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(1)2(3)

(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)

ASHRAE 16

2
TC5.2

(3),V() v()

(3) pz1 pz2 pz1 pz2 z1 z2

pa
(5)(6)(4) 1 2 . 1 2
() 1=2
=1=2(P1pz1)
P2pz2 z1 z2

p/g p

V2/2g V2/2
1

,,(8),

14

14

( 3A),
,( 3B)

4 (16)
13-4-9-7-5,13-4-9-7-6,13-4-9-8,24-9-7-5,24-9-7-6, 2-4-9-8
1 3 ;,( 4
HVAC )(16),

7/

,
,

,
Co 0~1 3
()
1 ,
()
;,()()
2

7 3 4

2000

f (Colebrook1938-39)
Colebrook
f,(behls1971)
, Altshul(Altshuletal TSAL
ALTSHUL-TSAL 1.6% Colebrook

1 Colebrook ALTSHUL-TSAL [(20)(21)


];,,
Idelchiketal Idelchik 80 ;
;,,
swim(1978),,(),
, swim 4.6mm 1.5mm
,
(1),(2)
,(3)(),(4)

1.1
4.6mm, 0.1 2.1mm

(8)

( 9)
1220mm ,
0.09mm
3

,,,,(9)(1)
(2))15K 20(3) 500m,
(4)-5 +5kPa
,,5%

(1),,(),
ALTSHUL-TSAL Darcy (21)(19)

, r

,,
,Huebscher(1948),,
Griggs Khodabakhsh-Sharifabad(1992)
HVAC
(20)

Huebscher(1948),,
,(25),(2)
(21)(20)(19)

,(3)
(3)(26)(Heyt Diaz1975)
(21)(20)(19)

/,,,,Idelchiketal
(1994):,,

C (i.e.,
4

,,)

,
()

(),

,, pj
o
,, 4
HVAC (), o
i (31)V

(29),

,
, ASHRAE(1994) 228
, ASHRAE

(4)/
,,
ED5-1()
() 5 , 1
SR3-1 ER3-1 R , 3
0 1 (
)CR3-6
((12) 8;(14) 9)
DUCTWORK
DARCY-WEISBACH
(19)(29)

/
5

,,

,(SHRAE
51)
,
,,,

(10)/,
1,
4 1 4
1 2
2

Farquhar(1973) Meyer(1973);
,,
(AMCA)( 1973Clarkeetal1978) 201(AMCA1990a)
,,(ASHRAE1994)

,,

(ASHRAE
51)(11) 100%,,
, 100%
(4) SR7-1
SR7-2() SR73( ASHRAE1994)

,
prerotation
;,
,
ED7-2()


counterrotating
,
,
12 (
)( )
unobstructed

ED7-1(
) airstream

/
,,
(FSEs),
,,()/
ductwork
()
(),
ductwork
,()
,
,(38), PX-Y
3
,(18)(
), AMCA 203(AMCA1990b)

,
;

,
(Osborne1966)
( 16)

,,,
,( )
7

NFPA 90A (1),,;(2)


;(3),,;(4);(5);(6)
;(7)-;(8);(9),

( )
(UL) UL UL
555 555S
1.5h 3h RATED(1)[
( 120C )](2) 250Pa 1000Pa (2kPa 3kPa
)
UL's ( )/

, 51 ASHRAEHandbook-pplications
NFPA

(),
HVAC 6.2.4.2 ASHRAE
90.1. ASHRAE 90.2.
ASHRAE 100

,,
,,( 29
2 ASHRAE -SYSTEMS )

( ),,
,
(AISI/SMACNA1972,ASHRAE/SMACNA/TIMA1985 riggs1995)
,,(42),

5 unwelded 10 15%

ps=,PaN= AISI/
ASHRAE/SMACNA/TIMA CL
(43), N (43) 0.65./
14 6
,,,
8

,
7
ductwork 8
1 2%
,, ductwork
,

9
9is

,ductwork
SMACNA'sHVAC ( )
(1985)
( ) ASHRAE 90.1.

SMACNA'sHVAC (1995)
UL 181and/181A
NAIMA(1997) SMACNA(1992) UL181,UL
181B (1996).Soldered
,,,
,
,/,,
,, 16 26
51 ASHRAEHandbook-Applications Klote Milke(1992)

10 HVAC ,
ASHRAE SYSTEMS ;
,,
()
AMCA 500-L(
1999)( ) fo
( )/1220mm
, 100mm/h,,
0.05L/s 15
3300L/s , 2m/s;
,2.5m/s 2400L/s ,
9

15(i.e.,)
15,
AMCA 1.5m2, 45%,
1.5m2 45%,
0.4m2,
, 0.5m/s

,,,, 46
ASHRAEHandbook-Applications

( )
,,,,
,
46 ASHRAEHandbook-Applications

,, 36 ASHRAE APPLICATIONS()
,(38)/
,
(18)[(38)]/
, AMCA 203(AMCA1990b)

HVAC ,,,
, T-
nonoptimizing , T-
Tsaletal (1988)
,/
,, T-
closecoupled

,
( 9) ductwork
,
,,
10

,resize

(7a) ps,2 ps,1(


)(44)(45) 1
2,( )2(45)
,(
/) 17, 6 19
( 9)
ductwork ,
,,,
(45) 17, 1,2,4,7,8,11,12,15, 16
,(45)( )
,,,
( 1960,CHUN-LUN1983)(46), R
,(46) R-
0.5 0.95 Tsal Behls(1988)
()
R-; R
T-
T-(Tsaletal1988)
(1957)( )
,(47),
energ,,
f=,e=,
Ec Ed nonoptimized
, HVAC ,
Sd= ductwork /m2()H=,mmW=
,mmL=,m
,
ductwork ,
ductwork ,( )
() ductwork 3.9 ( )
ductwork(Wendes1989) 30 1
ductwork, ductwork
(Tsal Adler1987):,
11


;,,
,
,
,25 50mm,
,
,,
,,

(ductwork )

,
preselected

T-:

(1.41) Tsaletal(1988),

(),
()

, Pt
, P

P ,

Tsaletal(1988) T-T- T-
, Tsaletal (1990),

T-

T-:

[(18) Tsaletal(1990)]
12

(),,,(
)

( )

HVAC
, T-

(DBA)(arajianetal
1992),/ HVAC
HVAC :1.,
space.
leakage.,,,/
2.( 32)
3./, conditioners.
ductworkshape.

4. section.
,, changes.(
)terminals. 6( 16)(
17) 3, 1(( )1), 2(
( )4) 24, 13()
10( 43 44) 11, 4[( )9(
)] 20, 9( 44)
, 42, 19(,)5.
method.;( 18 ASHRAE
SYSTEMS )
6. detail.recalculate
losses.Reselect
7.Resize
8., necessary.
Noise.
13

8
17, ductwork ,
( 10mm )
, ductwork (
), 1200mm (=0.09mm) 1.204
/m3 16 ,
,
ductwork;,
ductwork
: 17
( 9) 11 12
(19)(20)
(ASHRAE1994)
()
11 ( 43 44),( 9),
( 46)
18,
Pt 679Pa
,(18): 119Pa
29 ASHRAEHandbook-Applications ,
,,,, T-

, 5 29 ASHRAEHandbook-Applications
(,,)

ductwork (i.e.,
,),
, prebalanced
,(51), ductwork
,,
PH= ductwork (s),PaPl= ductwork
(s),Pa , O-DIAMETER (r/D), 1.5
r/D 1.5 ,
,,/30

, 29 ASHRAEHandbook-Applications ACGIH(1998)

14