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CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

CHUYN NGHNH: TRUYN D LIU V MNG MY TNH H V TN HC VIN: NGUYN QUANG HC NGUYN MINH PHNG NGI HNG DN: TS. L QUC CNG

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Thnh ph H Ch Minh - NM 2011

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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MC LC
MC LC...............................................................................................................................i DANH MC CC CH VIT TT....................................................................................ii DANH MC CC HNH V...............................................................................................iv M U................................................................................................................................1 CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUAT................................................2
1. T MPLS n MPS /GMPLS.....................................................................................2 2. KHI QUT CHUNG GMPLS ....................................................................................4 3. S tch ri ca mt phng d liu vi mt phng iu khin.....................................9 4. Giao thc nh tuyn.................................................................................................10 4.1 M rng OSPF....................................................................................................10 4.2. Qung b lin kt TE..........................................................................................12 5. Giao thc bo hiu....................................................................................................16 5.1 Giao thc m rng RSVP-TE..............................................................................16 5.2 Yu cu nhn tng qut.......................................................................................18 5.3 Bo hiu ng hai hng.................................................................................21 5.4 Vic ci t nhn.................................................................................................23 5.5 Cu trc bo hiu................................................................................................25 6 Giao thc qun l ng kt ni Link Management Protocol..................................27 6.1 S cn thit ca LMP..........................................................................................27 6.2 Cc loi ng lin kt d liu............................................................................28 6.3 Cc chc nng ca LMP.....................................................................................28 7 M hnh ngang hng v m hnh ph knh.................................................................35 7.1 M hnh ngang hng............................................................................................36 7.2 M hnh ph knh.................................................................................................37

KT LUN..........................................................................................................................39 Ti liu tham kho................................................................................................................40

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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DANH MC CC CH VIT TT
Vit tt CR-LDP DWDM ETDM FSC GMPLS IS-IS L2SC LER LIB LMP LSA LSC LSP LSR MIB MPLS OSPF OXC PSC QoS RSVP-TE SDH SONET Ting Anh Constraint Base RoutingLabel Distribution Protocol Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Electronic Time-Division Multiplexed Fiber Switch Capable Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching Intermediate SystemIntermediate System Layer 2 Switching Capable Label Edge Router Label Information Base Link Mangement Protocol Link-state advertisement Lambda Switch Capable Label Switching Path Label-Switching Router Management Information Base MultiProtocol Label Switching Open Shortest Path First Optical Cross Connector Packet Switching Capable Quality of Service Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering Synchronous Digital Hierachical Synchronous Optical Network Mng quang ng b Kh nng chuyn mch quang Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut H thng trung gian ti h thng trung gian Kh nng chuyn mch lp 2 B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn bin C s thng tin nhn Giao thc qun l lin kt Thng bo trng thi lin kt Kh nng chuyn mch bc sng ng chuyn mch nhn B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn C s thng tin qun l Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc ng ngn nht u tin Kt ni cho quang Kh nng chuyn mch gi Cht lng dch v Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn h tr k thut lu lng Phn cp s ng b Ting Vit Giao thc phn b nhn h tr nh tuyn rng buc Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng mt cao Ghp knh phn chia thi gian in

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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TDM TDMC TE WDM

Time-Division Multiplexing Time-Division MultiplexingCapable Traffic Engineering Wavelength Divison Multiplexing

Ghp knh phn chia thi gian Kh nng ghp phn chia thi gian K thut lu lng Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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DANH MC CC HNH V
Hnh 1: Cu trc cc lp mng...............................................................................................2 Hnh 2: S chuyn i cu trc mng....................................................................................3 Hnh 3: Khi nim nhn.........................................................................................................5 Hnh 4: S Phn cp ca LSP................................................................................................6 Hnh 5: Mi quan h gia kh nng chuyn mch vi khu vc.............................................7 Hnh 6: Mng IP/MPLS hin ti............................................................................................8 Hnh 7: Mng GMPLS vi mi lp c iu khin phn tn..............................................8 Hnh 8: Mng GMPLS c iu khin phn tn v kt hp nhiu lp................................9 Hnh 9: K thut truyn ti a lp..........................................................................................9 Hnh 10: Cc giao thc chnh ca GMPLS............................................................................9 Hnh 11: Khi nim k thut truyn ti................................................................................11 Hnh 12: nh dng Opaque LSA (RFC 2370)....................................................................13 Hnh 13: sub-TLV ca opaque LSA trong OSPF GMPLS..................................................14 Hnh 15: nh dng ca i tng yu cu nhn.................................................................18 Hnh 16: Cc loi G-PID......................................................................................................20 Hnh 17: Nhn ngc hng................................................................................................22 Hnh 19: M hnh phn cp LSP..........................................................................................26 Hnh 20: Cc loi ng kt ni d liu..............................................................................29 Hnh 21: Giao thc qun l ng kt ni...........................................................................30 Hnh 22: M hnh ngang hng..............................................................................................36 Hnh 23: M hnh ph knh..................................................................................................37

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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M U
GMPLS l mt chun IETF c ngh thit k n gin to v qun l cc dch v IP/MPLS trn mng quang. Chun ny c th to mt mt phng iu khin duy nht m rng t IP ti lp 3 tr xung tng vn chuyn ti lp 1. T khi cc nh cung cp dch v u tin bt u vn chuyn lu lng IP, rt phc tp, c s h tng trng lp nhiu lp c gii quyt cng vic mang lu lng IP trn mng m c thit k h tr cng ngh mch v ting ni. Tuy nhin, ngy hm nay vi s tng trng t ngt ca lu lng IP thc y vic tng nhanh t ngt trn bng thng rng truy cp, ng dng mi, v dch v mi, cc mng trng lp phc tp ny khng th h tr vic cung cp dch v t ngt, qun l bng thng ng, v vic to dch v linh hot p ng nhu cu ngi s dng. GMPLS pht trin nh mt mt phng iu khin thng nht m rng kt ni IP/MPLS thng minh t lp 2 v lp 3 i n cc thit b quang lp 1. Khng nh MPLS, h tr chnh l b nh truyn v chuyn mch, GMPLS cng c h tr t cc phn cng quang, nh SONET/SDH, OXCs, v DWDM. GMPLS cho php c s h tng mng s dng mt phng iu khin chung truy cp mng n mng li. Thit lp ng cho php cc thnh phn quang mng vn chuyn tr thnh cc b nh tuyn ngang hng trong mng IP v c th iu khin bc sng cung cp t ng bi mt phng iu khin c th lm tit kim chi ph hot ng bi v cc mng li c th gii quyt li trong thi gian thc. Ngoi ra, dch v cung cp c th tng tc ng k.

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUAT


1. T MPLS n MPS /GMPLS Gn y, cng ngh WDM truyn ti khi lng thng tin bng cch s dng nhiu bc sng thng qua mt ng truynsi quang c ci tin rt nhiu. Trong k thut truyn si quang lc u, thng tin c truyn bng cch ch s dng mt bc sng trn mt ng si quang gia hai nt. Nhng nu cng ngh ghp knh bc sng c thng qua, kh nng truyn ti s tng ln tng ng vi s lng bc sng cung cp trong mi si quang, lm cho n thch nghi tt vi khi lng truyn ti thng tin ln. Mng IP/MPLS c xy dng trn mng ng SDH/SONET, v hu ht mng ng SDH/SONET xy dng trn mng cp quang. Cng ngh ghp knh a bc sng c p dng trong mi si quang. Thng thng, nhiu ng SDH/SONET c cp cho mt nhm cc bc sng. Hnh 1 cho thy lp cu trc ca mng li ny. Cho n nay, nh trong hnh 1 (a), mng c cu trc bi mt lp fiber, mt lp TDM, v mt lp packet. Khi nhu cu truyn ti gia cc nt tr nn ln hn v s lng bc sng c ghp tng ln th hiu sut s dng mng c th c ci thin bng cch s dng mt bc sng vi mt bng thng ln hn bng thng ca SDH/SONET nh mt ng bc sng bng cch ch nh cc nt thc hin chuyn mch trn mi bc sng.

Hnh 1: Cu trc cc lp mng Nh trong hnh 1 (b), n c th tit kim tng chi ph ca mng bng cch s dng mt lp ng bc sng chn gia lp TDM v lp fiber giao din vi ng SDH/SONET. Lp ng bc sng ny cn c gi l lp , v thng
GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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c s dng nh mt biu tng th hin bc sng. Nt thc hin chuyn mch theo n v bc sng hay n v fiber v nt thc hin chuyn mch cc ng TDM c gi tt tng ng l OXC (Optical Cross-Connect) v DXC (Digital Cross-Connect). Khi mt n v lu lng truy cp ln c x l, OXC li th v chi ph hn DXC. Cc lp cng cao th chuyn mch n v ng cng tt. Khi lu lng truyn ti IP tng v truyn ti gi tin IP tr nn ch o, chi ph mng c th c gim bng cch loi b lp TDM v ly mt cu trc lp n trong lp packet t ngay trn lp lp, nh trong hnh 1 (c). Hnh 2 th hin s chuyn i cc cu trc lp mng c minh ha trong hnh 8.1 theo nm. Tc thm nhp ca cc cu trc lp trong hnh 1 (b) v Hnh 1 (c) s ph thuc vo tc tin b cng ngh vic xy dng mng ng bc sng v s tng trng trong khi lng lu lng IP.

Hnh 2: S chuyn i cu trc mng i din vi s tin b ca lp trong mng quan, mt MPS (Multiprotocol Lambda Switching) c xut p dng vo k thut iu khin phn tn ca MPLS lp packet qun l mng lp 1. y, l bc sng. Trong MPLS, c th thit lp mt LSP (label-switched path) bng cch trao i thng tin lin kt gia cc nt vi mt giao thc nh tuyn v bng cch s dng mt giao thc bo hiu2 3. Trong MPLS, LSP c to ra bng cch gn vo gi tin IP mt nhn duy nht c nh ngha cho mi lin kt gia hai nt, v Cc gi tin IP c truyn ti cng LSP bng cch trao i cc nhn trong LSR (label switching router). Trong MPS, hay bc sng bn trong fiber c x l nh mt nhn ging nh trong MPLS, v c th xy dng ng bc sng bng cch kt ni cc bc sng pha u vo v u ra trong OXC. Trong MPS, tng t MPLS, iu khin phn tn cng c th thc hin bng cch trao i thng tin lin kt gia cc nt vi mt giao
1

OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering

Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques
GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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thc nh tuyn v bng cch thit lp ng bc sng s dng giao thc bo hiu. Do , chng ta c th ni rng MPS l giao thc p dng cc khi nim v nhn c s dng trong MPLS i vi lp . Hn na, thng qua MPLS c tng qut (GMPLS) m khi nim tng qut hn ca nhn cng c p dng cho lp TDM v lp fiber. 2. KHI QUT CHUNG GMPLS Kin trc MPLS c nh ngha h tr truyn d liu da trn khi nim v nhn 4. Trong RFC 3031, LSR c nh ngha nh l mt nt m c mt mt phng truyn d liu c th xc nh ranh gii ca gi tin IP hay t bo (gi IP c cha nhn) v thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo ni dung ca cc tiu gi tin IP hay t bo. Trong GMPLS, LSR khng ch bao gm nt thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo cc ni dung ca tiu gi tin IP hay t bo, m cn thit b thc hin truyn d liu theo thng tin ca time slot, bc sng, v cng vt l ca mng si quang. Giao din LSR trong GMPLS c phn thnh bn loi ty thuc vo kh nng chuyn i: PSC (packet-switch capable), TDM (Time division multiplex capable), LSC (lambda-switch Capable), v FSC (Fiber Swich Capable). Hnh 3 cho thy cc khi nim v nhn cho cc cu trc mng bn lp xc nh Hnh 1 (b). PSC: Giao din PSC c th xc nh ranh gii ca mt gi tin IP hay t bo v thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo cc ni dung tiu ca gi tin IP hay ca t bo. Trong lp packet Hnh 3 (a), mt nhn duy nht nh ngha cho mi lin kt c gn vo cc gi tin IP hnh thnh cc LSP. Lin kt trong hnh 3 (a) cho bit lin kt c c nh ngha gia hai LSRs truyn ti gi tin IP. Trong trng hp m gi tin IP c truyn qua SDH/SONET th lin kt ny c gi l ng SDH/SONET, v trong trng hp m gi tin IP c truyn thng qua Ethernet th lin kt ny c gi l ng Ethernet. TDM: Giao din TDM c lp li nh k v thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo time slot. Trong lp TDM hnh 3 (b), nhn tng ng vi mt time slot. V d, giao din DXC m trong ng TDM hoc ng SDH/SONET c hnh

Link Management Protocol (LMP)


GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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thnh bng cch ni cc time slot gn cho pha u vo pha u ra. Lin kt c th tng ng vi ng bc sng hay ch n gin l fiber.

Hnh 3: Khi nim nhn LSC: Giao din LSC thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo bc sng trong si quang. Trong lp hnh 3 (c), nhn tng ng vi bc sng. V d v giao din TDM, giao din OXC trong cc ng c hnh thnh bng cch ni cc bc sng c c gn u vo v u ra. Giao din OXC vi LSC thc hin chuyn knh theo n v bc sng. FSC: Giao din FSC thc hin nhim v truyn d liu theo v tr cc cng vt l thc ca si quang. Trong lp fiber hnh 3 (d), nhn tng ng vi cc si quang. V d v giao din FSC, giao din OXC trong cc ng fiber c hnh thnh bng cch fiber pha u vo v u ra vi nhau. Giao din OXC vi FSC thc hin

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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vic chuyn knh theo n v fiber. Lin kt trong trng hp ny c l mt tng hp vt l ca si quang hc, chng hn nh ng dn.

Hnh 4: S Phn cp ca LSP C th s dng giao din c kh nng chuyn knh ny bng cch phn cp chng. Trong trng hp ny, h thng phn cp c hnh thnh bi FSC, LSC, TDM, v PSC ln lt t di ln cp trn. Trong GMPLS, ng tng ng vi kh nng chuyn mch ring cng c gi l LSP. Hnh 4 cho thy cu trc cp bc ca LSP. trng hp ca cu trc lp nh hnh 1 (b), PSC-LSP thuc v TDM-LSP v lin kt ca PSC-LSP s tr thnh TDM-LSP. TDM-LSP thuc v LSC-LSP, v cc lin kt ca TDM-LSP s tr thnh LSC-LSP. LSC-LSP thuc v FSC-LSP, v cc lin kt ca LSC-LSP s tr thnh FSC-LSP. Trong trng hp ca cu trc lp nh trong hnh 1 (c), lp TDM b loi b, v PSC-LSP thuc v LSC-LSP, vi lin kt ca PSC-LSP tr thnh LSC-LSP. Mi quan h gia LSCLSP v FSC-LSP cng ging nh trng hp ca hnh 1 (b). Khi n di chuyn xung lp thp hn, bng thng ca LSP s tr nn ln hn. Hnh 5 cho thy mi quan h gia kh nng chuyn mch vi cc lp. gia giao din PSC, PSC-LSP c hnh thnh. Khu vc gia giao din PSC c gi l lp PSC, v l khu vc m tn min lin quan lp c th n c. Giao tip vi TDM hnh thnh mt TDM-LSP. Khu vc gia giao din TDM c gi l lp TDM. Lp LSC v khu vc FSC cng c xc nh theo cch ny. GMPLS c nhiu u im. Hnh 6 th hin mng IP/MPLS hin ti. Trong lp packet, mng c iu khin tp trung bng cch s dng giao thc nh tuyn hoc giao thc bo hiu. Trong lp TDM v lp , mng c iu khin tp trung bng cch thit lp nh tuyn hay ng dn. Trong mi trng ny, cc nh iu

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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hnh mng phi hc cch iu hnh tng mng tng ng vi mi lp, v cc phng php iu khin mng khc nhau c s dng trong cc lp khc nhau. Tuy nhin, bng cch s dng GMPLS, n c th iu khin mng mt cch phn tn bng cch m rng MPLS vi lp TDM v lp , nh hnh 6. Trong mi trng ny, cc chc nng thc hin bi n v iu khin trung tm by gi c phn b cho mi nt v kim sot phn tn. Nh vy n s tr nn c th thm, xa nt hay lin kt a ch mt cch linh hot, dn n hiu sut mng c nng ln. Hn na, do mi lp c iu hnh da trn cng GMPLS nn ngun nhn lc c th c s dng hiu qu hn bi v sau khi hc tp v nm vng cc giao thc ca GMPLS, cc nh iu hnh mng s c th iu hnh tt c cc lp.

Hnh 5: Mi quan h gia kh nng chuyn mch vi khu vc

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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Hnh 6: Mng IP/MPLS hin ti

Hnh 7: Mng GMPLS vi mi lp c iu khin phn tn Hn na, trong mng GMPLS, c th iu khin mng mt cch phn tn v kt hp nhiu lp, nh hnh 8. K thut truyn ti kt hp nhiu lp c gi l "k thut truyn ti a lp", hnh. 9 m t k thut ny. Trong v d hnh 9, mng bao gm lp packet, lp , v lp fiber. Cu trc lin kt ca lp thay i tng ng vi s thay i trong nhu cu truyn ti trong lp packet, v nh tuyn m PSCLSP la chn c chuyn i theo s thay i cu trc lin kt trong lp . V nhiu lp c th kt hp vo cu trc hay nh tuyn ca mi lp thch ng vi thay i trong nhu cu truyn ti, k thut truyn ti a lp lm tng hiu qu ca vic s dng ti nguyn mng.

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Hnh 8: Mng GMPLS c iu khin phn tn v kt hp nhiu lp Vic tiu chun ha giao thc mng GMPLS di con mt ca IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), mt t chc chun ha cc vn lin quan n Internet. Hnh 10 cho thy cc giao thc chnh c s dng trong GMPLS. Theo kin trc GMPLS c xc nh, GMPLS ch yu bao gm cc phn m rng OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) ca giao thc nh tuyn, phn m rng RSVP-TE ca giao thc bo hiu, giao thc qun l lin kt (LMP).

Hnh 9: K thut truyn ti a lp

Hnh 10: Cc giao thc chnh ca GMPLS 3. S tch ri ca mt phng d liu vi mt phng iu khin Mt trong nhng tnh nng ca mng GMPLS l mt phng d liu c tch ri khi mt phng iu khin. Trong mt mng IP/MPLS, gi nh rng tt c cc nt u h tr giao thc IP/MPLS c giao din c th xc nh v x l cc gi tin. Bng cch ny, cc gi tin iu khin ca giao thc nh tuyn hoc giao thc truyn tin c th c truyn ti thng qua cc phng tin vt l nh cc gi d liu. Tuy nhin, trong mng GMPLS, tt c cc giao din khng cn phi c th xc nh v x l gi tin. Qu thc, c nhng giao din m khng th xc nh v x l gi tin nh TDM, LSC, hay giao din FSC. Do , vic truyn gi tin iu khin
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c thc hin mt cch hp l bng cch s dng mt giao din khc so vi giao din s dng cho truyn d liu. Nh vy, trong mng GMPLS, mt phng d liu v kim sot tch ri nhau mt cch hp l. Giao din ca cc nt trong mt phng iu khin xc nh v x l cc gi tin. Vic iu khin cc gi tin ca giao thc nh tuyn, giao thc bo hiu, v LMP c m t trong phn tip theo. Trong mng GMPLS, cc gi tin c truyn ti thng qua mt phng iu khin m tch ri khi mt phng d liu mt cch hp l. 4. Giao thc nh tuyn 4.1 M rng OSPF Giao thc nh tuyn thng c s dng trong mt mng IP/MPLS hin ti l OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), hoc IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System). Trong mng GMPLS, cc OSPF c s dng trong mng IP th c m rng5. Trong phn m rng OSPF, ging nh cc khi nim lin kt k thut truyn ti (TE), phn cp ca LSP, lin kt khng nh s, gi lin kt v LSA (link-state advertisement) c gii thiu6. Trong mng GMPLS, nh c minh ha bng cp bc trong Hnh 4, mt LSP lp thp hn c th tr thnh mt lin kt ca mt LSP lp trn. V d, khi mt LSP c t trn ng TDM nht nh, ng TDM hot ng nh mt lin kt c nh xc nh trong mt thi gian di. Khi LSP lp thp c thit lp, nt gc ca LSP khi nhn t cc lp trn th c thng bo trong mng nh mt lin kt lp trn. LSP ny c gi l lin kt TE. Hnh 11 th hin khi nim lin kt TE ny. Dng t qung trong Hnh 11 (b) l mt ng TDM. C mt ng trc tip gia A-C, nhng khng c gia B-C. Trong trng hp ny, lin kt TE c mt cu trc nh c ch ra trong Hnh 11 (a). Trong lp TDM, cc LSP (TDM-LSP) hot ng nh mt lin kt TE gia cc gi tin v lp. Khi PSC-LSP c thit lp, nh tuyn c chn theo cu trc lin kt c xy dng bi cc lin kt TE. Mc d TE l mt lin kt tru tng, nhng trong trng hp n c s dng cho k thut truyn ti, chng hn la chn nh tuyn khi thit lp LSP, tip tc bng cch
5, 2

OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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ch cp n cu trc lin kt xy dng bi lin kt TE m khng cn xem xt cu trc vt l. Nhn chung, trong cu trc lin kt ca mng GMPLS, lin kt vt l, chng hn nh mt si quang, cn c gi l mt lin kt TE, khng c s phn bit gia vt l v tru tng lin kt.

Hnh 11: Khi nim k thut truyn ti Tip theo, chng ti m t cc lin kt khng nh s. Giao din ca mt lin kt trong mt mng MPLS thng c gn cho mt a ch IP. T a ch IP ny, c th xc nh cc lin kt bn trong mng. Tuy nhin, trong mng GMPLS, v n c th cha hn 100 bc sng trn mi si quang n nn s cc a ch IP c yu cu tr nn rt ln nu mt a ch IP c gn cho mi giao din ca nhng bc sng ny. Hn na, v cc LSP ca mi lp c thng bo ti cc lp trn nh mt lin kt TE, vic cung cp a ch IP c th b cn kit nu mi a ch IP c gn cho mt lin kt TE. V vy, trong GMPLS, xc nh lin kt (Sau y, mt lin kt TE c gi n gin l mt "lin kt"), mt nh danh lin kt (link ID) c gn cho giao din ca lin kt c gii thiu. Mc d mt a ch IP vn cn phi c phn b trn ton cu, nhng lin kt ID ny l tt nu n l duy nht ch trong router. C th xc nh cc lin kt bn trong mng t mt s kt hp ca ID nh tuyn v ID lin kt. Mt lin kt th hin bi s kt hp ca ID nh tuyn v ID lin kt c gi l "lin kt khng nh s", c ngha l mt a ch IP khng c cp cho mi giao din ca lin kt. V vy, trong GMPLS, nu s lng cc bc sng hoc lin kt TE tng ln, khng c vn ca s thiu ht cc a ch IP.
GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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Tip theo, chng ti m t v b lin kt, mc ch ca b lin kt l tru tng ha nhiu lin kt c bn cht tng t bng cch kt hp chng vo mt lin kt TE 7. Cc iu kin ca lin kt cng bn cht l: (1) cc lin kt c thit lp gia cc nt tng t; (2) cc lin kt c cng mt loi lin kt (point-topoint/point-to-multipoints), (3) cc lin kt ging nhau trong cng mt din tch TE; v (4) cc lin kt cng mt lp ti nguyn. Mc ch ca b lin kt l ci thin kh nng m rng ca nh tuyn bng cch gim s lng thng bo ca cc trng thi lin kt bi giao thc nh tuyn. Cc lin kt c b bao gm cc ngun ti nguyn c nhn. Cc phng php qun l mi ti nguyn c m t trong Phn 6. Mc d s lng thng bo c th c gim bng cch kt hp v tru tng ha nhiu lin kt n mt lin kt TE duy nht vi b lin kt, nhng n c th xy ra kh nng ti nguyn thng tin c nhn b b qua. V d, ti a dung lng trng ca mt lin kt i km c thit lp l gi tr ti a kh nng trng cho mt ngun ti nguyn c nhn. C mt s nh i gia hiu qu ca vic gim s lng thng bo vi kh nng t chc thng tin ti nguyn. 4.2. Qung b lin kt TE Trong mng IP/MPLS, cc trng thi lin kt gia cc b nh tuyn c qung b bng cch s dng mt b nh tuyn LSA ca loi LSA type-1 . Qung b v trng thi lin kt ca mt lin kt TE vo mng GMPLS, mt "Opaque" LSA c s dng, nh trong hnh 12 . "Opaque" l bt ngun t ngha ca n l "s khng chc chn." Trong GMPLS c tho lun trong IETF, type-10 c s dng bi v n cp n giao thc nh tuyn trong khu vc. Opaque LSA c qung b theo nh dng TLV (loi, chiu di, gi tr) ang lu tr thng tin opaque. C hai loi nh dng TLV. Mt l mt nh tuyn TLV th hin cc thng tin nh tuyn, v ci khc l mt TLV lin kt th hin cc thng tin lin kt. TLV lin kt sub-TLV trong n. Trong phn m rng OSPF ca GMPLS, cc sub-TLV ca lin kt c nh ngha nh trong hnh 13. T Type-1 n Type-9, chn loi sub-TLV c nh ngha l phn m rng cho k thut lu lng MPLS . Thm vo , c nhng b sung sau y l phn m rng cho GMPLS8.

Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS
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Sub-TLV = 11 (local link / remote link): Chiu di l 8 octet. nh danh cc b lin kt v nhn dng t xa lin kt c ch nh 4 octet mi cho tng lnh vc. "Local" c ngha l bn nt ring ca lin kt, v "remote" c ngha l cc nt bn i tc ca lin kt. nh danh local/remote lin kt c s dng trong trng hp lin kt khng nh s. Nu lin kt TE t xa nh danh cha c bit, n c thit lp l 0.

Hnh 12: nh dng Opaque LSA (RFC 2370) Sub-TLV = 14 (loi bo v lin kt): Chiu di l 4 octet. cc loi bo v lin kt th hin tin cy ca lin kt. Cc 1 octet u tin c nh ngha l kiu lin kt bo v cc loi sau: 001 (Kiu truyn ti m rng): y l mt lin kt bo v cc lin kt khc. Truyn ti ca loi n lc tt nht chy vo lin kt ny. Khi li xy ra trn lin kt th c bo v, d liu LSP trn cc lin kt khc m c bo v l hng n dng chy lin kt ny. Do , cc d liu c LSP chy vo lin kt ny s b mt.

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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Hnh 13: sub-TLV ca opaque LSA trong OSPF GMPLS 002 (khng bo v): Lin kt ny khng c bo v bi cc lin kt khc. khi mt li xy ra, d liu LSP vo lin kt ny s b mt. 008 loi chia s: C thm mt hay nhiu lin kt kiu truyn ti m bo v lin kt ny. Cc nh tuyn ca lin kt kiu chia s v nh tuyn ca lin kt kiu truyn ti m rng c lp vi nhau. Cc lin kt kiu truyn ti m rng c chia s bi mt hoc nhiu lin kt kiu chia s. 008 loi 1:1: C mt lin kt kiu truyn ti m rng bo v 1 loai 1:1. nh tuyn ca kiu 1:1 v nh tuyn ca lin kt kiu truyn ti m rng c lp vi nhau. 010 loi 1+1: C mt lin kt nh tuyn c lp chuyn dng bo v mt kiu 1+1. Tuy nhin, lin kt bo v loi 1+1 c th khng c s dng chn nh tuyn LSP bi v n khng c qung b l mt trng thi lin kt. 020 loi ni bt: Kiu ny ng tin cy hn so vi kiu 1+1. V d, c hai hay nhiu nh tuyn c lp v ring r bo v loi 1+1. Sub-TLV = 15 (nhn dng kh nng chuyn i giao din): Chiu di c th thay i. C mt trng 1-octet cho bit cc kh nng chuyn mch, mt trng 1octet cho bit kiu m ha, v mt trng 1-octet m cho thy bng thng LSP ti a cho mi u tin. S lng ti a s ca h tr u tin l tm. Lin kt c kt ni vi nt thng qua giao din. Nh trong hnh 11, trong mng GMPLS, mi giao din c kh nng chuyn i khc nhau. V d, trong khi mt giao din ca mt lin
GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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kt no khng th xc nh cc gi tin, c th thc hin chuyn i mt n v knh bn trong payload SDH. Cc giao din ca c hai u ca lin kt khng cn c kh nng chuyn mch ging nhau. C nhiu loi kh nng chuyn i: PSC, TDM, LSC, v FCS. Cc loi m ha bao gm packet, Ethernet, digital wrapper, , fiber, vv. Cc loi m ha ch ra loi m ha no giao din c th h tr. Mi quan h gia kh nng chuyn i v lin kt c hin th trong danh sch sau y. y, X v Y trong (X, Y) ch ra kh nng chuyn i c hai u ca giao din. (PSC, PSC): Lin kt gia b nh tuyn IP (TDM, TDM): Lin kt gia DXC v DXC (LSC, LSC): Lin kt gia OXCs (PSC, TDM): Lin kt gia b nh tuyn IP v TDM (PSC, LSC): Lin kt gia b nh tuyn IP v OXC (TDM, LSC): Lin kt gia TDM v LSC (PSC, PSC + LSC): Nt c cc chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn IP v c hai chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn IP v OXC ( y, nt m c c hai chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn IP v OXC th c hai kh nng chuyn mch cho mt giao din. Chc nng ny ging nh mt b nh tuyn IP, v c th thit lp PSC-LSC, n cng c chc nng nh OXC, v c th thit lp LSC-LSP). Sub - TLV = 16 (nhm lin kt chia s ri ro): Chiu di c th thay i. Nhm lin kt chia s ri ro l mt tp hp cc lin kt b tc ng bi mt li no . V d, c mt trng hp nhiu bc sng thuc v mt fiber n, v nhiu LSC-LSPs c thit lp nh l mt lin kt s dng mt bc sng ca cng mt fiber. Lin kt gia cc nt u v cui ca nhng LSC-LSPs ny c th khc nhau. Khi tht li xy ra trong lin kt fiber, nhng lin kt ny (LSC-LSP) b nh hng cng lc. Nu lp bn trn l lp TDM v mi lin kt ny l c xem nh mt lin kt c lp nhn t lp TDM, th tin cy ca lp TDM khng bo m. V vy, trong mng GMPLS, mi lin kt c th chn mt nh tuyn c lp tham gia vo mt xem xt ri ro c chia s bng cch ch ra n c thuc nhm lin kt chia s ri ro hay khng. Mt nhm lin kt chia s ri ro c gn mt gi tr c lp trong h thng v c th hin bi 4 octet. Lin kt c th thuc v nhiu nhm lin kt
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chia s ri ro, v n c th bao gm tt c cc nhm chia s ri ro m lin kt thuc v cc trng ca cc nhm lin kt chia s ri ro.

5. Giao thc bo hiu 5.1 Giao thc m rng RSVP-TE Giao thc bo hiu l mt giao thc to LSP v qun l tnh trng ci t LSP. RSVP-TE l giao thc bo hiu trong mng MPLS, v n c chun ha m rng n mng GMPLS 9. Trong phn ny, chng ta m t r hn giao thc m rng RSVP-TE nh mt giao thc bo hiu GMPLS.
Nhn yu cu

Nt ngun A

PATH B RESV {101}

PATH C RESV {201}

PATH

Nt ch D

Nhn

RESV {301}

Nhn

Hnh 14: Bn tin PATH v bn tin RESV Trc tin, chng ta m t RSVP-TE trong mng MPLS li. Mt bn tin c trng c s dng trong RSVP-TE gm mt bn tin PATH v mt bn tin RSVP. Nh hnh 14, khi LSP c to , nt u tin truyn mt bn tin PATH. Bn tin ny n nt ch qua cc nt trn ng LSP. Trong bn tin PATH, nhn phi c mang theo trn mi kt ni cho cc nt trn ng i. Khi nt ch nhn bn tin PATH, th n truyn bn tin RESV tr li cc nt trn ng i trong hng ch nh ca bn tin PATH. Trong lc ny, nt ch to nhn cho cc kt ni n nt ngun. Hn na, bng thng c th c ginh. Tng t nh nt ch, chnh
9

Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques
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cc nt trung gian to cc nhn cho cc kt ni n nt ngun khi n nhn c bn tin RESV. Khi cc nt trung gian truyn bn tin RESV n nt ch, n yu cu to bng v chuyn mch m cc nhn tng ng vi cc nhn c to cho c hai kt ni nt ngun v nt ch. Khi bn tin RESV n nt ngun, vic to LSP hon tt khi vic to bng v chuyn mch m cc nhn tng ng n nt ngun. Trong RSVP-TE, qun l tnh trng to LSP v duy tr trng thi LSP, nt trn tuyn ng phi truyn bn tin PATH hoc bn tin RESV ngay sau khi LSP c to. Bn tin PATH v RESV cn c gi l bn tin cp nht. Trng thi LSP ca mi nt c xc nhn duy tr bi bn tin cp nht. Nu cc nt chc chn khng nhn c bn tin cp nht v bt c l do g, th chnh n xc nhn l c li xy ra v s xa trng thi LSP, cng lc ny, n cng gi bn tin PATH ERROR v bn tin PATH TEAR ti c hai pha ngun v ch. Nt nhn bn tin PATH th xa trng thi LSP. Khi nt ngun nhn bn tin li, n gi bn tin PATH TEAR n pha nt ch hy kt ni LSP. RSVP-TE qun l trng thi LSP theo bn tin cp nht ti mi nt v hy kt ni LSP da trn iu kin mng. Ging nh phng thc qun l LSP cn gi l qun l trng thi mm. RSVP-TE trong mng MPLS c m rng s dng trong mng GMPLS. Vic tao LSP l chuyn cc gi tin theo bng gn nhn, trong tng ng gia nhn kt ni vo v nhn kt ni ra ca nt trn ng i LSP c to, cc nhn c gn vo kt ni m LSP i qua. Trong MPLS, vic gn nhn c thc hin ch to ng LSP, nhng khng gn vo bng thng hay l ti nguyn mng v s lng nhn c hn. Trong GMPLS, nh hnh 3 trong phn 2, nhn tng ng vi khe thi gian trong trong lp TDM, vi bc sng trong lp , vi si quang trong lp quang. V vy, vic gn nhn trong mang MPLS l gn bng thng v ti nguyn mng trong cc lp khc vi lp gi tin. Vic gn nhn nh vy l mt c trng trong giao thc m rng RSVP-TE trong mng GMPLS. Cc v d s dng c tnh ny ca giao thc m rng RSVP-TE gm: Yu cu nhn, ng bo hiu hai chiu

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Thit lp nhn Cu trc bo hiu 5.2 Yu cu nhn tng qut phn 2, trong mng GMPLS, mt LSP c nh ngha cho mi lp. Trong mng MPLS, ng i ch tham gia trong PSC-LSP, ngha l kh nng chuyn mch ca giao din m LSP i qua l PSC. Trong GMPLS RSVP-TE, n to ng i n TDM-, LSC-, v FSC-LSP bn cnh PSC-LSP v qun l trng thi ca chng. Khi yu cu nhn vi bn tin PATH, th bn tin PATH l i tng yu cu nhn. Yu cu nhn trong GMPLS i hi mt nhn chung cho GMPLS. M rng yu cu nhn trong MPLS l mt LSP encoding type, switching type, v G-PID (generalized payload ID) c thm vo. Hnh 15 m phng nh dng i tng yu cu nhn.

Xc nh loi interaface Xc nh LSP ca node ca node trung gian no cn c thit lp

nh danh loi ca payload

LSP Enc. Type -------1 Packet 2 Ethernet V2/DIX 3 ANSI PDH 4 ETSI PDH 5 SDH 6 SONET 7 Digital Wrapper 8 Lambda (photonic) 9 Fiber 10 Ethernet 802.3

Value ----1 2 3 4 51 100 150 200

Type ---Packet-Switch Capable-1 (PSC-1) Packet-Switch Capable-1 (PSC-1) Packet-Switch Capable-1 (PSC-1) Packet-Switch Capable-1 (PSC-1) Layer-2 Switch Capable (L2SC) Time-Division-Multiplex Capable (TDM) Lambda Switch Capable (LSC) Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC)

Hnh 15: nh dng ca i tng yu cu nhn10 LSP encoding type: y l trng c 8 bit. N ch giao din no ca nt trung gian trn ng LSP phi h tr k thut m ha. Trong loi ny cha gi tin,
10

Generalized Muti-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signial Function Description, Trang 6


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Ethernet, b ng gi s (digital wrapper), SDH, , v quang. V d, trng hp l SDH th giao din nt trung gian trn ng LSP c th xc nh v x l khung SDH. Trong trng hp ti nt trung gian th chuyn i quang-in-quang khng c thc hin, v t l truyn khng xc nh. Switching type: y l trng 8 bit. N ch LSP ca lp no c to, v n ch nhn lp no c to. Trng ny gm PSC, TDM, LSC, v FSC. Trong trng hp l TDM th n yu cu khe thi gian nh nhn, v trng hp LSC th n yu cu mt bc sng trong quang nh nhn. Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Type Unknown Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved A synchronous mapping of E4 A synchronous mapping of DS3/T3 A synchronous mapping of E3 Bit synchronous mapping of E3 Byte synchronous mapping of E3 Asynchronous mapping of DS2/T2 Bit Synchronous mapping of DS2/T2 Reserved Asynchronous mapping of E1 Byte synchronous mapping of E1 Byte synchronous mapping of 31 * DS0 Asynchronous mapping of DS1/T1 Bit synchronous mapping of DS1/T1 Byte synchronous mapping of DS1/T1 VC-11 in VC-12 SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH Technology All

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20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Reserved Reserved DS1 SF Asynchronous DS1 ESF Asynchronous DS3 M23 Asynchronous DS3 C-Bit Parity Asynchronous VT/LOVC STS SPE/HOVC POS No scrambling, 16 bit CRC POS No scrambling, 32 bit CRC POS Scrambling, 16 bit CRC POS Scrambling, 32 bit CRC ATM mapping Ethernet SONET/SDH Reserved (SONET deprecated) Digital Wrapper Lambda SONET SONET SONET SONET SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH SDH, Lambda, Fiber Lambda, Fiber Lambda, Fiber Lambda, Fiber Fiber

Hnh 16: Cc loi G-PID G-PID: trng ny gm 16 bit. N l mt nh danh ca ti trng (payload) LSP truyn. N dng k thut nt ngun hay ch c th x l ti trng. G-PID c nh ngha chi tit nh hnh 16. V d, khi G-PID = 28 th n s dng cng ngh POS (packet over SONET), khng m ha hay xo trn, vi 16 bit CRC (cyclic redundancy check). Khi G-PID = 31, th n s dng cng ngh POS vi m ha hay xo trn, v 32 bit CRC. Nu cc giao din ti c hai u ngun v ch LSP khng h tr cng G-PID th ni dung payload khng c gii m, vic giao tip xuyn qua LSP khng thc hin c.

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Bi v switching type v encoding type ca nh danh kh nng chuyn mch giao din (c m t phn 4.2) qung b trong giao thc nh tuyn GMPLS, nt ngun bit cc nt trong mng GMPLS ang h tr LSP encoding type v switching type. Chng ta m t cch thc to LSP trong hnh 14 nh mt v d. Phng thc ny to LSP dnh cho LSP ca cc lp. Trong trng hp ny LSP c to t nt ngun A, gi cho B, C v n nt ch D. Nt A gi bn tin PATH gm yu cu nhn n nt B. Sau , nt B kim tra xem giao din n c h tr LSP encoding type hay switching type hay khng, v nu c, n truyn bn tin PATH n nt C. Nt B to trng thi LSP pht hin v lu tr vo trc khi gi bn tin ti nt C. Nt C hot ng nh nt B, v tip tc gi bn tin PATH ti nt D nu khng xy ra vn g. Nt ch D kim tra giao din n c h tr LSP encoding type v switching type cng nh G-PID, v to trng thi LSP v lu tr n nu khng c vn . Sau , nt D to nhn vi gi tr 301 ti ng kt ni gia nt D v nt C. Nt D gn gi tr nhn 301 ti ng kt ni hng vo ca bng chuyn i nhn v gi bn tin RESV gm gi tr nhn 301 n nt C. Khi nt C nhn bn tin RESV, n gn gi tr nhn 301 ti ng kt ni hng ra ca bng chuyn i nhn. Trong lc ny, nt C to gi tr nhn 201 ti ng kt ni hng vo ca bng chuyn i nhn v sau chnh n to hot ng chuyn mch theo nh bng chuyn i nhn, n gi bn tin RESV gm nhn gi tr 201 ti nt B. Tng t, bn tin RESC c gi ti nt B v nt A. Khi bn tin RESV ti nt ngun A, th vic to LSP hon tt bng vic to bng v chuyn mch tng ng vi nhn n mt trong cc nt ngun. Trong yu cu nhn GMPLS, iu quan trng l phi kim tra xem giao din cc nt trn ng i LSP c h tr LSP encoding type, switching type, v G-PID c ch nh trong bn tin PATH. 5.3 Bo hiu ng hai hng Mt LSP trong mng MPLS l ng i mt chiu.Tuy nhin, khi vic giao tip c m rng n lp TDM, lp , v lp quang trong mng GMPLS, bi v ng SDH/SONET, ng bc sng, v ng quang, nguyn tc c xem nh l ng hai chiu, bo hiu phi c m rng cha mt ng hai chiu. Vic
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m rng bo hiu mt chiu n bo hiu hai chiu, gii php tt nht l phi chp nhn bo hiu mt chiu khc trong mi hng. Tuy nhin, phng php ny khng ph hp cho cc l do thc t, gm thi gian di ci t, tng gp i s lng bn tin bo hiu, v.v. Trong mng GMPLS, ng i hai chiu c thit lp bng cch cho bo hiu i v tr v gia nt ch v nt ngun s dng bn tin PATH v bn tin RESV (ging nh bo hiu mt chiu) bng cch s dng mt nhn ngc hng.
Nhn ngc hng {505} Nt khi to (Nt ngun) A RESV {101} Nhn xui hng
PA H T

Nhn ngc hng {613}


PA H T

Nhn ngc hng {658}


PA H T

Thit lp chuyn mch B

Thit lp chuyn mch C

Nt kt thc (Nt ch) D

RESV {201} Nhn xui hng

RESV {301} Nhn xui hng

Hnh 17: Nhn ngc hng y, chng ti m t cch to bo hiu ng hai chiu trong v d hnh 17. Trong bo hiu ng hai chiu, nt gi bn tin PATH c gi l nt khi to, v nt gi bn tin RESV c gi l nt kt thc. LSP truyn d liu t nt ch n nt ngun gi l ng xui hng, v ngc li, LSP truyn d liu t nt ch n nt ngun gi l ng ngc hng. Thit lp ng mt hng, trng thi LSP c to vi bn tin PATH v to nhn c thc hin khi bn tin RESV c truyn. To nhn cho ng xui hng trong ng hai chiu c thc hin khi bn tin RESV c truyn cng cch nh trong ng mt hng. To ng cho ng ngc hng c thc thi khi bn tin PATH c gi. Trong ng i hai hng, y l c tnh trong to nhn. Trc khi nt khi to A gi bn tin PATH n nt B, 505 c gn cho gi tr nhn ca ng ngc hng t nt B ti nt A v thit lp chuyn mch c thc hin cho ng ngc hng. Nt A t nhn ngc hng gi tr 505 trn bn tin PATH v truyn ti nt B. Nt B to nhn gi tr 505 ca ng kt ni ra v ng thi to gi tr nhn 613 ca ng kt ni vo gia nt B v C n bng chuyn i nhn, v thc thi ci t chuyn mch cho ng ngc hng theo
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bng chuyn i nhn. Tng t, bn tin PATH c gi ti nt C v nt D. Khi to bng chuyn i nhn cho ng ngc hng v ci t chuyn mch hon tt ti nt D th nt D c th truyn ng ngc hng ti nt A. Mt khc, phng php thit lp ng xui hng ging nh phng thc thit lp ng mt hng, v nhn ng xui hng km theo bn tin RESV. Vic s dng th tc bo hiu ny, n tr nn c th thit lp mt ng hai hng ch mt vng gi bn tin PATH v bn tin RESV. 5.4 Vic ci t nhn Ci t nhn c gii thiu chp nhn bo hiu trong lp . Trong trng hp ny, nhn tng ng vi bc sng. Trong phn 5.2, gi tr nhn ca ng kt ni hng vo c quyn nh bi nt pha xui hng khi bn tin RESV c gi v thng bo n nt pha ngc hng. Tuy nhin, thc t nhn tng ng vi bc sng lp c mt vi vn c th xy ra: Trong trng hp mt thit b truyn dn ca nt pha ngc hng khng h tr bc sng tng ng vi gi tr nhn m nt pha xui hng quyt nh. Laser bc sng th t tin, v bc sng ra gii hn. Trong trng hp c s hn ch trong chc nng chuyn i bc sng ti nt trung gian. Trong trng hp, n khng th thip lp chuyn mch m c th tng ng nhn ca ng kt ni hng vo vi nhn ca ng kt ni hng ra. l mt chuyn mch chuyn i bc sng c lin quan ti s hn ch i hi. Trong trng hp ny, khng c chc nng chuyn i bc sng. Mc d ci t nhn ca lp gi tin c ngha l ci t ng i ca LSP, trong lp , n cng gm phng php ci t ti nguyn mng bn cnh ng i LSP, v mt hn ch trong truyn dn bc sng ca thit b truyn, v trong chc nng chuyn i bc sng c to. Trong trng hp, nt pha ngc hng c yu cu p dng s hn ch ca gi tr nhn n nt xui hng khi nt ngc hng gi bn tin PATH. B nhn c nh ngha nh mt nhm cc nhn c hn ch m nt ngc hng cho php.

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Bng tng ng gia nhn vi bc sng ti nt B Bng tng ng gia nhn vi bc sng ti nt C

Ng ra Ng vo Bc sng 101 115 120 150 201 215 220 250 Vng Xanh l Xanh dng

Ng ra Ng vo Bc sng 201 215 220 250 301 315 320 350 Vng Xanh l Xanh dng

B nhn {101, 115, 120, 150} Nt khi to (Nt ngun) A RESV {101} Nhn c gn PATH B

B nhn {201, 220, 250} PATH C RESV {201} Nhn c gn

B nhn {301, 350} PATH Nt kt thc (Nt ch) D RESV {301} Nhn c gn

Hnh 18: B nhn y, chng ti m t s tn dng b nhn bng cch s dng hnh 18 nh mt v d. N cho rng mi nt khng c chc nng chuyn i bc sng. Vi nt A (nt ngun), thit b truyn dn c th h tr mu , vng, xanh l v mu xanh dng cho nhng bc sng v gi tr nhn tng ng cho mi bc sng l 101, 115, 120, and 150 mt cch ring bit. Mi nt, vic tng ng gia ng lin kt cc nt lin quan, v gi tr nhn, v gi tr nhn c to mt cch duy nht cho mi ng lin kt. Nhng tng ng ny cng nh nhau trong nt i lp cho ng lin kt c lin quan. V d, trong nt B, gi tr nhn tng ng n bc sng , vng, xanh l, xanh dng l 101, 115, 120, v 150, mt cch ring bit. Nt A gi bn tin PATH, gm b nhn (101, 115, 120, 150) nh mt hn ch ca cc bc sng m thit b truyn dn h tr ti nt B. Trong nt B, bi v n khng c chc nng chuyn i bc sng, n phi s dng nhn tng ng vi b nhn cho ng lin kt gia nt B v nt C. S tng ng gia bc sng v nhn c m t hnh 18. Bi v nhn c gn vi mi ng kt ni duy nht, nhng nhn cho ng kt ni nt A v nt B v mt gia nt B v nt C c th ch nh cng gi tr hoc khc gi tr. Trong ng lin kt gia nt B v nt C, nhn 215 tng ng vi bc sng mu vng th khng sn sng trong v d. Bi v nt B khng c chc nng chuyn i bc sng v c th s dng ch mu , xanh l hoc xanh
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dng, nt B gi b nhn (201, 220, 250) ti nt C. Trong ng lin kt gia nt C v nt D, bc sng xanh l khng sn sng. V th, trong nt C b nhn b hn ch, v nt C gi b nhn (301, 350) ti nt D. Khi nt D nhn b nhn (301, 350), n c th chn mt nhn t b nhn nhn. Trong v d hnh 18, nt D chn nhn 301 v gi bn tin RESV bao gm gi tr nhn ny ti nt C. Sau , nt C chn 201 t (201, 220, 250) to LSP cho bc sng da trn bng tng ng. Tng t, nt B chn nhn 101 v thng bo n nt A vi bn tin RESV. Nh kt qu, mt LSP s dng bc sng c to gia nt A v nt D. Nu khng c s hn ch ca b nhn, th nt D chn nhn 315 sn sng cho ng kt ni gia nt C v nt D, nhng v nt C khng c chc nng chuyn i bc sng, n khng th to LSP. Trong trng hp, bc sng b hn ch trong nt trn ng i LSP, th LSP c th tao mt cch hiu qu bng cch s dng b nhn. 5.5 Cu trc bo hiu Trong mng GMPLS, khi khi nim LSP phn cp c gii thiu v bo hiu hot ng mt cch phn tn c s dng, th n c th to LSP ti mt lp thp hn bng cch kch hot yu cu to LSP ti lp cao hn. y gi l bo hiu phn cp.

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Nt 2 Nt 3 Nt 4 Nt 5

PATH (PSC)

PATH (LSC) PATH (LSC) RESV (LSC) PATH (PSC)

PATH (PSC)

RESV (PSC) RESV (PSC) RESV (PSC)

PSC - LSP LSC - LSP

Hnh 19: M hnh phn cp LSP11 Hnh 19 hin th v d bo hiu phn cp. Trong v d ny, mng bao gm nt 1, nt 2, nt 4, v nt 5 m c mt giao din PSC v nt 3 c giao din LSC, v c mt lp gi tin trn lp . y, chng ta th to PSC-LSP t nt 1 ti nt 5, gi s rng LSC-LSP cha c to gia nt 2 v nt 4. u tin, nt 1 gi bn tin PATH (PSC) ti nt C. PSC trong du ngoc n trong hnh 19 ch loi chuyn mch ca i tng yu cu nhn c m t phn 5.2. Bi v LSC-LSP cha c to gia nt 2 v nt 4, khi nt 2 nhn bn tin PATH (PSC), n gi bn tin PATH (LSC) ti nt 3 to LSC-LSP. Bn tin PATH (LSC) c chuyn ln nt 4, v bn tin RESV (LSC) ti nt 2 xuyn qua nt 3, v LSC-LSP c to. LSC-LSP gia nt 2 v nt 4 tr thnh mt ng kt ni khi n thy t lp gi tin, v nt 2 gi PATH (LSC) ti nt 4. Sau ny, theo th tc to PSC-LSP gc, bn tin PATH (PSC) ti nt 5, v khi bn tin RESV (PSC) c gi ngc hng ng i bn tin PATH v n nt 1, to PSC-LSP c hon tt.
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Nhn vo v d, bng cch s dng bo hiu phn cp, n c th to mt cch t ng mt LSP lp thp hn bng vic s dng mt kch hot t lp cao hn to LSP. 6 Giao thc qun l ng kt ni Link Management Protocol 6.1 S cn thit ca LMP qun l ng kt ni gia cc nt k nhau, giao thc qun l ng kt ni (LMP) c gii thiu nh giao thc GMPLS 12. Nh m t phn 3, mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin ring bit trong mng GMPLS. iu ny bi v cc giao din khng th xc nh v x l chng hn nh cc gi tin nh TDM, LSC, v FSC. Hai nt k nhau khng cn c knh iu khin v ng lin kt d liu s dng cng phng tin truyn thng vt l. Knh iu khin ny c dng iu khin hot ng giao thc nh tuyn v giao thc bo hiu. Kt qu cho thy, n khng cn thit trong trng hp truyn d liu phi ph hp trn knh d diu, thm ch bo hiu iu khin c truyn ng trn knh iu khin, v ngc li. Khi nim ng kt ni TE c s dng trong mng GMPLS. ng kt ni TE l mt ng kt ni tru tng c to bi mt b nhiu ng lin kt v c s dng cho mc ch thun tin trong vic tnh ton ng i ca LSP hoc tng kh nng m rng ca giao thc nh tuyn. Nh iu kin m t bn trn, n khng th tng ng ng kt ni TE vi ng kt ni d liu m ph thuc vo ng kt ni lin quan bng cch s dng giao thc thng thng. Trong ng lin kt d liu kt ni ti nt , n khng th tng ng cng vt l ca ti nt ny ti nt xa. Hn na, trong GMPLS, knh iu khin v knh d liu c tch ring vi nhau, bao gm giao din nhn v truyn tn hiu quang trc tip m khng s dng chuyn i in-quang. Khi li xy ra trong knh d liu, iu quan trng l v tr li phi xc nh nhanh chng c th, thc hin khi phc ngay. Tuy nhin, trong cc giao thc thng m knh iu khin v knh d liu khng ring bit nhau, th n khng th xc nh v tr xy ra li trn ng kt ni d liu.

12

Link Management Protocol (LMP)


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Do vy, vai tr chnh ca LMP l tng ng ng kt ni TE n ng d liu ph thuc n ng kt ni TE gia cc nt k cn, t ng tng ng cng vt l ti nt ny n nt xa cho ng kt ni d liu kt ni ti ti nt ny, v xc nh v tr li trn ng kt ni d liu. 6.2 Cc loi ng lin kt d liu Trc khi m t chc nng LMP, chng ta m t cc loi ng lin kt trong phn ny. C hai loi ng lin kt d liu: mt l ng kt ni thnh phn, mt l ng kt ni cng. iu khc nhau gia ng kt ni cng v ng kt ni thnh phn nh sau. Cng l ng kt ni vt l ti thiu khng th chia c na, v ng kt ni thnh phn l mt ng kt ni vt l ti thiu c th chia bng cch s dng khe thi gian hoc nhn iu chnh. y, chng ta gi s rng ng kt ni TE l ng kt ni d liu, nh hnh 820. Trong hnh 20 (a), ng kt ni TE bao gm nhiu ng OC-192c c p li. Trong trng hp ny, ti thiu ng kt ni vt l l OC-192c khng th c chia nh hn ng ny. V th, ng kt ni lun l ti thiu ca ng kt ni ny cng OC-192c. C hai tham s xc nh ng kt ni lun l ti thiu: mt l tham s xc nh ng kt ni ch ra ng kt ni TE, mt l tham s xc nh giao din ch ra giao din cng vt l. Trong trng hp mt cng, tham s xc nh giao din tng ng cng vi nhn. Ngc li, trong hnh 20 (b), ti thiu ng kt ni vt l l OC-192 (mt ng kt ni thnh phn) v c th chia thnh bn ng OC-48c. V th, trong trng hp ny, ng kt ni vt l ti thiu l OC-48c. C 3 tham cn xc nh ng kt ni lun l ti thiu: mt l tham s xc nh ng kt ni xc nh ng kt ni TE, mt l tham s xc nh giao din ch ra giao din cng vt l, v mt l nhn xc nh khe thi gian ca OC-48c. 6.3 Cc chc nng ca LMP LMP c bn chc nng: Qun l knh iu khin Tng quan thuc tnh ng kt ni Chng nhn kt ni Qun l li
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Qun l knh iu khin v tng quan thuc tnh ng kt ni l chc nng khng th thiu ca LMP, v vic xc nhn kt ni v qun l li l nhng chc nng km thm.

OC-192c
ng kt ni TE (Nhm)

Cng

OC-192c OC-192c
(a) Cng OC-48c

OC-192c
ng kt ni TE (Nhm)

ng kt ni thnh phn

OC-192c OC-192c
(b) ng kt ni thnh phn Nhn

Hnh 20: Cc loi ng kt ni d liu13 6.3.1 Qun l knh iu khin chc nng LMP hot ng, phi c t nht mt knh iu khin hai hng gia cc hai nt kt ni bng ng kt ni TE. Khi t nht mt knh iu khin hai hng c thit lp, th cc nt kt ni c gi l LMP k cn. Chc nng qun l knh iu khin l thit lp v qun l knh iu khin.

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Qun l ng kt ni - LMP Mng IP Nt A (cc b) Nt B ( xa) Nhn 1 2 3 101 102 103 ng kt ni TE 1 2 3 101 102 103 Tham s giao din 10 11 12 26 10 11 12

13 Tham s xc nh kt ni 14

25

Hnh 21: Giao thc qun l ng kt ni14 Hnh 21 hin th mt v d knh iu khin gia cc nt. Trong v d, mc d knh iu khin ang s dng mt phng tin vt l khc nhau so vi ci c s dng trong ng kt ni d liu, n cng c th s dng cng phng tin vt l. Giao tip d liu iu khin gia cc nt k cn c thc thi bng giao thc IP. Tt c gi tin LMP hot ng nh cc gi tin UDP (User Datagram Protocol) c mt s cng LMP. Trong giao tip bng giao thc IP, b nh tuyn IP c th chn vo gia cc nt k cn, v nu giao tip bng giao thc IP th c th khng c s hn ch trong knh iu khin. Knh iu khin ny cng c th s dng giao tip giao thc m rng OSPF hoc m rng RSVP. Knh iu khin ca mi hng c xc nh bng mt tham s xc nh knh iu khin. Cc knh iu khin cho c hai hng c th tng ng bng cch s dng bn tin Config. Bn tin Config c gi t nt ny ti nt xa thit lp knh iu khin. Lc ny, giao din ca knh iu khin trong nt xa cn a ch IP l cp pht ng hay l tnh. Bn tin Config gm mt tham s xc nh knh iu khin cc b, mt tham s xc nh nt pha gi, mt tham s xc nh bn tin, cc tham s Config, v.v. Mt bn tin LMP c gi mt cch bo mt vi tham s xc
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nh bn tin 32-bit v mt chc nng gi li. S lng tham s xc nh bn tin tng v tr v 0 khi n t gi tr ti a. Nt t xa nhn bn tin Config v gi bn tin bn tin ConfigACK, nu khng c vn g trong ni dung bn tin Config, n gi bn tin ConfigNack khi ni dng truyn c vn . Trong trng hp, knh iu khin ng kt ni khng thit lp, th nt xa phi chnh sa ni dng bn tin Config v c thit lp knh iu khin. Khi knh iu khin c thit lp, giao thc LMP Hello c kch hot. Giao thc LMP Hello trao i bn tin Hello gia cc nt k cn v xc nhn knh iu khin bnh thng. Khi bn tin Hello khng th trao i, ng kt ni TE a vo trng thi suy gim nhng vn ha ng bnh thng, cn knh iu khin khng hot ng bnh thng. Khi ng kt ni TE quay li trng thi bnh thng t trng thi suy gim, th knh iu khin quay li trng thi thit lp. Tuy nhin, nu ng kt ni TE khng th phc hi li t trng thi suy gim, th ng kt ni TE b mt kt ni. 6.3.2 S tng quan thuc tnh ng kt ni S tng quan ny c thc thi ng b cc thuc tnh ca mt ng kt ni TE gia cc nt k cn bng nhm cc ng kt ni d liu (ng kt ni thnh phn hoc cng) ti ng kt ni TE. iu ny c thc thi sau khi ng kt ni TE c thit lp hoc sau khi ng kt ni TE thit lp mt cch t ng bng chc nng xc nhn kt ni m l chc nng km thm ca LMP, bng cch s dng bn tin LinkSummary, bn tin LinkSummaryAck, v bn tin LinkSummaryNack. Nh hnh 21, khi c mt hoc nhiu ng kt ni TE gia cc nt k cn, mi ng kt ni TE c mt xc nh ng kt ni ti mi nt hai u v mi ng kt ni d liu (ng kt ni thnh phn hoc cng) c mt tham s xc nh giao din ti mi nt c hai u. Xc nh ng kt ni v xc nh giao din c th hin bng IPv.4, IPv.6, hoc khng s a ch. N c th ng b cc thuc tnh ca ng kt ni TE gia cc nt k cn bng cch nhm cc ng kt ni d liu (ng kt ni thnh phn v cng) n ng kt ni TE vi bn tin LinkSummary. Bn tin LinkSummary bao gm i tng ng kt ni TE v i tng ng kt ni d liu. i tng ng kt
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ni TE phn bit tham s xc nh ng kt ni cc b v ng kt ni t xa ca ng kt ni TE, v ch th s xc nhn kt ni v chc nng qun l li m chc nng km thm ca LMP c h tr hoc khng. i tng ng kt ni bao gm thng tin ng kt ni d liu (loi chuyn mch giao din, xc nh giao din, v.v) m to ng kt ni TE. Nt cc b nhn bn tin LinkSummary t nt xa kim tra ni dung ca bn tin LinkSummary i chiu li thng tin ca ng kt ni TE m nt cc b s hu. Thng tin ng kt ni TE m ng kt ni nt cc b s hu gm thng tin c s dng khi ng kt ni TE t ng thit lp bng chc nng t ng xc nhn kt ni nh chc nng km thm ca LMP hoc thng tin cu hnh c s dng khi ng kt ni TE c thit lp bng tay. Bn tin LinkSummaryAck gi n nt khi to ca bn tin LinkSummary khi tham s xc nh giao din ng kt ni d liu ph thuc vo ng kt ni TE ng vi nh ngha ca thuc tnh ng kt ni. Khi nt ny nhn bn tin LinkSummnaryAck, th cc thuc tnh ca ng kt ni TE gia cc nt k cn c xc nhn. Nu tham s xc nh giao din khng ng vi ni dung, n gi bn tin LinkSummnaryNack bao gm ni dng c vn . Nt m nhn bn tin LinkSummaryNack s gi mt bn tin LinkSummary mi phn hi ni dung ca bn tin LinkSummaryNack ti nt k cn. Bn tin LinkSummary c th tr nn ln khi s lng i tng ng kt ni d liu tng. V vy, trong lc gi v nhn bn tin LMP, nt gi gi tin LMP c chc nng phn chia mnh gi tin IP, v gi nhn gi tin LMP phi c chc nng lp ghp cc gi tin IP c phn chia mnh. 6.3.3 Xc nhn kt ni C hai cch thit lp ng kt ni TE: cch t ng v bng tay. Khi thit lp bng tay, th kt ni ca ng kt ni d liu ph thuc vo ng kt ni TE c xc nhn bng tay, v sau cc thuc tnh ca ng kt ni TE c thit lp trn c hai nt hai u nh thng tin cu hnh. Chc nng xc nhn kt ni ca LMP l chc nng thit lp ng kt ni TE t ng. Tht kh khn xc nhn kt ni ca ng kt ni d liu gia cc giao din trong sut gi v nhn bo hiu quang vi chuyn i chng ti hoc t bo hiu
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in. V th, vic kt ni ca ng kt ni d liu phi c xc nhn trc khi lu lng ngi dng c gi ti. lm nh vy, ng kt ni d liu c chuyn ti thit b c th gi hoc nhn bo hiu in ti nt hai u, v sau bn tin Test gi n ng kt ni d liu xc nhn kt ni. Khi kt ni ca nhiu ng kt ni d liu cn c xc nhn, n khng cn gi ng thi bn tin Test ti cc ng kt ni d liu, nhng l tt xc nhn kt ni ca mi ng kt ni d liu mt ti mt. Nt h tr chc nng xc nhn kt ni phi c th kt ni t nht mt trong nhng giao din xc nhn thit b gi v nhn bn tin Test. y n nn ghi ch rng, trong LMP, ch bn tin Test c gi trn ng kt ni d liu v tt c cc bn tin LMP khc c gi trn knh iu khin. Chc nng xc nhn kt ni c thc thi bng cc bn tin nh: bn tin BeginVerify, bn tin BeginVerifyAck, bn tin BeginVerifyNack, bn tin EndVerify, bn tin EndVerifyAck, bn tin EndVerifyNack, bn tin Test, bn tin TestStatusSuccess, bn tin TestFailure, bn tin TestStatusAck. y, chng ta m t hot ng ca vic xc nhn kt ni c th hin hnh 21. chng ta xem xt xc nhn kt ni ca ng kt ni TE gia tham s xc nhn ng kt ni s 13 ti nt A v s 25 ti nt B. 1- Nt A gi bn tin BeginVerify xuyn qua knh iu khin. Bn tin BeginVerify bao gm tham s xc nhn cc b s 13 ca ng kt ni TE v nt A bt u xc nhn kt ni ca ng kt ni d liu ph thuc vo ng kt ni TE i chiu nt B. 2- Khi nt B nhn bn tin BeginVerify, n to tham s xc nhn v gn tham s ny n ng kt ni TE t nt A. Tham s ny c s dng khi nt B nhn bn tin Test t nt A. Nt B nhn ra tham s xc nhn ng kt ni s 13 ca nt A v gi tham s xc nhn ng kt ni cc b s 25 ca n, tham s xc nhn ng kt ni s 13, v tham s xc nhn c chn vo bn tin BeginVerifyAck ti nt A. 3- Khi nt A nhn bn tin BeginVerifyAck, bn tin Test c gi trn ng kt ni d liu vi xc nhn giao din s 1. Bn tin Test gi tham s xc nhn ti nt B v tham s xc nhn giao din cc b 1 ti nt A. Khi bn tin Test gi

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trn ng kt ni d liu, th nt B kt ni giao din ng kt ni d liu ti thit b c th nhn v gi bo hiu in kim tra. 4- Khi nt B nhn bn tin Test, tham s xc nhn giao din ca nt A v nt B c gn vi nhau, bn tin TestStatusSeccess c ti nt A xuyn qua knh iu khin. Bn tin TestStatusSuccess bao gm tham s xc nhn giao din v tham s xc nhn ca c hai nt. Tham s xc nhn ny nhn ra ng kt ni TE hoc xc nhn ng kt ni. 5- Nt A gi bn tin TestStatusSuccess ti nt B thng bo n nhn bn tin TestStatusSuccess. 6- Cc th tc ny c lp li duy tr cc ng kt ni d liu xc nhn mi ng kt ni. 7- Khi tt c cc ng kt ni d liu c kim tra, nt A gi bn tin EndVerify xuyn qua knh iu khin ti nt B. 8- Cui cng, nt B gi bn tin EndVerifyAck ti nt A ch ra n nhn bn tin EndVerify xuyn qua knh iu khin. Vic s dng cc th tc ny, n c th xc nhn vic kt ni ca cc ng kt ni d liu mt cch t ng. 6.3.4 Qun l li. Qun l li l mt chc nng km theo ca LMP c vai tr xc nh v tr li ca ng kt ni TE. Kh nng kim tra li ca ng kt ni TE v xc nh v tr li, iu c th bo v mng ngay v khi phc t trng thi li. Chc nng qun l li c thc hin bng cch s dng cc bn tin nh: bn tin ChannelStatus, bn tin ChannelStatusAck, bn tin ChannelStatusRequest, bn tin ChannelStatusResponse. Trong trng hp giao din trong sut nhn v gi cc bo hiu quang m khng chuyn i n hoc t bo hiu in, pht hin ng kt ni d liu li c thc hin bng cch o suy gim tn hiu lp vt l, chng hn nh s tt tn hiu quang. Tuy nhin, chc nng quyn nh suy gim ca lp vt l th c lp vi chc nng LMP.

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Khi li xy ra trn ng kt ni d liu gia cc nt, n c th xy ra tt c cc nt pha xui hng ca LSP pht hin li v to ra nhiu cnh bo m khng pht hin ra v tr li. Xui/ngc hng c xc nh bi hng truyn d liu i. trnh to nhiu cnh bo cho cng mt li, th chc nng thng bo li c sn sng bng vic s dng bn tin ChannelStatus trong LMP. xc nh ng kt ni b li gia cc nt k cn, th cc nt xui hng pht hin mt li ca LSP thng bo rng chng pht hin mt li n cc nt ngc hng bng cch s dng bn tin ChannelStatus. Cc nt ngc hng kim tra xem mt li ng kt ni ngc hng c pht hin hoc khng tri vi li ng kt ni xui hng. Nu ng kt ni ngc hng nhn thy t chnh nt n bnh thng, th n thng bo c mt li trong kt ni gia cc nt k cn n cc nt xui hng bng cch s dng bn tin ChannelStatus. Nu li cng c pht hin trong chnh nt ngc hng th n thng bo ng kt ni cc nt k cn bnh thng bng cch s dng bn tin ChannelStatus. Nu bn tin ChannelStatus khng c gi t nt ngc hng, th n gi bn tin ChannelStatusRequest ti nt ngc hng. Khi v tr li trn ng kt ni d liu c xc nh, th qu trnh khi phc t li c thc hin bng giao thc bo hiu. 7 M hnh ngang hng v m hnh ph knh T quan im ca hot ng mng, GMPLS h tr hai m hnh, m hnh ngang hng (Peer Model) v m hnh ph knh (Overlay Model). Hnh 22 v hnh 23 th hin m hnh ngang hng v m hnh ph knh. Phn ny, chng ta m t mng gm c b nh tuyn IP v OXC.

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Mt phng iu khin duy nht

LSC Path IP Router NNI quang NNI quang

OXC

Hnh 22: M hnh ngang hng15 7.1 M hnh ngang hng Nh hnh 22, trong m hnh ngang hng, tt c b nh tuyn IP v OXC vi mng tn ti l nt ngang hng, mt iu tng ng, v chng c iu khin bng mt mt phng iu khin duy nht. Cc b nh tuyn IP v OXC c th ly thng tin mng topo ca tt c lp gi tin v lp . a ch IP t cho cc b nh tuyn IP v OXC phi cng h thng a ch. Bi v m hnh ngang hng hot ng bng mt mt phng iu khin duy nht, n c th v ra y gi tr phn cp ca LSP v nhiu lp k thut lu lng m l tnh nng c trng ca GMPLS cho mng vi cu trc lp phc tp. Hn na, m hnh ngang hng c gi tr, n c th thc thi vic bo v hai u cui hoc khi phc thm ch c nhiu lp xen k vi nhau. Tuy nhin, trong m hnh ngang hng, bi v cc trng thi ng kt ni ca cc lp c qung b ti mi nt, lng ln thng tin c chuyn i xuyn qua mt phng iu khin. Hn na, nu k thut lu lng nhiu lp c thc thi xem xt cc trng thi kt ni ca tt c cc lp, s lng tnh ton cn thit tr nn rng ln. Vi kh nng m rng vn ny, tht kh khn nhn ra mt m hnh ngang hng hon ho. Ngc li, m hnh ph knh c th gii quyt vn m
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rng ny. Trong tng lai gn, s mong i mt m hnh ngang hng hon ho hn s c thc hin trong cc giai on bng cch gii thiu m hnh ngang hng sang m hnh ph knh. 7.2 M hnh ph knh Nh hnh 23, m hnh ph knh c tch ring sang mt phng iu khin IP v mt phng iu khin quang, c hai kt ni bng UNI (User Network Interface). Lp IP khng th bit m hnh topo ca lp , v OXC khng th bit m hnh topo ca lp gi tin. Bi v, cc mt phng iu khin tch ring, a ch IP ca b nh tuyn IP v a ch IP ca OXC c th c t cc h thng a ch khc nhau.
IP Router IP Router

Mt phng iu khin IP (client) Mt phng iu khin quang (server)

UNI quang

UNI quang LSC Path NNI quang

NNI quang

NNI quang

OXC

Hnh 23: M hnh ph knh16 M hnh ph knh c th xem nh m hnh client-server (lp trn c thy nh client, lp di c thy nh server). Khi mt yu cu to LSP (PSC-LSP) gia cc b nh tuyn IP a ra, th lp gi tin yu cu lp xuyn qua UNI quang c th t mt ti nguyn mng mong mun hoc khng. Nu c th, n to LSP

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gia cc b nh tuyn IP bng cch s dng cc ti nguyn ca lp (v d: LSCLSP). Tnh nng c trng ca m hnh ph knh nh th, bi v cc mt phng iu khin ca cc lp cao v lp thp c tch ring vi nhau, khng c vn m rng nh thy m hnh ngang hng. Hn na, vi cng lp cao, th n c th cp nht mt phng iu khin hoc cc thnh phn mng, nh mt nt, mt cch c lp vi nhau. Ci ny cng chp nhn n quan h gia lp cao vi lp thp. M hnh ngang hng c th khai thc y cc thun li GMPLS, nh k thut lu lng a lp, nhng li ch kh nng m rng, m hnh ph knh hn ch vic s dng y cc chc nng GMPLS bng cch chia mt phng iu khin thnh hai lp. Mt s xem xt m hnh ph knh nh l bc gii thiu trong ng dng mang GMPLS. Cc thun li ca k thut lu lng a lp trong m hnh ngang hng v thun li kh nng m rng vi cc mt phng iu khin trong m hnh ph knh l c tha hip. La chn m hnh tt nht cho mng GMPLS (m hnh ngang hng hoc m hnh ph knh) th vn ang tranh lun vi cc t chc chun ha, gm IETF v OIF (Optical Internetworking Forum).

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KT LUN
Thnh tu trong lnh vc cc thnh phn quang s tn dng cho vic gii thiu tt c mng quang trong tt c khu vc vn chuyn thng tin v s ngh ngi thit k h thng to ra gii php mi cho php pht trin thun tin, nhanh chng trong mng vin thng. Gn y, cc thit b chuyn mch quang IP ang pht trin, chng hot ng theo mt phng iu khin nn GMPLS chung h tr k thut lu lng y tnh nng trong c s h tng trong sut quang hin i. u im chnh ca phng php ny n da trn cc giao thc trin khai rng ri v tn ti ri trong khi nhim v qun l v k thut mng c th c thc hin thng nht trong c d liu v min quang. Hn na, n cung cp mt nn tng chc nng c th p ng s k vng trong tng lai lin quan n cch mng lm vic v cc dch v s c cung cp cho khch hng. Chng ta c th hnh dung trong mng c s dng mt phng iu khin trn nn GMPLS chung th tt c thnh phn mng lm vic nhau t ng thit lp con ng quang xuyn qua mng. y l mng quang n s cung cp bng thng cao mt phn mi giy, v cho php to doanh thu dch v v tit kim chi ph ng k cho nh cung cp dch v. Tt c k hoch thnh cng u phi da vo c s h tng quang trn GMPLS, mt mi trng lm vic vi tc nh sng.

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT

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[1]. Kompella, K. and Rekhter, Y., OSPF Extensions in Support of Generalized MPLS, IETF draft, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4203.txt, Oct. 2005. [2]. Kompella, K. et al., Link Bundling in MPLS Traffic Engineering, IETF draft, http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-mpls-bundle-06, Dec. 2004. [3] Banerjee, A. et al., Generalized multiprotocol label switching: an overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques, IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 39, Issue7, 144151, 2001. [4] Lang, J. et al., Link Management Protocol (LMP), IETF draft, http://tools-.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-ccamp-lmp-10 Oct. 2003 (work in progress). [5] Naoaki Yamanaka, Kohei Shiomoto, Eiji Oki, GMPLS Technologies Broadband Backbone Networks and Systems, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.

GMPLS - CHUYN MCH NHN A GIAO THC TNG QUT