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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI KHOA IN T - VIN THNG

THNG TIN DI NG
(Mobile Communications)

Slide c thy Nguyn V Thng la chn t ni dung mn hc Thng tin di ng do thy Trng Tun son. H Ni 12/ 2006

Ni dung mn hc
Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng TTDD Chng 2: H thng GSM Chng 3: H thng GPRS Chng 4: H thng CDMA

Ti liu tham kho


Tnh ton mng thng tin di ng s cellular,
Thy V c Th

L thuyt v knh v tuyn


Thy Nguyn Vn c

GSM, CdmaOne and 3G Systems,


Raymond Steele, Chin-Chun Lee, Peter Gould

GSM, Switching, Services and Protocols,


John Wiley & Sons

Website ca tp ch bu chnh vin thng, a ch: http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/


http://www.google.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mobile_phones

CHNG 1

TNG QUAN V
H THNG THNG TIN DI NG

Ni dung
Lch s pht trin Cu trc h thng T bo a truy nhp

1. Lch s pht trin


Gii thiu chung: H thng thng tin di ng t bo s (Digital Cellular mobile communication systems) hay cn gi l h thng thng tin di ng (mobile systems) l h thng lin lc vi nhiu im truy nhp khc nhau (access points, or base stations) trn mt vng a l hay cn goi l cc cell. Ngui s dng c th di chuyn trong vng ph sng ca cc trm (base station)

1. Lch s pht trin


Ra i vo nhng nm 1920 ( l cc phng tin thng tin gia cc n v cnh st M ) 1982 s dng k thut TDMA l Nhm c trch di ng GSM (Group Special Mobile) sau ny c i thnh H thng di ng ton cu (Global System for Mobile communications Vit Nam s dng GSM t 1993 1991 Qualcomm trin khai h thng di ng trn cng ngh CDMA chun IS-95A (Interim Standard-95A) Vit Nam trim khai h thng di ng theo cng ngh CDMA v a vo s dng thng 7/2003

1. Lch s pht trin

Cc th h : Th h th nht (1G) Th h th hai (2G) Th h th ba (3G) Th h th bn (4G)

1. Lch s pht trin


First Generation (1G)
H thng thng tin di ng tng t s dng phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA v iu ch tn s FM. c im:
Phng thc truy nhp: Dch v n thun l thoi Cht lng thp Bo mt km FDMA

1. Lch s pht trin


Mt s h thng in hnh:

NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone s dng bng tn 450 MHz. Trin khai ti cc nc Bc u vo nm 1981 (Scandinavia) TACS: Total Access Communication System trin khai ti Anh vo nm 1985. AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System trin khai ti Bc M vo nm 1978 ti bng tn 800 MHz.

1. Lch s pht trin


Second Generation (2G)
H thng di ng s t bo: Dung lng tng Cht lng thoi tt hn H tr cc dch v s liu (data) Phng thc truy nhp: TDMA, CDMA bng hp (NarrowBand) Chuyn mch: chuyn mch knh (Circuit Switching).

1. Lch s pht trin


Mt s h thng in hnh:

GSM: (Global System for Mobile Phone) - TDMA. Trin khai ti Chu u. D-AMPS (IS-136 - Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) TDMA. Trin khai ti M IS-95 (CDMA one) - CDMA. Trin khai ti M v Hn Quc. PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) TDMA, Trin khai ti Nht Bn.

1. Lch s pht trin


Evolved Second Generation (2.5 G)
Cc dch v s liu ci tin :
Tc bit data cao hn. H tr kt ni Internet.

Phng thc chuyn mch:


Chuyn mch gi - Packet Switching

V d: GPRS - General Packet Radio Services: Nng cp t mng GSM nhm h tr


chuyn mch gi (172 kbps).

EDGE - Enhance Data rate for GSM Evolution


H tr tc bit cao hn GPRS trn nn GSM (384 kbps)

1. Lch s pht trin


Third Generation (3G)
H tr cc dch v s liu gi tc cao: Di chuyn trn cc phng tin (Vehicles): 144 kbps - Macro Cell i b, di chuyn chm (Pedestrians): 384 kbps Micro cell Vn phng ( Indoor, stationary users) 2 Mbps - Pico cell Dch v a phng tin, kt ni qua Internet, v d nh: Video Streaming, video conference, web browsing, email, navigational maps . .

1. Lch s pht trin


Third Generation (3G)

Hai hng tiu chun cho mng 3G:


W-CDMA: UTMS: Pht trin t h thng GSM, GPRS CDMA 2000 1xEVDO: Pht trin t h thng CDMA IS-95

Cost of moving from GSM to cdmaOne overrides the benefit of the CDMA migration path

Source: U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray

1. Lch s pht trin


Fourth Generation (4G)
Hin nay ang xy dng chun. Ci tin v dch v d liu:
Tc bit: 20 100 Mb/s.

Phng thc iu ch:


OFDM, MC-CDMA

Xu hng kt hp: mng li IP + mng truy nhp di ng (3G) v truy nhp v tuyn Wimax & Wi-Fi !

Distribution of GSM Subscribers


GSM is used by 70% of subscribers worldwide

564 M subs / 800 M subs in July 2001 Most GSM deployments in Europe (59%) and Asia (33%) ATT & Cingular deploying GSM in US today
Number of subscribers in the world (Jul 2001)
CDMA 12% US TDMA 10% GSM 71% PDC 7%

Source: EMC World Cellular / GSM Association

1. Lch s pht trin


Fourth Generation (4G)
Hin nay ang xy dng chun. Ci tin v dch v d liu:
Tc bit: 20 100 Mb/s.

Phng thc iu ch:


OFDM, MC-CDMA

Xu hng kt hp: mng li IP + mng truy nhp di ng (3G) v truy nhp v tuyn Wimax & Wi-Fi !

2. Cu trc h thng

2. Cu trc h thng
Trong :

HLR: Home Location Register: b ng k nh v thng


tr

VLR: Visited Location Register: b ng k nh v tm tr AuC: Authentication Center: Trung tm nhn thc MSC: Mobile Switching Center: Trung tm chuyn mch di
ng

3. Khi nim t bo
Cell t bo hay : l n v c s ca mng, ti trm di ng MS tin hnh trao i thng tin vi mng qua trm thu pht gc BTS (BS). Trong :
MS: Mobile Station - trm di ng. BTS (BS): Base Tranceiver Station (Base Station)

3. Khi nim t bo

Trm thu pht gc BTS Base Transceiver Station

T bo - cell

3. Khi nim t bo
Phng thc ph sng:
an ten v hng v c hng 1 hoc 3 anten

nhy thu - Receive Sensitivity:


Mc cng sut ti thiu m ti my thu vn nhn c tn hiu. n v: [dBm] VD: Card mng WLAN theo chun 802.11 c nhy thu l -96 dBm

4. Cc phng thc a truy nhp


FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access


a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access


a truy nhp phn chia theo m

Bng tn ca h thng
Mi h thng thng tin di ng c cp pht mt hoc nhiu bng tn xc nh. Trong mi bng tn, cc knh v tuyn ca h thng s c n nh.
V d: Bng tn GSM 900 c cp pht l
-

UL: 890 MHz 915 MHz DL: 935 MHz 960 MHz

CHNG 2

H THNG GSM

Ni dung
Cu trc h thng Phn cp vng phc v Cc giao din Cc giao thc S dng li tn s Chu trnh cuc gi v chuyn giao

2.1. Cu trc h thng GSM


Mng thng tin di ng mt t cng cng PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) theo chun GSM c chia thnh 3 (4) phn h chnh sau:
Phn h chuyn mch - NSS
Network Switching Subsystem.

Phn h v tuyn - RSS = BSS + MS


Radio SubSystem

Phn h vn hnh v bo dng - OMS


Operation and Maintenance Subsystem

2.1. Cu trc h thng GSM


NSS
vlr iwf
Data NetwoRK

BSS trau

auc hlr

msc

bsc

ec eir

bts

bts

bts

pstn omc
SIEMENS NIXDO RF SIEMENS NIXDO RF

ms

Omc- s Omc- r
IWF: InterWorking Function - Khi tng tc mng Kt ni mang thng tin bo hiu /iu khin

Me sim
EC: Echo Canceler - Khi trit ting vng
Kt ni mang thng tin ngi s dng v bo hiu

1. Trm di ng MS - Mobile Station


Trm di ng MS = ME + SIM
ME : Mobile Equipment - thit b di ng SIM: Subscriber Indentity Module Module nhn dng thu bao.

ME = hardware + software ME
6 digits

IMEI = Assigned at the factory


2 digits 6 digits Serial Number 1 digit Sp

Type Approval Final Assembly Code Code IMEI

Trm di ng MS - Mobile Stattion


SIM: lu gi cc thng tin nhn thc thu bao v mt m ha/gii mt m ha. Cc thng tin lu gi trong SIM:
Cc s nhn dng IMSI, TMSI Kha nhn thc Ki S hiu nhn dng vng nh v LAI: (Location Area ID) Kha mt m Kc Danh sch cc tn s ln cn

Phn h trm gc BSS


BSS: Base Station Subsystem BSS = TRAU + BSC + BTS
TRAU (XCDR): B chuyn i m v phi hp tc . BSC: B iu khin trm gc. BTS: trm thu pht gc.

BSS kt ni vi NSS qua lung PCM c s 2 Mbps.

B iu khin trm gc BSC

BSC: Base Station Controller B iu khin trm gc BSC thc hn cc chc nng sau:
iu khin mt s trm BTS: x l cc bn tin bo hiu, iu khin,vn hnh & bo dng i/n BTS. Khi to kt ni. iu khin chuyn giao:Intra & Inter BTS HO Kt ni n MSC, BTS v OMC.

BSSs components
BSS
MSC

trau

bsc

bts

bts

bts

BSS = TRAU + BSC + BTS

Trm thu pht gc BTS


BTS: Base Tranceiver Station hoc BS: Base Station Trm thu pht gc BTS thc hn cc chc nng sau:
Thu pht v tuyn (Radio Carrier Tx and Rx) nh x knh logic vo knh vt l ( Logical to physical Ch Mapping ) M ha/gii m ha (Coding/Decoding) Mt m ha/gii mt m ha(Ciphering/Deciphering) iu ch / gii iu ch (Modulating/ Demodulating)

Cu hnh BSS
5

BTS BTS
4

BTS

BTS BSC

BTS
6

BTS

* V tr ca BTS so vi BSC:
BTS

BTS t gn: co-located BTS: 1 BTS xa: remote BTS: 2

* Cu hnh kt ni cc BTS: Hnh sao: star - 1,2,3 Hnh chui: chain - 1,2,4,5 Mch vng: loop - 1,2, 4,6,7 ,3, 1

B TRAU (XCDR)
TRAU: Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit hoc XCDR : TransCoDeR
LPC: 13 Kbps PCM: 64 Kbps
1

+ header: 3 Kbps 1 TS (64kbps) 4 knh (16kbps) MUX

MSC

2 3 4

chuyn i m

BSC

1 TS 1 knh thoi: 64 kbps

Tc 1 knh thoi: 16 Kbps

Ghp knh: 4*(3+13) = 64 Kbps

2. Phn h chuyn mch NSS

Tng i di ng MSC
Chc nng: X l cuc gi (call procesing). iu khin chuyn giao (Handover control). Qun l di ng (mobility management). X l tnh cc (billing). Tng tc mng (interworking function):GatewayMSC

GMSC

B nh v thng tr HLR
HLR l c s d liu tham chiu lu gi lu di cc thng tin v thu bao. Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN. Cc thng tin v thu bao Danh sch dch v MS c/hn ch s dng. S hiu VLR ang phc v MS

HLR: Home Location Register

B nh v tm tr VLR
VLR l c s d liu trung gian lu gi tm thi thng tin v thu bao trong vng phc v MSC/VLR c tham chiu t c s d liu HLR. Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN,TMSI. S hiu nhn dng vng nh v ang phc v MS. Danh sch dch v MS c/hn ch s dng Trng thi ca MS (bn: busy; ri : idle)

VLR: Visitor Location Register

Trung tm nhn thc AuC


AuC (AC) l c s d liu lu gi m kha c nhn Ki ca cc thu bao v to ra b ba tham s nhn thc triple: RAND, Kc,SRES khi HLR yu cu tin hnh qu trnh nhn thc thu bao.

AuC: Aunthentication Center

Khi nhn dng thit b EIR


EIR l c s d liu thng tin v tnh hp l ca thit b ME qua s IMEI. Mt thit b s c s IMEI thuc 1 trong 3 danh sch: + Danh sch trng (white list) -> valid ME + Danh sch en (black list) -> stolen ME + Danh sch xm (gray list) -> ME is fauly or do not meet curent GSM specifications

EIR: Equipment Identity Register

3. Phn h vn hnh v bo dng OMS

OMS: Operation and Maintenance Subsystem

Trung tm vn hnh v bo dng OMC

OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center

Trung tm vn hnh v bo dng OMC

Cu trc mng GSM

Vng ph sng - Vinaphone Min Bc

Vng 1 Vng 1
KV1: H Ni v cc tnh pha Bc n Qung Bnh

Vng ph sng Vinaphone

Vng 3 Vng 3
KV1: Cc tnh min Trung t Qung tr n Khnh ha v tnh Ty nguyn

Vng ph sng - Vinaphone


Vng 2 Vng 2
KV2: TP. H Ch Minh v cc tnh pha Nam t Ninh thun n C mau

2.2. Phn cp vng phc v


GSM Service Area

Vng phc v PLMN

Vng nh v LAI v vng phc v MSC/VLR

S nhn dng vng nh v LAI


3 digits
Mobile country Code (MCC)

2 digits
Mobile Network Code (MNC)

2 Bytes
Location Area Code (LAC)

S LAI: Location Area Identity => S nhn dng vng nh v 3 digits


Mobile country Code (MCC)

2 digits
Mobile Network Code (MNC)

2 Bytes
Location Area Code (LAC)

2 Bytes
Cell Identity (CI)

S nhn dng ton cu GCI: GCI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI = LAI + CI

2.3. Cc giao din trong mng GSM

Khi nim
Giao din - Interface: L ranh gii gia cc thc th chc nng (functional entities) ti khun dng d liu (protocols) v qu trnh trao i thng tin (procedure) c chun ha

GSMs interfaces

Qu trnh x l tn hiu thoi GSM


transmitter Speech coding
M ha ngun

Channel Coding
M ha knh

Encryption
Mt m ha

Interleaving
Ghp xen

Burst assembly
To cm

Modulator
iu ch

thoi

T C H

Speech decoding

Channel DeCoding

Decryption

Deinterleaving

Burst disassembly

Demodulator

receiver

Phn cp cu trc khung - Frame hierarchy


1 hyperframe = 2048 superframes = 2715648 TDMA frames

2044

2045

2046

2047

3 h 28 min 53.76 s
1 superframe = 51 (26 Frames) multiframes OR 26 (51 Frames) multiframes

6.12 s

0 0

1 1

. .

47

48 24

49

50 25

26 * 51 = 1326 TDMA Frames


1 trafic multiframe = 26TDMA frames 1 control multiframe = 51TDMA frames

T0 T1 ..

120 ms

T1 S 1

T1 2 ..
0

T2 4
1 slot burst

T0

T1 T2 T3 .
... 6

..
7

T4 T4 T5 .. 235.4 9 8 ms0
4.615 ms

577 s

TDMA Frame

Knh lu lng - TCH

Knh iu khin - CCH

2.5. S dng li tn s
Khi nim:
S knh tn s l hu hn

S dng li tn s l vic cp pht cng mt nhm tn s v tuyn ti cc v tr a l khc nhau trong mng m khng lm nh hng n cht lng kt ni ti giao din v tuyn do nhiu ng knh v nhiu knh ln cn gy nn.

Trong mng GSM, mi trm BTS c cp pht mt nhm tn s v tuyn.

Cc trm thu pht gc BTS ln cn c cp pht cc nhm knh v tuyn khng trng vi cc knh ca BTS lin k.

Khi nim
Cc cell cng tn c cp pht cng mt nhm tn s v tuyn.

B A

Mt cm - cluster c kch c N cell, c lp li ti cc v tr a l khc nhau trong ton b vng ph sng.

D F E B B G C G C A A D F F D E E

Khong cch gia hai cell ln cn 2

Khong cch s dng li tn s D

Khong cch s dng li tn s D

D = khong cch gia hai cell ng knh

Khong cch s dng li tn s D

Mu s dng li tn s
K hiu tng qut : mu N/M Trong : N = tng s site / cluster M = tng s cell / cluster H s s dng li tn s: 1/M

Mu s dng li tn s

Vi site phn cung 1200 th : M = 3N


3

Site A A1 A3

mu chun ha:

A2

Mu 3/9, 4/12 v 7/21

Cell 1200

Mu s dng li tn s 3/9

Cluster

A1 A2 A3 C1 C2 C3 B1 B2 B3 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3

A1 A2 A3 C1 C2 C3 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3

5. Chu trnh cuc gi v chuyn giao

Chu trnh cuc gi


Cuc gi kt thc ti MS MTC - Mobile Terminating Call v d: Cuc gi t PSTN n PLMN Cuc gi khi to t MS MOC - Mobile Originating Call Trng thi ca MS:

MS tt my (detached) MS bt my (atached): - ri (idle). - bn (busy).

Chu trnh cuc gi Call sequence: MTC

0912345678

0912345678

Mobile Terminating Call (1)

HCM

TP. Ha Noi

Mobile Terminating Call (2)

Mobile Terminating Call (3)

Mobile Terminating Call (4)

Chuyn giao cuc gi HO (Hand Over)

Phn loi chuyn giao theo cp iu khin

MS

MS

MS

MS

BTS

BTS BSC

BTS BSC

BTS BSC

MSC

MSC

2.9. GPRS General Packet Radio Service Dch v v tuyn gi chung

Cu trc ca GSM
Mobile Station Base Station Subsystem Network Subsystem Other Networks

SIM

ME

BTS

BSC

MSC/ VLR

PSTN GMSC

PLMN

EIR
SD

HLR

AUC

Internet

Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

Cu trc h thng GPRS


Mobile Station Base Station Subsystem Network Subsystem Other Networks

SIM

ME

BTS

BSC

MSC/ VLR

GMSC

PSTN

EIR

HLR

AUC

PLMN

SD

SGSN

GGSN

Internet

Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node


Nt h tr dch v GPRS
-

Qun l di ng Mt m v nn ng gi v truyn dn gi

GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node


Nt h tr cng GPRS
-

Lin kt gia cc mng nh tuyn d liu

Chng 3: H thng CDMA

a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA
Tri ph
Base-band Spectrum Code B Radio Spectrum

B
B

Code A

A
A

Code A

C A

B A

B A

CB

C B

My pht

Time

My thu

Fr eq

ue

nc

3.1. u im ca CDMA
Dung lng h thng CDMA gp 8 10 ln so vi h thng AMPS (FDMA) v 4 5 ln h thng GSM (TDMA). Cht lng cuc gi c nng cao. Thit k h thng n gin ho do s dng cng 1 di tn s mi . Nng cao s bo mt thng tin. c tnh ph sng c ci thin, nng cao phm vi ph sng. Tng thi gian m thoi cho my u cui. Di thng c cung cp tu theo yu cu s dng. Nng cp mng d dng.

3.2. Cc phng thc tri ph

Tri ph trc tip:


DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) Cng ngh CDMA hot ng theo phng thc DSSS

Tri ph nhy tn:


FHSS (Fryquency Hopping Spread Spectrum)

Tri ph nhy thi gian:


THSS ( Time Hopping Spread Spectrum)

Cu trc mng CDMA 20001x