mi c kh nng chng c SNEXT. 5 A. B. C. D. E. 108 Vt RTD l mt dip, theo lin sau l 1 peak l trng hp no? Ln dy v sa ln dy Mi ni b m on cp b m Ngn mch H mch ton phn

Chng 2: o th, nh gi mng cp ng s dng cho ADSL

Hng dn: l trng hp gim tr khng c tnh ca ng dy v sau l tng tr khng c tnh ca ng dy. 6 Trng hp no vt TDR c dng 2 peak lin nhau (double-peak)? A. u ng dy B. Mi ni b m C. on cp b m D. Cun ti E. Cun ti rt gn v tr o Hng dn: y l trng hp c bit ca cun ti gn v tr o. 7 Trng hp li no c xc nh l li in dung? A. Chm mch B. Ngn mch C. Tip t D. Ln dy E. Chm ngun Hng dn: in dung b nh hng bi v tr tng i ca hai dy dn. 8 Li cp no l kh xc nh nht? A. H mch mt phn B. Ngn mch mt phn C. Chp mch mt phn D. Li h mch mt phn kt hp ngn mch E. Ln dy v sa ln dy Hng dn: Li cp kt hp hai loi l li cp kh xc nh hn. 9 Phng php nh gi mng cp ni ht no l tn km u t ban u nhiu nht? A. nh gi hng lot trc hp ng B. nh gi c chn la C. nh gi ngay khi lp t D. nh gi khi c s c E. Tt c u nh nhau Hng dn: Phng php nh gi s lng nhiu nht s tn km u t ban u nhiu nht. 10 A. B. C. D. S hin din ca b POTS splitter gy ra thm suy hao cho ng thoi POTS. l tng suy hao g? Suy hao phn hi Suy hao cn bng dc Suy hao do xuyn knh Suy hao chn 109

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

E. Suy hao do nhnh r Hng dn: l suy hao tng thm do chn vo b POTS splitter.

110

Chng 3: LP T ADSL
Lp t ng dy Lp t trong nh Gii thiu modem router ADSL X l s c lp t

Lp t ng dy
u chuyn ti dn MDF
i vi thu bao c yu cu s dng in thoi i vi thu bao c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL, m hnh u chuyn dy c thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: G b on dy nhy c u t BLOCK INSIDE n BLOCK OUTSIDE (nu c). Bc 2: u on dy nhy mi t BLOCK INSIDE sang BLOCK POTS. Bc 3: u on dy nhy mi t BLOCK ADSL sang BLOCK OUTSIDE.

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Tong a i

Block inside B c 1 Block outside ng day thue bao B c 2 Thoa i Block POTS B c 3

DSLAM

Block ADSL Thoa i + d lie u

Hnh 3.1 Cc bc u chuyn thu bao c yu cu s dng in thoi i vi thu bao khng c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL i vi thu bao khng c yu cu s dng thoi trn ng dy ADSL, m hnh u chuyn dy c thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: G b on dy nhy c u t BLOCK INSIDE n BLOCK OUTSIDE (nu c). Bc 2: u on dy nhy mi t BLOCK ADSL sang BLOCK OUTSIDE.
Block inside B c 1 Block outside ng day thue bao

Tong a i

Thoai Block POTS DSLAM Block ADSL Thoai + d lieu

B c 2

Hnh 3.2 Cc bc u chuyn thu bao khng c yu cu s dng in thoi 112

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

o th ng dy
Thc hin o th tng t v o th s trn ng dy cn lp t nu trong trng hp cha o th theo quy hoch. Nu sau o th tng t m cht lng ng dy thuc vng xanh th chp nhn, thuc vng th i dy cho khch hng (khng c dy th t chi), thuc vng xm th phi thc hin thm o th s. Kt qu o th s nt t yu cu th cung cp cho khch hng, khng t yu cu th i dy, khng cn dy i th t chi khch hng. Nhng yu t cn lu khi chn ng dy cho ADSL: Phn b cc dy ADSL trn cc cho cp khc nhau ti thiu xuyn knh. Kim tra cc mi ni trn ng dy: cc mi ni phi bo m k thut. Chn dy thu bao c xuyn knh nh. Cc chn c th tham kho cc lu sau. Xuyn knh ln nht gia cc i c cng bc xon, ngay c trong trng hp cc i cp. ny khng nm trong cng b cp. K n, xuyn knh cng ln gia cc i dy k nhau trong cng 1 b cp, ngay c bc xon khc nhau. Xuyn knh nh nht gia cc i thuc v cc b cp khc nhau v khc bc xon.

Hnh 3.3 V d v chn la i dy cho ADSL trong mt cho cp V d: 5 b cp, mi b c 5 i cp A,B,C,D,E c bc xon khc nhau nh hnh v trn y. Mc xuyn knh gia i 1A vi cc i khc c th hin trong hnh v sau y. Xuyn knh ln nht s t cc i 2A, 3A, 4A - v c cng bc xon. Xuyn knh t i 5A thp do tuy cng bc xon nhng khng thuc b cp li cch xa i 1A.

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Hnh 3.4 Xuyn knh gia i dy 1A v cc i dy khc Khi ng dy c lp t u tin, vic chn cp s d dng hn so vi cc ln lp t. Sau do cp trng cn nhiu, kh nng chn la ln v xuyn knh t. Khi c nhiu ng dy ADSL trong mt si cp, vic chn cp s kh khn hn do kh nng chn la t i v mi i dy s phi nhn xuyn knh khng th trnh t cc i dy khc. i vi vic chn cp cho ADSL, trong cng mt b hay mt lp cp, mi i cp c s dng nn c tch ra cng vi t nht hai i cp khc khng dng cho ADSL. Cng cn xem xt cc i cp c chn c cng bc xon hay khng. Cc i c cng bc xon nn khc lp cp hay khc b cp vi nhau. Nu khng th chn cp theo phng n tch cng vi hai i khc, th tch cng vi mt i khng dng cho ADSL.

Hnh 3.5 Cch chn i dy cho ADSL 114

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Nhng yu t khng cn phi quan tm i vi thc t mng Vit Nam hin nay l: C dy khc nhau trn cng mt ng dy thu bao gy phn x tn hiu v chuyn ny l ph bin v khng thay i c. Cc thit b in ti nh thu bao to nhiu xung khng ng quan tm do c im ca ADSL l khng nhiu xung t mc vt l ca n. Cc cun ti gy suy hao tn hiu ADSL v khng ph bin. Cc nhnh r trong nh do dy m tng khng c kt cui v mun nh hng ti tn hiu ADSL phi di t 70 m tr ln. Cc ng dy HDSL, T1/E1 trong cng mt cho cp v cc k thut ny khng ph bin ti Vit Nam.

Lp t trong nh
Thu bao khng s dng in thoi
Trong trng hp thu bao khng s dng in thoi th c th i dy trc tip t thit b chng st ti jack cm ADSL. Trng hp th nht thu bao khng c mng LAN th t jack cm ADSL ni dy ti modem ADSL bng cp ADSL, u ni RJ11 (xem hnh v minh ho di y). T modem ADSL ni ti card ADSL PCI hay ni dy USB hay Ethernet ti thng card NIC ca my tnh.

115

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 3.6 i dy trong nh trong trng hp thu bao khng s dng in thoi Trng hp th hai thu bao c mng LAN th t jack cm ADSL ni dy ti modem ADSL bng cp ADSL, u ni RJ11. Ni modem ADSL ti Hub Ethernet bng cp Ethernet, u ni RJ45 dng straight-through hay crossover tu theo ti liu hng dn s dng modem. Trong trng hp ny c th dng router c sn trong modem router ADSL. Lu rng trnh xung t trong mng LAN v a ch IP th ch c dng mt trong 3 DHCP server sau: DHCP server ca router cng trong mng LAN, DHCP server ca router mm trong mng LAN, DHCP server cng ca modem router ADSL.

Thu bao s dng in thoi


Vi trng hp thu bao s dng in thoi th phi mc b POTS splitter. Mng thoi phi nm vo b POTS splitter cng PHONE v c th gm my in thoi, tng i in thoi ni b, my tr li in thoi, my fax hay thm ch modem quay s. Cng MODEM ca POTS splitter ni vi modem ADSL v sau ni vi mng LAN nh trnh by trn. C th dng nhiu b POTS splitter, mi b cho mi thit b trong nh bao gm c modem ADSL v cc thit b thoi. Cch ny tin cho lp t nhng gi thnh cao cho cc b POTS splitter. 116

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Hnh 3.7 i dy trong nh khi thu bao c s dng in thoi Cht lng ca b POTS splitter rt quan trng. Cc b POTS splitter km cht lng thng gy ra nhiu trn knh thoi, rt mch ADSL khi nhc gc my thoi.

Hnh 3.8 i dy trong nh trong trng hp thu bao c dng in thoi v mng LAN

117

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Hnh 3.9 i dy trong nh thc t ti nh tc gi Nu khng dng b POTS splitter m mc song song th s dng thoi s b ting nhiu tn hiu ADSL ro ro trong my mi giy u, sau nu thu bao m thoi th ting nhiu tn hiu ADSL nh i trng thy do tnh thch ng ca ADSL. Trong trng hp ny kt ni ADSL thng xuyn b gin on khi nhc gc my thoi hay POTS.

Hnh 3.10 S dng nhiu b POTS splitter 118

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Hnh 3.11 Ni dy modem ADSL Vi cp Ethernet: ch thu v pht tn hiu trn cc i dy 1 2 v 3 6, cc i dy 4 5 v 7 8 khng s dng. Khi bm dy th trt t ny phi c duy tr v nu o ln ng nht hai u th kt ni vn c nhng cc dy thu pht khng xon nhau lm tng xuyn knh nn suy hao tn hiu ln lm cho khong cch t c ca ng dy gim. Vi cp ADSL: chn 3 dng cho DSL ring, chn 4 dng cho DSL tip, cc chn khc khng dng.

Hnh 3.12 Cp Ethernet v cp ADSL

119

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Gii thiu Modem router ADSL

Hnh 3.13 SpeedTouchTM Pro 530

c tnh phn cng SpeedTouchTM Pro 530


Giao tip: LAN song song vi POTS: 10/100 Base-T (u ni RJ45), USB 1.1 (u ni loi B). WAN: ng dy ADSL (u ni RJ11). Kch thc: 67 289 202 mm (11.38 x 2.64 x 7.95 in.). Nhit hot ng: 0 n 40C (32 n 105 F). m 20% ti 80%. Ngun in: in p 100 ti 120, 220 ti 240 V AC, tn s 50/60Hz.

c tnh k thut modem ADSL SpeedTouchTM Pro 530


ADSL: ANSI, G.dmt, G.lite (t ng chuyn i), tc ti a 8 Mb/s theo chiu downstream v 832 Kb/s theo chiu upstream

H tr dch v SpeedTouchTM Pro 530


Bridging IP routing NAPT, DHCP, DNS 120

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Embedded firewall WAN protocol model: Routed PPPoE/PPPoA Relayed PPPoA and DHCT-to-PPP Spoofing Bridged Ethernet/Routed Ethernet Classical IPoA UPnP Internet gateway device including NAT traversal.

Qun l SpeedTouchTM Pro 530


Khng ph thuc h iu hnh Giao din web thn thin Truy xut Telnet ti router C th nng cp phn mm (qua Ethernet)

Dng bn ngoi SpeedTouchTM Pro 530


Mt trc: Gm cng tc ngun, pha trn ca c 4 LED tn hiu bao gm LED ngun, LED ADSL, LED LAN v LED USB. Da vo cc LED tn hiu ny m chng ta bit c tnh trng hot ng ca Router, ng dy ADSL, LAN hay cng USB. LED ngun: Bng 3.1 Trng thi LED ngun v ngha
Trng thi LED Tt Sng xanh Sng Sng vng Nhp nhy vng Nhp nhy xanh ngha Router cha bt ngun, kim tra li ngun in Router bt ngun, ang sn sng Router ang self-test, kim tra thit b, b li Router ang self-test, ang kim tra thit b BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) Reset v gi tr mc nh ca nh sn xut

121

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n DSL/WAN: Bng 3.2 Trng thi DSL/WAN v ngha


Trng thi LED Tt Sng vng Nhp nhy vng ngha Cha gn line ADSL hoc cha ng k ADSL, bn nn lin h nh cung cp dch v ng b line ADSL ang ch ng b ng dy ADSL

Mu xanh/ vng nhp ng dy ADSL ng b v 2 Router ang nhy ch kt ni Sng xanh ng dy ADSL ng b, kt ni gia Router v tng i ang c hiu lc

n LAN: Bng 3.3 Trng thi LED LAN v ngha


Trng thi LED Tt Mu xanh sng ngha cha gn dy mng (RJ45). ni mng t Router SpeedTouch 530 ti Hub, Switch qua cng RJ45

n USB: Bng 3.4 Trng thi LED USB v ngha


Trng thi LED Tt Mu xanh sng ngha cha gn dy t cng USB ca Router SpeedTouch 530 vo cng USB ca my tnh gn dy USB ni t my n Router SpeedTouch 530

Hnh 3.14 Mt sau ca modem SpeedTouch 530 Multi-user ADSL Gateway

122

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Hnh 3.15 cm RJ45 v u ni USB ca modem SpeedTouch 530 Multi-user ADSL Gateway Mt sau: Gm 4 cm cm ngun t Adapter cm dy mng u cm RJ45 cm USB cm dy ADSL u ni RJ11

Ci t modem ADSL
Nhng lu khi ci t modem ADSL
Khi ci t cho mt my th phi ch nh c IP gateway n modem ADSL. Khi ci t cho mt mng LAN th tu theo IP gateway l mm hay cng m ch n ng gateway cho tng my trong mng. Nhng trng hp ci t ng m mng vn khng hot ng th phi reset li tng thit b trong h thng. Mt trong nhng phng php reset c hiu qu l ct ngun ri cp ngun li.

Ci t IP cho my tnh trong mng


Vi h iu hnh Windows XP Vo Control Panel. 123

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Chn Network Connections.

Click phi v chn Properties.

124

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Chn Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

Cch 1: chn Obtain an IP address automatically.

125

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Chn OK, OK, Close. Cch 2: chn Use the following IP address:

126

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

G vo IP address mun t cho my, Subnet mask l 255.255.255.0, Default gateway l 192.168.8.1, Preferred DNS server l 203.162.4.190, Alternate DNS server l 203.162.4.191. Xong chn OK, OK, Close. Khi ng li my. Vi h iu hnh Windows ME Vo control panel.

Chn Networks.

127

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Chn TCP/IP.

Chn Obtain an IP address automatically.

128

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Chn ba Gateway. Chn New gateway v g vo a ch cng (a ch ca modem router ADSL), trong v d ny l: 192.168.8.1.

Click Add.

129

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Xong OK, OK v khi ng li my khi c nhc nh.

Ci t modem router qua web server trn modem router


Tt ngun tt c cc thit b gm my tnh c nhn v modem router. Ni card NIC ca my tnh vi modem router ADSL bng dy Ethernet (thng hoc tro). Ni adapter ca modem router vi modem router v cm in adapter. Khi ng my tnh v chn Control Panel. Vo Network. Double click vo TCP/IP. Chn ba IP address v chn Obtain an IP address automatically, OK. Click OK v chn khi ng li my khi c hi.

Hnh 3.16 Mt trc ca modem router ADSL Link Pro AR-411A

Hnh 3.17 Mt sau ca modem router ADSL Link Pro AR-411A 130

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Sau y l ci t qua web server ca modem router ADSL Link Pro AR411A: Vo Internet Explore v g http://192.168.8.1

Chn ba setup

Chn PPPoE+NAT

131

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mc cn bn khng cn thay i cc gi tr ny.

Chn Always on.

Chn VPI/VCI l 8/35, AAL5 Encapsulation l LLC. 132

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Chn username v password trnh b iu khin t bn ngoi.

n vo nt n lnh Save lu li v router t khi ng li.

X l s c lp t
Thu thp thng tin
Cc s c pht sinh ra trong qu trnh hay sau khi lp t dch v ADSL t yu cu k thut vin phi xc nh c sai hng trn CPE hay phn i dy. Khi s c c bo co th cn thit phi m t tht chi tit vn v ghi li trc khi khc phc. Chng hn, ngi ta ghi nhn c nhiu trng hp cc khch hng qun khng bt ngun modem. Bng sau tng kt 4 cu hi phi tr li trc khi khc phc s c dch v ADSL.

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Bng 3.5 Bn cu hi c bn phi tr li trc khi khc phc s c lp t dch v ADSL


Cu hi Cn dng c thoi hay khng? C Khng

in Vn c th l dch Vn l ng dy v ADSL (ngha l h mch)

Modem ADSL c ng b Do cu hnh thc hin ti Cch ly sai hng bng c vi DSLAM hay my tnh c nhn khng my o ADSL khng? ng hay sai hng mng ISP Modem ADSL lm vic c c git hay khng hay ch trong mt thi im c nh trong ngy? C th do can nhiu t Cch ly sai hng bng tn s v tuyn do cc my o ADSL i pht pht u n. Lin h s tr gip t pha cung cp dch v ADSL v cu hnh li thm khng nhiu ca h thng (n c th lm gim tc bit ti a)

Vi modem ADSL ri Cch ly sai hng bng Ni li modem ADSL cho phi xem th c kt my o ADSL ng v bt ngun ni ng hay cha v modem bt ngun cha?

Cc sai hng nghim trng ti my mc ca khch hng


Khi cc cu hi c bn nu trong bng trn tm c cu tr li th phi bt u thm cc ng tc khc phc s c t nh khch hng. Nu modem ADSL vn hot ng tt vi b DSLAM th hy kim tra tnh trng hot ng ca my tnh c nhn. Khch hng c th thay i a ch IP, mt li thng gp khi khch hng ci mt ng dng lin quan ti kt mng v s dng cc gi tr ci t mc nh ca chng trnh ci t . Nu vn cha gii quyt c th gi n nh iu hnh ADSL v kim tra xem gn y mng c mi hy b dch v ADSL ca thu bao ny hay khng hay thc hin cu hnh mng ging nh bn nh ln cn. Nu loi tr c nghi vn t my tnh c nhn th g b modem ra khi jack gn tng, dng my o th ADSL v thc hin gi lp modem. Nu my o th ADSL ng b c vi DSLAM th modem ADSL ca khch hng b h. Ni vi mt modem ADSL khc v c gng thit lp li kt ni. Nu vic gn my o th ADSL vo ng dy vn khng thit lp c ng b vi b DSLAM (khi c ni cng mt v tr vi modem ADSL ca khch hng) th c gng cch ly s c gia jack gn tng v NID. Nu my o ADSL ng b c vi b DSLAM khi kt ni ti v tr NID th nguyn nhn l vic i dy trong nh. Xc nh mc ca sai hng bng my o th v chy dy mi nu cn thit. 134

Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

Cc sai hng nghim trng ng dy cp ng


Nu cc vn ti my ca khch hng u c loi tr m my o ADSL vn khng ng b c vi DSLAM NID th vn c l nm trn ng dy ca mng cp ni ht. Thc hin php o th gi lp modem ADSL ti im ln mng k tip trong vng thu bao (c th l hp u dy, ngoi ct treo cp, ...). C tip tc tin dn v pha MDF trn vng thu bao cho ti khi thit lp c thnh cng kt ni th ngay ti thc hin kim tra k li chiu downstream ca vng thu bao v ti, nhnh r, in tr hay dung khng khng cn bng ca i dy. Khi tt c u khng thnh cng th phi cp ng dy khc cho khch hng v nh kim tra li ng dy mi ny phi c nh gi cht lng trc l tt v khng c cun ti, nhnh r. Thc hin li cc bc kim tra c bn cho mt ng dy mi. Sau chy th modem gi lp vi my o th ADSL pha khch hng bo m ng dy mi c cung cp tt cho dch v. Lu : Tc bit thp c th do s lng hay di cc nhnh r trong nh qu ln. iu ny c bit ph bin vi h thng ADSL khng dng b tch dch v ADSL/POTS khi dng cc nhnh r cho dch v thoi. C th ci thin tc truyn d liu bng cch gim di cc nhnh r trong nh hay g b bt cc nhnh r hay thm ch phi lp thm b tch dch v ADSL/POTS. Tuy nhin, tc bit phi c o th trc NID v jack cm ADSL xc nh gii hn l dy trong nh hay vng thu bao ni ht. Nu iu ny cho thy tc bit NID tt hn nhiu th vn l dy trong nh,cc nhnh r trong nh v phng php ny l hu dng. Nu dch v thoi khng s dng c nhng dch v ADSL vn dng c tt th kim tra m hiu mi quay s ca dch v thoi bng mt my o th ADSL xch tay v butt set c an ton cho d liu im ln ng dy k tip trn ng dy thu bao. Gim dn vng c s c v tm ch t dy. Nu dy h mch th dch v ADSL c th vn hot ng tt v khng ging nh cc dch v POTS, cn ngun in mt chiu -48 V t tng i, cc b DSLAM v modem ADSL c ngun in ring. S dng TDR tm ngn xc nh v tr h mch v sa li.

135

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

Cu hi t kim tra
1 Khi nhc gc my in thoi m kt ni ADSL b rt th nguyn nhn do: A. POTS splitter B. Router ADSL C. My in thoi D. Dy i trong nh E. My tnh Hng dn: Hin tng ny lin quan ti thit b giao tip c POTS v ADSL. 2 Mt PC c ci phn mm Wingate lm router mm cung cp DHCP server cho mt mng LAN c a ch IP l 192.168.10.1. Hi IP gateway ci cho cc my tnh trong mng l g? A. 192.168.10.0 B. 192.168.8.1 C. 255.255.255.0 D. 203.210.210.188 E. Tt c u sai Hng dn: a ch IP gateway chnh l a ch ca router mm v cng l a ch ca my tnh ci h thng ny. 3 Chn dy trong cho cp khng cn thn c th gy ra tc hi g cho tn hiu ADSL? A. Suy hao ln B. Xuyn knh ln C. Sai bit ln D. Gim tc truyn E. Chp chn Hng dn: V tr ca cc i dy s nh hng nhiu nht n xuyn knh ca chng. 4 Loi modem ADSL no cn cung cp ngun in ring? A. Modem ADSL USB B. Modem ADSL PCI C. Modem router ADSL D. Khng c modem no cn cp ngun in ring E. Tt c cc modem ADSL Hng dn: Modem ADSL dng PCI v USB u c cp ngun t my tnh. 5 A. B. Cch lp t b tch dch v POTS splitter no l ng? Lp cho mi thit b thoi v modem ADSL mi b POTS splitter Lp mt b cho modem ADSL, b song song vi cc thit b thoi cn li

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Chng 3: Lp t ADSL

C.

Lp mt b cho tt c cc thit b thoi dng chung cn modem ADSL lp song song vi n D. Lp cho mi thit b thoi mt b POTS splitter cn modem ADSL mc song song vi chng E. Tt c u ng Hng dn: POTS splitter khng c mc song song vi thit b ADSL hay bt c thit b POTS no. 6 Khi kt ni hai my tnh lin lc trc tip vi nhau th trng hp no khng cn phi bt tro dy? A. LPT B. USB C. COM D. Ethernet E. Tt c u sai Hng dn: Khi ni trc tip th phi ni mch thu vo mch pht v mch pht vo mch thu. 7 Nhng nhnh r no nh hng ti tn hiu trn ng dy ADSL? A. 1m B. 20 m C. 40 m D. 60 m E. 80 m Hng dn: Nhnh r cng di nh hng ti tn s tn hiu cng thp. Ch c nhnh r di hn 70 m mi nh hng ti tn hiu ADSL. 8 Khi kt ni ADSL thng bo c tc chiu upstream, tc chiu downstream m vn khng ln c Internet l do thit b no? A. PC B. Modem C. DSLAM D. B-RAS E. Tt c u c th ng Hng dn: Phn ADSL kt ni tt, nh vy sai hng l thit b lp trn. C 2 thit b lp trn trong cu hnh ADSL thng thng l PC v B-RAS. PC cn nhn c thng bo ny l vn chy tt. 9 A. B. C. D. Trong mt mng LAN xi ADSL th c th dng loi router no? Router ADSL Router cng Router mm Ch mt trong cc router trn 137

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

E. Tt c u sai Hng dn: Trong mt mng LAN ch c th cu hnh c mt router duy nht 10 Khi pht hin c mt ng dy c 2 nhnh r khng cung cp c dch v ADSL hy chn gii php t tn km nht khc phc. A. i dy vi thu bao khng dng ADSL B. Ko cp mi C. D tm v ct nhnh r D. Chuyn DSLAM ti gn thu bao hn E. Tt c u c Hng dn: Phng php khc phc khng cn tn thi gian v thit b nht l phng php r tin nht.

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Ch mc
2 2B1Q, 15, 50 A ADSL, 120, 121, 122, 123 ADSL2, 13, 14, 52 AN, 18 AOC, 34, 35 ATM, 13, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51 ATU-C, 14, 50, 106 ATU-R, 14, 28, 106 B B-RAS, 30, 50, 51, 137 C Cn bng dc, 62, 63, 84 CAP, 15, 16, 17 ch ch t, 85, 91 c dy, 22, 51, 77, 78 CPE, 18, 20, 39, 133 crossover, 116 cun ti, 79, 109, 115 CV, 13 D DACS, 30 nh gi, 22, 37, 55, 56, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 94, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 109 nh v li, 79 DMT, 14, 15, 16, 17, 26, 34, 36, 50, 104 DMT controller, 34 o th dch v s, 88 o th mt u, 83, 90, 91 o th tng t, 88, 94, 104, 113 DSLAM, 15, 17, 18, 20, 29, 30, 50, 51, 88, 90, 91, 92, 106, 134, 135, 137, 138 E Ethernet, 18, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 115, 116, 119, 121, 130, 137 F FDM, 16 FEC, 33, 36, 38, 50 FEXT, 66, 82, 86 G G.dmt, 13, 16, 20, 31, 120 G.lite, 13, 14, 20, 26, 31, 32, 120 H HDSL, 12, 13, 15, 82, 105, 115 HDSL2, 13 h s tc , 80, 81 I IAD, 13, 17, 19 L LLC, 42, 43, 132 Ln dy, 77, 109 M Mt nhiu, 71 MDF, 50, 51, 90, 92, 111, 135 N NEXT, 65, 66, 82 Ngt qung, 86 Nhnh r, 78, 108, 137 139

o th, nh gi v lp t ADSL

nhiu nhit, 67, 69, 70 nhiu trng, 70, 71, 72, 87 nhiu xung, 23, 32, 50, 68, 73, 74, 115 NID, 20, 104, 134, 135 P PDU, 41, 42, 43, 47 POTS, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 23, 31, 32, 50, 51, 104, 106, 109, 110, 111, 116, 117, 118, 120, 135, 136, 137 POTS splitter, 23, 31, 32, 50, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 136, 137 PPPoA, 45, 52, 121 PPPoE, 43, 47, 49, 52, 121, 131 Q QAM, 15, 17 R RADSL, 17, 20 ReachDSL, 14, 20, 52

S SONET, 48 splitter, 19, 22, 28, 31, 106, 116, 117 straight-through, 116 Suy hao chn, 62, 85, 97, 110 Suy hao phn hi, 61, 82, 83, 109 swap, 34, 35, 36 T TDR, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 104, 105, 108, 109, 135 thm nhiu, 72, 73 tr khng c tnh, 57, 58, 60, 62, 77, 78, 83, 84, 108, 109 V VC multiplexing, 42, 44 VDSL, 12, 13, 14, 17, 52 X xuyn knh, 13, 20, 33, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70, 77, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 119, 136

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