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It seems to us that what we see happening in America is the active promotion of self-righteous aggression and murderous violence. and on the other hand. Puar and Amit S. or another Web site that shows two pictures. the United States is being depicted as feminist and gay-safe by this comparison with Afghanistan.” and V. you can torture Osama bin Laden to death. bitch?” Or think of the Web site where. racism and unexamined notions of citizenship seem to be operative here also. and men in turbans. Bush (let us not forget the fivetofour Supreme Court decision that gave him the presidency). having experienced a castration and penetration of its capitalist masculinity. And indeed. No. you’re a fag.22 The dearth of (white) queer progressive/Left voices is perhaps due to safety issues and real fears that many have about offering up dissenting voices. state. In other words. what we see in the deployment of heteronormative patriotism is. at the same time. M. huh.Whitman College 62725470.” but also to normalize and discipline a population through these very monstrous figures. and the other without— and the photo of him shaven turns out to be O. Spike Petersen locates “nationalism as heterosexism”.doc 7/28/08 3 File Title Queer Theory 1NC – 1/3 Queerness as sexual deviancy is tied to the monstrous figure of the terrorist as a way to otherize and quarantine subjects classified as “terrorists. Simpson. The legend beneath reads. aspects of “homosexuality” have come within the purview of normative patriotism after September 11. 21 What these representations show. brownskinned folks. offers up narratives of emasculation as appropriate punishment for bin Laden. the last torture being sodomy. Jacqui Alexander has written that the “nation disallows queerness. and on the other. Rai Social Text 72. the U. Vol. this portrayal suggests something further still: American retaliation promises to emasculate bin Laden and turn him into a fag. What all these examples show is that the historical connections between heteronormativity as a process and the monstrous terrorist as an object of knowledge have been obfuscated.23 . Though much gender-dependent “black” humor describing the appropriate punishment for bin Laden focuses on the liberation of Afghan women (liberate Afghan women and send them to college or make bin Laden have a sex change operation and live in Afghanistan as a woman— deeply racist. 3. and homophobic suggestions). on the one hand. the quarantining of the terroristmonster-fag using the bodies and practices of a queered other. the incorporation of aspects of queer subjectivity into the body of the normalized nation. 20. “The Empire Strikes Back” or “So you like skyscrapers. So on the one hand. sexist. it also incites violence against queers and specifically queers of color. is that queerness as sexual deviancy is tied to the monstrous figure of the terrorist as a way to otherize and quarantine subjects classified as “terrorists. and in some cases severed: indeed. which have achieved almost holy status in the speeches and comments of our recently enthroned president.S. This promise not only suggests that if you’re not for the war. Copyright © 2002 by Duke University Posters that appeared in midtown Manhattan only days after the attacks show a turbaned caricature of bin Laden being anally penetrated by the Empire State Building. J. yet it is certainly the case that within a national as well as transnational frame. Fall 2002.” Jasbir K. there have been reports from community-based organizations throughout New York City that violent incidents against queers of color have increased. with a series of weapons at your disposal. one of bin Laden with a beard. George W. some queers are better than others. This dual process of incorporation and quarantining involves as well the articulation of race with nation. we believe.

and obscures the network of regional and international political and economic interests that govern such organizations as NOW or even RAWA. function to delimit and contain the kinds of responses that LGBTQ (lesbian. 20. led by Executive Director Patricia Ireland. Puar and Amit S. Bush’s administration has in essence occupied the space of default global feminists in an uncanny continuity with Western liberal feminists.S. Now suddenly condemning the Taliban for their treatment of women. much in the way that terrorism studies positions the relationship of the psyche to the terrorist. and nationalism? In the contemporary discourse and practice of the war on terrorism. who also have been using Afghan women as an “easy icon” in need of feminist rescue (as the successor to female genital surgery). fully sponsored and paid for by the National Organization of Women. “White men saving brown women from brown men. gay. even feminism. the continuities between Bush’s agenda and queer Left. represent liberal feminist human rights practices that are complicit with U. democracy. especially in the use of “culture” and “cultural norms” to obscure economic and political histories. one that Gayatri Spivak once characterized as. now RAWA (Revolutionary Afghan Women’s Association) is being propped up as the saved/savior other: on a speaking tour throughout the United States. but not to the broader racist war itself. yes.S. freedom. . and humanity have come to frame the possibility of thinking and acting within and beyond the nation-state. 3. Jasbir K. we should remember.Whitman College 62725470. and. Fall 2002. In this context. queer) communities can articulate in response to September 11. have a very old colonial legacy. bisexual. As we begin to unearth these historical and discursive reticulations.S. Vol. how can queers of color both here and across the globe disrupt the neat folding in of queerness into narratives of modernity. we see how the dominant media are using the figure of the burkha-ed woman in what are often racist and certainly chauvinistic representations of the Middle East. feminist. No. (This is not to minimize the work of RAWA. These representations. If we are to resist practically the “war effort” and the Us/Them and “you’re either with us or against us” rhetoric. patriotism. We must pose questions that allow us to construct practical solidarities with domestic and international communities and movements. and South Asian diasporic and even South Asian queer diasporic positions are rather stunning.25 Clearly.27 While initially Afghan women were completely absent from media representation and discussion. Rai Social Text 72. ignores the relative privilege and access of resources that RAWA’s members have in relation to the majority of women in Afghanistan. and more.)28 Another historical memory must organize our practice. transgender. humanitarianism.doc 7/28/08 4 File Title Queer Theory 1NC – 2/3 We must pose questions that allow us to construct practical solidarities with domestic and international communities and movements. Copyright © 2002 by Duke University Queer Left voices have also pointed out that the treatment of women by the Taliban extends to homosexuality. along with first lady Laura Bush and the former duchess of York Sarah Ferguson.24 When a U. but to point out that the fetishizing of RAWA erases other women’s groups in the region. Enterprise had scrawled upon it “Hijack This Fags. which is punishable by public stoning in Afghanistan.”26 Furthermore. The Feminist Majority (headed by Eleanor Smeal). we must disarticulate the ties between patriotism and cultural and sexual identity.S. All of these examples. If Western feminism has been complicit with certain forms of imperial and nationalist domination. we must not lose sight of the shared histories of the West’s abnormals.” national gay and lesbian rights organizers objected to the homophobia of this kind of nationalist rhetoric. Navy bomb aboard the U. a hegemonic struggle is being waged through the exclusionary and normative idioms of patriotism. nationalism as well as older forms of colonialist missionary feminist projects. how can feminists of color in the United States as well as “Third World” feminists (such as RAWA) undermine and displace these dominant agendas? If certain forms of queer and progressive organizing remain tied to forms of nationalist and imperial domination.

self-consciously demonized (as devils) as they are by contemporary sectarian groups. for enduring personal and ethical meaning and value in living. prof. in their nature. radically discontinuous with anything recognizably human. must be kept in the sphere consistent with their inhumanity. as morally inferior. are deemed subculturally nonhuman or inhuman: an alien species incapable of the humane forms of culture that express and sustain our inexhaustibly varied search. the intellectual reign of terror that once aimed to impose racism and anti-Semitism on the larger society and even on these stigmatized minorities themselves today aims to enforce homophobia at large and self-hating homophobia in particular on homosexuals as weU.’ homosexuals. . unjustly distorts the idea of human rights applicable to both public and private life. in effect. 1998 (Women.J. In similar fashion. can or should identify.Whitman College 62725470.doc 7/28/08 5 File Title Queer Theory 1NC – 3/3 Heteronormativity destroys value to life and marks queers as less than human David A. a culturally constructed and imagined diabolic hell to which gays and lesbians must be compulsively exiled on the same irrationalist mythological terms to which societies we condemn as primitive exiled devils and witches and werewolves. the evil of homophobic prejudice is its degradation of homosexual love to the unspeakably private and secretive not only politically and socially. but an unspeakably and inhumanly evil sphere. Richards. thus marked off as ineligible for the central institutions of intimate life and cultural transmission. as a separate species. 287 Gays and lesbians are thus culturally dehumanized as a nonhuman or inhuman species whose moral interests in love and friendship and nurturing care are. a different species. but intrapsychically in the person whose sexuality is homosexual. merely a morally inferior sphere. 348-349) A way of making this point is to observe that homophobic prejudice. under pain of ascribed membership in such a devalued species. as free moral persons.289 Groups. were confined as.283 The political evil of sexism expressed itself in a morally degraded interpretation of private life to which women. to an inferior sphere). The political evil of racism expressed itself in a contemptuous interpretation of black family life (enforced by antimiscegenation laws that confined blacks. like racism and sexism.8 which unjustly constructs the inhumanity of homosexual identity on the basis of exactly the same kind of vicious circle of cultural degradation unjustly imposed on African Americans through antimiscegenation laws. Such degradation constructs not. of Law at NYU. pg. Gays and the Constitution. legitimating the uncritically irrationalist outrage at the very idea of gay and lesbian marriage.2 Its vehicle is the denigration of gay and lesbian identity as a devalued form of conscience with which no one. as in the case of gender. The culture of such degradation is pervasive and deep.

. and half the population. there would be no such clash.’ Loren Eisley implied it when he wrote of man that ‘his back aches. ‘the Kinsey reports on the activities of the American male surely affect his self-image in this regard . ruptures easily and has difficulties in giving birth. But the human species does a great deal more than make wars and play football. we encounter this clash of images. yet what happens . If man did encompass female imagery. Alma Graham has also done research in this area and indicates that many males ‘give themselves away’. Everyone knows that man embraces woman.‘ If these writers had been using man in the sense of the human species rather than males.when. would have an’ image of female to accompany the symbol he/man. at least in our society. food and access to the opposite sex. the sexist assumption that man is a species of males becomes the fact.. has been labelled ‘passive’ rather than aggressive. The human species also produces children and cares for them.) ‘As far as sexuality goes. That males do not see females in the symbol he/man is an hypothesis that has been put to the test and has been supported. ‘Are you including women in your discussion of mankind?’ — they are frequently treated as unreasonable.) The introduction of he/man into the structure of the language has helped to ensure that neither sex has a proliferation of female images: by such means is the invisibility of the female constructed and sustained in our thought systems and our reality. he ruptures easily.’ he continued. Erich Fromm certainly seemed to think so when he wrote that man’s ‘vital interests’ were ‘life. This test is not difficult to undertake and it yields some interesting data. The ‘slips’ where speakers reveal that it is male and male-only imagery which accompanies he/man are not isolated and rare.. 1985. Like the statement from Elaine Morgan that the first ancestor of the human race had not yet developed her mighty brain when she descended from the trees. referring to women as well as to men.‘ (It becomes clear that the reference has been masculine all along. It is because man evokes male imagery that the very statement of Graham’s that ‘man has• difficulties in giving birth’ strikes us as unusual. thought — and reality — and it was a male-only image. On the other hand if man does mean male then there will be a violation of the semantic rules when the term is applied to activities that are uniquely female. if man does represent the species then the symbol should be applicable to the activities of all human beings.doc 7/28/08 6 File Title Gendered Language Shell 1/2 The He/man rhetoric of the affirmative makes women invisible and inscribes the boundaries of debate as a heteronormative and exclusive space Dale Spender is the editor of The Education Papers. but also because in the process of gathering that information — for example. This provides another means for testing the validity of the assertion that man includes woman. they would have written that man’s vital interests are life. Man Made Language second edition. As Muriel Schulz indicates.. food.~we use man to refer to these equally human activities? Can we say without a clash of images that man devotes more than forty hours a week to housework or that . access to females etc. as many examples can illustrate.Whitman College 62725470. for even while they are protesting that they are including females their usage reveals quite the opposite (‘975:62): In practice. If female imagery impinged at all upon the thought processes of the following lecturer — who was delivering a lecture entitled ‘The Images of Man’ — he would not have been able to make the statements that he did (1978:1): How does Man see himself? As a salesman? A doctor? A dentist?’ (So far the speaker could be using Man generically. but their efforts are not always viewed in this light and on more than one occasion I have been treated as ‘stupid’ when I made the reasonable request to determine whether I was included in a reference. his women have difficulties in childbirth . 154-157 It is not just that women do not see themselves encompassed in the symbol he/man: men do not see them either. Given the ambiguity of the symbols he/man for women. it is most reasonable to clarify the context.’ Everyone might be told that man embraces woman but everyone certainly does not operate this rule. my experience has been that of being patronizingly informed on many occasions that ‘Of course I mean women as well when I say men: it’s just a figure of speech. 4The effect of this rule that means woman is to put women on the ‘defensive’ — not just because they are required to glean additional information. and that man suffers backaches. We can say that ‘man makes wars’ and that ‘man plays football’ and that ‘he is an aggressive animal’ without there being any clash of images even though we recognize that such statements generally only apply to half the population. Muriel Schulz (1978) examined the writings of many leading sociologists — past and present — who ostensibly included females in their analyses of mankind and she found that in many instances there was a consistent image in language. (It is unlikely that any male. pg. for few writers/speakers who are concerned with mankind would make specific statements that they do not include women. Theoretically. on the contrary. examples abound in almost any collection of reputable writings. not just those in Martyna’s sample.) It is these unintentional disclosures which are an index to the imagery which is operating.

doc 7/28/08 7 File Title man lives an isolated life when engaged in child rearing in our society? A note of discord is struck by these statements and it is because man — despite the assurance of male grammarians — most definitely means .Whitman College 62725470.

the central. males were able to take another step in ensuring that in the thought and reality of our society it is the males who become the foreground while females become the blurred and often indecipherable background.doc 7/28/08 8 File Title Gendered Language Shell 2/2 male and evokes male imagery. It reinforces the belief of the dominant group. Such a small ‘device’. The joke is the incongruity which is inherent in man performing a specifically female task. (Miller and Swift. and not just metaphorically. Through the use of he/man women cannot take their existence for granted: they must constantly seek confirmation that they are included in the human species. (Elaine Morgan. There would be no joke at all if man were a genuine generic and included the female instead of being a pseudo. 1976: 25—6): One may be saddened but not surprised at the statement ‘man is the only primate that commits rape. such a little ‘tampering’ with the language — but with what enormous ramifications for the inequality of the sexes! Through the introduction of he/man. I would suggest that if it were ordinarily possible to make statements such as ‘man has been engaged in a constant search to control his fertility’. important category so that even those who are not members of the dominant group learn to accept this reality. including evolutionary ones. 1972. the ‘joke’ is on women who have been systematically eliminated from language. This is literally a man-made product which serves to construct and reinforce the divisions between the dominant and muted groups. we can construct our theories of the past. It predisposes us to see more male in the world we inhabit. it is nevertheless semantically acceptable. He/man makes males linguistically visible and females linguistically invisible. for example. males. . It promotes male imagery in everyday life at the expense of female imagery so that it seems reasonable to assume the world is male until proven otherwise. effects of he/man language are considerable — though different —for both sexes. formulating explanations that are consistent only with male experience. But ‘man being a mammal breastfeeds his young’ is taken as a joke. project male images on to our past and allow females to go unnoticed. shows just what different knowledge is constructed when a female image is kept in the foreground.’ Although as commonly understood it can apply to only half the human population. we would have a very different language and a very different reality.generic. and consequently from thought and reality. are the universal. We would have one where females were visible — and audible — and we would not be able to divide the sexes into dominant/ muted groups.) He/man also makes women outsiders. so that we can.Whitman College 62725470. that they. Unfortunately.

Fall 2002. the anxiety and the monster are born of the same modernity. and the widespread detention of noncitizens. .Whitman College 62725470. 20. more docile modernity.43 Moreover. We have argued that the monster-terrorist-fag is reticulated with discourses and practices of heteronormative patriotism but also in the resistant strategies of feminist groups. This genealogy takes on a particular urgency given the present disarray of the antiwar Left. So that even if the long-time surveillance of African American and Caribbean American communities might have let up a bit after September 11.doc 7/28/08 9 File Title Uniqueness – Being Recreated Now Monster-terrorist-fag is reticulated with discourses and practices of heteronormative patriotism Jasbir K. new “border” hysteria. what transformations are we witnessing in the construction of the terrorist-monster? What innovations and reelaborations open new vistas to dominant and emergent forces in the hegemonic politics of the war on/of terrorism? The return of the monster today has enabled a multiform power to reinvest and reinvent the fag. and communities of color. We suggest that all such strategies must confront the network of complicities that structure the possibilities of resistance: we have seen how docile patriots. and connections between white progressives and communities of color. debate. Rai Social Text 72. and even the nation itself in the interests of another. queer communities. even as they refuse a certain racist positioning. Puar and Amit S. these questions of discipline and normalization serve to foreclose the possibilities of solidarities among and within communities of color. the Patriot Act. Vol. contribute to their own normalization and the quarantining of those they narrate themselves against. between Sikhs and Muslims or among Sikhs who inhabit different class locations. the citizen. Copyright © 2002 by Duke University We have sought to show how the uncanny monster-terrorist-fag is both a product of the anxieties of heteronormative civilization and a marker of the noncivilized—in fact. No. 3. as well as the lack of communication. especially those implicated by changing immigration laws. the turban. for instance. If contemporary counterterrorism discourses deploy tropes and technologies with very old histories rooted in the West’s own anxieties of otherness and normality. what we see is the legitimation and expansion of techniques of racial profiling that were in fact perfected on black bodies.

doc 7/28/08 10 File Title Link – Modernist Epistemology The affirmative functions within a matrix of heteronormativity that produces a violent form of subjectivity. rather. This zone of uninhabitability will constitute the defining limits of the subject’s domain. 368. strictly speaking. We must challenge this epistemology to avoid zones of uninhabitability Judith Butler is Professor of Comparative Literature and Rhetoric at the University of California at Berkeley. ed. (4) a rethinking of the process by which a bodily norm is assumed. and (5) a linking of this process of “assuming” a sex with the question of identification. appropriated. after all. taken on as not. This exclusionary matrix by which subjects are formed thus requires the simultaneous production of a domain of abject beings. such that the matter of bodies will be indissociable from the regulatory norms that govern their materializaiton and the signification of those material effects.” is formed by virtue of having gone through such a process of assuming a sex. undergone by a subject. the subject is constituted through the force of exclusion and abjection. In this sense. but as a cultural norm which governs the materialization of bodies. The abject designates here precisely those “unlivable” and “uninhabitable” zones of social life which are nevertheless densely populated by those who do not enjoy the status of the subject. Autobiography. but. which is.Whitman College 62725470. an abjected outside. 1998 At stake in such a reformulation of the materiality of bodies will be the following: (1) the recasting of the matter of bodies as the effect of a dynamic of power. it will constitute that site of dreaded identification against which – and by virtue of which – the domain of the subject will circumscribe its own claim to autonomy and to life. but whose living under the sign of the “unlivable” is required to circumscribe the domain of the subject. but rather that the subject the speaking “I. pg.” 1993 in Women.” but who form the constitutive outside to the domain of the subject. . Theory: A Reader. those who are not yet “subjects. (2) the understanding of performativity not as the act by which a subject brings into being what she/he names. (3) the construal of “sex” no longer as a bodily given on which the construct of gender is artificially imposed. one which produces a constitutive outside to the subject. and with the discursive means by which the heterosexual imperative enables certain sexed identifications and forecloses and/or disavows other identifications. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. “Introduction to Bodies that Matter. then. as that reiterative power of discourse to produce the phenomena that it regulates and constrains. “inside” the subject as its own founding repudiation.

“Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of ‘Postmodern’. ed. Butler and Scott. once it is understood that subjects are formed through exclusionary operations. 1992 For the subject to be a pregiven point of departure for politics is to defer the question of the political construction and regulation of the subject itself. populations erased from view. it becomes politically necessary to trace the operations of that construction and erasure. that is. . the oppressor or the oppressed. This becomes clear.Whitman College 62725470.doc 7/28/08 11 File Title Link – Policy The notion of the pregiven subject embodied by the affirmative is a dangerous and violent political strategy.' How do we theorize the exclusion of women from the category of the oppressed? Here the construction of subject positions works to exclude women from the description of oppression. an otherwise compelling call for radical enfranchisement. Here it becomes quite urgent to ask. one that is effected by the very erasure that grounds the articulation of the emancipatory subject. a claimant in sex discrimination or rape cases. for instance. pg. the category of women falls into neither category. through the creation of a domain of deauthorized subjects. We must trace the operations of our construction as subjects Judith Butler is a professor of Gender Studies at UC Berkeley. quite literally. and this constitutes a different kind of oppression. presubjects. in a social theory like Albert Memmi's The Colonizer and the Colonized.” what systematic structures of disempowerment make it impossible for certain injured parties to invoke the “I” effectively within a court of law? Or less overtly. for it is important to remember that subjects are constituted through exclusion. figures of abjection. 13-14. who qualifies as a “who. within the law when certain qualifications must first be met in order to be. As Joan Scott makes clear in Gender and the Politics of History.” in Feminists Theorize the Political.

The effort to characterize a feminine specificity through recourse to maternity. presuming that that guarantee of solidarity is required in advance. under current social circumstances. “Contingent Foundations: Feminism and the Question of ‘Postmodern’. whether biological or social. produced a similar factionalization and even a disavowal of feminism altogether. and as such. But this necessity needs to be reconciled with another.Whitman College 62725470. For surely all women are not mothers. there is resistance and factionalization within the very constituency that is supposed to be unified by the articulation of its common element. The minute that the category of women is invoked as describing the constituency for which feminism speaks.doc 7/28/08 12 File Title Link – “Woman” This politics destroys feminism as a political movement and inevitably excludes subjectivities that feminism purports to liberate Judith Butler teaches Gender Studies at UC Berkeley. I would argue that any effort to give universal or specific content to the category of women. some choose not to be. Identity categories are never merely descriptive. and in this country. some are too young or too old to be. Surely. lobbying efforts are virtually impossible without recourse to identity politics. that is the way in which representational politics operates. 15-16. some cannot be.” in Feminists Theorize the Political. 1992 Within feminism. but always normative. and then there are others who understand maternity to be a social relation that is. . and I would not contest that necessity. and that that "we" that was meant to solidify the movement was the very source of a painful factionalization. an internal debate invariably begins over what the descriptive content of that term will be. that is not necessarily the rallying point of their politicization in feminism. Butler and Scott. and for some who are mothers. But every time that specificity is articulated. In the early 1980s. exclusionary. and that "identity" as a point of departure can never hold as the solidifying ground of a feminist political movement. will necessarily produce factionalization. the specific and cross cultural situation of women. And there are those who seek recourse to Gilligan and others to establish a feminine specificity that makes itself clear in women's communities or ways of knowing. ed. it seems as if there is some political necessity to speak as and for women. pg. There are those who claim that there is an ontological specificity to women as childbearers that forms the basis of a specific legal and political interest in representation. So we agree that demonstrations and legislative efforts and radical movements need to make claims in the name of women. the feminist "we" rightly came under attack by women of color who claimed that the "we" was invariably white.

Puar and Rai (2002) adopt a queer approach that goes beyond a narrow focus on homosexual subjects to consider the construction of normative and non-normative identities and practices. ‘The remaking of a model minority’. (2008) 0:89-103 In ‘Monster. terrorist. sexualized constructions through which the ‘war on terror’ functions is required in place of declarations of unity based on presumptions that ‘they are just like us’ . They argue that the racialized figure of the ‘Muslim terrorist’ is simultaneously sexualized such that ‘queerness as sexual deviancy is tied to the monstrous figure of the terrorist as a way to otherize and quarantine subjects classified as “terrorists”’ (2002: 126). queer communities. Puar and Rai (2004) continue their analysis of ‘the network of complicities that structure the possibilities of resistance’ (2002: 140) and challenge ‘the facile invocation of a false unity’ (2004: 86) that too often characterize strategies of solidarity across difference.doc 7/28/08 13 File Title Link – Terrorism The Aff’s discourse about terrorism is a form of structural violence Natalie Oswin. this sexually perverse. fag’. In other words. Critical geographies and the uses of sexuality: deconstructing queer space. 1. progress in human geography 32. and communities of color’ (2002: 140). At the same time. the USA is depicted as a feminist and gay-friendly safe-haven against an uncivilized Taliban that persecutes womenand homosexuals. Puar and Rai powerfully argue that ‘the monster-terrorist-fag is reticulated with discourses and practices of heteronormative patriotism but also in the resistant strategies of feminist groups. In their follow-up article. no. they suggest that the ‘communication of singularities that must be the new thought of solidarity’ (2004: 88). racialized fi gure has been a tool for the normalization and disciplining of domestic gay and lesbian politics.Whitman College 62725470. As an alternative to this fl awed identity politics. Thus while emasculation is offered up as appropriate punishment for bin Laden. careful attention to the specific racialized.

there is the “anarchic-ideologue. According to Post. Consequently.15 Post argues for two terrorist personality types. First.” During childhood. 20. in this discourse.” This is the terrorist who has experienced serious family dysfunction and maladjustment. Post suggests. Fall 2002. 3.doc 7/28/08 14 File Title Link – Terrorism People become terrorists because they fail to normalize. an act of dissent against parents loyal to the regime. and the violations of terrorism. which is in fact part of the West’s own heterosexual family romance— a narrative space that relies on the normalized. Copyright © 2002 by Duke University University Press.” Second. there is the terrorist personality type known as the “nationalist-secessionist”— apparently the name indicates “a sense of loyalty to authority and rebellion against external enemies. two (Post and Jones & Fong). an implicit but foundational supposition structures this entire discourse: the very notion of the normal psyche. especially against the father. is a symptom of the deviant psyche.” he was underscoring this fraught relationship between (hetero)sexuality. the terrorist enters this discourse as an absolute violation. So when Billy Collins (the 2001 poet laureate) asserted on National Public Radio immediately after September 11: “Now the U. domestic space of desire supposedly common in the West. and that process time and again is tied to the failure of the normal(ized) psyche.S. has lost its virginity. the very notion of normalized psyche is the West's heterosexual family romance narrative space Jasbir K. a terrorist of this personality type experienced a sense of compassion or loyalty toward his or her parents. giving the individual a poor sense of self and a resentment of authority. the nation. Terrorism. Anarchic-ideologues fight “against the society of their parents . As a leading light in the constellation of “terrorism experts. depending on the specific quality of those childhood experiences. an act of loyalty to parents damaged by the regime. Rai Social Text 72. which lead to rebellion against parents. As Ruby notes. No. normality.” Both the anarchic-ideologue and nationalist-secessionist find “comfort in joining a terrorist group of rebels with similar experiences.Whitman College 62725470. . or the failed psyche. .” Jerrold Post has proposed that terrorists suffer from pathological personalities that emerge from negative childhood experiences and a damaged sense of self. . . “Its supporters differ in whether they propose one (Kaplan).” 16 The personality defect model views terrorists as suffering from personality defects that result from excessively negative childhood experiences. they rebel “against society for the hurt done to their parents . Puar and Amit S. Vol. Indeed. nationalistsecessionists have pathologically failed to differentiate between themselves and the other (parental object). the psyche gone awry. or three (Strentz) personality types.”17 What all these models and theories aim to show is how an otherwise normal individual becomes a murderous terrorist. even if perverse. .

globalization. And for as long as non-heterosexuals are discriminated against. Once we dismiss the presumption that queer theory offers only a focus on ‘queer’ lives and an abstract critique of the heterosexualization of space. critical race and materialist approaches will most certainly help to ask new questions and illuminate a broader range of critical possibilities. 1. Critical geographies and the uses of sexuality: deconstructing queer space. immigration. (2008) 0:89-103 The experiences of non-heterosexuals are no longer excluded within critical geographical work. . genderings and classed processes take place.doc 7/28/08 15 File Title Alternative – Rethinking Queerness These assumptions can be destroyed by reexamining our thoughts on queer theory Oswin. public health. progress in human geography 32. This important change is undoubtedly the result of various disciplinary engagements with queer theory. So there is certainly a need for the recent geographical readings of queer spaces that help us understand queer cultural politics as contested sites in which racializations. bisexual or transgendered lives. Much of the work that I have highlighted adopts a queer approach to such issues as transnational labour flows. domesticity. queer spaces will remain something that. we can utilize it to deconstruct the hetero/homo binary and examine sexuality’s deployments in concert with racialized. geopolitics and poverty. queers cannot not want. Queering our analysis thus helps us to position sexuality within multifaceted constellations of power. There are also other geographical uses for queer theory. no. Natalie. lesbian. It demonstrates the use of queer theory to these central concerns of critical geography far beyond analysis of their relationship to gay. to borrow Spivak’s phrase. As critical geographers seek to understand these constellations. feminist. the advancement of a queer approach alongside postcolonial. diaspora. classed and gendered processes.Whitman College 62725470.

Is purely Platonic. Currently the passions of adhesion-love (whether homosocial. citizenship. But the rallying cry of lesbian and gay demonstrations-"an army of lovers cannot fail" belies this sublimation/denial. but also for new arrangements of passions. the adhesive passions are reserved for the "private" world unless they can be marshaled to inspire unthinking support for government policy. While all social movements must build on adhesive passions to form circles of solidarity. 2001 (Sexual Strangers: Gays Lesbians and Dilemmas of Citizenship. most movements continue to deny the bodily and sexual components of those passions. and other "masculine" passions. Not only are gays and lesbians marked by their eroticism. Rather than building a foundation for republican government. This does not mean that queers "don't do" anger. . Queering citizenship will require a refocusing of the passions of citizenship. as liberals might hope and their critics might charge. fear. The love of co-protesters. or other "masculine" passions. Prof. Sci. The democratizing force of "emotions" described by Nicholson must be combined with an "ethos of pluralization" to foster not only attention and respect for emotions in others. anger." Americans must seek out the strange and the unexpected in themselves and others. but they are manipulated and interlaced with fear. p. Rather than becoming "virtually normal. using them to overcorne fears and angers that have been the signature passions of our times. and bodies reside in our conceptions of what passions are appropriate in which areas of Our lives. The masculine republican citizen must give way to a citizen neither infantile nor stereotypically feminine. or all of these). desire-are slotted into compartments that hide their force in the construction of a common world. 161162) The hidden links among kinship.doc 7/28/08 16 File Title Alternative – Embrace Eroticism Queering citizenship requires an embracement of the eroticism that is always already present in politics Shane Phelan. we might say. but capable of acknowledging and thriving on the adhesive passions. queers who avow this eroticism in public (and not just the sanitized or regulated kinship forms through which the flow of eroticism Is authorized) begin to demonstrate the presence of this eroticism in all collective endeavors. And it is precisely their inevitable visibility in lesbian and gay politics that makes that politics so viscerally unnerving for so many. arrogance. They arc not absent. familial. UNM.Whitman College 62725470. Queer citizenship must make room not only for a spectrum of bodies and comportments. Sexual. Pol. but a new receptiveness to the play of unruly passions in Ourselves. empathy. but rather that they combine them in ways that do not disavow their links to adhesive passions.

Such degradation constructs not. must be kept in the sphere consistent with their inhumanity.289 Groups. as a separate species. In similar fashion.’ homosexuals. The culture of such degradation is pervasive and deep.283 The political evil of sexism expressed itself in a morally degraded interpretation of private life to which women. a different species. 348-349) A way of making this point is to observe that homophobic prejudice. radically discontinuous with anything recognizably human. thus marked off as ineligible for the central institutions of intimate life and cultural transmission.doc 7/28/08 17 File Title Impact – NV2L Heteronormativity destroys value to life and marks queers as less than human David A. unjustly distorts the idea of human rights applicable to both public and private life. . the intellectual reign of terror that once aimed to impose racism and anti-Semitism on the larger society and even on these stigmatized minorities themselves today aims to enforce homophobia at large and self-hating homophobia in particular on homosexuals as weU. in their nature. for enduring personal and ethical meaning and value in living.8 which unjustly constructs the inhumanity of homosexual identity on the basis of exactly the same kind of vicious circle of cultural degradation unjustly imposed on African Americans through antimiscegenation laws. to an inferior sphere). like racism and sexism. but intrapsychically in the person whose sexuality is homosexual. as free moral persons. 1998 (Women. legitimating the uncritically irrationalist outrage at the very idea of gay and lesbian marriage.2 Its vehicle is the denigration of gay and lesbian identity as a devalued form of conscience with which no one. prof. merely a morally inferior sphere. but an unspeakably and inhumanly evil sphere. self-consciously demonized (as devils) as they are by contemporary sectarian groups. the evil of homophobic prejudice is its degradation of homosexual love to the unspeakably private and secretive not only politically and socially. a culturally constructed and imagined diabolic hell to which gays and lesbians must be compulsively exiled on the same irrationalist mythological terms to which societies we condemn as primitive exiled devils and witches and werewolves. Gays and the Constitution. of Law at NYU. pg. in effect. as morally inferior. are deemed subculturally nonhuman or inhuman: an alien species incapable of the humane forms of culture that express and sustain our inexhaustibly varied search. can or should identify. Richards. as in the case of gender.Whitman College 62725470. were confined as. under pain of ascribed membership in such a devalued species.J. The political evil of racism expressed itself in a contemptuous interpretation of black family life (enforced by antimiscegenation laws that confined blacks. 287 Gays and lesbians are thus culturally dehumanized as a nonhuman or inhuman species whose moral interests in love and friendship and nurturing care are.

a celebration of what it was to be a woman. The debates within the women’s movement concerning whether transsexual women were really women (see chapter 9) and within gay and lesbian conferences concerning whether bisexual people were gay or straight were examples of such policing in operation. This can take the form of ostentatious displays of same-sex desire. So. to show their lack of naturalness and inevitability and to celebrate transgressions from them. for example of those who adopted butch/femme identifications and roles within erotic encounters.doc 7/28/08 18 File Title AT: “’Queer’ is Offensive” Our use of the term queer is consistent with a just and transgressive politics Rachel Alsop. first.Whitman College 62725470. However. 2002 (Theorizing Gender. juxtapositions of supposedly distinct masculine and feminine characteristics (macho men in tutus). For those activists who have reappropriated the term ‘queer’. the maintenance of which creates boundaries which need to be policed. political lesbianism being predominantly white and middle class (see the discussion in chapter 5). . Its contemporary use within political activism and consequently academic theory is therefore a conscious reclaiming and resignification of the term to put it to use in a positive and productive way. One such strand (compare LeVay in chapter 1) was to suggest that homosexuality was itself a natural category. It was/is used as a derogatory term for homosexual people. This was an invisibility which was also marked in class and race terms. given with biology and therefore deserving of the political recognition and respect attaching to heterosexuality. For those activists that reappropriated the concept ‘queer’. both naturalizing accounts of homosexuality and overtly feminist identifications within the lesbian movement excluded the experiences of large numbers of people wh0 equally failed to fit within the dominant norms of heterosexuality. more was required than to make visible same-sex desire. al. who in response to a psychoanalytic tendency to identify lesbians as mannish women. Queer politics therefore works to visibly challenge norms. heterosexuality occupies pride of place (see chapter 6). Within the norms which govern our everyday notions of femininity and masculinity. et. were insisting on women loving women as a key manifestation of feminism. Another problematic strand of thinking was found in parts of the lesbian community. The goal is to open up possibilities which our dominant discourses on sex and gender foreclose and which have also been missing from a gay and lesbian movement concerned to delimit its boundaries. such a view could often render invisible experiences within other parts of the lesbian community. however. There were strands of thinking about sexuality and identity within parts of the gay and lesbian movement which were themselves problematic. They therefore argue for the breaking down of both sexual and gender categories. the public visibility of gay and lesbian desire serves to undermine the supposed naturalness of heterosexual gender.. Pg. 95-96) The term ‘queer’ was/is a hate word in everyday speech. Gender Studies Professor @ Hull University.

but those of us who don't fit the new image.. but what sort of citizenship is worth fighting for. As conduits between the queerest and the heterosexuals. I have suggested. That is. This quest. of saying to some that they are “really queer” and so their interests lie with the queerest among them. they are part of the process by which sexual strangers have come to seek entry and end their status as strangers. The demand that heterosexuals learn about themselves by enlarging their perspective to include us must be accompanied by a willingness to show our queerness. and they will harm our most vulnerable members in the process. rather than starting by asking what the state can give to queers. it is a matter of principled support for sexual and gender variance. . model citizens should challenge rather than emphasize their difference from bisexuals. the queers among sexual minorities need the “model citizens” to understand and defend those differences. 2001 (Sexual Strangers: Gays Lesbians and Dilemmas of Citizenship. Of course.Whitman College 62725470. UNM. 152153) I have argued throughout this book that these recent developments are not simply matters of progress. to them and to one another. This is not a matter of identity politics simpliciter. We must queer citizenship rather than citizenshipping queerness in order to achieve a just politics Shane Phelan. Rather. Pol. transgendered people. Prof. nor are they evidence of failure. p.doc 7/28/08 19 File Title AT: Perm The perm is an attempt to further separate queers from citizenship. Sci. Attempts to acquire citizenship without changing the construction of citizenship that prevails in the United States will fail. those gays and lesbians who feel themselves to be just like (which?) heterosexuals will not want to participate in such a project. not because acknowledgment is not vital or because citizenship is an unworthy goal. need them. The question to ask of state-centered strategies right now is not whether to engage the state. who are too butch or too femme or too confusing or too "wrong" somehow. It is flawed not because rights are not important. or “flaming” queers. we need to start by asking how citizenship needs to be queered if strangers are to find a home. Just as sexual minorities in general need the solidarity of heterosexuals to create change. is fundamentally flawed. but because the current structures of citizenship are inextricably bound with the generation of strangers.