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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

KHOA IN T - VIN THNG

TT NGHIP I HC
ti:

ng b trong h thng OFDM v OFDMA.


Xy dng chng trnh C truyn d liu gia hai
my tnh bng k thut OFDM

Sinh vin thc hin:

NGUYN NG QUANG
Lp T5 K50

Ging vin hng dn:

THS. NGUYN QUC KHNG

H Ni, 5-2010

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

--------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------

c lp - T do - Hnh phc

NHIM V N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin:..... S hiu sinh vin:
Kho:.Khoa: in t - Vin thng

Ngnh: .........

1. u n:
..
.....

2. Cc s liu v d liu ban u:


......
...
...

3. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:


...
...
...

4. Cc bn v, th ( ghi r cc loi v kch thc bn v ):


...
...
.

5. H tn ging vin hng dn: ..


6. Ngy giao nhim v n: .
7. Ngy hon thnh n: ..
Ngy
thng
nm
Ging vin hng dn

Ch nhim B mn

Sinh vin hon thnh v np n tt nghip ngy

thng

nm

Cn b phn bin

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

--------------------------------------------------BN NHN XT N TT NGHIP


H v tn sinh vin:....................................................................... S hiu sinh vin:...........................
Ngnh:.................................................................................................. Kho:....................................................
Ging vin hng dn:..............................................................................................................................................
Cn b phn bin:.......................................................................................................................................
1. Ni dung thit k tt nghip:
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2. Nhn xt ca cn b phn bin:


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Ngy

thng

nm

Cn b phn bin
( K, ghi r h v tn )

LI NI U
Ngy nay, nhu cu truyn thng khng dy ngy cng tng, c bit l h thng
thng tin di ng do tnh linh hot, mm do, di ng v tin li ca n. Cc h thng
thng tin v tuyn hin ti v tng lai ngy cng i hi c dung lng cao hn,
tin cy tt hn, s dng bng thng hiu qu hn, kh nng khng nhiu tt hn. H
thng thng tin truyn thng v cc phng thc ghp knh c khng cn kh nng
p ng c cc yu cu ca h thng tng lai. Ph tn l mt ti nguyn v cng
quan trng trong thng tin v tuyn. S dng trit ph tn l vn cp thit. Mt
gii php c a ra l vic s dng k thut ghp knh a sng mang trc giao
OFDM cng k thut a truy nhp cc sng mang trc giao OFDMA vo truyn thng
v tuyn, gp phn to nn h thng thng tin v tuyn hon thin hn. OFDM l gii
php cng ngh khc phc nhc im v v hiu qu s dng ph tn thp ca cc h
thng thng tin di ng trc y. OFDM s dng k thut to ra cc sng mang con
trc giao truyn d liu, gip cho vic s dng bng tn knh ti u.
Trong n ny, chng ta s tm hiu v k thut OFDM, k thut a truy nhp
OFDMA v ng dng cc k thut cho vic to ra h thng thng tin v tuyn c
nhiu u im hn so vi cc h thng c.
Vi kin thc c bn tip thu c trong qu trnh hc tp ti trng i hc Bch
Khoa H Ni cng vi s nh hng, gip ca thy gio Ths. Nguyn Quc
Khng, em chn ti: Nghin cu k thut iu ch a sng mang trc giao
OFDM v k thut a truy nhp OFDMA - vn ng b trong hai k thut
ny.
Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni
dy d, ch bo em trong qu trnh hc tp trng. c bit em xin chn thnh cm
n thy gio Ths. Nguyn Quc Khng tn tnh gip v ch bo trong qu
trnh thc hin n ny.
Vi thi gian v kin thc cn hn hp nn n khng trnh khi tn ti nhiu
thiu st. Em mong s nhn c s ch bo, gp ca thy c v cc bn. Mong rng
ti ny s c hon thin hn na.

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

TM TT N
Trong n ny, chng ta s tm hiu v h thng thng tin v tuyn ni chung
v h thng s dng k thut iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM, k thut a truy
nhp s dng a sng mang trc giao l OFDMA ni ring. Ta s tm hiu v m hnh
h thng OFDM, to v thu tn hiu OFDM, phn tch nh hng ca nhiu ln h
thng v tuyn, hiu qu ca vic s dng ph tn trong h thng OFDM, c bit l
vn ng b trong h thng Qua xy dng m hnh truyn OFDMA qua card
m thanh ca my tnh. C th n c chia lm 5 chng nh sau:
Chng 1: Nhng vn chung.
Chng 2: Nguyn l c bn k thut OFDM.
Chng 3: K thut ng b trong OFDM.
Chng 4: K thut ng b trong OFDMA.
Chng 5: Xy dng m hnh truyn OFDM qua card m thanh ca my
tnh v kt qu.
Abstract
In this thesis, we will consider about wireless information system and wireless
system which uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (OFDMA) in particular. We will
go into details for OFDM system model, creating and receiving OFDM signal for
transmit and receiver it, analyzing the effect of noise to wireless system, the efficiency
of

spectrum using in OFDM system, especially the synchronization problem in

OFDM, OFDMA Thereby, well build a model of OFDMA system with the
computer's sound card. Project is divided into 5 chapters as follows:
Chapter 1: The general knowledge.
Chapter 2: The basic characteristic of OFDM.
Chapter 3: The synchronization in OFDM.
Chapter 4: The synchronization in OFDMA.
Chapter 5: Building a model of transmission and receiving data through
the computers sound card with OFDM and results.

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

MC LC
LI NI U...............................................................................................................4
TM TT N........................................................................................................5
MC LC.....................................................................................................................6
Chng 1. Nhng vn chung..................................................................................14
1.1.Gii thiu v mng thng tin v tuyn ..............................................................15
1.2.Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn.........................................................................17
1.3.Cc hin tng in hnh trong lnh vc truyn thng v tuyn........................17
1.4.Suy hao ng truyn v tuyn..........................................................................20
1.4.1.Suy hao truyn dn .....................................................................................20
1.4.2.Hin tng tr a ng (Multipath fading)...............................................22
Chng 2. Nguyn l c bn k thut OFDM.............................................................26
2.1.Tng quan v OFDM.........................................................................................26
2.1.1.K thut iu ch n sng mang...............................................................26
2.1.2.Phng php iu ch a sng mang FDM.................................................27
2.1.3.Phng php iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM...............................28
2.2.S trc giao trong OFDM (ORTHOGONAL) ..................................................31
2.2.1.S trc giao trong min thi gian ca tn hiu OFDM................................32
2.2.2.S trc giao trong min tn s ca tn hiu OFDM.....................................34
2.3.M hnh h thng OFDM ..................................................................................38
2.4.Cc nhn t nh hng ln h thng v cch khc phc....................................40
2.4.1.Nhiu ISI v cch khc phc.......................................................................40
2.4.2.Nhiu ICI v cch khc phc......................................................................43
2.4.3.Ci thin hiu nng h thng trn c s s dng m Gray..........................44
2.4.4.Nng cao hiu qu s dng ph tn.............................................................46
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Chng 3. K thut ng b trong OFDM..................................................................51


3.1.M u ..............................................................................................................51
3.2.Tng quan v ng b trong OFDM..................................................................52
3.2.1.Nhn bit khung..........................................................................................53
3.2.2.c lng v b khong dch tn s FOE..................................................56
3.2.3.Bm ui li thng d ................................................................................58
3.3.ng b k t ....................................................................................................59
3.3.1.Li thi gian v thc hin ng b..............................................................60
3.4.ng b tn s...................................................................................................70
3.4.1.ng b tn s ly mu...............................................................................72
3.4.2.ng b tn s sng mang..........................................................................73
3.5.nh hng ca sai li ng b ti ch tiu cht lng h thng........................81
3.6.Kt lun..............................................................................................................83
Chng 4. K thut ng b trong OFDMA...............................................................84
4.1.M u ..............................................................................................................84
4.2.C bn v k thut OFDMA..............................................................................84
4.2.1.Cc giao thc OFDMA...............................................................................85
4.2.2.Cu trc k hiu OFDMA v phn knh con...............................................87
4.2.3.c im.....................................................................................................90
4.2.4.Phng php ghp (Duplexing)..................................................................93
4.3.Phn tch khung Downlink v phng thc ng b OFDMA..........................94
Chng 5. Xy dng m hnh truyn OFDM qua card m thanh ca my tnh v kt
qu...............................................................................................................................99
5.1.M u...............................................................................................................99
Xy dng m hnh..................................................................................................100
5.2.Chng trnh truyn OFDM v OFDMA.........................................................101
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

5.3.Hng pht trin h thng................................................................................106


Kt qu t c....................................................................................................109
5.4.Kt lun............................................................................................................110
KT LUN CHUNG................................................................................................111
TI LIU THAM KHO..........................................................................................112

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

DANH SCH HNH V


DANH SCH HNH V...............................................................................................9
Hnh 1.1 M hnh h thng thng tin...........................................................................15
Hnh 1.2 S khi vng kha pha PLL.....................................................................19
....................................................................................................................................21
Hnh 1.2 Hin tng a ng trong thng tin v tuyn.............................................22
Hnh 1.3 p ng ca knh fading la chn tn s......................................................25
Hnh 1.4 nh hng ca knh fading la chn tn s.................................................26
Hnh 2.1 Ph tn hiu OFDM v FDM.........................................................................28
Hnh 2.3 S trc giao tn hiu trong min tn s..........................................................37
Hnh 2.4 M hnh h thng OFDM..............................................................................39
Hnh 2.5 Hin tng a ng gy nn nhiu ISI........................................................41
Hinh 2.6 Chn khong bo v cho mi k hiu OFDM................................................42
Hnh 2.7 S chm sao 16-QAM..............................................................................45
Hnh 2.9 c tuyn b lc dng ca s Kaiser =3.4..................................................50
Hnh 3.2 Nhn bit khung truyn.................................................................................54
Hnh 3.3 Tng quan theo chui PN............................................................................55
Hnh 3.4 Cu trc khung OFDM thc hin ng b....................................................60
Hnh 3.5 c im lung d liu ................................................................................61
Hnh 3.6 Tn hiu nhn tng quan.............................................................................63
Hnh 3.7 Hnh dng d liu thc t..............................................................................65
Hnh 3.8 Cu trc khung OFDM s dng khung ng b FSC...................................66
Hnh 3.9 ng b khung k t dng FSC.....................................................................68
Hnh 3.10 Quan h gia ngng ti u Th1 v SNR...................................................69
Hnh 3.11 Sai lch tn s tn hiu gy mt ng b.....................................................71
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.12 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy ra s mt ng b...................................72


Hnh 3.13 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy nn s mt ng b................................74
Hnh 3.14 S khi ng b sng mang s dng b dao ng VCO........................76
Hnh 3.15 V tr tin t lp CP.....................................................................................78
Hnh 3.16 Khung OFDM.............................................................................................80
Hnh 4.1 OFDM...........................................................................................................85
Hnh 4.2 OFDMA........................................................................................................85
Hnh 4.3 Cu trc sng mang con OFDMA.................................................................87
Hnh 4.4 Knh con phn tp tn s DL........................................................................88
Hinh 4.5 mo hinh AMC...............................................................................................89
Hnh 4.6 Cu trc tile cho UL PUSC...........................................................................89
Hnh 4.7 Th d v OFDMA........................................................................................90
Hnh 4.8 ODFM v OFDMA.......................................................................................91
Hnh 4.9 M t v FDD v TDD..................................................................................93
Hnh 5.1 M hnh truyn dn OFDM.........................................................................100
Hnh 5.2 Giao din chng trnh pha truyn.............................................................101
Hnh 5.3 Giao din chng trnh pha nhn...............................................................103
Hnh 5.4 Giao din pha truyn khi chy tht.............................................................104
Hnh 5.5 Giao din chng trnh pha nhn khi chy tht..........................................105
Hnh 5.6 iu ch thch nghi AOFDM......................................................................107
Hnh 5.7 nh file text truyn th nghim..................................................................109
Hnh 5.8 nh file text thu khi thc hin.....................................................................110

DANH SCH BNG


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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

DANH SCH BNG..................................................................................................10


Bng 1.1 Gi tr tri tr ca mt s mi trng tiu biu........................................24
Bng 2.1. Bng chuyn i m Gray...........................................................................44
Bng 3.1 Suy hao SNR theo li ng b......................................................................81
Bng 5.1 Cc thng s ca m hnh...........................................................................101

CC T VIT TT
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

AOFDM

A
Adaptive Orthogonal Frequency

DL
DAB
DPLL
DSP
DVB-T

Division Multiplexing
Adaptive Modulation and Codding
Additive White Gaussian Noise
Analog/Digital
B
Bit Error Ratio
Block Error Ratio
Base Transceiver Station
C
Code Division Multiple Access
Cyclic Prefix
D
Downlink
Digital Audio Broadcasting
Digital Phase Losked Loop
Digital Signaling Process
Digital Video Broadcasting

D/A

Terrestrial
Digital/Analog

AMC
AWGN
A/D
BER
BLER
BTS
CDMA
CP

Ghp knh a sng mang trc


giao thch nghi
M ha v iu ch thch ng
Nhiu trng (nhiu cng)
Chuyn i Tng t/S
T l bit li
T l li theo khi
Trm thu pht gc
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
Tin t lp
ng xung
Pht thanh s
Vng kha pha s
B x l tn hiu s
Truyn hnh s mt t
B chyn i S/Tng t

F
FCH
FDD
FDM
FFT

Khung tiu iu khin


Song cng phn chia theo tn s
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
Chuyn i Furier nhanh

IEEE

Frame control header


Frequency Division Deplex
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Fast Fourier Transform
I
Institute of Electrical and Electronic

ISI
ICI
IQ

Engineers
Inter-Symbol Interface
Inter-Channel Interface
Inphase-Quaderature

in t
Nhiu lin k t
Nhiu lin knh

MAI
MIMO

M
Multiple Access Interference
Multiple Input Multiple Output

Nhiu a truy nhp


H thng nhiu u vo nhiu

Minimum Mean Square Error

u ra
B lc trung bnh bnh phng ti

MMSE

Hc vin ca cc k s in v

thiu
OFDM

O
Orthoganal Frequency Division

Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s

OFDMA

Multiplexing
Orthoganal Frequency Division

trc giao
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn

Multiple Access

s trc giao
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

P
PC
PLL
QAM
RF
SNIR
SNR
TDD

Personal Computer
Phase Losked Loop

My tnh c nhn
Vng kha pha

Q
Quaderate Amplitude Modulation
R
Radio Frequency
S
Signal Noise Interference Ratio
Signal Noise Ratio
T
Time Division Duplex

iu ch bin vung gc
Tn s v tuyn
T l tn hiu trn tp m + nhiu
T l tn hiu trn tp m
Song cng phn chia theo thi
gian
Ghp knh phn chia theo thi

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

WiMax

W
Worldwide Interoperability for

Kh nng khai thc lin mng

Microwave Access

trn ton cu i vi truy cp vi

gian

ba
Z
ZF

Zero Forcing

B lc p khng

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Chng 1. Nhng vn chung

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

1.1.

Gii thiu v mng thng tin v tuyn

(M hnh knh)

Ngun tin

M ha ngun

M ha knh

iu ch

(source coding)

(channel coding)

(modulation)

Knh v tuyn
(channel)

Tn hiu

Gii m ngun

Gii m knh

ch

(source

(Channel

(Destination)

decoding)

Decoding)

Gii iu ch
(Demodulation)

Hnh 1.1 M hnh h thng thng tin

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 1.1 th hin m hnh n gin ca mt h thng thng tin v tuyn. Ngun
tin trc ht c m ha ngun gim cc thng tin d tha, sau c m ha
knh chng li do knh truyn gy ra. Tn hiu sau khi qua m knh c iu ch
c th truyn i c xa. Cc mc iu ch phi ph hp vi iu kin ca knh
truyn. Sau khi tn hiu c pht i my pht, tn hiu thu c my thu s tri
qua cc bc ngc li so vi bn pht thu c tn hiu gc. Cht lng tn hiu
thu ph thuc vo cht lng knh truyn, cc phng php iu ch v m ha khc
nhau.
Chng ta s tm hiu nhng khi nim c bn trong thng tin v tuyn.
Knh truyn
Knh truyn l mi trng truyn dn cho php truyn lan sng v tuyn. Mi
trng truyn dn c th l trong nh, ngoi tri hoc phn x trn cc tng in ly.
Ty thuc vo mi trng truyn dn m knh truyn c cc tnh cht khc nhau.
Truyn dn bng tn c s v truyn dn bng thng
Truyn dn v tuyn thng thng c thc hin bng thng, ngha l tn
hiu phi c iu ch bng mt sng mang cao tn trc khi pht i.
Truyn dn bng tn c s l vic truyn dn khng qua sng mang. Tn hiu
khng qua sng mang khng c kh nng truyn c i xa do suy hao ln.
Sng mang
Sng mang l sng c tn s cao, c nhn vi tn hiu c ch trc khi gi ra
anten pht. Sng mang bn thn n khng mang tn hiu c ch. Tuy nhin, nh sng
mang c tn s cao nn khi truyn trong mi trng v tuyn th tn hiu c ch c
iu ch vo s t b suy hao v c th truyn c i xa. bn thu c th khi
phc li tn hiu c ch bng vic tch ra t sng mang . Ty thuc vo mi trng
truyn dn v bng tn cho php m ngi ta la chn gi tr tn s sng mang. Thng
thng th sng mang l sng trung tm ca gii bng tn cho php ca h thng thng
tin.
Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn
Ti nguyn v tuyn l b rng ph cho php truyn tin. B rng ph cho
php l c gii hn. Trong khi , bt k h thng truyn dn no u cn c mt cht
lng ti thiu v nhu cu v tc ngy cng cao p ng cc dch v phc tp.
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vn qun l ti nguyn v tuyn l lm sao vi mt di bng tn c nh cho trc


h thng hot ng vi mt cht lng tt nht v vi tc truyn d liu cao nht.
Vi cht lng cng cao v tc truyn tin tc cao, ngi ta ni h thng c hiu
sut s dng ph cao. Nhim v ca qun l ti nguyn v tuyn cn l phn chia b
rng ph sn c cho cc h thng thng tin khc nhau sao cho cc h thng c hiu
sut s dng ph cao nht. i vi cc h thng nhiu ngi s dng th qun l ti
nguyn v tuyn l s phn chia b rng bng tn v iu khin a truy nhp sao cho
h thng c ti u v cht lng v ph tn hiu.
1.2.

Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn


Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn c th phn loi theo s cung cp dch v: h

thng pht thanh v truyn hnh. Dch v ca 2 h thng l thoi v hnh nh.
C th phn loi h thng thng tin v tuyn theo phng thc truyn dn nh
h thng truyn song cng (di ng) hay bn song cng (b m).
C th phn loi theo mi trng truyn dn nh thng tin viba (yu cu truyn
dn trong tm nhn thng) v thng tin mng my tnh khng dy (phn x a ng
v khong cch ngn).
1.3.

Cc hin tng in hnh trong lnh vc truyn thng v tuyn

Hiu ng Doppler
Hiu ng Doppler l mt hiu ng vt l, trong tn s v bc sng ca cc
sng m, sng in t hay cc sng ni chung b thay i khi m ngun pht sng
chuyn ng tng i vi ngi quan st.
i vi sng chuyn ng trong mt mi trng, nh sng m, ngun sng v
ngi quan st u c th chuyn ng tng i so vi mi trng. Hiu ng
Doppler lc l s tng hp ca hai hiu ng ring r gy ra bi hai chuyn ng
ny.
C th, nu ngun di ng trong mi trng pht ra sng vi tn s ti ngun l
f0, mt ngi quan st ng yn trong mi trng s nhn c tn s f:
1
f = f0

1+ v / c

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vi c tc lan truyn ca sng trong mi trng, v l thnh phn vn tc


chuyn ng ca ngun so vi mi trng theo phng ch n ngi quan st (m
nu i v pha ngi quan st, dng nu ngc li).
Tng t, khi ngun ng im cn ngi quan st chuyn ng:
v
f = f 0 1 +
c

Tc, khi ngun sng v my thu chuyn ng vi nhau, tn s thu c s khc


tn s pht ra.
C bn v nhiu trng AWGN
Nhiu trng AWGN (Additive white Gaussian noise) l mt tn hiu ngu nhin
c mt phn b cng sut phng ngha l tn hiu nhiu c cng sut bng nhau
trong ton khong bng thng v c phn b Gauss. Tn hiu ny c tn l nhiu trng
v n c tnh cht tng t vi nh sng trng. Tc l nhiu ny c mc nh hng
nh nhau i vi mi tn s.
i vi mi h thng thng tin v tuyn th u phi chu nh hng ca nhiu
trng.
C bn v vng kha pha s PLL
Vng kha pha PLL l mt h thng vng kn hi tip, trong tn hiu hi tip
dng kha tn s v pha ca tn hiu ra theo tn s v pha tn hiu vo.Tn hiu vo
c th c dng sin tng t hoc dng s.
K thut PLL c s dng rng ri trong cc mch lc, tng hp tn s, iu
ch v gii iu ch, iu khin t ng
Nguyn tc hot ng: hot ng theo nguyn tc vng iu khin m i lng
vo v i lng ra l tn s v chng so snh c vi nhau v pha. Vng iu khin
pha c nhim v pht hin v iu chnh nhng sai s nh v tn s gia tn hiu vo
v tn hiu ra. Ngha l PLL lm cho tn s f0 ca tn hiu ra VCO bm theo tn s fo
ca tn hiu vo.

18
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

vi

Tch sng pha

Lc thng

Khuch i

thp

mt chiu

VCO

vdc

f0
Hnh 1.2 S khi vng kha pha PLL

Khi khng c tn hiu vi ng vo, in p ng ra b khuch i v dc(t)=0, b


dao ng VCO hot ng tn s t nhin fN. Khi c in p vo, cc khi s hot
ng theo chc nng v cho php ta iu khin tn s VCO bm theo tn s tn hiu
vo. n khi tn s fVCO bng vi tn s tn hiu vo fi, ta ni b VCO bt kp tn
hiu vo. Lc ny s sai lch gia 2 tn hiu ch l s sai lch v pha, b tch sng pha
s tip tc so snh pha gia 2 tn hiu iu khin cho VCO hot ng sao cho s
lch pha gia chng t n gi tr nh nht.
C bn v chui gi ngu nhin Pseudo Noise PN
C nhiu loi chui PN, c to ra t cc thanh ghi dch c hi tip. Loi PN
hay c s dng c th l chui c di (chu k chui) cc i hay cn gi l m19
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

sequence (m-dy hay chui m). Chui m c to ra bng mt b ghi dch hi tip c
cu hnh Fibonacci hay Galois (hai cu hnh ny v mt ton hc th tng ng
nhau), c hnh thnh theo mt a thc sinh quy nh cc u ra cc khu nh ca
thanh ghi tham gia hay khng vo mch hi tip. a thc sinh l mt a thc nguyn
thy (primitive polynomial), khi chui chip li ra s l mt chui PN c chu k lp
li ln nht, l N = 2^m - 1, trong m l s khu nh ca thanh ghi.
Mt c im c bn ca chui m l c hm t tng quan dng thumb-nail,
mt chu k ca n c hai phn chnh:
a) Tr ca hm t tng quan chun ha gim tuyn tnh t 1 xung cn -1/N
khi bin tau (tau tr truyn dn trn cc tuyn) tng t 0 ti Tc (Tc l rng mt
chip);
b) Tr ca hm t tng quan l -1/N (khng i) khi bin tau tng t Tc ti (N1).Tc.
Nu N rt ln (nh s dng thanh ghi dch c m ln, trong cc h thng CDMA
nh IS-95 th m = 42 vi chui m di dng phn bit ngi s dng v bng 15
i vi m ngn dng phn bit trm BS) th trong on sau, hm t tng quan c
th xem l bng 0.
1.4.

Suy hao ng truyn v tuyn


Chng ta s tm hiu nhng vn chnh ca truyn sng v tuyn v nhng

kh khn m chng gy ra trong h thng truyn dn thng tin s. Cc tn hiu khi


truyn qua knh v tuyn di ng s b phn x, khc x, nhiu x, tn x v do
gy ra hin tng a ng. Nhng nh hng ca truyn sng v tuyn nh suy hao
ng truyn, fading phng, fading chn lc tn s, hiu ng Doppler, tri tr a
ng, u lm gii hn hiu qu ca truyn thng v tuyn.
1.4.1. Suy hao truyn dn
Suy hao truyn dn trung bnh xy ra do cc hin tng nh: s m rng v
mi hng ca tn hiu, s hp thu tn hiu bi nc, l cy v do phn x t mt
t. Suy hao truyn dn trung bnh ph thuc vo khong cch v bin i rt chm
ngay c i vi cc thu bao di chuyn vi tc cao. Ti anten pht, cc sng v
tuyn s c truyn i theo mi hng (ngha l sng c m rng theo hnh cu).
20
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Ngay c khi chng ta dng anten nh hng truyn tn hiu, sng cng c m
rng di dng hnh cu nhng mt nng lng khi s c tp trung vo mt
vng no do ta thit k. V th, mt cng sut ca sng gim t l vi din tch
mt cu. Hay ni cch khc l cng sng gim t l vi bnh phng khong cch.
Phng trnh tnh cng sut thu c sau khi truyn qua mt khong cch R

PR = PT GT GR

4 R

_ PR : Cng sut tn hiu thu c (W)


_ PT : Cng sut pht (W)
_ GR : li anten thu (anten ng hng)
_ GT : li anten pht
_ : bc sng ca sng mang
_ R: bn knh truyn sng v tuyn
Gi Lpt l h s suy hao do vic truyn dn trong khng gian t do:
Lpt (db) = PT (db) PR (db) = 10 lg(G T ) 10 lg(G R) + 20 lg( f )+ 20 lg( R ) 47, 6(db)

Ni chung chng ta c th xy dng c mt m hnh kh chnh xc cho cc


tuyn thng tin v tinh v cc tuyn lin lc trc tip (khng vt cn ) nh cc tuyn
lin lc vi ba im ni im trong phm vi ngn. Tuy nhin do hu ht cc tuyn thng
tin trn mt t nh thng tin di ng, mng LAN khng dy, mi trng truyn dn
phc tp hn nhiu do vic to ra cc m hnh cng kh khn hn. V d i vi
nhng knh truyn dn v tuyn di ng UHF, khi iu kin v khng gian t do
khng c tho mn, chng ta c cng thc suy hao ng truyn nh sau:
Lpt (db) = 10 lg(GT ) 10 lg(G R ) 20 lg(h BS) 20 lg(h MS) 40 lg( R )

21
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vi _ hBS , _ hMS << R l cao anten trm gc BS (Base Station) v anten ca trm di
ng MS (Mobile Station).
1.4.2. Hin tng tr a ng (Multipath fading)
ng truyn v tuyn t pha pht n pha thu lun c chng ngi vt nn
s gy ra hiu ng fading. Khi , tn hiu s n ni thu t nhiu ng khc nhau v
c tri tr khc nhau v li cng khc nhau, mi ng l bn sao ca tn hiu
gc.
C 3 trng hp c th xy ra trn ng truyn v tuyn: hin tng phn x,
tn x v nhiu x.

Tn x
LOS

Phn x
Nhiu x
Pht
Thu

Hnh 1.2 Hin tng a ng trong thng tin v tuyn


Phn x: khi sng p vo cc b mt bng phng.
Tn x: khi sng p vo vt c b mt khng bng phng v cc vt ny c
chiu di so snh c vi chiu di bc sng.
Nhiu x: khi sng chm ti cc vt th c kch thc ln hn nhiu chiu di
bc sng.

22
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Khi sng va chm vo cc vt cn s to ra v s bn sao tn hiu, mt s bn


sao ny s ti my thu. Do cc bn sao phn x, tn x, nhiu x trn cc vt khc
nhau v theo cc ng di ngn khc nhau nn:
-

Thi im cc bn sao ny ti my thu s khc nhau, tc l tr pha gia


cc phn ny khc nhau.

Cc bn sao ny s c cng sut ti my thu khc nhau do suy hao khc


nhau, hay bin ca cc thnh phn l khc nhau.

Tn hiu ti my thu l tng ca tt c cc bn sao ny, ty thuc vo bin v


pha ca cc thnh phn m ta s thu c
-

Tn hiu thu c tng cng khi cc bn sao ng pha. Tng cng y


khng phi l tn hiu mnh v tt hn m l tn hiu b mo dng nhiu
hn.

Tn hiu thu b trit tiu hay suy gim so vi tn hiu gc khi cc thnh phn
ngc pha

Fading nhanh v fading chm


Ta xem xt 2 loi fading xem xt v mt thi gian
-

Fading nhanh: gy ra do s tn x a ng vng xung quanh thit b thu.


Tn hiu i trn nhng khong cch khc nhau ca mi ng truyn s c
thi gian truyn khc nhau. Cng ph thuc vo suy hao ca ng .
i vi tn hiu tn s c nh, tr ng truyn s gy nn hin tng quay
pha tn hiu. Mi tn hiu s b quay pha khc nhau. Nhng tn hiu ny
c cng li b thu gy nn nhiu tng cng hay suy gim ty theo pha
ca cc tn hiu l cng pha hay ngc pha.

Fading chm: gy ra do s cn tr ca cc ta nh, a hnh t nhin. S


thay i suy hao ng truyn xut hin khi khong cch ln (gp 10-100
ln bc sng) v ph thuc kch thc vt cn gy nn. S thay i ny
xy ra chm nn c gi l fading chm.

Fading la chn tn s v Fading phng


y l 2 loi fading xem xt v mt tn s. Bc sng t l nghch vi tn s v
v th i vi ng truyn c nh th pha s thay i theo tn s. Khong cch

23
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

truyn ca mi thnh phn a ng l khc nhau nn s thay i pha cng s


khc nhau.
nh ngha: Bng thng Coherent BC l rng bng thng f khi h s ng
bao kt hp gia 2 tn hiu bng mt na gi tr ln nht ca n.
( Bc , ) =

1
= 0.5
1 + (2 Bc ) 2. 2

Trong : : tri tr ty theo mi trng truyn v tuyn.


Bng thng Coherent:
Bc =

1
1

2 6

Mt s gi tr ph bin t tri tr ca knh trong cc mi trng khc nhau.


Bng 1.1 Gi tr tri tr ca mt s mi trng tiu biu.
Mi trng
Bn trong cc ta nh
Ngoi tri
Ngoi
Thnh th

tri tr
< 0.1s
< 0.2s
0.5s
3 s

i vi mi mi trng c tri tr khc nhau ta s tnh c bng thng


Coherent tng ng.
-

Fading la chn tn s: nu bng thng ca tn hiu iu ch ln hn


nhiu so vi bng thng Coherent ca knh, cc thnh phn tn s khc
nhau ca tn hiu c cc c tnh fading khc nhau. Cc knh la chn tn
s c gi l knh phn tn thi gian. Bn cnh bin th hnh dng ca
xung cng b thay i. Tc tn hiu truyn qua knh ny s b mo nghim
trng.

Fading phng: rng bng thng ca tn hiu iu ch nh hn bng


thng Coherent ca knh, tt c cc thnh phn tn s ca tn hiu u c
c tnh fading nh nhau. Vi fading phng th ch c bin ca xung thay
24

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

i. Mi knh truyn v tuyn u khng th c p ng bng phng trong


c di tn s v tuyn. Tuy nhin, knh truyn c th c xem l bng
phng trong mt khong nh tn s no .
Hnh 1.3 l mt v d v p ng ca knh la chn tn s. Qua ta thy cc
tn s khc nhau th tn hiu s chu nh hng c v bin v pha khc nhau v v
th s kh c th khi phc d liu mt cch chnh xc nh ban u.
Vn fading la chn tn s s l vn gy kh khn trong vic d on
ng truyn khi truyn thng v tuyn. N gy ra mo tuyn tnh. Tuy nhin, vi k
thut OFDM, bng vic chia nh tn hiu thnh nhiu sng mang con truyn, mi
sng mang con ch chim mt di tn hp tha mn khng cn b fading chn
lc tn s m ch b fading phng nn gii quyt c vn ny mt cch d dng.

Hnh 1.3 p ng ca knh fading la chn tn s


Hnh 1.4 cho ta thy r hn nh hng ca fading la chn tn s n tn hiu.

25
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 1.4 nh hng ca knh fading la chn tn s

Chng 2. Nguyn l c bn k thut OFDM


2.1.

Tng quan v OFDM


Trong thp nin va qua k thut Othorgonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) c pht trin thnh h thng thng tin thng dng, ng dng rng ri
trong cc h thng thng tin tc cao. OFDM c xem l k thut tng lai ca cc
h thng thng tin v tuyn.
2.1.1. K thut iu ch n sng mang
Trong phng php iu ch n sng mang, dng tn hiu c truyn i trn
ton b bng tn B. Ton h thng c iu ch trn 1 sng mang duy nht f0. Tn s
ly mu ca tn hiu s bng rng bng tn B v mi mu tn hiu c di l:
TSC ( s) = 1 / B( Hz)

Trong thng tin v tuyn bng rng, knh v tuyn thng l knh ph thuc
tn s. Tn s ly mu rt ln nn chu k ly mu ( di 1 mu tn hiu) s rt b.
Nhc im ca phng php:
26
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

nh hng ca nhiu lin tn hiu ISI gy ra bi hiu ng phn tp a


ng i vi tn hiu thu l rt ln do di ca mu tn hiu nh nn
nhiu gy lin tn hiu nhiu mu tn hiu.

nh hng s ph thuc ca knh theo tn s i vi cht lng h thng


rt ln.

B cn bng knh v lc nhiu my thu phc tp hn rt nhiu so vi


trng hp iu ch a sng mang.

Hin nay, iu ch a sng mang ch yu c dng trong h thng thng tin


bng hp, GSM
2.1.2. Phng php iu ch a sng mang FDM
Trong phng php iu ch a sng mang (ghp knh phn chia theo tn s),
ton b bng tn B ca h thng c chia lm nhiu bng con vi cc sng mang ph
cho mi bng con l khc nhau.
H thng chia thnh N knh ph, mi knh c b rng:
Bn = B / N

B: b rng c bng tn h thng (Hz).


Bn: b rng mi knh ph (Hz).
N: s knh ph.
di 1 mu tn hiu:
TMC = 1/ Bn = N / B.

di 1 mu tn hiu trong iu ch FDM di gp N ln di mu trong iu


ch n sng mang. Chnh v th, nhiu lin tn hiu ISI gy ra bi tr truyn dn ch
nh hng n 1 s t mu tn hiu.
Khc phc c 1 s hn ch ca phng php iu ch n sng mang:
-

nh hng ca nhiu ISI n cht lng h thng gim ng k.

27
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

nh hng ca s ph thuc knh theo tn s gim ng k.

phc tp ca b cn bng knh v lc nhiu my thu cng gim.

Nhng nhc im vn cn:


-

di 1 mu tn hiu tng ln, do h thng nhy cm vi hiu ng ph


thuc thi gian ca knh.

Gim hiu qu s dng ph so vi iu ch n sng mang.

2.1.3. Phng php iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM


Phng php iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM ra i khc phc kh
nng s dng ph, k tha nhng u im ca phng php iu ch a sng mang
FDM.
OFDM l phng php iu ch a sng mang c bit, trong mi sng
mang ph c chn sao cho n trc giao vi cc sng mang ph cn li. iu ny
cho php t cc sng mang ph chng ln ln nhau dn n tng hiu qu s dng
ph.
OFDM c s dng nhiu trong thng tin v tuyn.
Hnh 2.1 cho ta thy r u im trong vic s dng ti nguyn v tuyn
chnh l tn s. Cc sng mang con trong OFDM th chng ln ln nhau nn di tn
m k thut OFDM s t hn nhiu so vi cc k thut trc l n sng mang v a
sng mang khng trc giao FDM.

Hnh 2.1 Ph tn hiu OFDM v FDM


28
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Qua bn cht ca k thut OFDM ta c th thy nhng u im v khuyt im


ca k thut ny:
u im ca OFDM
-

OFDM tng hiu sut s dng ph tn s bng cch cho php chng ln
nhng sng mang con ln nhau m pha thu vn c th khi phc d liu.
Ph hp thit k h thng bng rng.

H thng OFDM c th loi b hon ton nhiu symbol ISI nu di chui


bo v ln hn tr truyn dn ln nht ca knh.

OFDM cho php thng tin tc cao bng cch chia knh truyn fading

chon lc tn s thnh cc knh truyn con bng hp ch chu fading phng. Cc


h thng OFDM chu ng fading la chn tn s tt hn nhng h thng sng
mang n.
-

Nh vic s dng tn s sng mang trc giao nn hin tng nhiu lin

sng mang ICI c th loi b.


-

IFFT v FFT gip gim thiu s b dao ng cng nh gim s b iu

ch v gii iu ch gip h thng gim phc tp v chi ph thc hin, hn


na tn hiu c iu ch v gii iu ch n gin.
-

K thut cn bng knh tr nn n gin hn k thut cn bng knh

thch ng c s dng trong nhng h thng n sng mang.


Ngoi nhng u im th k thut OFDM cng c nhng hn ch.
Nhc im:
-

Symbol OFDM b nhiu bin vi mt khong ng ln. ng bao bin


ca tn hiu pht khng bng phng gy ra mo phi tuyn cc b
khuch i cng sut c pha pht v pha thu. Nu tn hiu OFDM c t
s tn hiu trn nng lng trung bnh PARR cao th s gy nn nhiu xuyn
iu ch. iu ny s lm tng phc tp ca cc b bin i t analog
sang digital v t digital sang analog. Vic rt ngn tn hiu cng s lm
xut hin c mo nhiu trong bng ln bc x ngoi bng.

S dng chui bo v trnh nhiu ISI nhng li lm gim hiu sut s


dng ph do mang thng tin khng c ch.
29

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

OFDM rt nhy cm vi hiu ng Doppler, hiu ng dch thi gian do sai s


ng b. OFDM nhy vi tn s offset v s trt ca sng mang hn cc
h thng n sng mang. Tn s offset ca cc sng mang gy nhiu cho
cc sng mang con trc giao v gy nn nhiu lin knh lm gim hot ng
ca cc b gii iu ch mt cch trm trng. V vy, ng b tn s l mt
trong nhng nhim v thit yu phi t trong b thu OFDM.

Nhng nm 1980, k thut OFDM c nghin cu nhm ng dng trong


modem tc cao v trong tryn thng di ng.
Nhng nm 1990 OFDM c ng dng trong truyn dn thng tin bng rng
nh HDSL, ADSL, VHDSL sau OFDM c ng dng rng ri trong pht thanh
s DAB v truyn hnh s DVB
Hin nay, k thut OFDM c c lm phng php iu ch s dng trong
mng thng tin thnh th bng rng Wimax theo tiu chun IEEE 802.16a v h thng
thng tin di ng th t 4G. Trong 4G, k thut OFDM s c kt hp vi k thut
a anten thu pht MIMO nhm nng cao dng lng knh thng tin v tuyn, hay kt
hp vi CDMA nhm phc v dch v a truy nhp.
WiMax s dng cng ngh OFDM giao din v tuyn truyn ti d liu v
cho php cc thu bao truy nhp knh. Trong mi trng truyn dn a ng, nhiu
xuyn k t ISI gy bi tn hiu phn x, nhiu x v tn x l iu khng trnh
khi.Cc k thut s dng tri ph trc tip DS-CDMA trong chun 802.11b rt d b
nh hng bi nhiu a ng. Cn OFDM s dng k thut truyn song song nhiu
bng tn con nn ko di thi gian truyn mt k t ln nhiu ln. Bn cnh , OFDM
cn chn thm mt khong bo v GI (Guard Interval) ln hn thi gian tr ti a ca
knh truyn gia 2 k t nn nhiu ISI c th cloi b hon ton.
OFDM mm do hn CDMA khi gii quyt vn nhiu la chn tn s qua
vic s dng tn hiu dn ng pilot c truyn i cng vi dng tn hiu thng tin.

30
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Frequency

Time
Pilot symbol
Data symbol

Df
Dt
Hnh 2.2 M hnh OFDM khi chn pilot
Hnh 2.2 m t m hnh ca d liu OFDM sau khi c chn pilot c v mt
tn s v thi gian. D liu pilot gip ta c lng v cn bng knh truyn. Bn cnh
n cng gip sa li sai pha tn hiu v c th s dng thc hin ng b gia
bn pht v bn thu.
D_f v D_t l nhng khong cch tng ng v mt tn s v thi gian chn
pilot. Nhng gi tr ny phi chn thch hp sao cho D_f phi nh hn sai lch v
tn s cc i ca s nh hng ca knh truyn ln tn hiu. V D_t phi nh hn
sai lch v mt thi gian m knh nh hng.
2.2.

S trc giao trong OFDM (ORTHOGONAL)


ORTHOGONAL (S trc giao) ch ra rng c mt mi quan h ton hc

chnh xc gia cc tn s ca cc sng mang trong h thng OFDM. Trong h thng


FDM thng thng, nhiu sng mang c cch nhau mt khong ph hp tn hiu
thu c th nhn li bng cch s dng cc b lc v cc b gii iu ch thng thng.
Trong cc my nh vy, cc khong bo v cn c tnh ton t trc cc sng

31
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

mang khc nhau v vic a vo cc khong bo v ny lm gim hiu qu s dng


ph ca h thng.
Tuy nhin c th sp xp, to ra cc sng mang trong OFDM sao cho cc di
bin ca chng che ph ln nhau m cc tn hiu vn c th thu c chnh xc m
khng c s can nhiu gia cc sng mang. Mun nh vy cc sng mang phi trc
giao v mt ton hc. Nu mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con s to ra s
chng lp hn n v lm cho u thu kh khi phc li hon ton d liu thng tin
ban u. My thu OFDM c th c coi l gm nhiu b gii iu ch, mi b s
thc hin chuyn tn hiu mi sng mang xung bng gc v thc hin tch phn
trn mt chu k tn hiu nhm khi phc li d liu ban u.
2.2.1. S trc giao trong min thi gian ca tn hiu OFDM
Xt mt tp cc sng mang con f n ( t ) (n = 0,1,2, N-1)
Cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau khi tha mn
t2

t1

Trong ,

nm
n=m

0,
f n (t ). f m* (t ) dt =
k ,
fn : sng mang ph th n

fm* : lin hip phc sng mang ph th m


k l hng s khng ph thuc vo T, n hoc m.
Trong OFDM, tp cc sng mang con c truyn c th vit l

f n (t ) = exp( j 2 f nt )
f n = f 0 + f = f0 + n

Trong ,

f : tn s offset ban u.

Ta c th chng minh tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang con OFDM. Xt biu
thc (2.4)
32
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

t2

f (t ). f
n

t1

*
m

t2

(t ) dt = exp[j 2 (n m)t / T ]dt


t1

exp[j 2 (n m)t2 / T ]-exp[j 2 (n m)t1 / T ]


j 2 (n m)t / T

exp[j 2 (n m )t2 / T ]{ 1-exp[j 2 (n m )(t1 t 2 ) / T ]}


j 2 ( n m)t / T

= 0 vi n m.
Khi n = m th tch phn trn bng T/2 khng ph thuc vo n,m.
Nu cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau th biu thc (2.4) phi xy ra nn
biu thc lun ng.
Nu tt c cc sng mang khng phi l sng mang mong mun b trn xung
cc tn s bng mt s nguyn ln 1/T (T l chu k tn hiu), th chng s c tch phn
bng 0 trn mt chu k tn hiu. Nh vy cc sng mang s l c lp tuyn tnh hay
trc giao vi nhau nu cc sng mang c gin cch l 1/T.
Trong thc t khi thit k h thng, ta nhn thy php bin i Furier nhanh
IFFT chnh l 1 bin php chia tn hiu thnh nhng sng mang con c tnh trc
giao vi cc sng mang con cn li.
Cng thc tnh IFFT vi chui s chiu di N:

xn =

n
j 2 k
1 N 1
N
X
.
e
k
N n =0

33
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Do , IFFT s c s dng trong OFDM bn h thng pha pht. Bn h


thng pha thu s phi thc thc hin vic gii m ngc li bng cch s dng bin
i FFT.
2.2.2. S trc giao trong min tn s ca tn hiu OFDM
Mt cch khc xem xt tnh trc giao ca tn hiu OFDM l xem ph ca n.
Tn hiu OFDM c hnh thnh bng cch tng hp cc sng sinc (sin(x)/x). Trong
min tn s, mi sng mang ph OFDM c p ng tn s l hm sinc. l kt qu
ca thi gian symbol tng ng vi nghch o ca khong cch sng mang. Mi
symbol OFDM c truyn trong mt khong thi gian c nh (T FFT). Thi gian
symbol ny tng ng vi khong cch ti ph 1/TFFT (Hz). Dng Sinc c mt bp
chnh hp, vi nhiu bp bn c bin gim dn theo tn s khi i xa khi tn s
trung tm. Mi sng mang ph c mt nh ti tn s trung tm v mt s gi tr khng
c t cn bng theo cc l trng tn s bng khong cch sng mang. Bn cht trc
giao ca vic truyn l kt qu ca nh ca mi sng mang ph tng ng vi Nulls
ca cc sng mang ph khc.
Trc giao c ngha l tn s trung tm ca mt sng mang con nht nh s ri
ng vo cc im bng 0 (null) ca cc sng mang con khc (Hnh di). S dng
cc tn s trc giao s trnh c s nh hng ln nhau gia cc sng mang con khc
nhau khi sp xp v tr cc sng mang con vi mt ln trong min tn s do s
t c hiu qu ph cao.

34
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Bin

nh bp sng chnh

im Null cc
sng mang khc
Tn s (f)

Hnh 2.3 S trc giao tn hiu trong min tn s

Hnh 2.3 m t p ng ca mi sng mang con c dng hm s Sinc. Ti v tr


nh ph ca cc sng mang con khc s trng vi nh bp sng chnh ca sng mang
xem xt. iu th hin tnh trc giao v mt tn s ca tn hiu OFDM.
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2.3.

M hnh h thng OFDM


Pha pht (Transmitter): m ha lung d liu s pht theo m Gray gim

t l bit li khi truyn, sau chuyn thnh pha v bin cc sng mang con biu
din di dng cc s o qua php iu ch BPSK, QPSK hoc M-QAM. Cc sng
mang con c ly mu trong min tn s. S dng php bin i IFFT chuyn ph
cc sng mang con vo min thi gian, mi sng mang con trc giao vi nhau. Tn
hiu OFDM sau khi c ng gi s c x l tng t nng tn v truyn v
tuyn.
My thu (Receiver): Thc hin ng b v tin hnh ngc li pha pht, gii
m tr v d liu ba u.

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Serial
Data
Input
X bits

Serial to

Signal

Parallel

Mapper

Converter

d0

S0

d1

S1

IFFT

dn-1

Sn-1

Parallel to

Guard

Serial

Interval

Converter

Insertion

D/A

Transmitter

Up

Channel

Serial

Down

Receiver
Data
Output

X bits

Parallel to
Serial
Converter

Signal
Demapper

d0

S 0

d1

S 1

dn-1

FFT

Serial to

Guard

Parallel

Interval

Sn-1 Converter

A/D

Removal

Hnh 2.4 M hnh h thng OFDM


Ta s xem xt tng khu trong m hnh h thng OFDM to ra tn hiu
OFDM.
Nhng tn hiu OFDM c to ra trong min tn s v kh to ra mt s lng
ln cc b dao ng v nhng my thu kha pha trong min tng t.
u tin, d liu s cn truyn dng ni tip s c bin i thnh song
song vi chiu di d liu c nh. D liu sau s c nh x vo bin v pha
ca cc sng mang ph thng qua mt trong cc php iu ch s (FSK, PSK, QPSK,
M-QAM). Sau n bin i biu din ph ca d liu vo min thi gian nh s
dng php bin i Fourier ri rc o (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) thc hin
cng mt thut ton nh IDFT nhng hiu qu hn nhiu. truyn tn hiu OFDM,

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tn hiu min thi gian kia s c phi hp siu cao tn a ln tn s RF cn


thit.
My thu thc hin thut ton ngc li vi my pht. Khi dch tn hiu RF
xung bng c s x l, sau s dng bin i Fourier nhanh (FFT).
2.4.

Cc nhn t nh hng ln h thng v cch khc phc


Cng ngh OFDM thit k trong cc h thng hot ng trong cc mi

trng kt ni a dng t: ng dn thng LOS (Line of sight) n ng dn b che


khut OLOS (Obstructed Line of sight) v khng c ng dn thng NLOS (Non
Line of sight). y chnh l u im ca OFDM. Tuy nhin, do lm vic vi nhiu loi
mi trng truyn dn khc nhau nh vy nn tn hiu a ng dn l t hp ca tn
hiu gc v cc tn hiu phn x bi cc vt cn gia trm pht v trm thu. Cc tn
hiu phn x thng n trm thu khng cng mt lc ph thuc vo khong cch
ng i v thng n sau so vi tn hiu gc (truyn thng). Do khng n cng
nhau nn xy ra hin tng nhiu. Ngoi nhiu do s chnh lch thi gian cn c
nhiu do s sai lch tn s gia cc sng mang con lm mt tnh trc giao gia chng.
2.4.1. Nhiu ISI v cch khc phc
2.4.1.1.

Nhiu ISI v nhng nh hng

ISI (Inter-Symbol interference), l hin tng nhiu lin k hiu. ISI xy ra do


hiu ng a ng, trong mt tn hiu ti sau s gy nh hng ln k hiu trc
.
Nguyn nhn do tnh chn lc ca knh fading trong min thi gian, tnh bt n
nh ca knh gy ra s giao thoa tn hiu.
nh hng ca ISI: gy ra s nhn nh sai k hiu, gy kh khn trong vic
khi phc tn hiu gc ti pha thu.

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Hnh 2.5 Hin tng a ng gy nn nhiu ISI


Hnh 2.5 chi r s thu tn hiu khng nh mong mun pha thu. Chng ta s
khng ch thu duy nht 1 bn tn hiu gc bn pht m thu c nhiu bn sao ca n.
Mi bn sao s c tri tr khc nhau. V tn hiu sau s chng ln tn hiu trc gy
kh khn cho vic khi phc nu ta khng kh c nhiu ny.

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2.4.1.2.

Gii php khc phc nh hng ca ISI

Chn khong thi gian bo v

Copy

IFFT

Khong

IFFT

bo v

TG

Khong
bo v

IFFT

TIFFT
Tsymbol
K hiu th N

K hiu th N-1

K hiu th N+1

Hinh 2.6 Chn khong bo v cho mi k hiu OFDM


Khong bo v c to ra bng cch copy phn cui k hiu ln phn u ca
cng k hiu. Nh tn hiu s c tnh lin tc, khng b gin on ti im ni, m
bo tnh trc giao xuyn sut. ng thi c li dng vic copy thc hin bc
ng b k hiu qua phng php nhn tng quan.
Chiu di tng ca k hiu l Tsymbol = TG + TIFFT, trong , Tsymbol l tng chiu
di ca k hiu, TG l chiu di ca khong bo v, v TIFFT l kch thc IFFT c s
dng to ra tn hiu OFDM.
OFDM c th khc phc hon ton c nhiu ISI bng vic dng khong bo
v. V theo hnh 2.5, iu kin m bo tn hiu khng b nh hng bi nhiu ISI
l:

max <<
xT gT
Trong ,

max l tri tr cc i

Tx: khong thi gian tnh t lc bt u thu d liu my


thu cho n khi thc hin ly mu tn hiu.
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Tg: di khong bo v phi c p dng vo d liu bn


pht.
iu ny l hin nhin, khi chiu di khong bo v ln hn tri tr cc i
th symbol sau s hon ton khng nh hng n symbol trc do hiu ng fading a
ng. Tuy nhin, khong bo v l khong d liu khng mang thng tin, l d liu
truyn v ch nn ty iu kin mi trng chn cho hp l, tit kim bng tn.
2.4.2. Nhiu ICI v cch khc phc
2.4.2.1.

Nhiu ICI v nhng nh hng

ICI (Inter-Channel Interference) l nhiu xuyn knh, l nhiu pht sinh do


tn hiu ca cc knh nm cnh nhau gy nhiu ln nhau.
ICI (Inter-Cell Interference) l nhiu lin t bo hay nhiu gia cc t bo, l
nhiu pht sinh do tn hiu cng bng tn trn cc t bo (Cell) khc nhau trong mng
di ng gy nhiu ln nhau.
ICI l hin tng ph bin trong cc h thng a sng mang. Trong h thng
OFDM, ICI cn c gi l nhiu giao thoa gia cc sng mang con, l hin tng
nng lng ph ca cc sng mang con chng ln qu mc ln nhau lm ph v tnh
trc giao ca cc sng mang con.
Nguyn nhn chnh l do hin tng Doppler do tnh di ng ca my pht v
my thu, c s chuyn ng tng i gia chng. Do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh
fading.
nh hng ca ICI: nhng sng mang con b mt tnh trc giao s khng th
khi phc chnh xc nh pht.
2.4.2.2.

Gii php khc phc nh hng ICI

hn ch nh hng ca ICI, ngi ta chn khong thi gian bo v mt cch


tun hon v dng pilot dn ng gip c lng v cn bng knh khi khi phc tn
hiu pha thu.

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2.4.3. Ci thin hiu nng h thng trn c s s dng m Gray


Bt k mt h thng no cng u phi xem xt, tnh n nh hng ca tp m
v nhiu n h thng, nh hng n t l li truyn, ha hp gia mc tp m v
hiu qu ph tn. c bit i vi h thng truyn thng v tuyn, nh hng ca tp
m v nhiu ln tn hiu nhiu hn nhiu so vi cc h thng khc.
Tp m v nhiu s lm gim t l tn hiu trn tp m (SNR) v lm gim hiu
qu s dng ph tn ca h thng. Tp m y c th c tp m cc my pht, my
thu. Trong h thng truyn thng v tuyn th tp m cn quan tm gii quyt nht l
tp m trn chnh knh truyn ISI, ICI, IMD. Nu khng lm gim, khng c bin
php khc phc nhng nh hng ca nhiu v tp m th tn hiu s b sai lch v
khng th khi phc.
Gii php khc phc, lm gim nh hng ca nhiu v tp m chnh l s
dng phng php m ha Gray.
M ha Gray l phng php m ha d liu m cc im IQ cnh nhau trong
chm sao ch khc nhau 1 bit. Nh s gim xc sut li nhiu bit xut hin trong
mt k hiu n.
Bng 2.1. Bng chuyn i m Gray
C s 10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

M Gray
0000
0001
0011
0010
0110
0111
0101
0100

C s 10
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

M Gray
1100
1101
1111
1110
1010
1011
1001
1000

Gin IQ (Imphase Quadrature) cho s iu ch s ch ra vecto truyn cho


tt c cc t m d liu. Mi t m d liu phi c phn phi mt vecto IQ duy
nht. M Gray l mt phng php cho s phn phi ny, sao cho cc im cnh nhau
trong chm sao ch khc nhau 1 bit n. M ny gip gim thiu t l li bit ton b v
n gim c hi nhiu li bit xy ra t mt symbol n.

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

M ho Gray c th s dng cho ton b cc s iu ch PSK (QPSK, 8PSK, 16-PSK,) v QAM (16-QAM, 64-QAM, 256-QAM,). i vi QAM th mi
trc s c ghp ring s dng m ho Gray.
Hnh 2.7 minh ha s IQ cho php iu ch 16-QAM s dng m Gray. y
l php iu ch s c s dng trong sn phm thc hin h thng truyn thng
OFDM bn di.
Nh trong hnh ca php iu ch th ta c th thy r th mi t m ng cnh
nhau ch sai khc nhau 1 bit theo php m ha Gray.

Hnh 2.7 S chm sao 16-QAM

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2.4.4. Nng cao hiu qu s dng ph tn


Trong nhng nm gn y, OFDM khng ngng c nghin cu v m rng
phm vi ng dng bi nhng u im ca n trong tit kim bng tn. Trong thc t
vi mt tri tr xc nh, vic xy dng mt h thng OFDM t phc tp hn so vi
mt th thng n sng mang.
Ph ca tn hiu OFDM l ph tng hp ca cc thnh phn tn s sng mang
con c dng sinc [xin(x)/x]. Cc sng mang con trong k thut OFDM chng ln ln
nhau, trc giao vi nhau, nh m bng tn trong k thut OFDM s dng tit
kim hn rt nhiu so vi cc k thut ghp knh khc. Tuy nhin, ph tng hp ca
chng vn s c mt ng bao bn chim mt lng bng tn kh ln. Cc ng
bao ny chnh l thnh phn tn s ngoi bng v cn loi b n.
Tn s ngoi bng s c loi b khi s dng mt b lc bng thng hoc
dng khong bo v cosin tng. Chng ta s tm hiu k hn v 2 gii php ny.
2.4.4.1.

Phng php dng khong bo v cosin tng.

Mt trong nhng phng php n gin nht loi b bt ng bao bn ca


ph tn hiu OFDM l to khong bo v cosin tng. Phng php ny thc hin lm
dc khong bo v p nhn n n 0 trc k hiu tip theo. S p nhn khong bo
v chuyn giao gia cc k hiu s lm gim cng sut ng bao bn, thc hin ti u
hn cho vic loi b tn hiu ngoi bng.

Hnh 2.8 Cu trc ca khong bo v RC


Khong bo v cosin tng Raise Cosin (RC) c to ra vi hnh dng mt hm
cosin bnh phng. Tnh cht gim dn n 0 ca khong RC c chn rt nh v
c th b qua pha thu. Nhiu ISI do n gy ra s rt thp.
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Mt v d v hnh dng hm cosin tng: (i = 1:delta)

cos_val = cos( i*PI/(2.0*(delta - 1)) );


cos_Table[i] = float(cos_val * cos_val);

Vi delta l khong chiu di ta chn thc hin lm khong bo v RC.


Bng cosin tng cos_Table s c kt hp vi tn hiu OFDM to thnh
khong RC.
Trn thc t, khong bo v RC c chn theo phn phng ca tn hiu
OFDM v chn sao cho n c th b qua pha thu m vn thu c d liu bnh
thng.
RC =

TRC
.100%
TFFT + TGI

RC l phn trm cosin tng.


TRC l di khong RC.
TFFT l di tn hiu OFDM sau khi thc hin IFFT cha thm khong bo v.
TGI l di khong bo v phng GI.
Trn thc t th vic thm khong bo v l khng gim ng bao bn
ng k, v th cn phi dng thm b lc bng thng.
2.4.4.2.

Phng php dng b lc bng thng

Chng ta xem xt vic s dng khong bo v cosin tng ct bt thnh


phn tn s ngoi bng gip ci thin vic s dng ph tn. Tuy nhin, c th s
dng trit hn, chng ta phi s dng n b lc bng thng. S ct ca b lc bng
thng l rt gn, iu ny cho php phn chia cc khi tn hiu OFDM mt cch hiu
qu. B lc c dng dc ng cho php cc khi tn hiu OFDM c th c xp rt
gn nhau trong min tn s, nh gip ci thin vic s dng ph tn. Tuy nhin s
ct rt kht ny s nh hng n t l tn hiu trn tp m (signal noise rate) SNR.
Cn xem xt nh hng ca n khi thit k mt h thng OFDM dng b lc.

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Lc bng thng c s dng khi tn hiu c bin i t min tn s sang


dnh sng tng t v ngc li ngn nga s chng ph. Trong OFDM loi b
hiu qu mt s bp sng trn tn hiu OFDM. Gi tr loi b bup sng bn ph thuc
vo dng b lc c s dng. B lc s cung cp linh hot, chnh xc v t l
ct cao hn nhiu so vi b lc tng t. Do , chng gip ch nhiu trong vic hn
ch bng thng v ch ca tn hiu OFDM.
B lc cng nh hng n mt phn nng lng ca cc ti ph pha bn
ngoi, lm mo dng tn hiu v gy can nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI.
phc tp ca tnh lc bng thng FIR
Vic s dng b lc bng thng s l phng php rt hiu qu loi b cc
bp sng bn do cc tn hiu OFDM c dng Sinc min tn s. thc hin b lc
bng thng FIR, s tap cn thit (s lng nhnh ca b lc FIR) tng ng vi:

N taps = ceil (

Wt .N FFT
)
Ft

Ntaps: s tap (nhnh) ca b lc FIR.


Wt: rng qu ca ca s dng ch to b lc FIR.
NFFT: kch thc FFT to tn hiu.
Ft: rng qu ca b lc chun ha cho khong cch ti ph.
Ceil: php lm trn v pha ln hn.
Hnh 2.9 m t c tuyn ca b lc dng ca s Kaiser vi cc gi tr f t khc
nhau. Ta thy ft cng nh th tc dng ct cng hiu qu.

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Bin (dB)

ft =0.4 Hz

50

ft =0.2 Hz
0

-50
-100
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Tn s chun ha ft
Hnh 2.9 c tuyn b lc dng ca s Kaiser =3.4

nh hng ca lc bng thng ti ch tiu k thut OFDM


Trong min thi gian, symbol OFDM c dng hnh ch nht, tng ng vi suy
gim dng sinc trong min tn s. V nu s dng b lc bng thng p dng dn tn
hiu OFDM th dng sng tn hiu trong tn s s c dng hnh ch nht v suy gim
trong min thi gian s c suy gim dng sinc gia cc symbol. iu ny gy thm
nhiu ISI gia cc symbol OFDM lm gim ch tiu k thut.

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Ta c th loi b nhiu ISI do b lc gy ra bng vic dng khong bo v c


di thch hp mt cch d dng. Bng vic chn offset thi gian ng b gia
cc khong bo v, do vy hu ht nng lng ISI b loi b.

Chng 3. K thut ng b trong OFDM


3.1.

M u
Bt k mt h thng vin thng ni chung no cng u cn c khu ng b

gia tn hiu bn pht v tn hiu bn thu k vng c th thu c tn hiu ng nh


tn hiu gc ban u. ng b cng chnh xc th hiu nng ca h thng cng cao.
c bit, nhc im ca h thng v tuyn s dng k thut OFDM l d b nh
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hng bi li do ng b, c bit l li ng b tn s do mt tnh trc giao gia cc


sng mang ph th vn ng b cng l mt vn quan trng cn xem xt.
Chng ta s tm hiu k hn cc li gy ra s mt ng b v cc phng php
x l chng: ng b k t (symbol) nhn bit khung; ng b tn s ly mu
iu chnh sai s ly mu; ng b tn s sng mang sa cha khong dch tn s.
Chng ta s xem xt thm nh hng ca sai li ng b n hiu sut ca h thng.
3.2.

Tng quan v ng b trong OFDM


ng b l nhim v c bn ca mi h thng thng tin s ni chung v h

thng OFDM ni ring. H thng OFDM c nhiu li ch trong vic s dng hiu qu
ph tn nh tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang con v iu ch thch nghi nh
trnh by. Tuy nhin chnh nhng c im ny li lm cho h thng s dng k thut
OFDM c bit d dng b nh hng li do ng b, li v s sai lch tn s, nh
hng ca hiu ng Doopler khi di chuyn, gy ra nhiu giao tn s ICI.
Mt h thng OFDM s khng th thc hin tt nu khng c s ng b chnh
xc. Nh chng ta bit, tn hiu OFDM l tng hp ca cc sng mang ph trc
giao vi nhau, v ta ch c th thu c tn hiu chnh xc khi c cc sng mang
vn cn tnh trc giao. Cc sng mang ny ch hon ton trc giao khi bn pht v
bn thu s dng nhng tn s hon ton ging nhau. Tuy nhin, b dao ng bn
pht v bn thu s khng th hot ng cng mt tn s nh nhau c. Hn na vi
vic thc hin truyn thng v tuyn th di nh hng ca mi trng truyn dn th
cc sng mang con s kh cn m bo tnh trc giao. Ngoi ra, v qu trnh iu ch
v xuyn nhiu knh nn cc tham s tn s sng mang v thi khong k t khng
cn chnh xc. Do cn phi c lng v ng b chng.
Vy, nu cc ng h tn s ly mu pha pht v pha thu hot ng chnh
xc th khong dch tn s sng mang v khong thi gian symbol l nhng yu t
chnh nh hng n s mt ng b. Khong dch tn s sng mang gy ra nhiu ICI
v dch khong thi gian gy ra nhiu ISI.
Tng qut, mt qu trnh ng b trong h thng OFDM s phi qua 3 bc
nh hnh 3.1:
-

Nhn bit khung: tm ra im u ca khung OFDM.


52

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

c lng v b khong dch tn s FOE: nhm b li s thay i v tn


s pha thu.

Bm ui li thng d FOE (Frequency Offset Estimation): sa li sai


pha tn hiu.

Nhn
bit
khun
g

c lng
khong

FFT

dch tn s

Bm

Gi

ui

lng

pha

knh

Hnh 3.1 Qu trnh ng b trong OFDM


Qu trnh nhn bit khung c thc hin bng cch s dng chui PN vi phn
min thi gian. c lng khong dch tn s, cn s dng mi tng quan trong
min thi gian ca cc symbol pilot hoc cc khong tin t lp CP. S dch pha do
c lng khong dch tn s cng nh nhiu pha c ti u bng cch dng kha
pha s (DPLL).
3.2.1. Nhn bit khung
Nhn bit khung nhm tm ra ranh gii gia cc k hiu OFDM. Bng vic s
dng s tng quan gia nhng phn tn hiu OFDM c lp li to ra mt s
nh thi n nh.

Ta gi s lung d liu nh hnh bn di:

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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

im S

im F
Symbol Pilot
Symbol Data
Hnh 3.2 Nhn bit khung truyn

y c 2 im ta cn phi tm ra thc hin k thut ng b l im S v


im F. im S l im u ca khung u tin ca lung d liu thu c. Trc
im S l nhiu ca knh v tuyn do lc ny cha pht d liu. im F l im gip
ranh gia cc khung OFDM. Do s sai lch xung dao ng gia bn pht v bn thu
v nh hng ca nhiu gy nn s sai lch v thi gian gia 2 bn. m bo ton
vn d liu th cn phi ng b nhiu ln trong khi pht v thu d liu, tc tm ra cc
im F.
nhn bit khung, ngi ta s dng chui PN (Pseudo Noise) min thi gian
c m ha vi phn. Chui PN c pht nh l mt phn u ca symbol OFDM.
Loi chui PN thng c s dng l chui c di (hay chu k) cc i cn gi l
m-sequence (chui m). Chui m c to ra bng mt b ghi dch hi tip c cu hnh
Fibonacci hay Galois (hai cu hnh ny v mt ton hc th tng ng nhau), c
hnh thnh theo mt a thc sinh quy nh cc u ra cc khu nh ca thanh ghi tham
gia hay khng vo mch hi tip. a thc sinh l mt a thc nguyn thy (primitive
polynomial), khi chui chip li ra s l mt chui PN c chu k lp li ln nht, l
N = 2m - 1, trong m l s khu nh ca thanh ghi.
Mt c im c bn ca chui m l c hm t tng quan dang thumb-nail.
Tc l khi chui PN tnh tng quan vi mt phin bn ca chnh n th nu 2 chui
ny trng kht nhau s c gi tr tng quan t nh (cc i), cn nu lch pha nhau
qu rng 1 phn t ca chui th gi tr tng quan s xp x 0. Nh c im t
tng quan, chui PN cho php tm ra v tr nh thi chnh xc. Chui PN pha pht
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Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

khi ng b vi pha thu c th suy ra ranh gii gia cc symbol OFDM bng vic
quan st nh tng quan.

Hnh 3.3 Tng quan theo chui PN


im mu cht l vic nhn bit khung c thc hin trc khi c lng
khong dch tn s nn sai lch pha khng c b gia cc mu tn hiu, khong dch
tn s s ph v tnh tng quan chui PN.
y, thut ton nhn bit nh l s dng mt b m c kch thc c
nh, lu cc gi tr Metric nh thi |M(g)|. Ta nhn bit khung thnh cng khi
-

Phn t trung tm ca b m l ln nht

T l gi tr phn t trung tm v trung bnh b m vt qu ngng nht


nh.

Metric nh thi M(g) c biu din:


N 1

M ( g ) = y ( g + i ). y *( g + i + 1).d (i )
i =0

Trong ,

y(i): tn hiu thu.


g: khong dch ca s trt.
d(i): chui PN dng thc hin ng b.
N: chiu di chui PN.

55
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Do tnh tng quan b ph v nn s phn phi nh tng quan c dng Sin


nn chui PN c iu ch vi phn trn nhng tn hiu ln cn. Ti pha thu, tn hiu
c gii m vi phn v tnh tng quan vi chui PN bit.
3.2.2. c lng v b khong dch tn s FOE
Khong dch tn s (FOE) l li gy ra do s sai khc tn s sng mang gia
pha pht v pha thu. y l vn ln nht cn gii quyt trong khu ng b tn
hiu OFDM, bi tn hiu OFDM ch c th thu c chnh xc, tin cy khi cc sng
mang ph vn m bo tnh trc giao vi nhau.
c lng khong dch tn s da vo nhng khong d liu c pht i
ging nhau v vi vic da tnh cht ca php tng quan c lng. V d cc
pilot cch nhau u n nu chn theo mt quy lut c nh, cc khong tin t lp
cch nhau u n mt khong thi gian T (bng chiu di symbol FFT) th s ging
ht nhau v ch khc nhau tha s pha do chnh s sai lch gy nn e j 2 ( f CT ) .
xc nh khong dch tn s, ngi ta phn khong dch ra thnh phn
nguyn v phn thp phn:
f cT = A +

Trong ,

A : phn nguyn
: phn thp phn thuc (-1/2 ; 1/2)

Phn thp phn c c lng bng cch tnh tng quan gia cc mu tn
hiu cch nhau mt khong thi gian T. Phn nguyn c tm bng cch s dng
chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph.
3.2.2.1.

c lng phn thp phn

Khi khng c nhiu ISI, cc mu tn hiu thu c biu din:


l
j2 f
( CT )
N

y ( l ) = s( l ) .e
Trong ,

+z ( l )

: ch s mu (min thi gian).

y(l)

: mu tn hiu thu.

: tng s sng mang ph.


56

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

z(l)

: nhiu.

Tn hiu s(l) c biu din nh sau:


N 1

1
s (l ) =
N
Trong ,

U (k ) C (k ) e

jk
2

l
N

l =0

: ch s sng mang ph (min tn s).

U(k) : d liu iu ch trn sng mang ph.


C(k) : p ng tn s sng mang ph.
Tnh tng quan gia cc mu cch nhau khong T (tc N mu) ta c:
N 1

J = y (l ).y (l + N )
l =0

V phn thp phn ca khong dch tn s c c lng nh sau:

1
arg J
2

Nu SNR cao v b qua mi xuyn nhiu nh (3.4). J c th c trin khai sp


xp li thnh phn tn hiu v phn nhiu Gaussian. nh ngha phn li c lng
phn thp phn:

lch chun c tnh nh sau:


E[ 2 ] =

3.2.2.2.

1
2 N SNR

c lng phn nguyn

i vi c lng phn nguyn, 2N mu tn hiu lin tip ca k hiu FOE di


l phn thp phn u tin c b:

y ' (l ) = e

j 2

l
N

y (l )

l [0,2 N )

57
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Gi s s c lng phn c lng thp phn l hon ho, cc mu tn hiu


c b c th c tch thnh hai k hiu FFT:
y1 = [ y ' (0), ..., y ' ( N 1) = s + z1 ]
y2 = [ y ' ( N ), ..., y ' (2 N 1) = s + z 2 ]

Vector c cc thnh phn:


s (l ).e

j 2A

l
N

l [0, N )

V hai k hiu FFT c cng vector tn hiu, mt k hiu FFT mi c th c


to ra bng cch cng chng vi nhau tng SNR ln gn 3dB, tc l:
y = y1 + y2 = 2 s + z1 + z 2

S dng y/2 v nhiu cng t l theo . FFT cho y/2:


Y (n) =

N
1

s (l ). e

l =0

j 2A

l
j 2n l
N +z (l ) e
N

= { U(k) C(k)} k =mod(

n A , N )

+ Z(n)

Mt chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph ln cn c


lng xoay quanh phn nguyn A. Gii m vi phn cc Y(n) ri tnh tng quan gia
kt qu vi cc phin bn xoay vng ca chui PN ta s tm c mt nh bin
duy nht xc nh A.
3.2.3. Bm ui li thng d
Xt mt h thng OFDM vi mt chu k k hiu: TS= Tg+T hoc NS=Ng+N
biu din s mu tn hiu.
Tg : chiu di khong bo v.
T : chiu di FFT.
Tha s pha ca khong dch tn s trong N mu tn hiu FFT ca k hiu
OFDM c biu din:

j (2fC T )( m

Trong ,

NS l
+ )
N N

=e

j 2 ( A+ )( m

NS l
+ )
N N

: ch s symbol,

: ch s mu.

: phn nguyn khong lch tn s.


58

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

: phn thp phn khong lch tn s.

Nu cho FOE ng, khi tha s pha sau khi b khong dch tn s l:

j 2 ( m

NS l
+ )
N N

j 2 m

=e

NS
N

j 2

.e

l
N

: phn li c lng phn thp phn.

= .
Gi tr

NS
N

j 2
m

gy ra li pha do sai s ly mu,

cn s hng e j 2 N gy ra nhiu ICI do sai s tn s sng mang.


Tn hiu sau bin i FFT c biu din:
j 2 m

Y ( m, k ) = e

NS
N

U ( m , k ) C ( m , k ) + Z ( m, k )

Li pha do sai s ly mu ( 2 m

NS
) tng tuyn tnh trn cc symbol.
N

C th bm ui li pha bng cch dng vng kha pha s DPLL. Hm truyn


t ca DPLL l:
2n ( z 1) + n2
H ( z) =
( z 1) 2 + 2n ( z 1) + n2

Trong ,

3.3.

: h s tt dn

: tn s ca DPLL

ng b k t
ng b k t cng chnh l ng b thi gian v n khc phc c li thi

gian. Nhim v ca ng b k t l phi xc nh c thi im k t bt u. Hin


nay vi vic s dng tin t lp CP (Cyclic Prefix) th vic ng b k t tr nn d
dng hn nhiu.
Hai yu t cn quan tm khi thc hin ng b k t l li thi gian v nhiu
pha sng mang.
59
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

3.3.1. Li thi gian v thc hin ng b


Li thi gian gy ra do s sai lch trong vic ly mu symbol OFDM do s tri
nhp v li nh thi do symbol t gy ra do s sai lch thi gian thi im bt u k
t thu. D ng h ly mu c chnh xc cao th no i na th vn s c sai s v
gy ra li v thi gian ly mu.
Li thi gian gy ra s sai lch thi gian ca thi im bt u ca k t thu
c. Nu li thi gian nh sao cho p ng xung ca knh vn cn nm trong thi
khong ca thnh phn CP trong tn hiu OFDM th n s khng gy nh hng n
cht lng h thng. Trong trng hp ngc li, nu li thi gian ln hn thi
khong ca CP, nhiu ISI s xy ra. Khi , yu cu v ng b phi cht ch hn.
C 3 phng php thc hin ng b k t l ng b da vo tin t lp CP,
da vo pilot v ng b khung da trn m ng b khung.
3.3.1.1.

ng b k t da vo tin t lp CP
Copy

Nsymbol

IFFT

Khong

Khong

bo v

copied

IFFT

NIFFT
Ging nhau CP

Hnh 3.4 Cu trc khung OFDM thc hin ng b


Hnh 3.4 cho ta thy c im cu trc 1 khung OFDM, l s dng mt
khong tn hiu copy t cui k hiu OFDM ln u k hiu. Khong tn hiu ny va
c chc nng c bn l lm khong bo v chng nhiu ISI va c chc nng ng vai
tr gip thc hin ng b k t. T y ta c nhng thut ton tng t nhau gip cho
vic ng b k t.
60
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Copy

Copy

im u khung
Hnh 3.5 c im lung d liu
Hnh 3.5 ch ra nhng phn tn hiu ging nhau ca lung d liu v c th s
dng n thc hin ng b.
L thuyt v cc hm tng quan ca cc qu trnh xc sut
Hm tng quan nh gi s tng quan (c th hiu l s lin h vi nhau, so
snh s tng t, ging nhau n mc no) ca 2 qu trnh xc sut.
-

nh ngha hm tng quan cho ca 2 qu trnh xc sut

Rxy ( ) = E[ x (t ). y (t + )]

Hm t tng quan ca mt qu trnh xc sut

Rxx ( ) = E[ x (t ).x (t + )]

Tnh cht ca hm t tng quan:


Rxx ( ) = Rxx ( )
Rxx (0) = E[ x 2 ]= x2 + mx2
Rxx (0) = mx2

61
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Trong ,

E[x]: k vng ca bin ngu nhin x.


mx: momen bc 1 ca bin ngu nhin x l k vng ca
bin xc sut .
x2 : phng sai ca bin ngu nhin x.

H s t tng quan

Rxx ( ) mx2
xx ( ) =
x2

H s tng quan cho

xy ( ) =

Rxy ( ) m xm y

x y

Hai qu trnh c gi l khng tng quan nu h s tng quan cho ca


chng bng 0. Hai qu trnh c lp xc sut th bao gi cng khng tng quan.
Trng hp ngc li khng lun lun ng.
Mi quan h gia mt ph nng lng v hm t tng quan ca mt qu
trnh xc sut
S xx ( ) =

xx

( )e j d

ng b da vo tnh tng quan


Theo c tnh ca hm tng quan cho l mt hm s nh gi s tng quan,
s ging nhau ca 2 mu tn hiu c em ra so snh. Nu 2 chui tn hiu ny cng
ging nhau th gi tr nh tng quan ca php nhn tng quan cho ny cng ln.
l khi 2 chui tn hiu ging hon ton nhau v php nhn tng quan cho tr
thnh t tng quan.
Do ta s thc hin nhn tng quan chui s c di ng bng chiu di
chui bo v. Ta s dng 1 ca s trt c chiu di bng chiu di chui bo v th
khi ca s nm ng ti im u khung OFDM ta s t c nh tng quan ln
nht. Bng cch i tm nh ln nht ny ta s xc nh c im u khung d liu.

62
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Gii thut nhn bit nh s dng 1 b m c kch thc c nh lu kt


qu tnh ton tm thi l gi tr cc nh tng quan khi cho ca s trt trong khi thu
tn hiu. S nhn bit khung thnh cng khi:
-

Phn t trung tm ca b m ln nht

T l ca gi tr phn t trung tm v trung bnh b m vt qu ngng


nht nh.

Hnh 3.6 Tn hiu nhn tng quan


Hnh 3.6 l hnh nh khi ta thc hin nhn tng quan tn hiu thu c ti bn
thu vi ca s trt chnh bng khong tin t lp CP v 2 mu tn hiu nhn tng
quan cch nhau chiu di bng chiu di symbol khi cha thm khong bo v l NFFT.
Sau khi thc hin nhn tng quan, ta s thu c kt qu c cc nh tng
quan ln nht nm nhng v tr chnh l im u ca mi khung OFDM.
ng b da vo gi tr trung bnh bnh phng ti thiu
Xt 2 khong tn hiu thu cch nhau N (NFFT) bc.
d ( m ) = r ( m) r ( m + N )

63
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vi N l s sng mang ph bng NFFT. N bng s im ly mu tng ng vi


phn c ch ca symbol OFDM, chng phi l bn sao ca nhau nn d(m) thp. Nu
r(m) v r(m-N) tng ng vi cc mu pht nm trong thi khong ca cng mt
symbol OFDM, d(m) l hiu ca hai bin ngu nhin khng tng quan. Cng sut ca
d(m) l |d(m)|2 trong trng hp ny bng hai ln cng sut trung bnh ca symbol
OFDM.
Nu s dng mt ca s trt c rng thi gian bng khong thi gian ca
CP (im cui ca ca s trng vi im bt u ca symbol OFDM) th khi ca s
ny trng vi thnh phn CP ca symbol OFDM s c mt cc tiu v cng sut trung
bnh ca cc mu d(m) trong ca s ny. Do , c th c lng c thi im bt
u ca symbol OFDM, v ng b k t c thc hin.
3.3.1.2.

ng b k t da vo Pilot

Pilot c th c hiu nh nhng mu k t dn ng, lm hoa tiu. Tn hiu


bn pht khi truyn qua knh v tuyn th bin v pha b thay i. OFDM s
dng pilot c lng v cn bng knh truyn. Nh c th thu li tn hiu c
hnh dng ging nh bn pht. Bn cnh chc nng chnh , ngi ta cng c th s
dng lun pilot cho khu ng b. Bn pht v bn thu u bit trc v pilot, bit
trc v cch chn pilot, m hnh pilot. Hnh 3.4 l hnh nh thc t trong h thng m
phng chn pilot vo lung d liu tun t sau vi khung d liu.

64
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.7 Hnh dng d liu thc t


Thut ton ng b gm 3 bc: Nhn bit cng sut (Power Detection), ng
b "th" (Coarse Synchronization) v ng b "tinh" (Fine Synchronization).
Nhim v ca vic nhn bit cng sut l xc nh xem tn hiu truyn c phi
l OFDM hay khng bng cch o cng sut thu v so snh vi mc ngng.
Trong bc ng b "th", tn hiu s c ng b lc u vi chnh xc
thp bng mt na khong thi gian ly mu. Mc d chnh xc trong bc ny
khng cao nhng n s lm n gin thut ton d tm ng b trong bc tip theo.
thc hin c s ng b "th", ngi ta tnh tng quan gia tn hiu thu c
vi pilot m bn thu v bn pht c nh t trc ri tm nh tng quan. Tn s
c lng ca cc im phi gp khong 4 ln tc tn hiu m bo tnh chnh
xc trong c lng nh tng quan.
Trong bc ng b "tinh", do thi gian ng b chnh xc nh hn mu tn
hiu nn nh hng ca li ng b v p ng xung knh chc chn nm trong
khong ca CP (v khong thi gian ca CP phi ln hn khong thi gian p ng
xung knh t nht l mt mu). V vy, li pha cc sng mang ca cc knh ph chc
chn l do li thi gian gy nn. Li ny c th c c lng bng cch s dng hi
quy tuyn tnh. Khi , tn hiu ti cc knh pilot s c cn bng.
Cc symbol pilot c chn vo tn hiu OFDM theo mt trt t hp l.
65
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

3.3.1.3.

ng b k t da trn m ng b khung FSC

Bn trn l cc thut ton ng b khung symbol truyn thng (dng symbol


pilot, dng CP,) da vo quan h gia khong bo v GI v phn sau ca symbol,
hay da vo s bit trc symbol pilot c bn pht v bn thu. Tuy nhin, cc thut
ton c nhc im l ch pht hin chnh xc im u k t vi iu kin l t s
tn hiu trn tp m SNR l cao. Nu t s m thp qu th bin php ng b s
khng hiu qu. Cc thut ton ny khng th pht hin chnh xc v tr bt u ca k
t do nhiu ISI trong knh fading a ng. Chng ta s tm hiu phng php ng
b s dng m ng b khung.
Ta s truyn d liu cng thm mt khung d liu ng b b sung vo u ca
lung d liu OFDM. Cu trc khung c th c chia thnh vng m ng b khung
FSC cho ng b khung symbol v vng d liu cho truyn dn symbol OFDM.

F
S

GI

data

GI

data

GI

data

GI

data

C
D liu truyn

Khung ng b
Hnh 3.8 Cu trc khung OFDM s dng khung ng b FSC
C th biu din tn hiu khung OFDM nh sau:

S (t ) =
S F(tSC+
) S d(tata T
,

FSC

Trong

TFSC : Khong thi gian symbol FSC

Ti pha pht, chui cc mu dng s c pht gm c chui CA(n) ca FSC


v khong bo v GI v cc mu d liu khng c GI qua FFT l:

66
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

s ( n) = C A ( n)

nk
j 2

1 N 1
N
s
(
n
)
=
X
(
k
)
e

m
m
N
k =0

Trong ,

CL

n = 1, 2, ..., CL : FSC
k = 0, 1, ..., N 1: data

: di bit ca FSC.

sm(n) : Chui cc mu ca symbol OFDM th m trong min


thi gian khi khng thm GI.
xm(k) : Symbol truyn dn phc th m trong min tn s.
N

: S sng mang con.

Cc mu CA(n) c ng dng trc tip s(n) l s bt u khung


Tn hiu FSC l mt chui tun t cc mu, s(n) = C A (n) , vi n = 1,2, CL
c to thnh t vector FSC C(n) = {C(1), C(2),..., C( C L )} gm cc CL gi tr nh
phn. i vi m C(n) c gi tr "1", chng ta thc hin o cc tnh lun phin to
ra tn hiu 3 mc C A (n) . V d: Cho C(n) = {1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1} th C A (n) = {1, 0, 0,
-1, 1, -1, 0, 1}. Bng cch ny, ta c th duy tr s gi tr '1' v '-1' bng nhau ti pha
pht hn ch khong dch DC v duy tr mt mc c nh cho di ng.
Cu trc ng b khung symbol OFDM gm: B nhn bit cng sut, b nhn
bit bit '0' hay '1', thanh ghi dch CL, b cng Modulo -2 c gim bt, b tng, b
nhn bit nh.
Thut ton ng b khung symbol nh FSC gm c 3 bc: Nhn bit FSC,
xc nh cc mc ngng ti u Th1 v Th2 tng cng xc sut nhn bit v tr
u khung symbol.

67
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.9 ng b khung k t dng FSC


Xc nh mc ngng Th1
Mc ngng Th1 nhm xc nh ra nhng bit nh phn 0 v 1 t tn hiu
tng t thu c. i vi mi mi trng khc nhau th nh hng ca mi trng
ln tn hiu s khc nhau v s khc bit gia nhng tn hiu mc cao v mc thp s
t hn. Do , i vi mi mi trng th mc ngng Th1 s khc nhau. i vi mi
trng cng tt th t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR cng cao, tn hiu c cht lng
cng n nh v s phn bit gia nhng gi tr mc cao v mc thp cng r rt. Khi
mc ngng Th1 c th chn thp hn. Th1 phi ti u sao cho khng nhm ln
gia nhiu v tn hiu mc cao. thu c mt mc ngng ti u trong mi trng
a ng l rt kh.

68
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.10 Quan h gia ngng ti u Th1 v SNR


Hnh 3.10 th hin mi quan h gia gi tr ngng ti u Th1 v t s tn hiu
trn tp m SNR. Th1 c th chn cng nh khi SNR cng cao. Theo l thuyt, Th1 ti
u c th tnh theo cng thc:
Th1 =

4 1 P /2
I 0 (e )
2P

I 01 (.) : Hm ngc ca Bessel bc 0: I 0 (.)

: Phng sai ca cc bin ngu nhin Gaussian trong cc knh I v Q

: Gi tr bin c nh ngha trong tn hiu

u ra ca b cng modul c kt qu l 1 nu cc bit ging nhau v l -1


nu cc bit khc nhau. Cc gi tr ny s c tnh tng v a ra so snh vi mc
ngng Th2 xc nh chnh xc FSC.
Xc nh mc ngng Th2
Gi tr tng sau khi thc hin bc trn s c em ra so snh vi mc ngng Th2
tm ra v tr chnh xc ca khung FSC. Qua bc tnh tng v xt cng modul trn
th nu khung em ra so snh vi khung FSC bit trc m ging nhau nht th gi
tr tng s cao nht. Vic ca ta l phi t ra mc ngng Th2 sao cho khi gi tr tng
kia vt qua ci ngng Th2 th chc chn chnh l khung FSC truyn pha
69
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

pht. y gi l s nhn bit trt. Nu thit lp Th2 thp, tng quan u ra ca cc


vng d liu khc c th trn Th2 v c xem nh l FSC, tc l nhn bit nhiu
chnh l FSC, gi l xc sut d phng sai PF.
Chiu di CL ca khung FSC cng di th xc sut nhn bit trt gim, tc l kh
nng nhn bit ng tng. Nh vy, thut ton ng b khung symbol c th chn
chiu di v kiu FSC. iu ny ph thuc vo mi trng knh v hiu sut h thng.
Khi mi trng knh xu, ta c th m rng chiu di v thay i cc mc ngng sao
cho hp l.
3.4.

ng b tn s
Nh chng ta bit, k thut OFDM rt nhy cm vi nhng sai li v s sai

dch tn s. Li tn s y l s lch tn s c nguyn nhn do s sai khc gia hai


b to dao ng bn pht v bn thu, dch tn do hiu ng Doppler v nhiu pha do
knh khng tuyn tnh. Hai nh hng li tn s lm gim bin tn hiu (do tn hiu
c dng hnh sinc) c ly mu khng phi ti nh v to ra xuyn nhiu knh ICI
gia cc knh ph do mt tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang ph. V cc sng mang
con t b sai lch tn s do mi trng tc ng v cng khng cn m bo tnh trc
giao v c mt s quay pha theo bin thi gian ca tn hiu nhn. Chng ta c th nhn
thy iu ny qua hnh 3.11 bn di. Hnh 3.11 ch ra s khc bit ca 2 trng hp:
-

Gi s l tng khng c s sai khc tn s gia bn pht v bn thu.

C s sai khc tn s gia bn pht v bn thu.

70
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.11 Sai lch tn s tn hiu gy mt ng b


Mt iu hin nhin l khng th c 2 b dao ng pha pht v pha thu hon
ho ging ht nhau nn chc chn s c s sai lch trong vic ly mu tn hiu v gy
ra s sai lch v tn s ly mu. Do h thng thc hin truyn thng qua mi trng
v tuyn, l mi trng c iu kin xu v bt n nht nn chc chn cc sng mang
s phi chu nh hng t v dn n s sai khc v tn s sng mang v gy ra
mt ng b.

71
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

3.4.1. ng b tn s ly mu

Hnh 3.12 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy ra s mt ng b


Ta chc chn s c s sai khc v tn s ly mu gia bn pht v bn thu v
khng th c 2 b dao ng ging nhau 100%. S sai lch tn s ly mu ny s nh
hng ln tt c cc sng mang con, nhng vi mi sng mang khc nhau th nh
hng s khc nhau. i vi sng mang c tn s hot ng cng ln th s sai lch v
tn s ly mu cng ln. S sai khc tn s ly mu gia bn pht v bn thu:

FS = FS( transmiter ) FS( receiver )


S chnh lch nhp ng h gia my pht v my thu gy ra xoay pha, suy hao
thnh phn tn hiu c ch, to ra xuyn nhiu knh ICI.
khc phc vn ny, gii php th nht l s dng thut ton iu khin
b dao ng iu chnh bi in p VCO; gii php th hai l thc hin x l s
ng b tn s ly mu trong khi gi c nh tn s ly mu.
t lch tn s chun ha trn symbol th l:
72
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

S = FS / FS( receiver )

e j 2l S 1
yl xl
+
j 2l S

Vi N >>:

Vi S <<:

ej 2

x
k
k l

yl xl
(1 j
l +
S )

xk

[k(1+

S)-l]

j 2[k(1+ )-l]
S

k . S
k l

k l
1
42 4
3

nguy n
_nh n
_g y
_nhi
u _ICI

Trong ,

k l cc sng mang con, l sng mang con ang xt.


xk v tr sng mang th k.

3.4.2. ng b tn s sng mang


Mi sng mang con trong symbol OFDM s b lch mt khong tn s l FC
so vi pha pht khi ti pha thu do c s nh hng ca mi trng. V th m s trc
giao gia cc sng mang con b ph v. c th thu c thng tin chnh xc chng
ta phi b li khong dch tn s ny.
Nu vic thc hin ng b khng bo m, hiu sut ca h thng cng nh
u im ca h thng ny so vi h thng thng tin n sng mang gim i ng k.

73
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 3.13 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy nn s mt ng b


Hnh 3.13 cho thy, tt c cc sng mang con u chu nh hng ca s sai
lch tn s sng mang c th coi l nh nhau v mi trng truyn l nh nhau.
t lch tn s chun ha l: C = FC / ( FS / N )
Khong dch tn s cho symbol th l

yl xl .sin c(C )e jC + xk sin c(k l + C ).e j (k l + C )


k l
1
4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 43
nguyn _ nhn _ gy _ nhiu _ ICI

Qua cng thc ta c th thy ng b tn s sng mang trong k thut OFDM


l ht sc quan trng, v nu khng thc hin ng b chnh xc v FC vn khc 0 th
1 sng mang s chu nh hng ca rt nhiu cc sng mang khc v gy ra li nghim
trng.
c th ng b ta phi c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO
(Carrier Frequency Offset).

74
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

75
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Loi b CP v

P/S

Tn hiu

A/D v S/P

thc hin FFT

cao tn
e-j (2 (f c-f frac

liu
ra

Pht hin lch


tn s sng mang
ffrac

f=f(ffrac )

)t+)

Dao ng ti
ch c PLL
(VCO)

X l s

Hnh 3.14 S khi ng b sng mang s dng b dao ng VCO

Chng ta s tm hiu 3 phng php c lng khong dch tn s sng mang


CFO l c lng da vo k hiu dn ng pilot, da vo tin t lp CP v da vo
chnh d liu.
3.4.2.1.

c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO da vo pilot

Mt s sng mang c s dng truyn dn tn hiu pilot thng c chn


l cc tn hiu gi ngu nhin PN. Tnh cht tng quan cao ca chui PN th chng ta
bit, da vo ta s thc hin ng b.
76
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Nguyn l ng b gm 2 giai on: acquisition v tracking.


a) Giai on Acquisition
Khi bt u qu trnh ng b, do chui PN hm cha trong tn hiu thu c
(do qu trnh nhn trc tip dy d liu d(t) vi chui PN khi tri ph phn pht) v
chui PN my thu lch pha nhau, sai pha ny l mt gi tr ngu nhin, phn b u
trong khong t 0 ti (N.Tc) (Tc l rng mt chip), do vy kh nng rt cao l sai
pha ln hn Tc. Khi qu trnh acquisition din ra vi mc tiu l ko cho sai pha
gia chui PN ca my thu v chui PN trong tn hiu thu gim xung cn di mt
Tc. V bn cht, qu trnh ny thc hin tnh tng quan gia chui PN ca my thu
vi chui PN c trong tn hiu thu c. Nu gi tr tng quan cho ny (v cng l
gi tr hm t tng quan vi bin tau chnh l lng sai pha) vn cn bng 0 hoc rt
nh th my thu tip tc dch m PN ca mnh cho ti khi gi tr tng quan cho tnh
c vt qu mt mc cho trc (mt in p ngng no , n nh rng tau
nh hn Tc) th dng qu trnh acquisition, chuyn sang qu trnh tracking (tinh chnh
sai pha tau c ko v 0).
b) Giai on Tracking
thc hin iu chnh tinh, mt mch ng b sm-mun gm 2 nhnh
thng c s dng. V bn cht, y l 2 vng kha pha PLL nhn cng mt tn
hiu li vo, song trn hai nhnh th tn hiu li vo c tnh tng quan vi hai
chui PN to ra cng t cng mt b to m PN song c pha u c lm lch i
+Tc/2 v -Tc/2 mt cch tng ng. Trn u ra ca 2 b tnh tng quan trn hai
nhnh s c cc in p kh ln (do sai pha tau lc ny nh di mt Tc) v khc
nhau. Hiu ca 2 in p ny, sau b lc mch vng, s c s dng iu khin
dch m PN (tc l s iu chnh chnh b to m PN ni trn ca my thu), cc tnh
ca in p hiu s quyt nh chiu dch m nhanh pha ln hay chm pha i. Trong
sut qu trnh iu chnh ny, gi tr tuyt i ca hiu in p ni trn s gim dn,
gim cho ti 0 th chui PN ca my thu hon ton ng b vi chui PN trong tn
hiu thu c. Kt thc qu trnh ng b m PN (hay ng b chip).

77
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

3.4.2.2.

c lng CFO da vo tin t lp CP

Da vo c im ca tin t lp CP l khong d liu c copy t cui chui


d liu ln u chui, ngi ta a ra gii php c lng khong dch tn s sng
mang da vo khong CP ny.

CP

CP
n = N 1

n=0

n =L +1

Hnh 3.15 V tr tin t lp CP

Gi

T l chiu di ca 1 symbol.

= f c .T .

Gi tr tng tng quan xt cho 1 khong d liu c chiu di L (chnh l chiu


di ca khong tin t lp CP) v 1 khong d liu khc cch khong u tin l chiu
di N (l chiu di d liu sau khi IFFT).
L 1

J = y (i ).y (i + N )= e
*

L 1

| y (i ) |

j2

i =0

=i 0

Vy, ta c gi tr c lng:
J*
1
=
arg

2
| J |

Trong ,

J* l gi tr lin hip phc ca J.


Arg[.]: l gi tr bin .

c lng th:
Thc hin ging nh trn vi mt khong d liu ngn hn, y ta chn vi
mt phn t chiu di khong CP, l L/4. Gi tr c lng:

K=

L /41

y (i ).y (i + N ) = e
*

i =0

j 2 /4

L /4 1

| y (i ) |

i= 0

78
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

T y, ta cng s c cng thc c lng:


K*
1
=
arg

4 2
| K |

Gi tr /4 l khng xc nh ra c lng . Mt khc, do chiu di L/4


l qu ngn v s khng chnh xc. V vy, c lng th ch chng ta gi tr ng
ca phn nguyn ca . Kt hp gia c lng th v c lng tinh trn, ta s thu
c c lng khong dch tn s sng mang:
4
K * 1
J*
= arg
arg
+

| K | 2
| J |
2

Trong ,
3.4.2.3.

. l php ly phn nguyn, lm trn xung.

c lng khong dch tn s da trn chnh d liu

Tn hiu pha thu c biu din


S (k ) H
N

y m (n) =

ke

j 2n ( k + ) / N

; n = 0,1,2 N 1

H : p ng xung ca hm truyn t.
Tn hiu thu s c chuyn t min thi gian sang min tn s vi php bin
i FFT:
N 1

Yk = yn e.

j 2k

n
N

n =0

Ta c th tch hai phn sau khi qua FFT:


Y1 ( k ) =

N 1

y
N

m ( n) e

j 2nk

n =0

Y2 (k ) =

1
N

2 N 1

m (n) e

j 2nk

n =N

79
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

N 1

y
N

m ( n +N ) e

j 2nk

n =0

e j 2
N

N 1

m ( n) e

j 2 nk

n =0

Hm c lng:
N 1

Im[ Y
(2
)k Y(1)]
k*

0
=
tan 1 Nk =

1
2

Re[ Y
(2
)k Y(1)]
k
k =0

CP
n= N 1

n = 2N 1

n = N 1

Hnh 3.16 Khung OFDM

Gi tr ch tha mn c lng khi 0,5 , khi >0,5 phi c thc hin


ti mt gi nh ban u.

80
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

3.5.

nh hng ca sai li ng b ti ch tiu cht lng h thng


Ngi ta nh gi nh hng ca s sai li ng b da trn vic xc nh

suy gim ca t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR.

Bng 3.1 Suy hao SNR theo li ng b


Loi/ lng li ng b
Li tn s sng mang 1, knh AWGN

Li tn s sng mang 1, knh fading

suy gim SNR (dB)


D

ES

1 + 0.5947 N sin( )
O

D 10 log
sin e 2

Nhiu pha sng mang, rng 2


Li ng b tn s ly mu f s3 , ti sng
mang ph th n
Li thi gian
Trong ,

10
E
( )2 S
3ln10
NO

11
E
(4 ) S
6 ln10
NO

ES
( )
1 +
3N O

D 10 log

Khng ng k

Es/N0 : l nng lng mi symbol tn hiu trn mt ph cng


sut nhiu.

: l sai lch tn s sng mang.

Da vo bng c th a ra mt s nhn xt:


-

S ng b tn s sng mang gia my pht v my thu nh hng n

ch tiu cht lng h thng nhiu nht (k c knh fading a ng ln knh


nhiu trng AWGN). Suy hao SNR [dB] t l bnh phng vi sai lch tn
s sng mang.
81
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

rng nhiu pha sng mang t l thun vi s lng sng mang. V

vy, suy hao SNR [dB] theo nhiu pha tng ln khi tng s lng sng mang.
-

Suy hao SNR [dB] theo li ng b tn s ly mu ph thuc vo bnh

phng dch tn s ly mu tng i. Ta c th gim thiu li ny bng


vic s dng tn s ly mu pha thu ln gp 4 ln tn s ly mu pha pht.
-

nh hng ca li thi gian s b trit tiu nu dch thi gian nh

sao cho khng lm p ng xung ca knh vt ra ngoi khong thi gian ca


CP.
nh hng ca li ng b thi gian
OFDM chu c li thi gian v c khong bo v gia cc symbol min l
khong bo v di hn tri tr cc i ca hin tng fading a ng. i vi
knh khng c multipath, lch thi gian c th bng khong bo v m khng lm
mt tnh trc giao, ch c s quay pha trong cc ti ph. S quay pha c sa nh
vo s c lng v cn bng knh do vy khng dn n suy gim hiu sut.
nh hng ca li ng b tn s
OFDM nhy cm vi sai li offset v mt tn s. V c bit l li tn s sng
mang do lm mt tnh trc giao nghim trng gia cc sng mang con, dn n can
nhiu gia cc sng mang con, gy nhiu ICI.
Cc li tn s thng do 2 nguyn nhn chnh: do li ca b tao dao ng bn
pht v bn thu khng khp nhau hon ton v do hiu ng Doppler gy lch tn s
khi tn hiu truyn qua knh v tuyn.
Mt lch bt k dn n s quay pha cc vector ti ph thu c. lch
tn cng ln th s quay pha cng ln. Nu knh ch thc hin u mi frame th cc
li tn s s khng c gii quyt, do hiu sut ca h thng s gim dn. Symbol
u tin sau khi b knh s c SNR hiu dng cc i, SNR s gim b cui frame.
Trong mi trng di ng nhiu ngi s dng th vn ny cng phc tp
hn v tn hiu truyn t mi ngi s dng c tn s offset khc nhau. Nu ngi s
dng c ng b tt vi mt BS th vn c lch tn do lch tn Doppler.
lch tn trong kt ni OFDM mt ngi s dng khng phi l vn quan trng v n

82
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

c th c b vi s gia tng ti thiu phc tp ca my thu. Tuy nhin, trong


trng hp nhiu ngi s dng th vn sa li tn l khng n gin.
3.6.

Kt lun
Chng ta va im qua nhng k thut ng b truyn thng trong cc h

thng s dng k thut OFDM. Khu ng b trong mt h thng truyn thng ni


chung v trong h thng truyn thng v tuyn ni ring l mt trong nhng nhim v
v cng quan trng v cn nghin cu thc hin k lng. c bit l i vi h thng
s dng k thut OFDM th k thut ng b hon ho s quyt nh hiu sut ca c
h thng. Chng ta c rt nhiu k thut thc hin ng b trong h thng OFDM.
Tuy nhin, mi trng truyn thng v tuyn l rt phc tp v mi mi trng khc
nhau th tn hiu s chu nh hng khc nhau. V th, nu nghin cu v p dng
c k thut ng b cng tt th ta s c th to c h thng c mc p ng nhu
cu tt hn cho thc t.

83
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Chng 4. K thut ng b trong OFDMA


4.1.

M u
Trong chng ny, chng ta s tm hiu nhng vn c bn, cc c im v

tnh cht ni bt ca k thut a truy nhp phn tn trc giao OFDMA. ng thi
nghin cu c bn vn ng b trong h thng hot ng theo k thut ny. Qua
chng ta c th thy c nhng u im v nhng tn ti ca k thut ny trong h
thng truyn thng v tuyn. T c th ng dng n mt cch ng n.
4.2.

C bn v k thut OFDMA
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) l k thut a truy

nhp phn chia theo tn s sng mang trc giao. y l cng ngh a sng mang
pht trin da trn nn k thut OFDM. Trong OFDMA, mt s cc sng mang con,
khng nht thit phi nm k nhau, c gp li thnh mt knh con (sub-channel) v
cc user khi truy cp vo ti nguyn s c cp cho mt hay nhiu knh con
truyn nhn ty theo nhu cu lu lung c th.
a truy nhp ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA) l mt k
hoch ghp knh/a truy nhp cung cp hot ng ghp knh ca lung d liu t
nhiu ngi s dng trn cc knh con ng xung v a truy nhp ng ln bi
cc knh con ng ln. Nhiu ngi dng cng chia s mt bng tn nn c gi l
OFDMA. Mi ngi dng c th dng mt s sng mang con nh trc hoc thay
i ty theo thng tin cn truyn (s iu khin ny ph thuc vo lp MAC).
OFDMA s dng ging vi k thut OFDM, nhng thm vo chc nng chia
tng s sng mang bng cch s dng tn hiu OFDM gp thnh cc nhm ca cc
84
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

sng mang khng k nhau, m nhng user khc nhau c ch nh cc sng mang
khc nhau. iu ny l cn thit vi vic chia tng s sng mang OFDM cho nhiu
hn mt ngi s dng mt thi im.
OFDMA cho php nhiu ngi dng cng truy cp vo mt knh truyn bng
cch phn chia mt nhm cc sng mang con (subcarrier) cho mt ngi dng ti mt

Hnh 4.1 OFDM


thi im. cc thi im khc nhau, nhm sng mang con cho mt ngi dng cng
khc nhau. OFDMA c dng trong cng ngh mng 802.16e (WiMAX di ng), 3G
LTE,
T hai hnh trn ta thy im khc nhau l OFDMA chia cc subcarrier thnh
tng nhm gi l subchannel (mu sc khc nhau). V mi mt subchannel s dnh
ring cho 1 ngi dng user.
4.2.1. Cc giao thc OFDMA
a) Phn ha knh con

Hnh 4.2 OFDMA


Trong wimax, cc user c cp cc khi sng mang con hn l cc sng mang
con ring bit gim s phc tp cho thut ton cung cp sng mang con v lm n
gin vic nh x cc bn tin. Gi s rng mt user k c cp mt khi L k cc sng
mang con, cc sng mang con ny c th c phn b trn ton bng thng theo m
hnh sp xp sng mang con phn phi, hoc cng mt dy tn s theo m hnh sp
xp sng mang con k cn. u im ca m hnh sp xp sng mang con phn phi l
85
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

tng tnh a dng v mnh m ca bng thng; u im ca m hnh sp xp sng


mang con k tip l tng tnh a dng ca nhiu user.
b) S nh x cc bn tin
cho mi MS bit l nhng sng mang con no c dnh cho n BS pht
qung b thng tin ny trong cc bn tinh DL MAP. Cng nh BS cho mi MS bit
nhng sng mang con no cho n truyn bn tin UL MAP. Ngoi vic cp cc sng
mang con truyn thng UL v DL cho MS th MS cng phi hiu cc burst profile
c s dng cho UL v DL. Burst profile da trn vic o SINR v BLER cho c hai
ng v nhn dng mc thch ng ca s m ha v iu ch.
c) S sp xp
Khi mi MS xc nh khong cch n BS. N quyt nh s ng b cc k
hiu v cn bng mc cng sut thu gia cc MS. Qu trnh ny c gi l s sp
xp. Khi khi u, vic sp xp yu cu BS d on mnh ca knh v thi gian
n ca MS. S ng b ng xung th khng cn thit khi ng ny lun c
ng b trc. Nhng trong ng ln, cc user cn c ng b ti thiu trong mt
chu k khong thi gian chn. Nu khng th nhiu xuyn k t v nhiu gia cc
sng mang s xy ra. Tng t, thng qua iu khin cng sut ng xung c
yu cu gim s can nhiu qua cell khc. iu khin cng sut ng ln tng
thi gian sng ca pin v gim xuyn nhiu gia cc cell.
Trong wimax gm c 4 loi th tc sp xp: khi to, khong chu k, yu cu
bng thng v chuyn giao. Sp xp c thc hin trong 2 hoc 4 k t lin tc m
khng c s kt hp pha, iu ny cho php BS bit mt MS mt ng b, mt kt
ni nh thi rng hn so vi tin t vng. Nu th tc sp xp thnh cng BS gi mt
bn tin p ng sp xp ch th MS iu chnh thi gian offset thch ng, lm ng
tn s offset v thit lp cng sut. Nu sp xp khng thnh cng, MS s tng mc
cng sut v gi mt bn tin sp xp mi tip tc qu trnh ny n khi thnh cng.

86
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

4.2.2. Cu trc k hiu OFDMA v phn knh con

Hnh 4.3 Cu trc sng mang con OFDMA


Cu trc symbol OFDMA gm 3 loi sng mang con nh hnh trn
- Sng mang con d liu (data) cho truyn d liu.
- Sng mang con dn ng (pilot) cho mc ch c lng, cn bng knh v
ng b.
- Sng mang con v dng (null) khng truyn dn; c s dng cho cc
bng bo v v cc sng mang DC.
Cc sng mang con tch cc (d liu v dn ng) c nhm thnh cc tp
con gi l cc knh con. Lp vt l OFDMA 802.16e h tr knh con trong c DL v
UL.
C hai loi hon v sng mang con phn cho knh con: phn tp v lin k.
-

Hon v phn tp a cc sng mang con gi ngu nhin vo dng mt knh


con. N cung cp phn tp tn s v trung bnh ho nhiu gia cc t bo.
Cc hon v phn tp bao gm DL FUSC (sng mang con c s dng
hon ton), DL PUSC (sng mang con c s dng mt phn), UL PUSC
v cc hon v khng bt buc.

Vi DL PUSC, mi cp k hiu OFDM, cc sng mang con kh dng hoc


thch hp c nhm thnh cc cm bao gm 14 sng mang con lin k trn mt chu
87
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

k k hiu, c cp pht pilot v d liu mi cm trong cc k hiu l v chn c


biu din nh trong hnh 4.4.
Cc k hiu chn

Cc k hiu l
Sng mang con d liu
Sng mang con hoa tiu

Hnh 4.4 Knh con phn tp tn s DL


K hoch sp xp li c s dng nhm cc cm sao cho mi nhm c
cu thnh t cc cm c phn b khp khng gian sng mang con. Mt knh con
trong mt nhm gm hai cm v c cu thnh t 48 sng mang con d liu, 8 sng
mang con pilot. Cc sng mang con d liu trong mi nhm c hon v to ra cc
knh con trong nhm. Cc sng mang con d liu trong cm c phn b cho nhiu
knh con.
Tng t vi cu trc cm DL, mt cu trc tile c nh ngha cho UL PUSC
c dng nh hnh 4.6.
Khng gian sng mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tile v 6 tile c
chn qua ton b ph bi k hoch hon v/sp xp li, c nhm li hnh thnh
mt khe. Khe gm c 48 sng mang con d liu v 24 sng mang con pilot trong 3 k
hiu OFDM
Hon v lin k nhm mt khi cc sng mang con lin k hnh thnh mt knh
con. Hon v lin k bao gm DL AMC (m ha v iu ch thch ng ng xung)
v UL AMC (m ha v iu ch thch ng ng ln), v c cu trc tng t.

88
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hinh 4.5 mo hinh AMC


+)

Mt bin gm 9 sng mang con lin k trong mt k hiu, vi 8 sng gn

cho d liu v 1 sng gn cho pilot.


+)

Mt khe trong AMC c nh ngha nh mt tp hp cc bin ca kiu

(NxM=6), trong N l s bin lin k v M l s k hiu lin k. V vy cc t


hp c php l (6 bin / 1 k hiu), (3 bin / 2 k hiu), (2 bin / 3 k hiu), (1 bin
/ 6 k hiu). Hon v AMC cho php phn tp a ngi s dng bi la chn
knh con c p ng tn s tt nht. AMC c s dng cho c ng ln v
ng xung.
K hiu 0
K hiu 1
K hiu 2
Sng mang con hoa tiu

Sng mang con d liu

Hnh 4.6 Cu trc tile cho UL PUSC


Nhn chung, phn tp hon v sng mang con thc hin tt trong cc ng dng
di ng cn hon v sng mang con lin k ph hp trong cc mi trng c nh hoc
tnh di ng thp. Cc s la chn ny cho php nh thit k h thng cn bng tnh di
ng cho thng lng.
89
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

4.2.3. c im
Trong OFDMA, vn a truy nhp c thc hin bng cch cung cp cho
mi ngi dng mt phn trong s cc sng mang c sn. Bng cch ny, OFDMA
tng t nh phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s thng thng (FDMA);
im khc vi chun FDMA l cc sng mang OFDMA cho cc user khc nhau l rt
gn vi nhau v cho php cc sng mang vt l c th thay i t symbol ny n
symbol khc. V n khng cn thit c di phng v ln cn rng nh trong FDMA
tch bit nhng ngi dng khc nhau.
Hnh 4.7 m t mt v d v bng tn s thi gian ca OFDMA, trong c 7

ngi dng t a n g v mi ngi s dng mt phn xc nh ca cc sng mang


ph c sn, khc vi nhng ngi cn li.

t
Hnh 4.7 Th d v OFDMA

90
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Th d ny thc t l s hn hp ca OFDMA v TDMA bi v mi ngi s


dng ch pht mt trong 4 khe thi gian, cha 1 hoc vi symbol OFDM. 7 ngi s
dng t a n g u c t c nh (fix set) cho cc sng mang theo bn khe thi
gian.
OFDMA c mt s u im nh l tng kh nng linh hot, thng lng v tnh
n nh c ci thin.Vic n nh cc knh con cho cc thu bao c th, vic truyn
nhn t mt s thu bao c th xy ra ng thi m khng cn s can thip no, do
s gim thiu nhng tc ng nh nhiu a truy xut (Multi access InterfearenceMAI). Hn na, hin tng cc knh con cho php tp trung cng sut pht qua mt
s lng cc sng mang con t hn. Kt qu ny lm tng s ng truyn dn n
tng phm vi v kh nng ph sng.

Hnh 4.8 ODFM v OFDMA


Trn hnh ch ra s khc nhau c bn gia OFDM v OFDMA l s sp xp
nhiu ngi s dng trong OFDMA vo cc sng mang. S sp xp gn ging vi
FDMA. im khc vi chun FDMA l cc sng mang OFDMA cho cc user khc
nhau l rt gn vi nhau v cho php cc sng mang vt l c th thay i t symbol
ny n symbol khc.
91
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Trong DL c 4 thnh phn m n mang thng tin cho php my thu gii iu ch
tn hiu: preamble, FCH, DL-MAP v UL-MAP.
Preamble
Preamble l bt u ca mi khung downlink. N bao gm cc sng mang
iu ch (BPSK,QAM, ) v c di 1 symbol OFDMA.
Preamble c s dng vo hai mc ch:
- B tr tun t pilot vo trong preamble lm cho n d dng hn cho my
thu trong vic nh gi li tn s v pha v ng b vi my pht. Chng c s
dng nh gi v cn bng knh.
- S sng mang preamble s dng ch ra 3 segment c s dng. Cc Sng
mang 0,3,6... ch ra rng segment 0 l c s dng, cc sng mang 1,4,7... ch ra
segment 1 c dng, v cc sng mang 2,5,8,.. ch ra segment 3 c dng.
FCH
Frame control header(FCH) c iu ch (QPSK, ) v c di 2 symbol
OFDMA. V tr vt l ca trng FCH l c nh, khi trong preamble khng c
thng tin th n s m t a ch.
Ni dung ca FCH m t Subchannel s dng, di ca DL-MAP v cc
tham s truyn dn khc s c cho bn di.
DL-MAP /UL-MAP
DL-MAP (downlink map) m t v tr ca cc burst cha trong Downlink
Zones. N gm s cc downlink burst, di ca chng theo c hng thi gian
(=symbol) v tn s (= subchannel).
UL-MAP (uplink map) c truyn nh burst u tin trong ng
xung(downlink) v gm cc thng tin v v tr ca UL burst cho cc ngi s dng
khc nhau.
Trong OFDM-TDMA v OFDMA, s lng sng mang con thng c gi
bng nhau vi ph c sn. S sng mang con khng thay i dn n khng gian sng
mang con thay i trong cc h thng khc nhau. iu ny lm cho vic chuyn giao
92
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

gia cc h thng gp kh khn. Ngoi ra, mi h thng cn mt thit k ring v chi


ph cao. OFDMA theo t l (SOFDMA) gii quyt cc vn ny bng cch gi cho
khng gian sng mang con khng thay i. Ni cch khc, s sng mang con c th
tng hoc gim vi nhng thay i trong mt bng tn cho trc. V d, nu mt bng
tn 5MHz c chia thnh 512 sng mang con, mt bng tn 10MHz s c chia
thnh 1024 sng mang con.
4.2.4. Phng php ghp (Duplexing)
C hai phng php song cng: song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD (Time
Division Duplexing), song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD (Frequency Division
Duplexing). Trong FDD, qu trnh truyn trao i hai hng hai tn s khc nhau
trong khi TDD th ch s dng mt tn s duy nht nhng li nhng thi gian khc
nhau.
- Khung TDD gm hai phn: downlink subframe v uplink subframe
- FDD cn c 2 knh, mt ng ln (uplink), mt ng xung (downlink).
Vi TDD ch cn 1 knh tn s, lu lng ng ln v ng xung c phn chia
theo cc khe thi gian.

Hnh 4.9 M t v FDD v TDD

93
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

4.3.

Phn tch khung Downlink v phng thc ng b OFDMA


OFDMA rt nhy vi s dch v tn s v thi gian ging nh OFDM vy.

Chng ta s phn tch s ng b khung Downlink s dng k hiu Preamble. Phn


tch r rng v gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca biu thc Metric nh thi.
t gi tr nhng mu Preamble v d liu trong min thi gian tng ng l xp(n) v
xd(n). Khi , tn hiu truyn x(n) c vit li:
x(n) = x p (n);

0 n N + L1

= xd ( n);

n N+L

Tn hiu OFDMA c truyn qua knh la chn tn s. Gi h(n) l p ng


xung ca knh c chiu di L1.
Tn hiu sau khi truyn qua knh:
L1 1

y ( n ) = h (m ) x ( n m )
m =0

Gi s c 1 s dch tn s gia cc b giao ng bn pht v bn thu. Khong


dch tn s sng mang l v s gy ra s quay pha 2n/N. Tha nhn l ly mu
hon ho khng c li v tn s ly mu. Khi , k hiu OFDM thu c s l:
r (n) = e

Trong :

j n + 0
N

y (n) + (n )

0 : gc pha ban u.
(n) : l gi tr trung bnh ca nhiu trng vi phng sai 2

Khng mt tnh tng qut, ta t d l khong v tr bt u tin t lp CP, gi


tr metric v mt thi gian l:
M (d ) =

| P( d ) |
R(d )

94
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vi, P(d) l gi tr tng ca biu thc nhn tng quan gia cc mu CP vi cc mu


cui k hiu:
N 1

P (d ) = r (n + d )r ( N n + d )
n=0

N : s mu trong k hiu thu.


R(d) c lng nng lng ca N mu ang xt pha thu:
N 1

R (d ) = | r (n + d ) | 2
n=0

t
r1 (n) = r (n)r ( N n)
= s1 (n) + 1 (n)

Trong ,

s1 (n) = s (n) s( N n)

1 ( n) = s (n) ( N n) + (n) s( N n) + (n) ( N n)

Phng thc ng b khung vn l tnh ton gi tr metric nh thi, s dng


mt b m cha gi tr tnh ton c. Ta s tm c im u khung v thc hin
ng b nu gi tr v tr trung tm ca b m l ln nht v tha mn ln hn mt
gi tr ngng nht nh. Sau y th ta s kho st s ph thuc gi tr trung bnh (k
vng) v phng sai ( phn tn) ca gi tr metric nh thi trong OFDMA vo
SNR.
Xem xt gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca M(d)
Phng sai l i lng nhm o lng phn tn.
tm gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca M(d) ta s i tm gi tr trung bnh
v phng sai ca |P(d)| v R(d).
95
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

T biu thc :
N 1

N 1

n =0

n= 0

P (d ) = s1(n + d ) + 1(n + d )

Gi tr ln ca P(d) s l:
1

2
2 2
N 1
N 1

N 1

| P (d ) |= s1 (n + d ) + inphase 1 (n + d ) + quadphase 1 (n + d )
n =0

n=0

n=0

Trong ,

inphase (T ) v quadphase (T ) i din cho gi tr pha ca thnh phn T

theo thnh phn l gc ca

N 1

s ( n + d ) . Thnh phn quadphase (T ) l rt nh so

n=0 1

vi thnh phn inphase (T ) nn c th b qua. V:

N 1
N 1

| P (d ) |= s1 ( n + d ) + inphase 1(n + d )
n =0

n=0

Gi tr trung bnh Mean ca |P(d)|


L1 1 L11
l+m

|P| (d ) = E h(l )h(m) PI d

l = 0 m= 0

Trong , PI(d) l P(d) i vi knh l tng khng c nhiu v khng c s lch tn


s.
N 1

PI (d ) = x(n + d ) x( N n + d )
n =0

l + m N 1

PI d
= x (n + d l )x (N n + d m )
2 n=0

96
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Vy, gi tr trung bnh ca metric nh thi ph thuc vo p ng xung ca knh. Nu


p ng xung ca knh u tin l tri nht, h(0) l ln nht th:
|P| ( L) = p h2 (0)

Trong , p l nng lng ca k hiu Preamble:


N 1

p = | x p ( n = L) | 2
n =0

Gi tr trung bnh ca |P(d)| s cho ta gi tr chnh xc ca im u khung v tr


d=L.
-

Phng sai ca |P(d)|

Phng sai ca knh la chn tn s c th vit gn li:


2
N 1

(d ) = E y (n + d ) y ( N n + d )
n=0

N 1
N 1
2
2
+2 E y (n + d ) + 2 E y ( N n + d )
n =0

n =0

2
|P|

N 1

+ N E y (n + d ) y ( N n + d )
n=0

Cui cng ta s thu c biu thc:

2
|P2| ( L) = N 2 x4 |h|4 (0) |h|2 (0) + N 4 2 x2 |h| 2(0) + 2

Gi tr trung bnh ca R(d)


R (d ) p + N 2

Phng sai ca R(d)


R2 (d ) = 2p 2

97
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Thc t, gi tr SNR s quyt nh gi tr = p / N .


2

Cui cng ta s thu c, ti im u khung, gi tr trung bnh ca Metric nh


thi s l:

M ( L) =
|h|2 (0)
1+

Phng sai ca gi tr Metric i vi cc knh la chn tn s:


M 1 (d ) + 2 p2 + N 4 M2 (d ) R2(d ) + 2 p 2
(d ) =
R2 (d ) + 2 p 2
2
M

Trong ,
2
L1 1 L1 1
l+m
2
2

1 (d ) = E h(l ) h(m) PI d

2

l =0 m=0

98
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Chng 5. Xy dng m hnh truyn OFDM qua card m thanh


ca my tnh v kt qu
5.1.

M u
C l ngn ng rt c hiu qu v c a chung nht vit cc phn mm h

thng, mc d n cng c dng cho vic vit cc ng dng. C l mt ngn ng lp


trnh tng i nh gn vn hnh gn vi phn cng v n ging vi ngn ng
Assembler hn hu ht cc ngn ng bc cao. Hn th, C i khi c nh gi nh l
"c kh nng di ng", cho thy s khc nhau quan trng gia n vi ngn ng bc
thp nh l Assembler, l vic m C c th c dch v thi hnh trong hu ht cc
my tnh, hn hn cc ngn ng hin ti trong khi th Assembler ch c th chy
trong mt s my tnh c bit. V l do ny C c xem l ngn ng bc trung. C
c to ra vi mt mc tiu l lm cho n thun tin vit cc chng trnh ln.
Mt u im na ca ngn ng C l cho php ngi lp trnh c th to ra nhng
h thng thi gian thc.
Trong phm vi nghin cu ca n, chng em quyt nh s dng ngn ng C
xy dng chng trnh thu v pht thc hin truyn d liu gia 2 my tnh thng
qua card m thanh. Vi s tr gip ca phn mm Visual Studio C++ 6.0, chng em
xy dng nn giao din hon chnh ca phn mm pha pht v pha thu, gip h
thng thn thin hn vi ngi s dng.

99
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Xy dng m hnh
M ha

16-

file

QAM

Chn

Chn

zeros

pilot

Thc
hin

Chn
GI

IFFT

a ra
sound
card TX

Pha pht
Knh truyn
C nhiu
Pha thu
Ghi

Gii

Loi

li

m 16-

file

QAM

zeros

Tch
pilot

Thc
hin
FFT

Loi
b GI

Thu t
sound
card RX

Hnh 5.1 M hnh truyn dn OFDM


Hnh 5.1 m t m hnh truyn s dng k thut OFDM.
Pha pht: thc hin c file mun truyn di dng nh phn. Sau , ta thu
c dy bit m ha ca file. Gp ln lt thnh nhng nhm ng vi m ha 16QAM l 4 bit v thc hin iu ch 16-QAM. Sau khi thc hin QAM, ta thu c d
liu di dng s o (chnh l biu din d liu di dng bin v pha); thc hin
chn zeros; thm k hiu dn ng pilot; bin i IFFT to thnh cc mu symbol
cha cc sng mang con trc giao nhau; sau chn khong bo v v a d liu ra
card m thanh truyn.
Pha thu: thc hin qu trnh ngc li vi pha pht gii m ghi li thnh
file. Pha thu mun thu c ng d liu trc v khi gii m cn c qu trnh ng
b gia bn pht v bn thu.
Cc thng s ca m hnh truyn s dng OFDM

100
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Bng 5.1 Cc thng s ca m hnh


Tham s
Kch thc FFT (NFFT)
Kch thc d liu (ND)
Khong bo v (GI)
Khong cch chn pilot min thi
gian (D_t)
Khong cch chn pilot min tn
s (D_f)
Phng thc iu ch
Tn s ly mu fs

5.2.

Gi tr
64
48
32
5
1
16-QAM
11025 Hz

Chng trnh truyn OFDM v OFDMA


H thng truyn dn c thc hin vi giao din bn pht v bn thu. Giao

din chia ra thnh cc khu vc gip thn thin vi ngi s dng. C th d dng thay
i theo mun.

Hnh 5.2 Giao din chng trnh pha truyn


101
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 5.2 l giao din ca chng trnh pha truyn


Giao din ha gm c:
-

Menu: cc tc v c bn v gii thiu v chng trnh.

Vng th hin tn hiu tng t ca d liu pha truyn sau khi qua
sound card.

+)

Khu vc iu khin (Control): iu khin, chy chng trnh.


C th chn thc hin vi h thng OFDM hoc OFDMA vi vic chn

tng ng. Chng trnh lp trnh vi OFDMA cu trc l 1 my truyn v 2


my nhn.
+)

Sau khi chn file truyn, chn Transfer bt u truyn file.

Chn Reset thit lp li t u v nt Exit thot chng trnh.


-

Khu vc hin th trng thi ang lm vic ca chng trnh. Hin th cc


thng s u vo ca h thng truyn dn nh:

+)

NFFT (kch thc FFT) mc nh l 64;

+)

M_ary kiu iu ch QAM mc nh l 16-QAM;

+)

N_D l kch thc d liu trn 1 symbol OFDM mc nh l 32 v c


th thay i t 0-NFFT;

+)

GI l chiu di khong bo v c gi tr t 0-NFFT v c th thay i.

+)

Sample_rate l tn s ly mu pha pht c s dng sound card


chuyn tn hiu s thnh tn hiu tng t pht i.

+)

Speed th hin tc truyn d liu ca h thng (kbps).

+)

Status th hin trng thi h thng ang lm vic (nh ang truyn file,
hay dng truyn ).

Hnh 5.3 l giao din ca chng trnh pha thu. Giao din gm c:
-

Khu vc Menu

Khu vc hin th tn hiu tng t thu c t sound card ca my thu.

V 1 hnh nh v chm sao QAM ca tn hiu thu c.


-

Khu vc iu khin: cng gm cc thng s u vo h thng nh bn


pht. Cc gi tr thay i bn pht cng phi thay i theo bn thu th
mi c th gii m ng d liu.
102

Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

+)

Nt iu khin Receiver: bt u thu tn hiu vo sound card phc v


cho vic gii m d liu.

+)

Nt Reset t li ton b gi tr nh mc nh ban u v thc hin


li.

Hnh 5.3 Giao din chng trnh pha nhn


Bn trn l hnh nh ca chng trnh bn pht v bn thu khi mi khi ng,
cha thc hin truyn nhn.
Di y l chng trnh ca chng ta khi thc hin truyn v nhn file.
n gin, chng trnh thc hin truyn v nhn vi nhng file text.
y n gin ta thc hin truyn 1 file text: C:\a.txt. Cc s liu mc
nh v truyn.

103
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 5.4 Giao din pha truyn khi chy tht


y cn ch khi thc hin chng trnh truyn d liu qua sound card ca
my tnh PC, d liu khi a ra card m thanh cn c bin i sao cho gi tr nm
trong khong t -1 n 1. V nu nm ngoi khong ny th sound card s t ct b
phn tha v lm cho d liu truyn i khng cn nguyn vn (b ct nh). V ta s
khng th gii m trong nhng trng hp nh vy.
chng trnh ny ta s dng vic php bin i D/A tuyn tnh. Nu mun h
thng c hiu sut cao, cht lng hn ta c th thc hin bin i phi tuyn, tc l
lng t, ly mu theo mt ca d liu. nhng v tr d liu c s thay i nhiu
th ta lng t, ly mu cng mau. V ngc li.
K thut OFDMA cng c nhiu kiu chn d liu. y, h thng thc hin
m phng trng hp n gin nht l chn theo min tn s. Tc l chia bng tn s
dng ra cho nhng ngi s dng pha pht u nhau. Mi ngi s chim nhng
tn s c nh trong bng.

104
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 5.5 Giao din chng trnh pha nhn khi chy tht
y ta nhn thy tn hiu tng t thu c pha thu gn ging nh tn hiu
pha pht.
Chm sao QAM cng gn vi nhng gi tr l tng ca kiu iu ch 16QAM ta thc hin pha thu. S d c s lch ra nh trn l do c s nh hng ca
nhiu ln tn hiu truyn. Chng ta ch cn lm sao chm sao c nhng im t li
nh pha pht. Sau khi lm trn li gi tr, ta c th gii m ra file ban u.
Kt qu thu c 1 file C:\kq.txt
Chng trnh ph thuc kh nhiu vo vic x l sound card. Mt iu ch l
khi thu v gii m d liu qua sound card, ta cn iu chnh volume thu sao cho tn
hiu c bin khng vt qu gii hn t -1 n 1. V sound card ch nhn nhng gi
tr t -1 n 1 khi thu m thanh. Nu vt qu th d liu s khng c vn ton.
V ta cn t cc thng s u vo ca h thng gia bn pht v bn thu l
ging nhau chng trnh c th hot ng.

105
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

5.3.

Hng pht trin h thng


Do thi gian c hn nn n vn cha th pht trin chng trnh c th

chy theo thi gian thc, cha th nghin cu nhng k thut cao hn trong OFDM.
Nguyn tc thu v gii m file y l: trc khi pht phi bt u qu trnh
thu trc. Bn thu s thc hin thu tn hiu m thanh trong mt khong thi gian nh
trc. Trong khong thi gian ta phi pht xong d liu m bo bn thu c th
nhn c v nhn . Sau khi nhn c d liu t card m thanh, chng trnh thc
hin qu trnh ng b gii m ra file truyn.
C th tip tc pht trin chng trnh c th:
Thu Pht theo thi gian thc nh sau:
-

Bn pht s pht tng khung gm mt s lng symbol OFDM c nh.

Ta phi tnh ton thi gian c th v chnh xc cho vic x l v truyn khung
OFDM ny.
-

Bn thu s thc hin thu tng khung OFDM v thc hin gii m ngay

tng khung . Tnh ton, c lng ra khong thi gian truyn v x l ca


khung ny. Mi ln thu ny ta u phi thc hin qu trnh ng b i vi
khung ny.
-

Bn pht s phi ch trong khong thi gian truyn v x l vi gi thit

khong thi gian ny l c nh. Vi mc cao hn l khong thi gian ny l


c th thay i ng nh thc t l c im thu xa, c im thu gn, ta cn c
s xc minh li t pha thu l thu xong (feedback).
-

Bn thu v bn pht cn c b m thu v b m pht: trong khi truyn

v nhn th pha thu v pha pht c th tn dng thi gian x l d liu


v lu vo b m. Kch thc b m s gp 2 ln khung OFDM mun truyn.
Khung OFDM ny cng nh th chng trnh cng th hin ging chng trnh
thi gian thc, nhng khng c nh qu v x l s kh hn cho vic tnh
ton v thc hin.
Pht trin cc k thut phc tp hn
-

K thut OFDM thch nghi (AOFDM):


+)

c lng cht lng knh

106
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

+)

Chn cc tham s cho qu trnh pht tip theo. V d c th iu

ch thch nghi. i vi knh cht lng cng tt th mc iu ch cng


cao. Cc sng mang trong cng bng con c s dng cng bc iu
ch.

Hnh 5.6 iu ch thch nghi AOFDM


+)
-

Thch nghi theo thng lng c nh.

Hon thin thc hin ng b tinh c v thi gian v tn s


Chng trnh hin ti mi ch thc hin ng b s dng phng php

tng quan ca khong tin t lp. ng b v mt thi gian th ta tm hiu v


ng dng dng chui gi ngu nhin PN thc hin ng b. Chui PN cng
c th to ra t phn cng, dng nhng flipflop nn c th ch to phn cng d
dng. Mun thc hin ng b tinh v mt tn s cn s kt hp gia phn
mm v phn cng. ta c lng ra khong dch tn s v dng vng kha pha
s DPLL thc hin b khong dch . ng b cng chnh xc th vic ta
phi thm zeros bo v, chn pilot nhiu chng nhiu c th gim v hiu
sut ca h thng s tng ln ng k hn.
-

Nghin cu nhng k thut c lng v cn bng knh


C nhiu k thut c lng v cn bng knh c th tm hiu bn cnh

k thut c lng tuyn tnh c s dng trong chng trnh nh: phng

107
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

php s dng b lc p khng (ZF), s dng b lc ti u Wiener (cng l b


lc bnh phng cc tiu MMSE).
-

Thc hin chn pilot c v mt thi gian v tn s


c th m bo d liu truyn t b nh hng nht, pha gii m t

hiu sut tt nht th cn chn pilot c v mt thi gian v tn s. m bo t


nht nh hng ca nhiu ln tn hiu. Tuy nhin, nu chn nhiu qu mc th s
gy lng ph ti nguyn.
-

Nghin cu v ng dng m sa sai vo h thng tng cht lng


ca h thng.
Trong bt k mt h thng truyn thng v tuyn no cng khng th

trnh khi b nh hng bi knh truyn bt nh. V chc chn khi thu d liu
s c li xy ra. Vic nghin cu n cc loi m sa sai v p dng vo h
thng s l cn thit nu mun a ra s dng thc t.
-

Nghin cu to thnh ng dng nhng.


a ra ng dng vo thc t vn l mt vn quan trng cn xem xt.

Thc hin h thng Mimo OFDM


Mc ch cui l c th to mt h thng mng truyn thng v tuyn

ng dng c nhng li ch m OFDM mang li

108
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Kt qu t c

Hnh 5.7 nh file text truyn th nghim


Ta thc hin kim nghim chng trnh vi vic pht 1 file text C:\a.txt:
Kt qu thu c ghi li thnh file C:\kq.txt c ch ra hnh 5.8 bn di
Do ta thc hin vi kch thc d liu l N_D = 32, NFFT=64 nn vic thu
hon ton khng c li. Do kch thc zeros c chn vo bo v, lm cho tn
hiu pht i tng i p nn thu s khng c li.
Nu ta thc hin li h thng vi vic chn N_D ln ln nh N_D = 48 th ta s
thy file thu c li, v khng th gii m ng hon ton nh file pht. V lc ny th
s lng zeros chn bo v l zeros = NFFT-N_D = 16 l hi t m bo cho d
liu bn thu.

109
Nguyn ng Quang _ T5-K50

Hnh 5.8 nh file text thu khi thc hin


5.4.

Kt lun
Chng ta im qua nhng im quan trng nht ca h thng truyn nhn d

liu thc hin qua sound card ca my tnh m chng ti thc hin.Trong iu kin
v kin thc c hn nn h thng mi ch truyn v nhn file text n gin. iu c
bit l nh n gip ta hiu r tt c cc quy trnh ca mt h thng truyn thng v
tuyn ni chung v h thng s dng k thut OFDM ni ring. Mong rng sau ny s
c th pht trin tip h thng ny c th t c kt qu tt hn na.

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KT LUN CHUNG
Xu th tt yu ca cc h thng truyn thng v tuyn tng lai chc chn s s
dng k thut OFDM bi nhng u im ni bt ca n. Ngoi hai c im ni bt l
kh nng chng nhiu ISI, ICI v nng cao hiu qu s dng ph tn, vic s dng
OFDM cn c cc u im l cho php thng tin tc c truyn song song vi tc
thp trn cc knh hp. H thng OFDM chng c nh hng ca fading la
chn tn s v thc hin iu ch n gin, hiu qu nh s dng k thut bin i
FFT. Cc h thng c th ng dng k thut OFDM nh: h thng pht thanh s DAB,
h thng HyperLan/2 (IEEE802.11a), h thng WiMax(IEEE802.16a,e), truyn hnh
s mt t DVB-T v th h di ng th t 4G.
Trong n, em nghin cu r rng v cng ngh OFDM, m hnh h thng
truyn dn d liu s dng k thut OFDM, cch to v thu tn hiu. Ta phn tch
r nh hng ca cc loi nhiu in hnh ISI, ICI n hiu sut h thng v hiu qu
ca k thut OFDM trong vic khc phc cc loi nhiu . n cng nghin cu v
cc k thut ng b trong OFDM nh ng b thi gian, ng b tn s Tuy
nhin, h thng thc hin cha c s tham gia, kt hp vi phn cng nn cha th
kim nghim r cc phng php ng b tinh c nh nghin cu. i su vo vn
ng b th cn nhiu vn kh khn nhng qua y ta phn no hiu nhng
vn chnh trong khu ng b v cch gii quyt chng. Mong rng, trong thi gian
ti em c th pht trin v hon thin nhng ni dung n cha lm c v nghin
cu, khc phc c nhng nhc im ca k thut ny. T p dng a vo s
dng thc t.
Mc d em c gng ht sc nhng do kin thc c hn nn trong n ny
khng th trnh khi nhng sai st, mong rng qua vic thc hin n ny em s c
c nhng kinh nghim hu ch cho mnh sau ny. Mt ln na em xin chn thnh
cm n tt c cc thy, c gip em hon thnh n ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Nguyn Vn c, B sch k thut thng tin s, Tp 2: L thuyt v cc ng
dng ca k thut OFDM, Nxb KHKT H Ni, 2006.
[2] Nguyn Vn c, Nguyn Quc Khng, B sch k thut thng tin s, Tp
4: Thng tin v tuyn, Nxb KHKT H Ni, 2006.
[3] Haiyun Tang, Kam Y. Lau, and Robert W. Brodersen, Synchronization Schemes
for Packet OFDM System, Berkeley Wireless Research Center,2003.
[4] Trn nh Vit H, Nguyn Hong Hi, Lm Vn , Qu trnh truyn sng
VHF/UHF/VIBA v phng php xc nh tn hao truyn sng, [online]:
http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=16444

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