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# 1. time 2. frame of reference 3. motion of a point 4. graph of motion 5. l i 5 velocity 6. acceleration 7.

## resolution of acceleration along a tangent and a normal

Assumption in Kinematics:

Assumption in Kinematics:
a certain system of coordinates, called a frame of reference, is given. A body moves relative to a frame of reference if the

to each moment there is assigned a certain number t, and that there are assigned smaller numbers for moments before t than for moments after t. Select an arbitrary unit of time, e. g. a second, Select an arbitrary initial moment. To the initial moment moment we assign the number 0. Every other moment is represented by a number t whose absolute value is the number of seconds that elapsed between the initial and given moments.
The number t is positive for moments after the initial moment. The number t negative for moments before the initial moment.

## coordinates of the points of the body change.

Problem of kinematics: to describe the motion of the body relative to a frame of reference when the coordinates of the points of that body are given at each moment of time.

## Assumption in Any Concrete Problem: Assumption in Any Concrete Problem:

we select a frame of reference attached to certain bodies like the earth, the sun, the fixed stars, etc. The motion of a body depends on the frame of reference. Relative to one frame a body may be at rest, but relative to another frame it may be in motion.
A passenger sitting in a car of a moving train is at rest relative to a frame attached to the car, but in motion relative to the earth.

## is it not possible to examine the motion of a body independent of other bodies?

Such a motion would be the so-called absolute motion motion. It appears, however, by observing that points in space are indistinguishable, that by measuring distances and appealing to theorems of geometry, it is not possible

to prove in any way whether a body examined at two different moments has, or has not, altered its position.
The concept of absolute motion is therefore useless. Hence we confine ourselves to the study of relative motion, motion i. e. to the motion of a body relative to other bodies.

## Why shall we concern ourselves with the motion of one point?

1. because the description of the motion of a body is reduced to the description of the motion of its points 2. in many cases the description of the motion of a body is reduced in practice to that of the motion of one of its points, points
if the dimensions of the body are small in comparison with the path traversed if the motion of one point determines the motion of the entire body (e. g. the motion of a car).
the motion of the earth around the sun, the motion of a bullet These functions give us a description of the motion of the point M relative to the chosen frame of reference. Knowing them, we can obtain reference the coordinates x, y, z of the point M at any time t.

The curve that is described by the point during its motion is called a path or a trajectory trajectory.

## Know position at all times

Let the motion of a point along a curve L be defined by the function s = f(t). Select two perpendicular axes s and t. The graph of the function s = f(t) is called the graph or the diagram of the motion.

Note: the functions f, and are the Cartesian components of the vector r.

## Determine the acceleration, velocity and the position at all times.

path hodograph

If a point moves along a straight line, the direction of the velocity is constant. Therefore the hodograph is also a straight line.

path hodograph

Let a point A move along a curve L in which an initial point O and a sense have been chosen. Assume that the velocity of the point A is constant in magnitude. magnitude Such a motion is called a uniform motion

## along the curve L.

Therefore the magnitude of the acceleration is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature

## smaller acceleration greater acceleration special case: Uniform Circular Motion

A point moving along a curve L has a constant tangential acceleration. Such a motion is called a uniformly accelerated motion along the curve L.

## Given a frame of reference

O(x, y, z) a second frame M(x, y , z) moving relative to the former. In order to differentiate one frame from the other, we shall call O a fixed frame and M a moving frame.

Let (x0, y0, z0) = coordinates of origin of M in O Let (x0 , y0 , z0 ) = coordinates of origin of O in M Let 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 = angles between the axes of both frames as shown by the table below Axes x y z x 1 1 1 y 2 2 2 z 3 3 3

## Let (x, y, z) = coordinates of A in O Let (x, y, z) = coordinates of A in M

The motion of M relative to O will be known if 1. the coordinates (x0, y0, z0) and 2. the angles 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 are given at any time t.

If the motion of A takes place in the xy-plane, then, selecting axes x, y and x',y' in this plane and denoting by the angle between the axes x and x' Axes x y x y /2 +

- /2-

If the directions of the axes of the moving frame M do not change, then this frame is said to move with an advancing motion.

The velocity of a point A relative to a fixed frame (x,y,z) is called absolute velocity; we denote it by velocity v a. The velocity of a point A relative to a moving frame is called relative velocity we denote it by velocity, vr. The velocity of transport of the point A at a given moment is the velocity of a point rigidly attached to the moving frame i.e. The coordinates (x, y, z) are constant.

1. What is the absolute velocity? 2. What is the relative velocity? 3. What is the projection of relative velocity in the reference frame O? 4. Why do 4 Wh d we need t answer #3? d to

Thus the absolute velocity is equal to the sum of the velocity of transport and the relative velocity.

Let the points A1 and A2 move relative to a fixed frame with velocities v1 and v2, respectively. What is the velocity of A1 relative to A2?

The point A1 move uniformly along the xaxis with speed c1. The point A2 move uniformly along the y-axis with speed c2. Determine the magnitude and direction of velocity of A1 relative to A2.

A point A1 moves along a circle of radius r with uniform motion, while the point A2 moves in such way that it is always at the other end of the diameter passing through A1. Determine the velocity of the point A1 relative to A2.