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Manufacturing Module

Mechanical Equipment
A wide range of mechanical equipment is used in the manufacturing industry such as guillotines, wood working machines, bench saws, band saws, planers, routers and sanders. Mechanical equipment can be hazardous. The most common injuries are to hands and fingers, which may be cut, sprained, dislocated, broken, crushed or severed by machinery or tools. These injuries can cause lengthy periods of time off work and sometimes they result in permanent disability. Eye injuries caused by mechanical equipment accidents include being hit by an object (e.g. small particles such as metal shavings as well large objects or pieces of equipment), heat, radiation, hitting an object and falls, trips and slips. The most serious injuries are from kickback (e.g. angle grinders) where the disc is thrust violently away from the object it is grinding, and back towards the operator. Kickback can result in severe cuts to hands, arms, head, torso and legs. When mechanical equipment hazards cannot be eliminated or sufficiently reduced by engineering controls or safe working procedures alone, you may need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) to improve protection. PPE may include safety glasses or goggles, earplugs or earmuffs, protective gloves, overalls or other close fitting clothing and safety shoes or boots with steel toe-caps to protect your feet if any items are dropped.

Your employer must


have a maintenance program to make sure all equipment and machines are in safe working order and that where necessary, guards are fitted have a system in place for locking out and isolating machinery during maintenance, cleaning and repairs train you to operate any item of mechanical equipment before you use it, and make sure you are supervised when you use it. If you are in doubt about using any mechanical equipment, you must ask your supervisor for instruction, and provide any personal protective equipment (PPE) needed and tell you how to wear and use it correctly.

What you should do


When you are operating any mechanical equipment, you must follow safe work procedures as instructed by your employer or supervisor. These may include:

wearing clothing that will not catch in moving parts

wearing any personal protective equipment provided by your employer operating the machinery and equipment correctly and safely according to your training keeping all guards in place making sure any guards removed during maintenance, repair or cleaning are replaced by an authorised person before you use the machine again switching off machinery and equipment when it is not in use locking out and isolating machinery before any repair, adjustment, cleaning or maintenance is done concentrating on the job, as distractions can contribute to injuries, and keeping the area around the equipment or machinery clean.

Key Point Keep all machinery guards in place - they are fitted to protect you from moving parts. Students must not undertake any tasks that involve the use of machines such as:

rip saw band saw buzzer thicknesser guillotine spindle moulder docking saw, and power wood shapers.

This list provides examples, but is not exhaustive. No student should be asked to perform work on any machine which may present significant risks in operation. Work experience activity in such cases must be limited to observing, under supervision, trained and experienced operators. The health and safety information here is designed to give students an understanding of the hazards and of the measures by which risks are controlled in the manufacturing industry.

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Standard Number:

1926.502(f)(1); 1926.502(f)(4); 1926.502(h)(2)

OSHA requirements are set by statute, standards and regulations. Our interpretation letters explain these requirements and how they apply to particular circumstances, but they cannot create additional employer obligations. This letter constitutes OSHA's interpretation of the requirements discussed. Note that our enforcement guidance may be affected by changes to OSHA rules. Also, from time to time we update our guidance in response to new information. To keep apprised of such developments, you can consult OSHA's website at http://www.osha.gov.

This is in response to the April 4, 2000, package and letter you forwarded from Janet Flury to the Occupation Health Administration (OSHA). You ask us to determine which of the 44 pictures of roofing equipment you mechanical equipment as defined by 29 CFR 1926, Subpart M, the fall protection standard for construction. Background Question 1: What is the significance of determining which pieces of equipment are mechanical equipment?

Answer: 29 CFR 1926.502 prohibits the use of mechanical equipment during roofing activities on low slope only a safety monitor is used or outside of an established warning line. Where it is permitted, fall protection m Question 2: What is mechanical equipment?

Answer: In 1926.500, the standard defines mechanical equipment as "all motor or human propelled wheele used for roofing work, except wheelbarrows and mop carts."

In the preamble to the Guarding of Low-Pitched-Roof Perimeters During the Performance of Built-Up R (Federal Register Vol. 45, No. 222, page 75,623), OSHA explained that wheelbarrows and mopcarts were ex definition because: "...their use does not require employees to move backward. In addition, they are light in weight and therefore momentum. Wheelbarrows and mopcarts do not present the same degree of risk to roofing employees as do s as felt layers and gravel buggies. (Cf. Ex. 2:36, 120, 152). Mop carts and wheelbarrows do not require emplo

their attention between the equipment they are using and the roof edge, as they would have to do with heavie awkward machinery." Question 3: What are the hazards associated with operating mechanical equipment while doing roofing work

Answer: The preamble also explains (Vol. 45, No. 222, page 75,622) that when operating mechanical equipm edge of structure: "...the greatest hazards with mechanical equipment operation are at the points of turn-around (perpendicular t of equipment movement) where an employee's attention is no longer on the edge [fall] hazard, but rather is on required to turn the equipment around (cf. Ex. 2:82, 120, 191). At these points, employees are in danger of lo balance because of the sometimes awkward motions necessary to turn the mechanical equipment, and becaus step backward toward the edge, as they try to line the machine up for the next run." Question 4: What OSHA regulations address the use of mechanical equipment during roofing work in constr

Answer: Roofers are allowed to use mechanical equipment without fall protection only under specified cond are addressed in 1926.502. Mechanical equipment is mentioned in respect to the use of warning line system monitoring systems in sections 1926.502(f)(1)(i), 1926.502(f)(1)(ii), 1926.502(f)(4) and 1926.502(h)(2). The are:

1926.502(f)(1)(i): When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) f edge. 1926.502(f)(1)(ii): When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3.1 m) from th which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation. 1926.502(f)(4): Mechanical equipment on roofs shall be used or stored only in areas where employees are protected by a war system, guardrail system, or personal fall arrest system. 1926.502(h)(2): Mechanical equipment shall not be used or stored in areas where safety monitoring systems are being used to employees engaged in roofing operations on low sloped roofs. On May 19, 1998, OSHA issued an interpretation memorandum (Wiehrdt memo, attached) that allows a port of mechanical equipment (the hose and roller/wand) to be used outside of a warning line and in areas with on present. Using the hose and roller is not considered any different from using a broom or mop to spread glue i protected by a monitor, which is allowed by the standard. However, the wheeled, pressurized storage tanks of were considered to present the same hazard as mechanical equipment for the following reasons: a. it has to be wheeled and maneuvered into position; b. its gauges are monitored; and c. it is more cumbersome to handle than a wheelbarrow or mop cart due to its load and size.

All of the reasons listed above could distract the operator long enough to step back and off the edge of the str operating the equipment. The answer to your question

Question 5: Attached is a list of 44 pieces of equipment. Are any of them considered "mechanical equipmen standards?

Answer: Any piece of equipment that fits the definition of mechanical equipment and is not a wheelbarrow o by the terms of the standard, prohibited outside of a warning line and in areas where only a monitor is used. H worker is allowed to operate the mechanical equipment in these areas with fall protection in place.

We have attached a list of how we would classify the 44 pictured items that you submitted. Most of them are mechanical equipment. These do not fit the definition of "mechanical equipment" primarily because they are propelled by a person, or motor driven. Equipment such as power tools, brooms, axes, pumps, and hand tools definition.

Some of the equipment does fit the definition, but have hoses and/or attachments that allow the wheeled porti equipment to remain inside the warning line while the employees can use the hoses and/or attachments to do outside of the line. Like the equipment discussed in the Wierhdt memo, this equipment does not have to be m position anywhere near the edge of the walking/working surface in order to use the attachments. These types include but are not limited to compressors, pressure pumps (sprayers), vacuums, and glue dispensers.

Finally, some of the equipment fits the definition and does not have hoses/attachments like the equipment abo pieces of equipment, therefore, are prohibited from being used outside of warning lines and where only safety used. These types of equipment require the worker to guide the machine to perform various tasks on the roofi such as cutting, sanding, applying finishes and glues, scraping, compressing or removing roofing materials. T require the worker to operate levers and switches or monitor gauges while maneuvering the machine to perfo mentioned above. The worker's concentration is divided between the fall hazard and operating the equipment around near the edge of the working/walking surface.

A categorized list of the equipment you submitted is enclosed with this response. We have indicated where w more information about the operation of particular pieces of equipment to give guidance on how they would

If you need additional information, please contact us by fax at: U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, Directorat Construction, Office of Construction Standards and Guidance, fax # 202-693-1689. You can also contact us b above office, Room N3468, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20210, although there will be receiving correspondence by mail. Sincerely, Russell B. Swanson, Director Directorate of Construction [Corrected 6/2/2005] Enclosure Equipment that is not mechanical equipment as defined in Subpart M.

1. 3/4 HP Air Compressor (not on wheels) 2. Wheel Barrow 3. Puddle Pumps 4. Porter Cable Reciprocation Saw 5. Dewalt 1/2 Impact 6. Liester Gun 7. Electric Deck Saw 8. Metabo Hammer 9. Milwaukee Screw Gun 10. Black and Decker Screw Gun 11. Hilti Screw Gun 12. Metabo Cordless 13. Push Lugger 14. Makita cordless 15. Hilti Hammer 16. AEG Hammer 17. Skill Worm Drive 18. Mop Cart 19. Bosch Hammer 20. Deck Saw 21. 36" Broom 22. Axe 23. Nail Gun 24. Framing Nail Gun 25. Garlock Hydraulic Roof Hoist 26. Makita Heat Gun

Equipment that meets the definition of mechanical equipment but components (hoses and/or attachme equipment may be used outside of the warning line. 1. Power Washer (hose outside) 2. Power Roller Glue Machine (roller attachment outside)

Equipment that meets the definition of mechanical equipment and is prohibited outside of a warning li safety monitors are used on a low sloped roof. 1. Garlock Cutter 2. Spud machine 3. Four Wheel Cart 4. Hot Dispenser 5. Felt Machine 6. Hand Rhino 7. Roof Blower 8. Roof Vacuum 9. Snow Blower

Equipment that meets the definition of mechanical equipment but more information about how it func used in roofing operations is needed. 1. Saramatic 2. 110 Gal Lugger 3. Draggin Wagon 4. Accutrac 5. Primer Pump 6. SFS Machine

GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY PROCEDURES AND RULES


[signature form] *** See also House Rules and Laboratory Safety Guidelines posted by CEET) *** Laboratory safety Emergency Response Common Sense Personal and General laboratory safety Electrical safety Mechanical safety Chemical safety Lasers safety Additional Safety Guidelines Laboratory safety
All students must read and understand the information in this document with regard to laboratory safety and emergency procedures prior to the first laboratory session. Your personal laboratory safety depends mostly on YOU. Effort has been made to address situations that may pose a hazard in the lab but the information and instructions provided cannot be considered all-inclusive.

Students must adhere to written and verbal safety instructions throughout the academic term. Since additional instructions may be given at the beginning of laboratory sessions, it is important that all students arrive at each session on time. With good judgement, the chance of an accident in this course is very small. Nevertheless, research and teaching workplaces (labs, shops, etc.) are full of potential hazards that can cause serious injury and or damage to the equipment. Working alone and unsupervised in laboratories is forbidden if you are working with hazardous substances or equipment. With prior approval, at least two people should be present so that one can shut down equipment and call for help in the event of an emergency. Safety training and/or information should be provided by a faculty member, teaching assistant, lab safety contact, or staff member at the beginning of a new assignment or when a new hazard is introduced into the workplace. * Go

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Emergency Response
1. 2. 3. 4. It is your responsibility to read safety and fire alarm posters and follow the instructions during an emergency Know the location of the fire extinguisher, eye wash, and safety shower in your lab and know how to use them. Notify your instructor immediately after any injury, fire or explosion, or spill. Know the building evacuation procedures.

* Go to Top Common Sense


Good common sense is needed for safety in a laboratory. It is expected that each student will work in a responsible manner and exercise good judgement and common sense. If at any time you are not sure how to handle a particular situation, ask your Teaching Assistant or Instructor for advice. DO NOT TOUCH ANYTHING WITH WHICH YOU ARE NOT COMPLETELY FAMILIAR!!! It is always better to ask questions than to risk harm to yourself or damage to the equipment.

Personal and General laboratory safety


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Never eat, drink, or smoke while working in the laboratory. Read labels carefully. Do not use any equipment unless you are trained and approved as a user by your supervisor. Wear safety glasses or face shields when working with hazardous materials and/or equipment. Wear gloves when using any hazardous or toxic agent. Clothing: When handling dangerous substances, wear gloves, laboratory coats, and safety shield or glasses. Shorts and sandals should not be worn in the lab at any time. Shoes are required when working in the machine shops. If you have long hair or loose clothes, make sure it is tied back or confined. Keep the work area clear of all materials except those needed for your work. Coats should be hung in the hall or placed in a locker. Extra books, purses, etc. should be kept away from equipment, that requires air flow or ventilation to prevent overheating.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Disposal - Students are responsible for the proper disposal of used material if any in appropriate containers. Equipment Failure - If a piece of equipment fails while being used, report it immediately to your lab assistant or tutor. Never try to fix the problem yourself because you could harm yourself and others. If leaving a lab unattended, turn off all ignition sources and lock the doors. Never pipette anything by mouth. Clean up your work area before leaving. Wash hands before leaving the lab and before eating.

* Go to Top Electrical safety


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Obtain permission before operating any high voltage equipment. Maintain an unobstructed access to all electrical panels. Wiring or other electrical modifications must be referred to the Electronics Shop or the Building Coordinator. Avoid using extension cords whenever possible. If you must use one, obtain a heavy- duty one that is electrically grounded, with its own fuse, and install it safely. Extension cords should not go under doors, across aisles, be hung from the ceiling, or plugged into other extension cords. Never, ever modify, attach or otherwise change any high voltage equipment. Always make sure all capacitors are discharged (using a grounded cable with an insulating handle) before touching high voltage leads or the "inside" of any equipment even after it has been turned off. Capacitors can hold charge for many hours after the equipment has been turned off. When you are adjusting any high voltage equipment or a laser which is powered with a high voltage supply, USE ONLY ONE HAND. Your other hand is best placed in a pocket or behind your back. This procedure eliminates the possibility of an accident where high voltage current flows up one arm, through your chest, and down the other arm.

Go to Top Mechanical safety


1. 2. 3. When using compressed air, use only approved nozzles and never direct the air towards any person. Guards on machinery must be in place during operation. Exercise care when working with or near hydraulically- or pneumatically-driven equipment. Sudden or unexpected motion can inflict serious injury.

Go to Top Chemical safety


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Treat every chemical as if it were hazardous. Make sure all chemicals are clearly and currently labeled with the substance name, concentration, date, and name of the individual responsible. Never return chemicals to reagent bottles. (Try for the correct amount and share any excess.) Comply with fire regulations concerning storage quantities, types of approved containers and cabinets, proper labeling, etc. If uncertain about regulations, contact the building coordinator. Use volatile and flammable compounds only in a fume hood. Procedures that produce aerosols should be performed in a hood to prevent inhalation of hazardous material. Never allow a solvent to come in contact with your skin. Always use gloves.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Never "smell" a solvent!! Read the label on the solvent bottle to identify its contents. Dispose of waste and broken glassware in proper containers. Clean up spills immediately. Do not store food in laboratories.

Lasers safety 1. NEVER, EVER LOOK INTO ANY LASER BEAM, no matter how low power or "eye safe" you
2. 3. may think it is. Always wear safety goggles if instructed by your Instructor or Teaching Assistant. The most common injury using lasers is an eye injury resulting from scattered laser light reflected off of mountings, sides of mirrors or from the "shiny" surface of an optical table. The best way to avoid these injuries is to always wear your goggles and NEVER LOWER YOUR HEAD TO THE LEVEL OF THE LASER BEAM! The laser beam should always be at or below chest level. Always use "beam stops" to intercept laser beams. Never allow them to propagate into the laboratory. Never walk through a laser beam. Some laser beams of only a few watts can burn a hole through a shirt in only a few seconds.

4.

5. If you suspect that you have suffered an eye injury, notify your instructor or teaching assistant IMMEDIATELY! Your ability to recover from an eye injury decreases the longer you wait for treatment. Additional Safety Guidelines
Never do unauthorized experiments. Never work alone in laboratory. Keep your lab space clean and organized. Do not leave an on-going experiment unattended. Always inform your instructor if you break a thermometer. Do not clean mercury yourself!! Never taste anything. Never pipette by mouth; use a bulb. Never use open flames in laboratory unless instructed by TA. Check your glassware for cracks and chips each time you use it. Cracks could cause the glassware to fail during use and cause serious injury to you or lab mates. Maintain unobstructed access to all exits, fire extinguishers, electrical panels, emergency showers, and eye washes. Do not use corridors for storage or work areas. Do not store heavy items above table height. Any overhead storage of supplies on top of cabinets should be limited to lightweight items only. Also, remember that a 36" diameter area around all fire sprinkler heads must be kept clear at all times. Areas containing lasers, biohazards, radioisotopes, and carcinogens should be posted accordingly. However, do not post areas unnecessarily and be sure that the labels are removed when the hazards are no longer present. Be careful when lifting heavy objects. Only shop staff may operate forklifts or cranes. Clean your lab bench and equipment, and lock the door before you leave the laboratory.

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1997 Prof. M. Kostic

SECTION B6: MACHINE GUARDING REQUIREMENTS


Introduction Scope and Application Program Description Roles and Responsibilities For More Information

Introduction There seem to be as many hazards created by moving machine parts as there are types of machines. Safeguards are essential for protecting operators from preventable injuries. Return to Top

Scope and Application The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires guarding for any machine where machine parts, functions, or processes may cause injury. The need for machine guarding may be found in machine shops in academic departments, maintenance shops, print shops, and other areas where mechanical equipment is used. Return to Top

Program Description Any machine part, function, or process that might cause injury must be safeguarded. When the operation of a machine or accidental contact with it could injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards must be either controlled or eliminated. Where Mechanical Hazards Occur

Dangerous moving parts in three basic areas require safeguarding: The point of operation: that point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. o Power transmission apparatus: all components of the mechanical system that transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. o Other moving parts: all parts of the machine that move while the machine is working. These may include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
o

Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to the operator. These can include the movement of rotating members, reciprocating arms, moving belts, meshing gears, cutting teeth, and any parts that impact or shear. These different types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are basic in varying combinations to nearly all machines, and recognizing them is the first step toward protecting operators from the danger they present. The basic types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are: Motions
o

rotating (including in-running nip reciprocating transversing

points)
o o

Actions
o o o o

cutting punching shearing bending

Requirements for Safeguards

Safeguards must meet these minimum general requirements: Prevent contact: The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, and any other part of a operator's body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or another worker placing parts of their bodies near hazardous moving parts. Secure: Operators should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard, because a safeguard that can easily be made ineffective is no safeguard at all. Guards and safety devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine. Protect from falling objects: The safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. A small tool dropped into a cycling machine could easily become a projectile that could strike and injure someone. Create no new hazards: A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard such as a shear point, a jagged edge, or an unfinished surface that could cause a laceration. The edges of guards, for instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a way to eliminate sharp edges. Create no interference: Any safeguard that impedes an operator from performing the job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper safeguarding may actually enhance efficiency since it relieves the operator's apprehensions about injury. Allow safe lubrication: If possible, workers should be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards. Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a line leading to the lubrication point, will reduce the need for the operator or maintenance operator to enter the hazardous area. Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment Engineering controls that eliminate the hazard at the source and do not rely on the operator's behavior for their effectiveness offer the best and most reliable means of safeguarding. Therefore, engineering controls are the first choice for eliminating machine hazards. But whenever engineering controls are not available or are not fully capable of protecting the operator, operators must wear protective clothing or personal protective equipment (see Section B4, Personal Protective Equipment). To provide adequate protection, the protective clothing and equipment must always be:

o o o o

appropriate for the particular hazards maintained in good condition properly stored when not in use, to prevent damage or loss kept clean, fully functional, and sanitary.

Protective clothing is, of course, available for different parts of the body. Hard hats offer protection to the head from the impact of bumps and falling objects when the operator is handling stock; caps and hair nets may be used to keep the operator's hair from being caught in machinery. If machine coolants could splash or particles could fly into the operator's eyes or face, then face shields, safety goggles, glasses, or similar kinds of protection might be necessary. Hearing protection may be needed when operators operate noisy machines. To guard the trunk of the body from cuts or impacts from heavy or rough-edged stock, there are protective coveralls, jackets, vests, aprons, and full-body suits. Operators may protect their hands and arms from the same kinds of injury with special sleeves and gloves. Safety shoes and boots, or other acceptable foot guards, shield the feet against injury in case the operator must handle heavy stock that could drop. It is important to note that protective clothing and equipment may create hazards. A protective glove that could become caught between rotating parts, or a respirator face piece that hinders the wearer's vision, for example, require alertness and continued attentiveness whenever they are used. Other parts of the operator's clothing may present additional safety hazards. For example, loose-fitting shirts might possibly become entangled in rotating spindles or other kinds of moving machinery. Jewelry, such as bracelets and rings, may catch on machine parts or stock and lead to serious injury by pulling a hand into the danger area. Training Even the most elaborate safeguarding system cannot offer effective protection unless the operator knows how to use it and why. Specific and detailed training is therefore a crucial part of any effort to provide safeguarding against machinerelated hazards. Thorough operator training should involve instruction or handson training in the following: a description and identification of the hazards associated with particular machines o the safeguards themselves, how they provide protection, and the hazards for which they are intended o how to use the safeguards and why o how and under what circumstances safeguards can be removed, and by whom (in most cases, repair or maintenance personnel only)
o

what to do (e.g., contact the supervisor) if a safeguard is damaged, missing, or unable to provide adequate protection.
o

This kind of safety training is necessary for new operators and maintenance or setup personnel, when any new or altered safeguards are put in service, or when operators are assigned to a new machine or operation. Return to Top

Roles and Responsibilities Department


o o o

Ensure machines are equipped with appropriate safeguards. Provide personal protective equipment to operators, when necessary. Provide machine specific training to operators.

Supervisors
o

Ensure operators do not defeat machine safeguards.

EHS
o o o o

Provide assistance in machine safeguard development. Assist in selection of personal protective equipment. Assist in development of specific training, when needed. Provide periodic audits of machine guarding.

Individual
o

Operate machines with all safeguards in place.

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For More Information Contact an EHS Safety Engineer at 258-5294.

A manual published by OSHA, Machine Guarding Concepts & Techniques, is available through EHS. A Machinery and Machine Guarding Self-Audit Checklist is available through EHS or may be downloaded either as a PDF or a customizable Word document. A copy of OSHAs regulation, Machinery and Machine Guarding, 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O, is available through EHS. Return to Top

Basics of Machine Safeguarding Crushed hands and arms, severed fingers, blindness -- the list of possible machineryrelated injuries is as long as it is horrifying. There seem to be as many hazards created by moving machine parts as there are types of machines. Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from needless and preventable injuries. A good rule to remember is: Any machine part, function, or process which many cause injury must be safeguarded. When the operation of a machine or accidental contact with it can injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards must be either controlled or eliminated. This manual describes the various hazards of mechanical motion and presents some techniques for protecting workers from these hazards. General information covered in this chapter includes -- where mechanical hazards occur, the hazards created by different kinds of motions and the requirements for effective safeguards, as well as a brief discussion of nonmechanical hazards. Where Mechanical Hazards Occur Dangerous moving parts in three basic areas require safeguarding: The point of operation: that point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. Power transmission apparatus: all components of the mechanical system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. Other moving parts: all parts of the machine which move while the machine is working.

These can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.