NYO-1480-55 MF-51

Courant

Institute of

Mathematical Sciences
Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division

Coastal Refraction of VLF
D.
R.

Waves

Dobrott

AEC Research and Development Report
TID-4500 PHYSICS April 15,1966

New
COURANT

York University
-

rsLW rOi<K UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE

LIBRARY
Y »0n(?

^

231 Mercer

St.

New

York,

N

New York University Institute of Mathematical Sciences Courant Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division

MF-51

NYO-1^80-55

Coastal Refraction of VLF Waves
D. R.

DOBROTT

April 15, 1966
AEC Research and Development Report

Contract No. AT(50-1 -1^80
)

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY LIBRARY COURANT INSTITUTE
-

N.Y. .00.7 „,M.rccrS,, New York,

-

1

-

Abstract
The fundamental solution for VLF waves propagating

past a shoreline In the earth-Ionosphere duct Is obtained
In terms of an Infinite series using the Wlener-Hopf methods.

The effects of the land, sea and Ionosphere are given In
terms of complex Impedance boundary conditions.
each mode in the series is progressively damped.
As a result,
At low

frequencies and distances far from the shoreline where a
single mode dominates, reflection and transmission coeffi-

cients are obtained.

When the ionospheric Impedance is

small and when the source and receiver are sufficiently

elevated, the effect of the shoreline is not observable.

However, when either the source or receiver is near the

earth the portion of the wave reflected is proportional to
the difference of sea and land Impedances.
At slightly

higher frequencies, there exists an annular region about
the shoreline where two modes propagate over the sea while,

due to heavy damping, only one mode propagates over the
land.

The resulting increase of the field strength as the

receiver passes from land, seaward is the "recovery effect."

-

11

-

Table of Contents

Abstract

11
Iv

Acknowledgement
Sections:
1.

Introduction
Integral Representation of the Fundamental Solution. The Wiener-Hopf Problem

1

2.

7

5.

Decomposition
Coastal Refraction of VLP Waves
4.1.

11

4.

Explicit Series Representation of Fundamental Solution

l8

4.2.

Reflection and Transmission Coefficients
The Recovery Effect

21

4.3.

27
30
32

References
Figure Captions

-

ill

-

Acknowledgement
The author thanks Dr. John Noyes
and.

the Boeing

Scientific Research Laboratory for their support on the

early stages of this work.

Thanks are also due to Drs

Jack Bazer and Harold Weltzner for helpful suggestions

during the course of this work.

-

IV

-

1

.

Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to derive and analyze

the fundamental solution (Green's function) for very-low-

frequency (VLP) two-dimensional electromagnetic waves

propagating past a shoreline in the earth-ionosphere wave
guide.

Although portions of this paper have appeared as
continued interest in the subject

a report (Dobrott 1960),

(Wait 1965) suggests that these results be made more readily

available.
The original version, which gives the fundamental

solution in terms of an infinite set of spatiaJly damped
modes, has been condensed.

New results are given on the

reflection and transmission coefficients, when on]y one of
these modes propagates, and on the "recovery effect"

(Mlllington 19^9)? where more than one mode propagates

resulting in an increase in the magnitude of the vertical
component of the electric field as the wave passes from
land to sea.

Wiener-Hopf techniques are used to solve the

appropriate partial differential equations with mixed

boundary conditions.

In particular,

this paper follows
(]9'''8).

methods due to D.S. Jones as presented by Noble

The analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation over

land-sea boundaries has an old and extensive literature.
These papers, including some which utilize Wiener-Hopf
methods, are not generally applicable to VLP propagation

because of the absence of the ionospheric boundary in their

1

-

analysis.

A partial list of this Indirectly related liter-

ature Is given at the end of this paper.
Several papers using the Wlener-Hopf technique but not

dealing with electromagnetic wave propagation, exhibit

mathematical similarities to VLP mode transmission.

Heins

and Peshbach (19^7) studied the coupling of sound waves

between two dissimilar acoustical ducts.

Helns (19^8)

extended these results when studying the behavior of water
waves In a channel of finite depth Incident upon a dock.
Similarly, Weitz and Keller (1950,1953) have examined the

reflection of water waves from floating ice in water of
finite depth.
The present paper differs from the above in

that all three boundaries, i.e. ionosphere, land and sea,
are represented by complex impedances.
In the above papers,

the equivalent of the boundary impedance corresponding to

the ionosphere and sometimes that of one other boundary has

been set equal to zero.

Such a restriction on the ionospheric

boundary is physically unreasonable since the nature of the
waves in the earth-ionosphere duct is strongly determined
by all the boundaries.

Figure

1

is a schematic of the problem to be considered.

The z-axis corresponds

to the shore line in a right-hand

rectangular coordinate system.

The earth surface lies in

the x-z plane and the ionosphere is taken to have a sharp

boundary at y =

0.

The earth's magnetic field is assumed The symbol T indicates the

parallel to the shore line.

source and R is the receiver or field point.

The sources and

the fields are assumed to vary In time like exp(lcot).

Appropriate to the reduction to a two-dimensional problem,
the source position and strength is assumed independent of the z-coordinate.

The surface impedance representing the effect of a

sharply bounded ionosphere depends upon the direction of

propagation relative to the orientation of the earth's

magnetic field.

For propagation across the earth's field.

Maxwell's equations rigorously decouple into transverse
magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) waves.
For low

frequencies, the ionospheric impedance is given approximately
by
2
cu

+v

impedance for TE and TM waves are different (see Dobrott
1961
)j

however the fundamental, solution may be trivially-

modified by substitution of the appropriate expression for
Z^ in the separate cases.

The relative land and sea Impedances are given by
(see Kerr 1951)

'L,S

+

exp

1

L,S

'

^L,S ^^0^1
L,S

(1.3)

where
_1

X H
z

Z

for TM waves
y = o
(1.4)

o

^L,S

J
for TE waves
^0 ^x y = o

where

e-,

is the relative dielectric constant and a^

is the conductivity for land and sea respectively.

All

impedance magnitudes are assumed small, in the order
IZ3I

«
The

|Zj|
z

«

|Z^|

«

1.

components of the electric and magnetic fields

produced by a current distribution j(x,y) exp(icot) are
given in terms of the fundamental solution g(x ,y |x,y) as

H^(x,y,t) = exp(i(Dt)

<^
source

J_(xQ,y^ )xV^. i^g(xQ,y^| x,y

)

dx^dy^
(1-5)

where

1

z

is the unit vector in the z-direction and

-

4

-

E^(x,y,t) =-ia)^^exp(icut

)

source
(1.6)

§

i(=<o-

V

)•!

efx ,y |x,y)dx dy

where the fundamental solution g(x^,y^ x,y) satisfies the

equation
(1.7)

for all X
f

4=

X

and y + y^, the condition

lim

^

<~

11m

^ g (x^,yQ|p cos 0,p

ag(x ,y
sin 0)

Ip
"^

cos 0,p sin 0)
^-

pd0 =

p->q
(1.12)

where g
y «
p

*

denotes the complex conjugate of
< <
it.

g,

x =

p

cos Q,

sin Q and

Similarly, since the duct

boundaries are lossy, no power will reach infinity.
statement is the same as saying
b
''

This

lim

*.

,

,

g
o

(x^,y^|x,y)

Sg(xQ,yQ|x,y) "^-^ dy =

0.

x|—».<»

(1-13)

the z components suffice to characterize the TM and

TE modes for this problem.

The other components are

determined, in principle, by Maxwell's equations.
ia

Physically,

g(x ,y |x,y)exp(lcot) is the two-dimensional vector
).

potential at (x,y) produced by a dlpole source at (x ,y
In Section 2,

the integral representation for the

fundamental solution is given in terms of an integral

involving the Fourier transform in x of g evaluated at y =

0.

This transformed function is unknown and is determined in an

auxiliary problem by Wlener-Hopf techniques (Section 3).

An

explicit series representation for the fundamental solution
is given in Section 4.

The particular asymptotic form for

the solution well away from the shoreline is used to obtain

reflection and transmission coefficients.

The recovery

effect is obtained by examining the solution in an annulus
about the earth-sea juncture for frequencies which permit more
than one mode to propagate in the earth-ionosphere duct.
-

6

2.

Integral Representation of the Fundamental Solution
The Wiener-Hopf Problem

The fundamental solution is obtained by taking the

Fourier transform in x of Eq.(l.7) and solving the resulting
ordinary differential equation in y which formally satisfies
the transformed equivalents of Eqs.
(1.8
-

1.9)-

The

transform is defined for convenience to be decomposed by sum
as

G(y,a) = G^(y,a) + G_(y,a)

(2.1)

where
+
+1
00

G^(y,a) =
(2-ir)'

;e

dx

(2.2)

o

Upon taking the inverse transform, one obtains the

representation

&{^Q>yJx,y)

'1^

{x^,y\x,y) o'^o
(2.3)

cos hY(b-y)+ikZj "^"'^T(b-y)

+
(2ir)^
-00

dae

-lax

G(0,a)

coshyb + ikZ^ ^il^^^

* The equivalent condition of Eq.(l.6) then becomes

lim

II (y,a) y^+e

t

(-C.)
(2Tr)^

-

7

where

00

r

g^(x^,y^|x,y)
2Tr
\J

da

e

•la(x-Xo)
^—

coshyb+ikZ-p

sinh yy
cosh'y(b-y

slnhY(b-yo)
)

Y
slnhyy^

+ IkZ.

for

< y <

y^

sinhY(b-y

coshY(b-y )+ikZ-

for y^ < y <
(2.4)

b,

and where y has been defined by
(2.5)
(2. 3-. 4)

y
The Integrands of Eqs.

are even functions of y

and hence possess no branch points.

The fundamental solution formally

satisfies the

boundary conditions given by Eqs.
following relation

(l.lO-.ll) provided the

C(a)G^(0,a) + D(a)G_(0,a) + E(a) «

(2.6)

holds for all real

a,

where

Once

the properties of G(0,a) are determined formally.
(

It will be Indicated how Eqs.

1.

7-. 11

)

are satisfied

rigorously.

8 -

C(a) = lk(Z^+Z_)cosh yb

-i-

y slnh yb

(2.7)

D(a) = lk(Z(^+Z-p )cosh yb + y slnh yb ^S^ I

(2.8)

and

exp(lax^)
E(a) =
(27r)2

sinhy(b-y^)

coshy(b-y^)+ikZj

Y
(2.9)

and where quadratic terms In the Impedances have been

neglected. I.e., Z-Z

^

Z-j-Z^

^

0.

Provided g has a Fourier

transform and gePl^ and ge~P2^ are absolute Integrable in
the respective ranges [0,+oo) and (-oo,0] for
P-,,

p

positive

and real, Eq.
-

(2.6) is analytic in the strip
,

min(P-,

,

Im k

Im h

)

< Ima < mln(p

,

Im k

,

Im h

),

where k

and h

are complex constants corresponding to the

respective zeros of C(a) and D(a) which lie closest to the
real axis.

Further, the functions G (y,a) and G (y,a) are

then analytic in a for a in the respective domain
Ima >
-P-i

and Ima < Pp.

The essence of the Wiener-Hopf method is to decompose

into a product the coefficients of G (0,a) and G (0,a) in
Eq. (2.6) so that

C(a) = C_^(a)C_(a)

(2.10)

and

-

9 -

D(a) = D_^(a)D_(a)

(2.11)

The regions of analytlcity of are Ima > -Imk and Ima < Imk

C

(a) and C

(a) functions

respectively, and those of
and Ima < Imh

D (a) and D (a) are Ima > -Imh

respectively.

A second decomposition into a sum is performed so that

\ mHjT - V°)
Ima > -min(h ,p o o
^

+

"-("'

(2-12'

where H (a) and H (a) are analytic in the respective domains
)

and Ima < minfk ,p o o

),

where p is that o

singularity of E(a) which lies closest to the real a-axis.
Equation (2.6) may then be written as

Cja) gi^

G^(0,a) + H^(a) =

-

^^

D (a)

G_(0,a)

-

H_(a).

(2.13)

The functions H (a) are bounded for real a and are

0(a

)

as

Ia|

—^

oo

and the ratios

C

(a)/D (a) and

D (a)/C (a) are also bounded for real a and are 0(l) as
|a|

—^00.

(Both of these assertions will be verified in

the next section.)
on g hold,

Further, provided the above assumptions
G (0,a)

the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma implies that
as
|a|

vanish in a strip about Ima =
is common to both sides of Eq.

—^

oo.

This strip

(2.13), which are equal to

some function analytic in the strip.

This function may be

continued analytically throughout the entire a-plane, but

10

because of the above described asymptotic behavior, the

resulting entire function must be zero.
obtains uniquely

Therefore one

a(o,a) =

-

If}

-

i.(Z,-Z3)

^f^

'J^
)

(..»)

The first term in Eq.
Is 0(a~
)

(2.14) is 0(a~

and the second term

as

|a|

—^

oo

and G(0,a) is bounded and continuous

for all real a, provided the above assertions about

C_(a)/D_(a) and H (a) can be demonstrated.

It remains to

decompose C(a), D(a) and E(a)/C (a)D (a) and show that the
assertions may be verified.

3.

Decomposition
The decomposition into a product given formally by

Eqs.(2.10) and (2.II) and then by sum gi

en by Eq.(2.12)

is the crucial part of any problem solved by the Wiener-

Hopf technique.

The procedure is so well-known that these
In

factors can frequently be written down by inspection.
essence, Eqs.
(2.7) and (2.8) are expressed as infinite

products and Eq.

(2.12) decomposed by an application of

the Cauchy integral theorem.

By standard methods [see

for example Knopp (1957)] one obtains

-

11 -

C^(a) +

^o^
1

-

Yb
n=o

i^f

_

l_ab

^*

iab/nir

(3.1)

where A

satisfies the equation

A

n

IT

tan

A^TT

n

= ikb(Z-r+Z-r ) I L

(3.2)

and by successive approximations using the fact that
I

Z^+Z,

I

«

1,

one obtains

^o

=

i [ikb(Zj+zJ]^

(3.3)

and
A

n

= n +

— n

n = 1,2,3,.

(3.4)

The other coefficient is decomposed as
O

IT

D (a) =

-^
o
o

1

-

(^)'^

iab
+
a^ir

+ iab/mr (3.5)

where

satisfies Eq.

(3.2) with Z
.

replaced by

Z

.

Similar expressions to Eq

(3.3) and (3.'4) may all be

written for

a

n

.

It follows from Eqs.
C

(3-1) and (5.5) that

(a)

C_(a)

-fp
n=l
n

a-^oo
Hence
C

+^^

a-^oo

-^^

(3.6)

(a)/D (a) and D_(a)/C_(a) are 0(l) as was asserted.
(3.1) and (3-5) occur at ik^ and +h^

The zeros of Eqs.

-

12

-

respectively, where
p
p
-

A

TT

2

= ^ ^n

(-^)

^"d

h2 = k^

Q

o
-

(^)^

'^n'"'

2

(3.7)

These roots lie In the second and fourth quadrants of the

a-plane and off the real axis as shown In Figure
condition that h
o

2.

The
o

lies closer to the real axis than k

Is

^l'

"

'S'

> Im(fi^-fig)

where
fi^

= Zj + Z^ + ikb

(3.8)

and
fig

= Zj + Zg + Ikb

(3.9)

A sufficient condition that h
than k

o

be closer to the real a-axis

may be found from the above Inequality to be

kb + Re(Z-j.+Z^) >

I

fig

I

which Is generally satisfied when the land Impedance Is

much greater than the sea and Ionosphere Impedance.
It has already been mentioned that E(a)/D (a)C (a) Is

analytic In the strip -mln(lm h
< mln(lm k
,

,

Im p

)

< Im a

Im p

)

.

It Is therefore possible to express

this function as the Cauchy Integral

-

13

-

E(a)

1

i, E(z)/D^(z) C_(z)

D^(a)C_(a) "

2^

J
L

^^^^

"^^

^^'^^^

where L Is a rectangular path shown in Pig.
Y

5-

Provided

^ 0, the contributions to the Integral from the ends of

the rectangle vanish exponentially as these ends are taken
to Infinity.

Prom the remaining portions of the path, the

H (a) functions are obtained
ic+oo

E(z)/D (z)
«+^«) = 2?r
»-/

^ z-a

C

(z)

dz

(3.11)

IC-oo

and
Id+oo

^
H (a) =
^

E(z)/D,(z)
z-a
+

C

(z)

2Trl

dz

(3.12)

Id-oo

where -mln(lm

h. Imp
(3. 11-

)<c<Ima<d<

mln(lm k

,

Im p

)

To evaluate Eqs.

.12) the line Integrals are

displaced Into the upper-half z-plane for x
the lower-half plane for x

>

and into

<

0.

As the paths are displaced

to infinity in either half-plane,

contributions from poles

are accrued and the remaining contribution to the displaced

path becomes exponentially small.
that the H (a) functions are 0(a
)

Note from the above
as

|a|—^00, as was

asserted earlier.

Ik

-

In what follows, x

is taken to be positive,

i.e., the

transmitter is over the land portion of the duct.

Then

upon displacing the integration path into the upper-half

z-plane as shown in Pig.

4,

one obtains for H_(a)

+k
H_(a) =
-

nn^
II-, JI-,

o.

k

-

-J Ir..}. )k b (a-k W h TTTTf ^ n'^n (2Tr)^ n=o ^

2_ —

(i ^k +h n o

M no. ^=1

+h, ''A/ '^A/ k n i £ i

^°s

^-

At

ikbZ
^o + a;;^— ^^"

-^

At
^o (3.15)

where quadratic terms in the impedances have been neglected,
When a
4=

k

and y

^ 0,

the above infinite series is

uniformly convergent.

The H (a) function is then found
(2.12).
{^.l),

directly by means of Eq.
Therefore with Eqs.

(3-5) and (3.13) it is

possible to obtain an explicit series representation for
the fundamental solution of all x in
[0,b] by residue calculus.
(-00,00)

and all y in

The residues are due to poles

at ik

,

±h

and ip >n = 0,1,2,3---, where P„ is given in

terms of the relation
.M-^T" .2

Pn

,2

k^ '^

-

(-^) b
"^

(3.14)

where, in turn, the

[x

"

are the zeros of E(a)[

=

found

^o

from the equation

-

15

-

fx^TT

cot

\i^ir

= -IkbZ^

(3.15)

which has approximate solutions for

|Z^1

«

1,

^^n^i
that generally

+

—^.
|

(3.16)

Using arguments similar to those given above, it can be shown
|

Im h

O

|

<

|

Im p O

whenever

|Z<-,|

O

«

lZ-|.
J.

All the formal results are now available to allow one
to show that Eq.
Eqs.

(2.3) does satisfy the conditions given by

(I.7-.I3).

The integrands of Eq.

(2.4) and that given

explicitly in Eq.

(2.3) are bounded and continuous for all

real a and vanish exponentially for all x and y in the

respective ranges

-00

< x <
)

00

and

< y < b except for a

neighborhood about (x ,y

in the former case and a

neighborhood about the origin (0,0) in the latter case.
Then exclusive of these neighborhoods, the integrals coverge

uniformly, limits may be taken under the integral and it is

routine to show that the fundamental solution given by Eq.
(2.3) indeed satisfies Eqs.

(I.7-.II).

In the neighborhood of the shoreline the fundamental

solution is given by
k(Z -Z )M i^^—

g(xQ,y^|p cos e,p sin 6) =

p

cos

6

log

p

+ a bounded function

(3-17)

16 -

where

M-,

Is a complex constant depending upon x

,

y

and the

physical parameters of the problem.
seen that the condition given by Eq.

Prom Eq.

(3-17) It Is

(1.12) is satisfied.

Equation (3.17) Is obtained by separating the

Integration Into two ranges:

a range bounded away from a = 0,

from which the logarithmic term Is obtained, and the

complement of this range.
range is bounded.

The Integral over this latter

This coupling between the behavior at the

discontinuity and large values of a is a well-known
phenomenon (See for example Noble 19?8).
Generally, In

diffraction problems, the behavior at the discontinuity is
specified and the corresponding condition for large a is used
to separate the two sides of Eq.
(2.13).

For

Ixl

»

Ix

I

»
,

0,

the modulus of the dominant term

in the asymptotic form of the fundamental solution is less

than Mp exp[-| min(lmk

Imp )|x]

for x positive and less

than M^ exp[mln|(lmh

,

Imp )|x]

for x negative, where M^ and

M^ are bounded, positive and real constants.

Hence it can

be seen that Eq

.

(l.lj) is satisfied.

In a similar way,

one may recover the fact that the fundamental solution near
(x
,y
)

is -( l/7r)log[ (x-x

)

+(y-y

)

]^

plus a bounded function

which is the standard source term in two-dimensional
problems.
(x ,y
)

Derivatives of the fundamental solution near

vary as the inverse distance from the source plus

logarithmic terms.

17

4.

Coastal Refraction of VLF Wave

4. 1

Explicit Series Representation of Fundamental Solution
Let J(y,a) be defined as

3lnh^y(b-y) J(y,a) = cosh r(b-y) + IkbZ^

(4.1)

Note that the zeros of j(0,a) are those of E(a)j
'

^
-^o

which

are determined from

Eqs.

(3.l4) and (3.I5).

Using the

above equation, Eq.

(2-3) may be rewritten as

;(x^,yjx,y) = "
I

/

N

O

o

^
1
2Tr

f

-ia(x-xj ^ '"'" '^o d a e
jj^^-^

(

^^^Y^ J^V«) T
for
< y < y^
J(y.ct)

-00

sinh yy

Y
v_

for Yq < y < b
00

+
(2Tr)^

da

J(y,a) J(0,a)c(a)
e

(27r):

laXr - J(y^,a) + D (a)C_(a)H_(a) +

00

r
(2t)2

"(C)D(a^"^

[D^(a)C_(a)H_(a)]

(^.2)

The above integrals may be evaluated by residue calculus.
All integrands in Eq.

(4.2) have poles at ±p
JTk

.

The Integrand

of the second integral has poles at

and that of the third

integral has poles at +h

(n = 0,1,2...).

Thus the series

-

18

-

representation for Eq. (4.3) is

g(xQ,yQ|x,y) = g2(xQ,yQ|x,y)

i + (2t)2

^n=o

e

^"

J(y,P^)H_(p^) n' -^'- n
aj(0,a)/8a|

^(Pn)

^-(Pn)

a=p n

00

-ihnX

+

(2Tr)

2

^^/^ J(y,hjD^(hJC_(h )H_(h n' +' n' -' n' -' n
J(0, h \
'

)

n=o
for X < 0,

n

)D'(h^)
' ^

n

(4.4)

g(xQ,yQ|x,y) = g2(x^,y^|x,y)

1

^n=so

e

"

+ (2t)2

J(y,P^)H - (-p^) n n
'

'

'^

'^-(Pn)

Sj(0,a)/aa|

^

n

-

e-^^n(x-xo) +
j(0,k

w/2
t

j(y,^^ ) j(y^,^J
(k
)

n=o

)C

1

-^:

+ (2t) 2


00

e

ik^x +

l7r/2

(k J(y,k )D - (kJC +^ n )H (-kj
n
' ^

n

'

n=o

J(0,k )c'(k ^
'

n

'

^

n

)

('4.

5)

for

< X < x^ and

19

-

s(xQ,yQ|x,y) - g^{^^,Yj^,Y)
^

.
n=o

^lp,x +

W2

j(y,pjH_(-p^)
"n

+ (27r)^

D(PJ n
^ITpD n

SJ(0,a)/aa|^^

00

e

ikn(x-xo)

-r/ J(y,k vt-/ )J(y ,k
,

,

\ )

+

n=o

J(0,k )c'(k

)

i + (2t)^

^
n=o
,

)D (kJC (kjH (-kj e'^"^ ^ '^/2 J(y,k n' -^ n' +^ n' n'

J(0,k )c'(k

)

(4.6)

for X > X o

where
IPj^Ix-XqI

+ l7r/2
T"

J(y,Pn)J(yQ,Pn)
n

g2(x^,yjx,y) =

dJ(0,a)/8a|
sin

[i^ir

y/b

J^yo'Pn)
M-n'"'/^

f or

< y < y^
H ^TT
M-

+

<

sm
1

y/b

n'

for y^ < y < b
(^.7)

In writing Eqs.

(4. 4-. 7)

use has been made of the fact

that C(a), D(a), J(y,a) and j(y ,a) are even functions of
a and that C (a) = C_(-a) and D (a) = D_(-a).

20

-

The various terms In the series representation lend

themselves readily to physical Interpretation.
two summations In Eqs.
of the solution, I.e.
(4. 4-. 6)

The first

are the "sky-wave" portion

that part which Is unobservable If
The remaining

the receiver Is on the ground (y = O).

summation In Eq.

(4.4) are "ground

vijaves"

transmitted
.

beyond the shoreline.

The last two summations In Eq

(4.5)

are, respectively, ground waves from the source which are

Incident on the shoreline and ground waves reflected back

from the coast.

Waves from the source, but receding away from the
shore In the region x > x
,

and the ground waves reflected

from the coast are given respectively as the last two
terms of Eq.
(4,6).

4.2.

Reflection and Transmission Coefficients
When the receiver and the transmitter are remote from

the shoreline and each other, only the n =
(4. 4-. 5) are

modes of Eqs.

observable.

To this remote observer, there

exists a simple wave Incident on, reflected from and

transmitted beyond the discontinuity at the shoreline.
Weltz and Keller (1955), In a different context, have

expressed the situation where a simple wave propagates past
a discontinuity In terms of reflection and transmission

coefficients.

21

-

Consider the source to be a short, two-dimensional
dipole at
(x-, ,y-,
)

with current moment IL so that the

current density is given as

JyK'^o)

= IL5(x^-x^)6(y^-y^)

(4.8)

A vertically oriented antenna at the receiver observes the

E

component of the electric field.

For the above source,

this field component is given as

(^.9)
"^

o

1

For

I

x-x

1

large and x large and positive

Ti.\ (x,y,t) a^ e E /

-i£x ^

+ pe

l|jc

^

(4.10)

and for x large and negative

E y

•v xe

°

(4.11)

where

f ^

is either p

or k

-^o

o

,

which ever has the smallest
,

imaginary part.
in any case.

It is assumed that min(lm p
p

Im k

)

> Im h

The reflection coefficient pTef lected

is defined by

P

~ ^incident
x=»o

(4.12)

and the transmission coefficient by

-

22

-

-.transmitted
T

=-^ incident
x=o

(^.13)

If either the transmitter or the receiver are near

the ground then only the mode corresponding to
Is observable.

^

= k In

If

|

Im

pi
|

>

|

Im k
|

|,

,

then
|

^

= k

any case.

However, when
|

Im k

>

|

Im p

and y and y

are not small,

= p

.

The condition that this latter

statement be true Is given by

Q.

fi

L'

I

> Im(n

-fij)

where

0,^

and

$7o

are given by Eqs.

(3- 8)

and (3-9)

respectively and

Q,^

= 2Z^ + Ikb

-

ITT

(h.lh)

A sufficient condition that Im k

> o ^

Im p

Is

-^o

kb + Re(Z +Zj) >

IfijI

which Is usually satisfied when
I

|

Z,

I

»

Iz,|

or when

Z^

I

>

|Z.^|

and the earth-ionosphere duct is a quarter

wavelength in height.
Because there is an ambiguity as to which mode Is
propagating, the two cases are discussed separately.
For

23

-

case

I,

where

^

= k

o

characterizes the dominant mode for

X > 0, the reflection coefficient p^ calculated from
Eqs.

(4.5) and (4.9) Is given as

D(k

)C

(k

)

where H_(a) = -exp(lk x )H_(a)/(2Tr)^
When

quadratic terms

In the Impedances are neglected.

p^ is given approximately by

h -k

Pi

h +k
o

^

-^o;

o

or since kb

»

|Z--+Z^|,

Pl='^
Eq.
(4. 4-. 5) and Eq.
t

("-IT)

The transmission coefficient for case I, calculated from
(4.9) is
J(y, h
)

^ h D (h )C (k )c(h )H (h )j(0,k
T-.

)

)

=

1

C,(h )D (h )j(y ,k )j(0,h )j(y,k k 0+^0' ^ ^ O o O
^
"^

0^0

(4.10)

which to quadratic terms in the impedances is given as
2h.
I

o
o

h^+k
o

(4.19)

-

24

-

Equations (4.16) and (4.19) are the same form as one

classically obtains for a plane wave passing between two

dissimilar dielectric media.
For case II, where
^

= p

characterizes the mode for
Using Eqs.
(^-5)

X > 0, the situation is not so simple.

and (4.9), one obtains for the reflection coefficient Pjj,

PlI = Pl^K)^l(Po'^o)

(4.20)

where R(x

)

is the

"scale range" defined by

R(x
and P-,(p ,k

)

= exp[i(k -p )x

]

(4.21)

)

is of polynomial

order defined by

O

'

O'

O

O

'

+'

O

sm^L^ry/b
r-

1

+

-^

^
^

-1

for

< y < y

C(p

)

Sinn

Ty/b
f^°^
)

j(y o ,p o

/ / ^ ^ yo < y <
(4.22)

The transmission coefficient for case II is found from
Eqs.
(4. 4-. 5)

and Eq.

(4.9) to be

T^^ =
II

1

+

p^R(xJpJp .k o^)F„(p ,hj o^ l^^o' 2^^o' O'

(4.23)

25

where P^fp

,h

)

is defined by

P^(p ,h

)

=
a = P^

h^C(h^)D^(h^)H_(h^)j(y,h^)aj(0,a)/Sa
p J(0,h
)C

D (p
(h
)H (-P

)

C
"

(p

)

)j(y,p )D (h

C

-

(p O

)
'

D (p O -f^

)

(^.2^)

However, from Eq.

(4.21) it is seen that when Im k
|

> Im p

the scale range vanishes when |x

—^00.

Therefore it is

possible to conclude that the dominant mode is totally

transmitted and no reflected component is observable.
Even though p

characterizes the dominant mode in this case,
mode.

any reflection must come from the k

Provided the

impedance of the ionosphere is sufficiently small and the
source and the receiver are elevated and far from the

shoreline and each other, the discontinuity is not

.

observable to lowest order in the impedances.

On the

other hand, if the ionosphere impedance is not small, or
if either the source or

receiver is near the earth's

surface, the portion of the incident wave reflected is

proportional to the difference of the land and sea
Impedances.

-

26

4.5

The Recovery Effect

Strictly speaking, because of the complex Impedances,
every mode described by Eqs.
(4. 4-. 7)
(n >

Is propagating,

though those of higher order
at low frequencies.

O) are strongly damped

At slightly higher frequencies,

however, more than one mode may be sustained, particularly
over the sea.
At these higher frequencies, an electric field

consisting of one dominant mode and an Infinite number of

heavily damped modes is incident upon the shoreline; the
field transmitted beyond may consist of more than one

observable mode.

The energy from the supressed modes

over land would have been transferred to the higher order

modes over the sea.

This, in essence, is the "recovery

effect" for VLP transmission.

Mllllngton (1949) noted that the recovery effect was
strongest when the observer was near the earth's surface.
The same conclusion may be Inferred from Section 4.2

where It was noted that reflection from the shoreline

discontinuity was observed when the observer or the
transmitter was near the earth.
Therefore in order to

Illustrate the recovery effect, the observer is assumed
to lie in a region near the earth and in a range

(im

k-,

)~

<

|x|

< (Im
5.

h-,

)

.

Such a region is shown as

shaded in Pig.

In this case,

only one mode Is

-

27

-

observable for x >

and two are observable for x <

0.

Over

the land (x > O), the y-component of the electric field

behaves like Eq.

(4.10) while over the sea (x < O) one has

Eya^Tj[e
for
|x|

r

-Ih^x
°

+ P^(h^,h^,k^)e

,

V

-ih-ix,
^
]

,,

.

(^.25)

in the prescribed range.

The function P^(h ,h,,k

)

is given as

P^ h^,h,
^

,kj = -i
^

h J(y,h )c(h )D (h )H (h ^ i + ^ .V ^ h J(y,,h^1c(h )D+^ (h )H -^ (h ^^1' ^
O
O'

)

C^-26
)

o'

o'

o

j(0,h^)D'(h^)C_^(h^)

j(0,h^)D'(h^)C^(h^)
Equation (4.26) may be written approximately as

P (h^,h^,k^)

^

-ikb(Z^+Z^)

^ oil

^

(4.27)

where quadratic terms in the impedances have been suppressed.
In order to compare the field on either side of the

shoreline for the range

|x|

> (im

k-,)"

the squares of the

amplitudes of the two cases are calculated and found to be

|Ey(x>0)l2 = e''"^°\ |pj|2e-2^"^°^
(4.28)
+
2|

pjl

cos(2Rek

x+argp-j.)

for an over-land observer and

-

28

-

/ ^m2 E (x < 0)r = yK^^ ^ -/,

I

i-.t^j, |1+PtI

i2)
1 .

2Imhox
e -

,

,

° + -

IP (h ,h ,ki)| ,.^,..^,..^

m2 e 2Iinh-,x 1

+ 2|F.(h ,h,,kJ!e^'^^'^°+^l^'' cos[Re(h

-hjx

+ arg P^(h^,h^,k^)]

('!.29)

for an over-sea observer.

By comparing Eqs.

('4.28)

and

(4.29) it can be seen from Eq.

(4.2?) that the effective

Increase in amplitude as the observer moves across the
shore line Is proportional to
E
2
|Z-p+Z^|
1
J-j
.

The recovery of

Is Illustrated In Pig.
I I

5.

It should be noted that

while

E yl
I

I

2
I

Is increasing as the observer moves from land 6
2
I

to sea,
Z-r-+Z„
I I

|E
/I

Is decreasing by an amount proport.i ona
.
I

I

to

Z-|-+Z-|.

As a result, the wave vector may be

thought of as "straightening up" as the wave passes from
the relatively poor conducting land to the more highly

conducting sea.

-

29

References

Dobrott, D.

(i960). On coastline effects in VLP mode

transmission, Boeing Scientific Research Laboratory Report

Dl-82-0066 (August).
Walt, J. R.
(1965)5 Influence of an Inhomogeneous ground

on the propagation of VLF radio waves In the earth-

Ionosphere waveguide, J. Res. NBS 69D
Mllllngton, G.

,

1

,

969-

(19^9)? Ground wave propagation over an
.

inhomogeneous smooth earth, Proc
Noble, B.

I.E.E. 96, 53-

(1958), The Weiner-Hopf Technique

(Pergamon

Press, New York, N.Y.) Helns, A. E. and H. Peshback (19^7), The coupling of two

acoustical ducts, J. Math. Phys
Helns, A. E.

.

2_6,

1^3.

(19^8), Water waves over a channel of finite
J.

depth with a dock, Amer.

Math.

70^

730.

Weitz, M. and J. B. Keller (1950), Reflection of water waves

from floating ice in water of finite depth, Comm. Pure and
Appl. Math. 5, 305.

Keller, J. B. and M. Weitz (1953), Reflection and transmission

coefficients for waves entering or leaving an ice field,
Comm. Pure and Appl. Math. 6, 4l5.

-

30

-

Dobrott, D. R. and A. Ishlmaru (1961), East-west effect of

VLF mode transmission across the earth's magnetic field,
J.

Res. NBS 65D, 1, ^7.

Kerr, D. E.

(1951), Propagation of short radio waves

(McGraw

Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y.
Knopp, K.
(1947), Theory of F"unctions, Part II (Dover, New

York, N.Y.)

Additional References
Papers which do not directly apply to VLF mixed-

path propagation, but relate to mixed -path

propagation are listed below.
may be found therein.

Additional references

Bazer, J. and S. N. Karp (I962), Propagation of plane

electromagnetic waves past a shoreline, J. Res. NBS 66d,
3,

519-

(This makes explicit use of the Wiener-Hopf
.

technique

Walt, J. R.

(1964), Advances in Radio Research, ed
N.

.

J.

A.

Saxton (Academic Press, New York,
Furutsu, K.

Y.), 157-

(1965)^ Calculated curves for groundwave

propagation over inhomogeneous earth with pronounced
topographical features, J. Res. NBS 69D
,

7,

1011.

-

31 -

Figure Captions

1.

The earth-ionosphere duct showing schematic placement
of transmitter T and receiver R.

2.
3-

The alpha -plane showing the occurrence of the

+k

terms.

Path of Integration for decomposition by sum of the

E(a)/D (a)C_(a) function
4.

Evolution of H (a) by displacement of Integral path to
Infinity In the upper-half z-plane.

5-

Region of observation of the recovery effect so that
one mode Is observable for x >

but two are observable

for X < 0.
6.

The "recovery" of
land to sea.

|

E

2
|

as the observer passes from

- 32

-

5.0

o
>

IONOSPHERE

•T
R •

SEA

LAND

FIGURE

1

55 -

Im a

K
a- PLANE

F(z.+z,)

"o*

Re a

FIGURE 2

-

54 -

Imz

r-PLANE

STRIP OF ANALYTICITY

min(Im ko,Impo)

-d

•a
Rit

-c
PATH OF INTEGRATION

— mln(Imho,Impo)

FIGURE 3

-

55

-

Imz

z- PLANE

O'sPLAceo

p^rn of

"^^^GRAT^

ORIGINAL PATH

OF INTEGRATION
Rez

FIGURE 4

-

36

-

(Imkj)"*

(Imhif*

FIGURE 5

-

37

-

U+F3(hpho)l

FIGURE 6

-

38 -

This report was prepared as an account of Government sponsored work. Neither the United States, nor the Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission:
A.

Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained In this report, or that the use of any Information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed In this report may not infringe privately owned rights; or

B.

Assumes the use the use method, report.

any liabilities with respect to of, or for damages resulting from of any Information, apparatus, or process disclosed In this

As used In the above, "person acting on behalf of the Commission" includes any employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor, to the extent that such employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor prepares, disseminates or provides access to, any information pursuant to his employment or contract with the Commission, or his employment with such contractor.
,

-

39 -

NYU
NYOli|80-55

c.l

Dobrott
Coastal refraction of VLP waves.

N.Y.U. Courant Institute of

Mathematical Sciences
251 Mercer
St.

New

York, N. Y. 10012

Intereses relacionados

en by Eq.(2.12)
is the crucial part of any problem solved by the Wiener-

Hopf technique.

The procedure is so well-known that these
In

factors can frequently be written down by inspection.
essence, Eqs.
(2.7) and (2.8) are expressed as infinite

products and Eq.

(2.12) decomposed by an application of

the Cauchy integral theorem.

By standard methods [see

for example Knopp (1957)] one obtains

-

11 -

C^(a) +

^o^
1

-

Yb
n=o

i^f

_

l_ab

^*

iab/nir

(3.1)

where A

satisfies the equation

A

n

IT

tan

A^TT

n

= ikb(Z-r+Z-r ) I L

(3.2)

and by successive approximations using the fact that
I

Z^+Z,

I

«

1,

one obtains

^o

=

i [ikb(Zj+zJ]^

(3.3)

and
A

n

= n +

— n

n = 1,2,3,.

(3.4)

The other coefficient is decomposed as
O

IT

D (a) =

-^
o
o

1

-

(^)'^

iab
+
a^ir

+ iab/mr (3.5)

where

satisfies Eq.

(3.2) with Z
.

replaced by

Z

.

Similar expressions to Eq

(3.3) and (3.'4) may all be

written for

a

n

.

It follows from Eqs.
C

(3-1) and (5.5) that

(a)

C_(a)

-fp
n=l
n

a-^oo
Hence
C

+^^

a-^oo

-^^

(3.6)

(a)/D (a) and D_(a)/C_(a) are 0(l) as was asserted.
(3.1) and (3-5) occur at ik^ and +h^

The zeros of Eqs.

-

12

-

respectively, where
p
p
-

A

TT

2

= ^ ^n

(-^)

^"d

h2 = k^

Q

o
-

(^)^

'^n'"'

2

(3.7)

These roots lie In the second and fourth quadrants of the

a-plane and off the real axis as shown In Figure
condition that h
o

2.

The
o

lies closer to the real axis than k

Is

^l'

"

'S'

> Im(fi^-fig)

where
fi^

= Zj + Z^ + ikb

(3.8)

and
fig

= Zj + Zg + Ikb

(3.9)

A sufficient condition that h
than k

o

be closer to the real a-axis

may be found from the above Inequality to be

kb + Re(Z-j.+Z^) >

I

fig

I

which Is generally satisfied when the land Impedance Is

much greater than the sea and Ionosphere Impedance.
It has already been mentioned that E(a)/D (a)C (a) Is

analytic In the strip -mln(lm h
< mln(lm k
,

,

Im p

)

< Im a

Im p

)

.

It Is therefore possible to express

this function as the Cauchy Integral

-

13

-

E(a)

1

i, E(z)/D^(z) C_(z)

D^(a)C_(a) "

2^

J
L

^^^^

"^^

^^'^^^

where L Is a rectangular path shown in Pig.
Y

5-

Provided

^ 0, the contributions to the Integral from the ends of

the rectangle vanish exponentially as these ends are taken
to Infinity.

Prom the remaining portions of the path, the

H (a) functions are obtained
ic+oo

E(z)/D (z)
«+^«) = 2?r
»-/

^ z-a

C

(z)

dz

(3.11)

IC-oo

and
Id+oo

^
H (a) =
^

E(z)/D,(z)
z-a
+

C

(z)

2Trl

dz

(3.12)

Id-oo

where -mln(lm

h. Imp
(3. 11-

)<c<Ima<d<

mln(lm k

,

Im p

)

To evaluate Eqs.

.12) the line Integrals are

displaced Into the upper-half z-plane for x
the lower-half plane for x

>

and into

<

0.

As the paths are displaced

to infinity in either half-plane,

contributions from poles

are accrued and the remaining contribution to the displaced

path becomes exponentially small.
that the H (a) functions are 0(a
)

Note from the above
as

|a|—^00, as was

asserted earlier.

Ik

-

In what follows, x

is taken to be positive,

i.e., the

transmitter is over the land portion of the duct.

Then

upon displacing the integration path into the upper-half

z-plane as shown in Pig.

4,

one obtains for H_(a)

+k
H_(a) =
-

nn^
II-, JI-,

o.

k

-

-J Ir..}. )k b (a-k W h TTTTf ^ n'^n (2Tr)^ n=o ^

2_ —

(i ^k +h n o

M no. ^=1

+h, ''A/ '^A/ k n i £ i

^°s

^-

At

ikbZ
^o + a;;^— ^^"

-^

At
^o (3.15)

where quadratic terms in the impedances have been neglected,
When a
4=

k

and y

^ 0,

the above infinite series is

uniformly convergent.

The H (a) function is then found
(2.12).
{^.l),

directly by means of Eq.
Therefore with Eqs.

(3-5) and (3.13) it is

possible to obtain an explicit series representation for
the fundamental solution of all x in
[0,b] by residue calculus.
(-00,00)

and all y in

The residues are due to poles

at ik

,

±h

and ip >n = 0,1,2,3---, where P„ is given in

terms of the relation
.M-^T" .2

Pn

,2

k^ '^

-

(-^) b
"^

(3.14)

where, in turn, the

[x

"

are the zeros of E(a)[

=

found

^o

from the equation

-

15

-

fx^TT

cot

\i^ir

= -IkbZ^

(3.15)

which has approximate solutions for

|Z^1

«

1,

^^n^i
that generally

+

—^.
|

(3.16)

Using arguments similar to those given above, it can be shown
|

Im h

O

|

<

|

Im p O

whenever

|Z<-,|

O

«

lZ-|.
J.

All the formal results are now available to allow one
to show that Eq.
Eqs.

(2.3) does satisfy the conditions given by

(I.7-.I3).

The integrands of Eq.

(2.4) and that given

explicitly in Eq.

(2.3) are bounded and continuous for all

real a and vanish exponentially for all x and y in the

respective ranges

-00

< x <
)

00

and

< y < b except for a

neighborhood about (x ,y

in the former case and a

neighborhood about the origin (0,0) in the latter case.
Then exclusive of these neighborhoods, the integrals coverge

uniformly, limits may be taken under the integral and it is

routine to show that the fundamental solution given by Eq.
(2.3) indeed satisfies Eqs.

(I.7-.II).

In the neighborhood of the shoreline the fundamental

solution is given by
k(Z -Z )M i^^—

g(xQ,y^|p cos e,p sin 6) =

p

cos

6

log

p

+ a bounded function

(3-17)

16 -

where

M-,

Is a complex constant depending upon x

,

y

and the

physical parameters of the problem.
seen that the condition given by Eq.

Prom Eq.

(3-17) It Is

(1.12) is satisfied.

Equation (3.17) Is obtained by separating the

Integration Into two ranges:

a range bounded away from a = 0,

from which the logarithmic term Is obtained, and the

complement of this range.
range is bounded.

The Integral over this latter

This coupling between the behavior at the

discontinuity and large values of a is a well-known
phenomenon (See for example Noble 19?8).
Generally, In

diffraction problems, the behavior at the discontinuity is
specified and the corresponding condition for large a is used
to separate the two sides of Eq.
(2.13).

For

Ixl

»

Ix

I

»
,

0,

the modulus of the dominant term

in the asymptotic form of the fundamental solution is less

than Mp exp[-| min(lmk

Imp )|x]

for x positive and less

than M^ exp[mln|(lmh

,

Imp )|x]

for x negative, where M^ and

M^ are bounded, positive and real constants.

Hence it can

be seen that Eq

.

(l.lj) is satisfied.

In a similar way,

one may recover the fact that the fundamental solution near
(x
,y
)

is -( l/7r)log[ (x-x

)

+(y-y

)

]^

plus a bounded function

which is the standard source term in two-dimensional
problems.
(x ,y
)

Derivatives of the fundamental solution near

vary as the inverse distance from the source plus

logarithmic terms.

17

4.

Coastal Refraction of VLF Wave

4. 1

Explicit Series Representation of Fundamental Solution
Let J(y,a) be defined as

3lnh^y(b-y) J(y,a) = cosh r(b-y) + IkbZ^

(4.1)

Note that the zeros of j(0,a) are those of E(a)j
'

^
-^o

which

are determined from

Eqs.

(3.l4) and (3.I5).

Using the

above equation, Eq.

(2-3) may be rewritten as

;(x^,yjx,y) = "
I

/

N

O

o

^
1
2Tr

f

-ia(x-xj ^ '"'" '^o d a e
jj^^-^

(

^^^Y^ J^V«) T
for
< y < y^
J(y.ct)

-00

sinh yy

Y
v_

for Yq < y < b
00

+
(2Tr)^

da

J(y,a) J(0,a)c(a)
e

(27r):

laXr - J(y^,a) + D (a)C_(a)H_(a) +

00

r
(2t)2

"(C)D(a^"^

[D^(a)C_(a)H_(a)]

(^.2)

The above integrals may be evaluated by residue calculus.
All integrands in Eq.

(4.2) have poles at ±p
JTk

.

The Integrand

of the second integral has poles at

and that of the third

integral has poles at +h

(n = 0,1,2...).

Thus the series

-

18

-

representation for Eq. (4.3) is

g(xQ,yQ|x,y) = g2(xQ,yQ|x,y)

i + (2t)2

^n=o

e

^"

J(y,P^)H_(p^) n' -^'- n
aj(0,a)/8a|

^(Pn)

^-(Pn)

a=p n

00

-ihnX

+

(2Tr)

2

^^/^ J(y,hjD^(hJC_(h )H_(h n' +' n' -' n' -' n
J(0, h \
'

)

n=o
for X < 0,

n

)D'(h^)
' ^

n

(4.4)

g(xQ,yQ|x,y) = g2(x^,y^|x,y)

1

^n=so

e

"

+ (2t)2

J(y,P^)H - (-p^) n n
'

'

'^

'^-(Pn)

Sj(0,a)/aa|

^

n

-

e-^^n(x-xo) +
j(0,k

w/2
t

j(y,^^ ) j(y^,^J
(k
)

n=o

)C

1

-^:

+ (2t) 2


00

e

ik^x +

l7r/2

(k J(y,k )D - (kJC +^ n )H (-kj
n
' ^

n

'

n=o

J(0,k )c'(k ^
'

n

'

^

n

)

('4.

5)

for

< X < x^ and

19

-

s(xQ,yQ|x,y) - g^{^^,Yj^,Y)
^

.
n=o

^lp,x +

W2

j(y,pjH_(-p^)
"n

+ (27r)^

D(PJ n
^ITpD n

SJ(0,a)/aa|^^

00

e

ikn(x-xo)

-r/ J(y,k vt-/ )J(y ,k
,

,

\ )

+

n=o

J(0,k )c'(k

)

i + (2t)^

^
n=o
,

)D (kJC (kjH (-kj e'^"^ ^ '^/2 J(y,k n' -^ n' +^ n' n'

J(0,k )c'(k

)

(4.6)

for X > X o

where
IPj^Ix-XqI

+ l7r/2
T"

J(y,Pn)J(yQ,Pn)
n

g2(x^,yjx,y) =

dJ(0,a)/8a|
sin

[i^ir

y/b

J^yo'Pn)
M-n'"'/^

f or

< y < y^
H ^TT
M-

+

<

sm
1

y/b

n'

for y^ < y < b
(^.7)

In writing Eqs.

(4. 4-. 7)

use has been made of the fact

that C(a), D(a), J(y,a) and j(y ,a) are even functions of
a and that C (a) = C_(-a) and D (a) = D_(-a).

20

-

The various terms In the series representation lend

themselves readily to physical Interpretation.
two summations In Eqs.
of the solution, I.e.
(4. 4-. 6)

The first

are the "sky-wave" portion

that part which Is unobservable If
The remaining

the receiver Is on the ground (y = O).

summation In Eq.

(4.4) are "ground

vijaves"

transmitted
.

beyond the shoreline.

The last two summations In Eq

(4.5)

are, respectively, ground waves from the source which are

Incident on the shoreline and ground waves reflected back

from the coast.

Waves from the source, but receding away from the
shore In the region x > x
,

and the ground waves reflected

from the coast are given respectively as the last two
terms of Eq.
(4,6).

4.2.

Reflection and Transmission Coefficients
When the receiver and the transmitter are remote from

the shoreline and each other, only the n =
(4. 4-. 5) are

modes of Eqs.

observable.

To this remote observer, there

exists a simple wave Incident on, reflected from and

transmitted beyond the discontinuity at the shoreline.
Weltz and Keller (1955), In a different context, have

expressed the situation where a simple wave propagates past
a discontinuity In terms of reflection and transmission

coefficients.

21

-

Consider the source to be a short, two-dimensional
dipole at
(x-, ,y-,
)

with current moment IL so that the

current density is given as

JyK'^o)

= IL5(x^-x^)6(y^-y^)

(4.8)

A vertically oriented antenna at the receiver observes the

E

component of the electric field.

For the above source,

this field component is given as

(^.9)
"^

o

1

For

I

x-x

1

large and x large and positive

Ti.\ (x,y,t) a^ e E /

-i£x ^

+ pe

l|jc

^

(4.10)

and for x large and negative

E y

•v xe

°

(4.11)

where

f ^

is either p

or k

-^o

o

,

which ever has the smallest
,

imaginary part.
in any case.

It is assumed that min(lm p
p

Im k

)

> Im h

The reflection coefficient pTef lected

is defined by

P

~ ^incident
x=»o

(4.12)

and the transmission coefficient by

-

22

-

-.transmitted
T

=-^ incident
x=o

(^.13)

If either the transmitter or the receiver are near

the ground then only the mode corresponding to
Is observable.

^

= k In

If

|

Im

pi
|

>

|

Im k
|

|,

,

then
|

^

= k

any case.

However, when
|

Im k

>

|

Im p

and y and y

are not small,

= p

.

The condition that this latter

statement be true Is given by

Q.

fi

L'

I

> Im(n

-fij)

where

0,^

and

$7o

are given by Eqs.

(3- 8)

and (3-9)

respectively and

Q,^

= 2Z^ + Ikb

-

ITT

(h.lh)

A sufficient condition that Im k

> o ^

Im p

Is

-^o

kb + Re(Z +Zj) >

IfijI

which Is usually satisfied when
I

|

Z,

I

»

Iz,|

or when

Z^

I

>

|Z.^|

and the earth-ionosphere duct is a quarter

wavelength in height.
Because there is an ambiguity as to which mode Is
propagating, the two cases are discussed separately.
For

23

-

case

I,

where

^

= k

o

characterizes the dominant mode for

X > 0, the reflection coefficient p^ calculated from
Eqs.

(4.5) and (4.9) Is given as

D(k

)C

(k

)

where H_(a) = -exp(lk x )H_(a)/(2Tr)^
When

quadratic terms

In the Impedances are neglected.

p^ is given approximately by

h -k

Pi

h +k
o

^

-^o;

o

or since kb

»

|Z--+Z^|,

Pl='^
Eq.
(4. 4-. 5) and Eq.
t

("-IT)

The transmission coefficient for case I, calculated from
(4.9) is
J(y, h
)

^ h D (h )C (k )c(h )H (h )j(0,k
T-.

)

)

=

1

C,(h )D (h )j(y ,k )j(0,h )j(y,k k 0+^0' ^ ^ O o O
^
"^

0^0

(4.10)

which to quadratic terms in the impedances is given as
2h.
I

o
o

h^+k
o

(4.19)

-

24

-

Equations (4.16) and (4.19) are the same form as one

classically obtains for a plane wave passing between two

dissimilar dielectric media.
For case II, where
^

= p

characterizes the mode for
Using Eqs.
(^-5)

X > 0, the situation is not so simple.

and (4.9), one obtains for the reflection coefficient Pjj,

PlI = Pl^K)^l(Po'^o)

(4.20)

where R(x

)

is the

"scale range" defined by

R(x
and P-,(p ,k

)

= exp[i(k -p )x

]

(4.21)

)

is of polynomial

order defined by

O

'

O'

O

O

'

+'

O

sm^L^ry/b
r-

1

+

-^

^
^

-1

for

< y < y

C(p

)

Sinn

Ty/b
f^°^
)

j(y o ,p o

/ / ^ ^ yo < y <
(4.22)

The transmission coefficient for case II is found from
Eqs.
(4. 4-. 5)

and Eq.

(4.9) to be

T^^ =
II

1

+

p^R(xJpJp .k o^)F„(p ,hj o^ l^^o' 2^^o' O'

(4.23)

25

where P^fp

,h

)

is defined by

P^(p ,h

)

=
a = P^

h^C(h^)D^(h^)H_(h^)j(y,h^)aj(0,a)/Sa
p J(0,h
)C

D (p
(h
)H (-P

)

C
"

(p

)

)j(y,p )D (h

C

-

(p O

)
'

D (p O -f^

)

(^.2^)

However, from Eq.

(4.21) it is seen that when Im k
|

> Im p

the scale range vanishes when |x

—^00.

Therefore it is

possible to conclude that the dominant mode is totally

transmitted and no reflected component is observable.
Even though p

characterizes the dominant mode in this case,
mode.

any reflection must come from the k

Provided the

impedance of the ionosphere is sufficiently small and the
source and the receiver are elevated and far from the

shoreline and each other, the discontinuity is not

.

observable to lowest order in the impedances.

On the

other hand, if the ionosphere impedance is not small, or
if either the source or

receiver is near the earth's

surface, the portion of the incident wave reflected is

proportional to the difference of the land and sea
Impedances.

-

26

4.5

The Recovery Effect

Strictly speaking, because of the complex Impedances,
every mode described by Eqs.
(4. 4-. 7)
(n >

Is propagating,

though those of higher order
at low frequencies.

O) are strongly damped

At slightly higher frequencies,

however, more than one mode may be sustained, particularly
over the sea.
At these higher frequencies, an electric field

consisting of one dominant mode and an Infinite number of

heavily damped modes is incident upon the shoreline; the
field transmitted beyond may consist of more than one

observable mode.

The energy from the supressed modes

over land would have been transferred to the higher order

modes over the sea.

This, in essence, is the "recovery

effect" for VLP transmission.

Mllllngton (1949) noted that the recovery effect was
strongest when the observer was near the earth's surface.
The same conclusion may be Inferred from Section 4.2

where It was noted that reflection from the shoreline

discontinuity was observed when the observer or the
transmitter was near the earth.
Therefore in order to

Illustrate the recovery effect, the observer is assumed
to lie in a region near the earth and in a range

(im

k-,

)~

<

|x|

< (Im
5.

h-,

)

.

Such a region is shown as

shaded in Pig.

In this case,

only one mode Is

-

27

-

observable for x >

and two are observable for x <

0.

Over

the land (x > O), the y-component of the electric field

behaves like Eq.

(4.10) while over the sea (x < O) one has

Eya^Tj[e
for
|x|

r

-Ih^x
°

+ P^(h^,h^,k^)e

,

V

-ih-ix,
^
]

,,

.

(^.25)

in the prescribed range.

The function P^(h ,h,,k

)

is given as

P^ h^,h,
^

,kj = -i
^

h J(y,h )c(h )D (h )H (h ^ i + ^ .V ^ h J(y,,h^1c(h )D+^ (h )H -^ (h ^^1' ^
O
O'

)

C^-26
)

o'

o'

o

j(0,h^)D'(h^)C_^(h^)

j(0,h^)D'(h^)C^(h^)
Equation (4.26) may be written approximately as

P (h^,h^,k^)

^

-ikb(Z^+Z^)

^ oil

^

(4.27)

where quadratic terms in the impedances have been suppressed.
In order to compare the field on either side of the

shoreline for the range

|x|

> (im

k-,)"

the squares of the

amplitudes of the two cases are calculated and found to be

|Ey(x>0)l2 = e''"^°\ |pj|2e-2^"^°^
(4.28)
+
2|

pjl

cos(2Rek

x+argp-j.)

for an over-land observer and

-

28

-

/ ^m2 E (x < 0)r = yK^^ ^ -/,

I

i-.t^j, |1+PtI

i2)
1 .

2Imhox
e -

,

,

° + -

IP (h ,h ,ki)| ,.^,..^,..^

m2 e 2Iinh-,x 1

+ 2|F.(h ,h,,kJ!e^'^^'^°+^l^'' cos[Re(h

-hjx

+ arg P^(h^,h^,k^)]

('!.29)

for an over-sea observer.

By comparing Eqs.

('4.28)

and

(4.29) it can be seen from Eq.

(4.2?) that the effective

Increase in amplitude as the observer moves across the
shore line Is proportional to
E
2
|Z-p+Z^|
1
J-j
.

The recovery of

Is Illustrated In Pig.
I I

5.

It should be noted that

while

E yl
I

I

2
I

Is increasing as the observer moves from land 6
2
I

to sea,
Z-r-+Z„
I I

|E
/I

Is decreasing by an amount proport.i ona
.
I

I

to

Z-|-+Z-|.

As a result, the wave vector may be

thought of as "straightening up" as the wave passes from
the relatively poor conducting land to the more highly

conducting sea.

-

29

References

Dobrott, D.

(i960). On coastline effects in VLP mode

transmission, Boeing Scientific Research Laboratory Report

Dl-82-0066 (August).
Walt, J. R.
(1965)5 Influence of an Inhomogeneous ground

on the propagation of VLF radio waves In the earth-

Ionosphere waveguide, J. Res. NBS 69D
Mllllngton, G.

,

1

,

969-

(19^9)? Ground wave propagation over an
.

inhomogeneous smooth earth, Proc
Noble, B.

I.E.E. 96, 53-

(1958), The Weiner-Hopf Technique

(Pergamon

Press, New York, N.Y.) Helns, A. E. and H. Peshback (19^7), The coupling of two

acoustical ducts, J. Math. Phys
Helns, A. E.

.

2_6,

1^3.

(19^8), Water waves over a channel of finite
J.

depth with a dock, Amer.

Math.

70^

730.

Weitz, M. and J. B. Keller (1950), Reflection of water waves

from floating ice in water of finite depth, Comm. Pure and
Appl. Math. 5, 305.

Keller, J. B. and M. Weitz (1953), Reflection and transmission

coefficients for waves entering or leaving an ice field,
Comm. Pure and Appl. Math. 6, 4l5.

-

30

-

Dobrott, D. R. and A. Ishlmaru (1961), East-west effect of

VLF mode transmission across the earth's magnetic field,
J.

Res. NBS 65D, 1, ^7.

Kerr, D. E.

(1951), Propagation of short radio waves

(McGraw

Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y.
Knopp, K.
(1947), Theory of F"unctions, Part II (Dover, New

York, N.Y.)

Additional References
Papers which do not directly apply to VLF mixed-

path propagation, but relate to mixed -path

propagation are listed below.
may be found therein.

Additional references

Bazer, J. and S. N. Karp (I962), Propagation of plane

electromagnetic waves past a shoreline, J. Res. NBS 66d,
3,

519-

(This makes explicit use of the Wiener-Hopf
.

technique

Walt, J. R.

(1964), Advances in Radio Research, ed
N.

.

J.

A.

Saxton (Academic Press, New York,
Furutsu, K.

Y.), 157-

(1965)^ Calculated curves for groundwave

propagation over inhomogeneous earth with pronounced
topographical features, J. Res. NBS 69D
,

7,

1011.

-

31 -

Figure Captions

1.

The earth-ionosphere duct showing schematic placement
of transmitter T and receiver R.

2.
3-

The alpha -plane showing the occurrence of the

+k

terms.

Path of Integration for decomposition by sum of the

E(a)/D (a)C_(a) function
4.

Evolution of H (a) by displacement of Integral path to
Infinity In the upper-half z-plane.

5-

Region of observation of the recovery effect so that
one mode Is observable for x >

but two are observable

for X < 0.
6.

The "recovery" of
land to sea.

|

E

2
|

as the observer passes from

- 32

-

5.0

o
>

IONOSPHERE

•T
R •

SEA

LAND

FIGURE

1

55 -

Im a

K
a- PLANE

F(z.+z,)

"o*

Re a

FIGURE 2

-

54 -

Imz

r-PLANE

STRIP OF ANALYTICITY

min(Im ko,Impo)

-d

•a
Rit

-c
PATH OF INTEGRATION

— mln(Imho,Impo)

FIGURE 3

-

55

-

Imz

z- PLANE

O'sPLAceo

p^rn of

"^^^GRAT^

ORIGINAL PATH

OF INTEGRATION
Rez

FIGURE 4

-

36

-

(Imkj)"*

(Imhif*

FIGURE 5

-

37

-

U+F3(hpho)l

FIGURE 6

-

38 -

This report was prepared as an account of Government sponsored work. Neither the United States, nor the Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission:
A.

Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained In this report, or that the use of any Information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed In this report may not infringe privately owned rights; or

B.

Assumes the use the use method, report.

any liabilities with respect to of, or for damages resulting from of any Information, apparatus, or process disclosed In this

As used In the above, "person acting on behalf of the Commission" includes any employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor, to the extent that such employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of such contractor prepares, disseminates or provides access to, any information pursuant to his employment or contract with the Commission, or his employment with such contractor.
,

-

39 -

NYU
NYOli|80-55

c.l

Dobrott
Coastal refraction of VLP waves.

N.Y.U. Courant Institute of

Mathematical Sciences
251 Mercer
St.

New

York, N. Y. 10012

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