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Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Mc Lc

LI NI U Trong xu th pht trin khng ngng ca khoa hc k thut, mng Internet ngy mt pht trin v tr thnh mt phn khng th thiu trong mi hot ng ca i sng con ngi. Cc dch v ca mng Internet ngy nay rt a dng v phong ph p ng kp thi cc yu cu v i hi ngy cng cao ca ngi s dng. C c kt qu ny l do mng Internet s dng cp si quang vo vic truyn ti d liu. Vi nhng tnh nng u vit ca cp si quang, cng vi cng ngh hin i, vt liu ch to t silica (r, d kim) v dy truyn sn xut i tr ko theo gi thnh ca cp si quang ngy cng r i rt nhiu so vi trc y. C th ni vic s dng cp si quang vo trong vin thng ni chung v trong mng Internet ni ring to nn cuc cch mng lm thay i ln mng vin thng hin ti. Vi vic pht trin thng tin quang, mch pht quang trong thng tin l mt phn quan trng, nh hng n ngun pht ca thit b vin thng.Nh c h thng ny m thit b thng tin quang c hot ng v t c th bin i thnh tn hiu in, cc k thut trong tn hiu in nh m ha, iu ch, lng t..vv s c s dng trong giai on ny trc khi c bin i li thnh tn hiu quang lm cho cht lng, dung lng ng truyn v s bo mt trn ng truyn c m bo. Trong qu trnh hc tp v tm hiu v mn quang, di s ch bo tn tnh thy c gio trong trng, s gip ca bn b trong lp v c bit l s hng dn tn tnh ca thy Cao Hng Sn

Mch Pht Quang

-2-

GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

chng em c nhng kin thc v hiu bit c bn v h thng thng tin quang. Vi nhng kin thc hc c chng em xin trnh by mt bi vit ngn gn v mch pht quang trong LED, Laser, kch thch tn hiu tng t v s. Chng em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn tn tnh v chu o ca thy Cao Hng Sn cng cc thy, c trong khoa v cc bn sinh vin lp H08.VT7 gip nhm em hon thnh tt ti ny.

CHNG I: NGUN PHT QUANG


1. Ngun quang bn dn (Semiconductor Light Source) Ngun quang l linh kin bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng c cng sut t l vi dng in chy qua n. C hai loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang: - Diode pht quang LED (Light Emitting Diode) - Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Cc yu cu i vi mt ngun quang s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l : - C kch thuc nh tng ng vi si quang c th ghp nh sng vo trong si quang. L tng, nh sng ng ra ca ngun quang phi c tnh nh hng cao. - Thu nhn tn hiu in ng vo mt cch chnh xc gim s mo dng v nhiu ln tn hiu. L tng, ngun quang phi tuyn tnh. - Pht ra nh sng c bc sng ph hp vi vng bc sng m si quang c suy hao thp v tn sc thp, ng thi linh kin thu quang hot ng hiu qu ti cc bc sng ny. - C kh nng iu ch tn hiu mt cch n gin (v d nh iu ch trc tip) trn di tn rng tri di t tn s m thanh ti di tn gigahezt. - Hiu sut ghp quang tt gim suy hao ghp t ngun quang vo trong si quang. - rng ph hp gim tn sc trong si quang

Mch Pht Quang -3GVHD: Cao Hng Sn - Duy tr mc cng sut ng ra n nh v khng b nh hng nhiu bi cc yu t mi trng bn ngoi. - Gi thnh thp v c tin cy cao cnh tranh vi cc k thut truyn dn khc. Loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang l cc loi ngun quang bn dn v c th p ng c cc yu cu trn. V vy, cu to cng nh nguyn l hot ng ca ngun quang (cng nh linh kin thu quang) c trnh by trong phn ny l cc ngun quang bn dn. Tuy nhin, khng phi cht bn dn no cng c s dng ch to ngun quang trong thng tin quang. c th c s dng trong thng tin quang, cc cht bn dn cn phi c di cm nng lng trc tip v rng ca di cm nng lng ph hp sao cho c th to ra nh sng c bc sng nm trong vng bc sng hot ng ca thng tin quang. Khi xy ra qu trnh pht x nh sng, nng lng ca photon pht x bng vi chnh lch nng lng ca in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr. Do , nng lng ca photon: Eph = hc/ = Eg vi Eg l chnh lch nng lng ca in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr. Khi , nh sng c pht x c bc sng: = h.c/Eg Do mi loi vt liu khc nhau s c phn b cc vng nng lng khc nhau nn c th ni rng bc sng ca nh sng do ngun quang pht ra ch ph thuc vo vt liu ch to ngun quang. Trong thng tin quang, nh sng ch c s dng ti 3 ca s bc sng 850nm, 1300nm v 1550nm nn vt liu bn dn c s dng ch to ngun quang phi c di cm nng lng gia vng dn v vng ha tr ph hp vi cc ca s bc sng hot ng ny.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 1. (a). Di cm nng lng trc tip (b).Di cm nng lng gin tip Hnh 1. biu din mi quan h gia nng lng v ng lng (hay vector sng) ca in t ti vng dn v vng ha tr ca hai loi bn dn c di cm trc tip (hnh 1.a) v di cm gin tip (hnh 1.b). Qua cho thy, - i vi di cm trc tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm i din vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai vng ny c ng lng bng nhau. - i vi di cm gin tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm cch xa so vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai vng ny c ng lng khng bng nhau bng nhau. iu kin qu trnh pht x photon xy ra hiu qu trong bn dn l khi xy ra pht x photon, ng lng (hay vector sng) ca in t (nm vng dn) phi bng ng lng ca l trng (nm vng ha tr) [1], [3]. Khi , ng lng ca in t c bo tan. Nh vy c th thy rng, iu kin v bo tan ng lng khi xy ra qu trnh bin i quang in ch t c vi cc cht bn dn c di cm trc tip. Khi , nng lng c pht ra khi cc in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp (vng ha tr) s to ra cc photon. Vi hiu sut pht x nh sng (pht x t pht v pht x kch thch) ln, cc cht bn dn c di cm trc tip c th to ra cc ngun quang c cng sut pht quang ln, hiu qu.

Mch Pht Quang -5GVHD: Cao Hng Sn Ngc li, i vi cc cht bn dn c di cm nng lng gin tip, cc nng lng c to ra do qu trnh chuyn trng thi nng lng ca in t s pht ra di dng phonon, khng pht x (nonradiation). Nng lng ny c th l nng lng nhit hay dao ng ca cc phn t. Nh vy, cht bn dn c s dng ch to ngun quang cn phi c: di cm trc tip v nng lng chnh lch gia vng dn v vng ha tr phi ph hp c th to ra bc sng nm trong cc ca s bc sng hot ng trong thng tin quang. Thc t cho thy rng, cc bn dn thng thng thuc nhm IV nh Si, Ge, khng tha hai iu kin trn. Vt liu bn dn c dng ch to ngun quang trong thng tin quang c to ra bng cch kt hp cc vt liu nhm III (Ga, Al, ) v nhm V (As, P, In, ) nh GaP, GaAsP, AlGaAs, GaAs, InP, InGaAsP

InGaAsP GaAs/InP AlGaAs GaAsP GaAs 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,85 1,0 1,3 1,55 (m)

Hnh 2. Bc sng nh sng pht x ca mt s loi bn dn nhm III kt hp vi nhm V Hnh 2 cho thy: to ra ngun quang c bc sng 850nm ngi ta s dng bn dn AlGaAs, GaAs hay InP. Bn dn InGaAsP c s dng ch to ngun quang pht ra nh sng ti ca s bc sng 1300nm v 1550nm. Gi tr ca bc sng c thay i bng cch thay i t l gia cc cht kt hp trong bn dn ny In1-xGaxAs1-yPy.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Chng 2- LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)


2.1- Cu to v nguyn l hot ng: V c bn, cu to ca LED c pht trin t diode bn dn, hot ng da trn tip gip pn c phn cc thun. Qu trnh pht x nh sng xy ra trong LED da trn hin tng pht x t pht (hnh 9). Trn thc t, LED c cu trc phc tp hn, gm nhiu lp bn dn p ng ng thi cc yu cu k thut ca mt ngun quang.

I
p

+VVng him n

Photon

V>V D

Ec

VD

E g = Ec Ev Ev

Eph = h

Hnh 3. Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca LED

Mch Pht Quang -7GVHD: Cao Hng Sn Khi t hai lp bn dn p v n k nhau, ti lp tip gip pn, cc in t bn dn n s khuch tn sang bn dn p kt hp vi l trng. Kt qu l, ti lp tip gip pn to nn mt vng c rt t cc ht mang in (in t hay l trng) c gi l vng him (depletion region). Lu rng: p l cht bn dn c tha l trng (mang in tch dng), n l cht bn dn c tha in t (mang in tch m) nhng c hai cht bn dn ny u trung ha v in Ti vng him, bn dn n mt i mt s cc in t nn mang in tch dng, cn bn dn p nhn thm mt s in t nn mang in tch m. iu ny to nn mt in trng VD ngn khng cho cc ht mang in khuch tn qua li gia bn dn n v p. Khi phn cc thun (V > VD) cho bn dn pn nh hnh 3, cc in t trong bn dn n s vt qua vng tip gip pn v chy v pha cc dng ca ngun in (ng thi cc l trng s v pha cc m ca ngun in), to thnh dng in chy qua bn dn pn. y l nguyn l hot ng ca diode bn dn. Trong qu trnh in t t bn dn n chy v in cc dng, cc in t c th gp cc l trng ti bn dn p (bn dn c tha l trng). Khi , cc in t v l trng s kt hp vi nhau to lin kt cng ha tr gia cc nguyn t trong bn dn. Xt v mt nng lng, khi mt in t kt hp vi l trng c ngha l in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp (vng ha tr) ging nh hin tng pht x t pht. Khi , theo nh lut bo tan nng lng, bn dn s pht ra mt nng lng bng vi chnh lch gia vng dn v vng ha tr. Nu cht bn dn c s dng c di cm nng lng trc tip th nng lng s c pht ra di dng photon nh sng. y l nguyn l pht x nh sng ca diode pht quang LED (Light emitting diode). 2.2 Cu trc ca LED V cu trc, LED c th c chia lm bn loi [3]: - LED planar (planar LED) - LED dome (dome LED) - LED pht x mt SLED (surface LED) - LED pht x ra ELED (edge LED) Trong 4 loi LED ny, LED planar v LED dome khng c s dng trong thng tin quang v cho d c cu to n gin (xem hnh 13 v 14)

Mch Pht Quang -8GVHD: Cao Hng Sn nhng hai loi LED ny c vng pht quang rng, nh sng pht ra khng c tnh nh hng c th ghp nh sng vo trong si quang mt cch hiu qu. Thay vo , hai loi LED ny c s dng trong cc ng dng hin th, quang bo trong cc thit b in t, TV, n bng hiu
nh sng pht x

n
p

in cc tip xc

Hnh 4. Cu trc LED dome LED pht x mt SLED (Surface LED) l loi LED c nh sng c pht ra pha mt ca LED. Hnh 15 minh ho mt loi SLED, c gi l LED Burrus do cu trc ca LED c ch to u tin bi Burrus v Dawson [3]. Trong cu trc ny, vng pht x nh sng (vng pht quang) ca LED c gii hn trong mt vng hp bng cch s dng mt lp cch in hn ch vng dn in ca tip xc P. Do , ti vng tch cc ca LED c mt dng in cao dn n hiu sut pht quang ln. nh sng ca SLED c a vo trong si quang ti pha mt tip xc N. Ti y, tip xc N v lp nn N c ct b i mt phn c kch thc tng ng vi si quang. Bng cch ny s hn ch c s hp th photon trong lp N v tng hiu sut ghp nh sng vo trong si quang. Tuy nhin, vn c mt phn ln nng lng nh sng c pht ra ngoi vng t si quang. Do , hiu sut ghp nh sng vo si quang ca SLED khng cao, thp hn so vi ELED.

Hnh 5. Cu trc LED Burrus LED pht x cnh ELED (Edge LED) l loi LED c nh sng pha cnh ca LED (hnh

Mch Pht Quang -9GVHD: Cao Hng Sn 16). Trong cu trc ny, cc in cc tip xc (bng kim loi) ph kn mt trn v y ca LED. nh sng pht ra trong lp tch cc (active layer) rt mng. Lp tch cc ny c lm bng cht bn dn c chit sut ln c kp gia bi hai lp bn dn P v N c chit sut nh hn. Cu trc ny hnh thnh mt ng dn sng trong ELED. Do vy, nh sng pht ra lp tch cc c gi li v lan truyn dc theo trong ng dn sng ny. Kt qu l, nh sng c pht ra hai u ng dn sng, tc l pht x pha cnh ca LED. Si quang s c t mt u ca lp tch cc ghp nh sng vo. Vi c im cu trc nh vy, ELED c vng pht sng hp v gc pht quang nh. Do , hiu sut ghp nh sng vo si quang ln hn so vi SLED.

Hnh 6. LED pht x cnh (ELED)

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Chng 3 LASER (LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF RADIATION)


1- Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca Laser V c bn, cu to ca laser c cc c im sau: - Cu trc nhiu lp bn dn p, n - nh sng pht ra v c gi trong lp tch cc (active layer) - Lp tch cc rt mng, lm bng vt liu c chit sut ln kp gia hai lp P v N c chit sut nh hn. Cu trc ny to thnh ng dn sng. - nh sng ca laser pht ra pha cnh, ging nh LED pht x cnh (ELED) - hai u lp tch cc l hai lp phn x vi h s phn x R <1. Cu trc ny to thnh hc cng hng Fabry-Perot. nh sng c to ra v phn x qua li trong hc cng hng ny. Loi laser c cu trc hc cng hng Fabry-Perot ny c gi l laser Fabry-Perot - nh sng c a ra ngoi qua mt phn c ct nhn ca mt mt phn x

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 7. Cu trc ca laser Fabry-Perot Nguyn l hot ng ca Laser da trn hai hin tng: - Hin tng pht x kch thch: to ra s khuch i nh sng trong Laser. Khi xy ra hin tng pht x kch thch, photon nh sng kch thch in t vng dn to ra mt photon th hai. Hai photon ny tip tc qu trnh pht x kch thch to ra nhiu photon hn na theo cp s nhn. Cc photon ny c to ra c tnh kt hp (cng tn s, cng pha, cng hng v cng phn cc). Nh vy, nh sng kt hp c khuch i..

Hin tng cng hng ca sng nh khi lan truyn trong laser: qu trnh chn lc tn s (hay bc sng) nh sng. Theo , ch nhng sng nh sng c tn s (hay bc sng) tha iu kin v pha ca hc cng hng th mi c th lan truyn v cng hng trong hc cng hng c. Nh vy, s sng nh sng (c bc sng khc nhau) do laser Fabry-Perot pht x b gii hn, lm gim rng ph laser so vi LED. 2. c tnh iu ch ca laser: C hai phng php iu ch tn hiu s dng laser: iu ch s v iu ch tng t. Trong iu ch s, mc logic 0 v mc logic 1 c biu din bi chu k ti v sng ca tn hiu quang. t c iu ny, dng in kch thch s thay i theo tn hiu thng tin t gi tr di mc ngng n gi tr trn mc ngng (hnh 21.a). Trong k thut iu ch tng t, dng in kch thch thay i trong khong tuyn tnh ca c tuyn P-I trnh lm mo dng tn hiu quang ng ra (hnh 21.b). iu ny t c bng cch s dng dng phn cc DC, Ib, cng vi dng tn hiu in.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 8. (a). iu ch tn hiu s v (b). iu ch tn hiu tng t Mt cch l tng, tn hiu quang ng ra ca laser phi c dng ging v thay i tc thi theo thi gian vi tn hiu in ng vo. Tuy nhin, trn thc t, lun c thi gian tr tn hiu quang p ng vi dng in ng vo v tn hiu b mo dng do c tnh ng ca laser nh trnh by trong phn trn. iu ny lm hn ch tc iu ch (hay tc bit) ca tn hiu khi s dng dng tn hiu in iu ch trc tip laser (k thut iu ch theo cng IM (Intensity Modulation)). c tnh ng ca laser cho thy rng khi s dng k thut iu ch theo cng IM, gii hn trn ca tc iu ch ca laser c xc nh bi tn s dao ng tt dn: r = D2.nth.s0 = (Ds0)/ph = (1/ph)(vgs0/n) (3)

Do s0/n l hiu sut lng t ni, phng trnh (3) cho thy rng r ph thuc vo thi gian sng ca photon v ph thuc vo li (cng nh cng sut) ca laser. Do , phng trnh (3) c th vit li nh sau: r = (MP)/ph (4) Vi M l hng s, P l cng sut pht quang ca laser.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Phng trnh (4) cho thy rng, tn s iu ch cng cao khi cng sut pht quang ca laser cng ln v thi gian sng ca photon cng ngn.

Chng 4- CC C TNH K THUT CA NGUN QUANG


4.1. c tuyn P-I ca ngun quang: Cng sut pht quang l cng sut tng cng m ngun quang pht ra. Cng sut pht quang ca ngun quang thay i theo dng in kch thch v c biu din bng c tuyn P-I.
P(mW) LASER

10
SL E D 5 ELED

0
I th 100 200

I(mA)

Hnh 9. c tuyn P-I ca 3 loi ngun quang: SLED, ELED v Laser. c tuyn P-I ca 3 loi ngun quang SLED, ELED v Laser trn hnh 24 cho thy: - Laser ch hot ng ch pht x kch thch khi dng in kch thch ln hn dng in ngng Ith. - So vi LED, Laser c cng sut pht quang ln hn vi cng mt dng in kch thch (vi iu kin I>Ith). - SLED c cng sut pht quang ln hn ELED vi cng mt dng in kch thch. Tuy nhin, iu ny cha quyt nh nh sng truyn trong si quang do loi ngun quang no pht ra th ln hn v cn ph thuc vo hiu sut ghp quang. Yu cu i vi mt ngun quang l tng l c tuyn P-I phi l ng thng, tc l cng sut pht quang v dng in kch thch phi c quan h tuyn tnh. Khi , tn hiu nh sng do ngun quang c to ra khng b mo dng so vi tn hiu in. Tuy nhin, trn thc t s tuyn tnh trong c tuyn P-I ch xy ra tng i trong mt khong dng in kch thch.

Mch Pht Quang 4.2. Gc pht quang:

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Cng sut nh sng do ngun quang pht ra cc i trc pht v gim dn theo gc hp vi trc. Gc pht quang c xc nh mc cng sut quang gim mt na (3dB) so vi mc cc i (hnh 25)

SLED

LASER

ELED

Hnh 10: Gc pht quang ca SLED, ELED v Laser [1],[6] Hnh 10 cho thy, SLED pht ra nh sng c dng Lambertian, ngha l phn b cng sut pht quang c dng: P = P0.cos vi l gc gia hng quan st v trc vung gc vi mt pht x. Nh vy, mt na mc cng sut nh t c vi =60o. Mt bao ca gc pht quang ca SLED c dng hnh nn 120o. Gc pht quang ca ELED ch c dng Lambertian theo hng song song vi lp tch cc (2=120o). hng vung gc vi lp tch cc, gc pht quang gim i ch cn 30o. Nh vy, gc pht quang ca ELED nh hn so vi SLED. nh sng laser pht ra khng c dng Lambertian. Thay vo , mt bao gc pht quang ca Laser c mt nn c y hnh elip vi: - Gc theo phng ngang vi lp tch cc: 10o

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

- Gc theo phng vung gc vi lp tch cc: 30o So vi LED, Laser c gc pht quang nh, ng thi cng sut pht quang ln, do mt nng lng nh sng do laser pht ra ln rt nhiu so vi LED. Nng lng nh sng c tp trung. V vy, cng nh sng do laser pht ra rt mnh c th gy hi mt. Do , cc cnh bo nguy him ca nh sng laser phi c thc hin ti cc thit b quang c ngun pht laser. 4.3 Hiu sut ghp quang: Hiu sut ghp quang l t s gia cng sut quang ghp vo si quang Popt trn cng sut pht quang ca ngun quang Ps

P Ps

opt

Hiu sut ghp quang ph thuc vo [6]: - Kch thc vng pht quang - Gc pht quang ca ngun quang - Gc thu nhn (hay NA) ca si quang - V tr tng i gia ngun quang v si quang - Bc sng nh sng

Hnh 11. Ghp nh sng t ngun quang vo trong si quang Hiu sut ghp quang ca mt s loi ngun quang: - SLED: 1-5% - ELED: 5-15% - Laser: + 60% i vi si quang n mode (SMF) + 90% i vi si quang a mode (MMF) So snh hiu sut ghp quang gia SLED v ELED, ta thy rng, d SLED c cng sut pht quang ln hn so vi ELED nhng do hiu sut ghp quang thp nn cng sut nh sng thc s c ch (cng sut nh sng

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

truyn trong si quang) thp hn so vi ELED.

Chng 5 - CC NGUN LASER BN DN N MODE


5.1. Laser hi tip phn b DFB (Distributed Feedback Laser): Cu trc ca laser DFB c biu din trn hnh 11.a. Qu trnh cng hng v chn lc tn s xy ra trong laser DFB c thc hin nh cu trc cch t Bragg t bn cnh, dc theo vng tch cc ca laser. Sng nh snh pht x trong laser lan truyn dc theo vng tch cc v phn x ti mi on dc ca cch t. iu kin s phn x v cng hng c th xy ra l bc sng nh sng phi tha iu kin Bragg [1]: B = 2..neff (5)

Trong , l chu k ca cch t Bragg, neff = n.sin vi n l chit sut ca cch t, l gc phn x ca nh sng (hnh 11.b) Cc photon nh sng do hin tng pht x kch thch to ra trong vng tch cc phn x nhiu ln ti cch t (khc vi laser FP ch phn x ti hai mt phn x ca hc cng hng). Ti mi on dc ca cch t, mt phn nng lng nh sng b phn x. Tng hp nng lng nh sng phn x ti mi on cch t ny trong laser lm cho phn ln nh sng trong laser c phn x c bc sng tha iu kin Bragg. Kt qu l, laser DFB ch pht x ra nh sng c bc sng B tha iu kin Bragg (khc vi laser FP c nhiu bc sng nh sng tha iu kin phn x trong hc cng hng). V vy, DFB laser ch pht ra mt mode sng c rng ph rt hp so vi laser FP. Vi c im nh vy, laser DFB v ang c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin quang c c ly truyn dn di v tc bit truyn cao.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 12. (a) Cu trc ca laser DFB; (b). Phn x ti cch t Bragg (c) rng ph ca laser DFB 5.2. Laser phn x Bragg phn b DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser) Cu to ca laser DBR cng ng dng cu trc cch t Bragg nh laser DFB. Tuy nhin, trong laser DBR, cch t Bragg khng c t bn cnh, dc theo lp tch cc nh laser DFB. Thay vo , cch t Bragg c t hai u vng tch cc, ng vai tr nh gng phn x ca hc cng hng nh trong laser FP. u im ca cu trc ny l ch c mt bc sng tha iu Bragg mi c th phn x li v cng hng trong vng tch cc thay v nhiu bc sng nh laser FP. Kt qu l, ph ca laser DBR ch c mt mode sng vi rng ph hp.

Hnh 13. Cu trc ca laser DBR

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

5.3 Laser bn dn hc cng hng ghp (Coupled Cavity Semiconductor Laser) Trong laser hc cng hng ghp, hot ng pht x nh sng n mode c thc hin bng cch a nh sng ti mt hc cng hng ngoi (hnh 14.a). Phn nh sng phn x c a ngc tr v hc cng hng ca laser. S hi tip t hc cng hng ngoi khng phi lc no cng cng pha vi trng quang bn trong hc cng hng laser bi v c s dch pha xy ra ti hc cng hng ngoi. S hi tip cng pha xy ra ch vi nhng mode laser c bc sng trng vi mt trong cc mode di (longitudinal mode) ca hc cng hng ngoi. V vy, h s phn x ca mt phn x laser i din vi hc cng hng ngoi tr nn ph thuc vo bc sng vi gin suy hao nh hnh 14.b. Mode dc no c bc sng gn nht vi li nh v suy hao thp nht ca hc cng hng tr thnh mode chnh ca laser.

Hnh 14. (a) Laser hc cng hng ngoi (external cavity laser), (b) h s phn x ph thuc bc sng, (c) ph ca laser Hnh 15. v 3 trnh by cu trc ca 2 loi hc cng hng ghp bao gm: laser hc cng hng ngoi (external cavity laser) v laser hc cng hng ct (cleaved cavity laser).

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 15: Laser hc cng hng ngoi (external cavity laser) Laser hc cng hng ngoi c to ra bng cch t mt cch t phn x mt pha ca hc cng hng laser. c th ghp nh sng t hc cng hng laser ti cch t, phn x ca mt phn x laser i din vi cch t c lm gim i bng mt lp chng phn x. Loi laser ny c quan tm nhiu bi v kh nng thay i bc sng ca n. Bc sng ca SLM mode c chn lc bi c cu hc cng hng ghp c th thay i mt khong rng (khong 50nm) bng cch xoay cch t. Kh nng thay i bc sng ny c s dng trong h thng thng tin quang WDM. Tuy nhin, do cu trc ca loi laser ny khng nguyn khi (cu to bao gm hai phn tch bit nhau) nn kh c th to ra s n nh cho ngun quang khi s dng trong b pht quang.

Hnh 16: Laser hc cng hng ct (cleaved-cavity laser) Laser hc cng hng ct c to ra bng cch ct i mt laser bn dn a mode sao cho laser c chia thnh hai phn c chiu di bng nhau v cch nhau bi mt khong khng kh hp (khong 1m). phn x ca mt ct (~30%) cho php vic ghp nh sng gia hai phn ny min sao khong cch gia hai phn khng qu rng. Loi laser ny cng c th thay i bc sng trong khong 20nm bng cch thay i dng in cung cp cho mt on hc cng hng hot ng ging nh b iu khin mode. Tuy nhin, cc bc sng chuyn i khng lin tc, bc nhy gia hai mode cch nhau khong 2nm.

Mch Pht Quang 6.1. S khi b pht quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Chng 6 B PHT QUANG

Hnh 17. S khi b pht quang S khi b pht quang in hnh c biu din nh hnh 34. Theo , mt b pht quang bao gm: ngun quang, b ghp tn hiu quang, mch iu ch tn hiu v mch iu khin cng sut. Tt c cc thnh phn trn c ng gi chung thnh b pht quang nh hnh 35. D liu t ngun pht bn ngoi c a vo b pht quang thng qua n v bin i d liu nh tn hiu xung kch (clock). Ti y, d liu c bin i v dng ph hp cung cp cho mch kch thch iu khin dng phn cc cho Laser. Trong trng hp tng qut, b pht quang s dng LED cng bao gm cc thnh phn nh b pht hnh 34. Tuy nhin, nu tn hiu cn pht l tn hiu tng t th mch ch bin tn hiu s n gin hn nhiu.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 18. B pht quang n v bin i d liu (Data conversion unit) bao gm b gii m tn hiu ng truyn, b bin i song song ni tip v b sa dng tn hiu. Chc nng ca b bin i d liu l bin i tn hiu in ng vo song song v dng m thng dng NRZ dng ni tip v sa dng tin hiu cung cp cho mch kch thch.

Hnh 19. S khi n v bin i d liu 6.2. Mch pht iu bin cng trc tip: Mt mch pht quang iu bin cng c biu din trn hnh . Mch pht quang ny l s kt hp ca mch iu khin v mch iu ch tn hiu .Hot ng ca mch pht quang iu bin cng c th c phn tch da trn hot ng ca mch iu khin v mch iu ch tn hiu.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 20. Mch pht quang s dng LD in hnh

Hnh 21. Mch kch thch

Hnh 22. Mch iu ch tn hiu Mch kch thch (hnh 21) c chc nng bin i ngun in p t b bini d liu v dng dng in cung cp dng phn cc cho Laser. Chc nng ny l cn thit v ngun in cung cp cho laser di dng in p hn l dng in. Dng phn cc cho laser c to ra cn phi rt n nh vi dng in ngng c th truyn tn hiu d liu khng b li. Tuy nhin, gi tr tng i ca

Mch Pht Quang - 23 GVHD: Cao Hng Sn dng phn cc v dng in ngng thay i ph thuc vo nhit nh trnh by trong phn trn. Do vy, dng phn cc cn c iu khin bi tn hiu hi tip t cm ng nhit. Trong mch kch thch hnh 21, in p iu khin, Vbias+, l in p ng vo ca opamp. Dng in chy qua in tr R ch ph thuc vo in p ng vo m khng ph thuc vo in tr ti, trong trng hp ny l laser diode. Do , bng cch thay i Vbias, ngi ta c th iu khin c dng phn cc Ibias. Khi nhit thay i, vic n nh cng sut quang ng ra ca laser diode c thc hin bi tn hiu hi tip t photodiode PD. PD ny thu nh sng t laser pht ra v to ra dng quang in t l vi cng sut pht quang ca laser. V vy, khi cng sut quang ng ra thay i, do s thay i ca nhit , dng quang in s thay i lm cho dng in phn cc Ibias cng thay i theo b li nhng thay i trong trong cng sut quang quang ca laser. Qu trnh iu ch tn hiu trong mch pht iu bin cng c thc hin bng cch thay i dng in kch thch t mc phn cc n mc cao nht . Mch iu ch tn hiu c biu din trn hnh 22. Trong , qu trnh iu ch c iu khin bi dng phn cc qua Laser. Chc nng chnh ca mch l cung cp dng phn cc cc i cho Laser. Trong mch iu ch hnh 22, d liu pht c a vo cc B transistor Q1, cc B transistor Q2 c c nh bi ngun phn cc VBB. Khi tn hiu ng vo ln hn VBB, Q1 dn, Q2 tt, dng qua LD gim lm LD ngng pht sng. Ngc li, khi tn hiu ng vo nh hn VBB, Q1 tt, Q2 dn, dng qua LD tng lm LD pht sng. Q3 ng vai tr cung cp ngun dng n nh cho mch vi sai Q1 v Q2. Q4 kt hp vi mch hi tip dng khuch i thut ton (Op-Amp) n nh dng qua LD di tc ng ca nhit cng nh cung cp tn hiu cho vic gim st nhit lm vic ca LD phc v cng vic cnh bo v bo dng cho b pht quang. Trong kiu iu ch trn, tn hiu iu ch c thc hin bng cch thay i dng in kch thch chy qua laser. Kiu iu ch ny c gi l iu ch ni (internal modulation) hay iu ch trc tip (direct modulation). u im ca kiu iu ch ny l n gin. Tuy nhin, hn ch ca k thut iu ch ny l:

- Bng thng iu ch b gii hn bi tn s dao ng tt dn ca laser diode.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

- Hin tng chirp xy ra i vi tn hiu quang tng rng ph ca xung nh sng. Hin tng ny xy ra i vi laser DFB v v vy l yu t hn ch nghim trng i vi cc h thng truyn dn quang tc cao (ch yu s dng laser DFB lm ngun quang). Khng p dng c trong cc h thng thng tin quang i hi cng sut pht quang ln (>30mW) nh cc mng truyn dn c ly xa hay mng truyn hnh cp v vic ch to cc mch pht quang iu ch trc tip hot ng n nh khi iu ch tc cao vi dng in kch thch ln (>100mA) tr nn phc tp v kh khn hn nhiu.

Nhng hn ch trn c th c khc phc c khi s dng k thut iu ch ngai (External Modulation). 6.3 B iu ch ngoi S khi ca k thut iu ch ngai c biu din trn hnh 40. Theo , iu ch tn hiu quang khng thc hin bn trong laser m c thc hin bi mt linh kin quang bn ngai gi l b iu ch ngai (external modulator). nh sng do laser pht ra di dng sng lin tc CW (continuous wave). Vi cu trc nh vy, k thut iu ch ngai khc phc c cc nhc im ca k thut iu ch trc tip: Bng thng iu ch: do b iu ch ngai quyt nh, v vy, khng b gii hn bi tn s dao ng tt dn ca laser diode. nh sng laser trong trng hp ny ng vai tr nh sng mang. Khng xy ra hin tng chirp i vi tn hiu quang v laser c kch thch bi dng in n nh nn nh sng pht l sng lin tc c tn s v rng ph n nh. c im ny rt quan trng i vi h thng ghp knh theo bc sng WDM v yu cu v n nh ca bc sng nh sng ti cc knh rt cn thit. Khng b gii hn bi cng sut pht quang v c tnh iu ch do b iu ch ngai quyt nh.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 23. S khi b iu ch ngai


C hai loi b iu ch ngai c s dng hin nay: Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) v Electroabsorption Modulator (EA) Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) hay cn gi l Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) modulator c ch to bng vt liu Lithium niobate c cu trc Mach-Zehnder nh hnh 41. Chit sut ca lithium niobate ph thuc vo in p phn cc. nh sng do laser pht ra khi i vo ng dn sng c chia lm hai phn bng nhau. Khi khng c in p phn cc, c hai na sng nh sng ti khng b dch pha. V vy, ng ra ca b iu ch sng nh sng kt hp c dng ca sng nh sng ban u. Khi c in p phn cc, mt na ca sng ti b dch pha +90o v chit sut ca mt nhnh ca ng dn sng gim, lm tng vn tc truyn nh sng v lm gim tr. Mt na kia ca sng ti nhnh cn li ca ng dn sng b dch pha -90o v chit sut tng, lm vn tc truyn nh sng gim v lm tng tr. Kt qu l, hai na sng nh sng ng ra ca MZM b lch pha 180o v trit tiu ln nhau. Qua cho thy, cng tn hiu nh sng ng ra ca MZM c th c iu khin bng cch hiu chnh in p phn cc. Bng cch ny, bt k dch pha ca sng nh sng ti hai nhnh ca ng dn sng cng c th c hiu chnh.

Mch Pht Quang

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GVHD: Cao Hng Sn

Hnh 24. Nguyn l hot ng ca b iu ch ngai MZM: (a). Khng c in p phn cc (b). C in p phn cc iu ch ngai MZM ch yu uc s dng trong mng quang truyn hnh. MZM c mt s hn ch nh: suy hao xen cao (ln n 5dB) v in p iu ch tng i cao (ln n 10V). Ngai ra, s dng MZM cn c mt hn ch na l MZM l mt linh kin quang tch bit. Do MZM c ch to bi LiNbO3 khng phi cht bn dn nn khng th tch hp vi laser DFB trong mt chip. Nhng hn ch ny cua MZM c th c khc phc bi mt loi iu ch ngai khc: electroabsorption modulator (EA). B iu ch ngai EA c cu to l mt ng dn sng lm bng cht bn dn. Khi khng c in p phn cc, nh sng do laser DFB pht ra c truyn qua ng dn sng ny v buc sng ct C ca ng dn sng ngn hn so vi bc sng ca nh sng ti. Khi c in p iu ch, rng di cm Eg ca vt liu ng dn sng gim. Hin tng ny c gi l hiu ng Franz-Keldysh v l nguyn l hot ng ca EA. Khi rng di cm gim, bc sng ct s tng ln (do C = 1024/Eg) v vt liu ng dn sng s hp th sng nh sng ti. V vy, bng cch hiu chnh in p iu ch, c th thay i cc c tnh hp th ca ng dn sng. So vi MZM, EA c cc u im sau: - in p iu ch, khang 2V, nh hn so vi MZM (ln n 10V) Co th tch hp vi laser DFB to thnh cc b pht quang c dng

chip. Vi nhng u im nh trn, EA c s dng trong cc h thng WDM.

Mch Pht Quang

GVHD:Cao Hng Sn

Chng 7 : Mch Pht Quang *Mch Pht Quang:


. Mch kch thch s dng LED: - i vi tn hiu tng t: S dng tranzistor lng cc, LED c kt ni vi cc c hoc cc e vi mt in tr hn ch dng. Tn hiu iu bin a vo cc b . Dng iu bin : i(t) = Ib + Im.cos t P = Pb + Pm.cos t m = Im/Ib su iu bin m = Pm/Pb - su iu bin quang

Vdc Ra Vs R Rb Re LED

Theo mch : I b = Trong :


R1 =

( V1 V0 ) R 1 + (1 + )R e RaRb Ra + Rb V1 = Ra Vdc Ra + Rb

Dng chy qua LED : Tiu lun thng tin quang

Vdc = i c R e + v CE + v d

Lp H08.VT7

Mch Pht Quang

GVHD:Cao Hng Sn

- i vi tn hiu s : Khng cn phn cc, s dng transistor lng cc, LED c th c mc ni tip hoc song song. T C tng tc iu bin

Vdc LED R Vs R1 R2

Tiu lun thng tin quang

Lp H08.VT7

Mch Pht Quang

GVHD:Cao Hng Sn

* Mch kch thch s dng LD : Ging ca LED, Nhng ta phi m bo Ib > Ith k c tn hiu tng t v tn hiu s. C th s dng MESFET thay cho transistor lng cc.

Tiu lun thng tin quang

Lp H08.VT7

Mch Pht Quang

GVHD:Cao Hng Sn

Khc vi LED, cc mch kch thch LD cn c mch vng iu khin n nh cng sut pht quang

.
Dng tn hiu

Mch iu khin dng kch thch

P D
Mch iu khin dng bm TEC

L D T TEC

Si quang Module LD

Tiu lun thng tin quang

Lp H08.VT7