Está en la página 1de 12

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

CHNG 6: THIT K TUYN THNG TIN QUANG 6.1 KHI QUT Mng vin thng cng cng thng c chia lm 3 phn: Mng ng trc (Trunk network) Mng trung k (Junction network) Mng thu bao (Subscriber network)

Si quang hin nay c s dng trong mng ng trc v trung k. Trong tng lai tin ti s dng si quang trong mng thu bao, ngha l ti tn ngi s dng. Ngoi ra si quang cn c dng trong cc mng khc nh: Mng ring ca cc cng ty ng st, in lc, Mng truyn s liu, mng LAN. Mng truyn hnh.

K thut thng tin quang v ang pht trin vi tc rt nhanh. Cho n nay c nhiu th h h thng quang c s dng. Chng khc nhau v loi si quang, bc sng hot ng, loi linh kin thu pht quang. Khi thit k mt h thng thng tin quang ngi ta c gng chn cc phn t trong cng mt th h gim chi ph cho vic u t v thit b o, phng tin lp t, thit b v cp d tr, hun luyn ngi s dng Khi cn chn la cc phn t trong cng mt h thng thng tin quang cn cn nhc gia yu cu truyn dn ca h thng v c tnh ca cc phn t. C s ca vic chn la c tm tt nh sau: Si quang: si n mode (SM) c kh nng truyn dn tt hn si a mode (MM) c v suy hao ln di thng. Ngy nay s chnh lch v gi thnh gia si n mode v si a mode khng ng k. Vic hn ni, o th si n mode cng khng cn l vn kh khn nn si quang n mode ang c dng rng ri. Ch nhng tuyn c ly gn v dung lng thp ngi ta mi ngh n vic dng si a mode. Bc sng: gi thnh ca cc phn t hot ng bc sng 850 nm l thp nht. Nhng suy hao ca si quang bc sng ny qu cao v cc photo it s dng cho bc sng 850 nm thng ch to bng silicon khng th thu c bc sng di (1300 nm v 1550 nm). Bc sng 1300 nm ang c s dng ph bin v tn sc ca si l thp nht. Khi cn c ly tip vn di ngi ta chn bc sng 1550 nm do suy hao bc sng ny thp nht. c bit nu dng si n mode dch tn sc (SMDS) th tn sc bc sng 1550 nm cng rt nh. Linh kin pht quang: c hai kh nng chn la l LED v laze, LED hot ng n nh hn v gi thnh r hn nn c chn dng cho nhng h thng m s hn ch v cng sut pht v b rng ph ca n khng nh hng n h thng. Laze c chn
Thng tin quang 57

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

dng trong nhng tuyn c c ly di v tc truyn dn cao. Laze cng c nhiu loi vi nhng c tnh khc nhau v d nhin gi thnh cng khc nhau. Linh kin thu quang: c th chn PIN v APD. PIN hot ng n nh hn nhng b hn ch v nhy v tc lm vic. Ngy nay ngi ta thng chn APD hoc PIN kt hp vi FET. Cc h thng truyn dn s Vit nam xy dng theo h thng ghp knh ca Chu u. Mt knh thoi tiu chun c ph gii hn t 0.3 n 3.4 kHz c chuyn sang dng s c tc 64 kbit/s. 6.2 THIT K MT TUYN THNG TIN QUANG N GIN

Hnh 6.1: S tuyn thng tin quang n gin

Mt tuyn truyn dn quang c th hiu n gin l mt ng truyn quang gia hai im, gm mt b pht, mt cp quang v mt b thu. B pht bin i cc tn hiu in thnh nh sng. nh sng c a vo cp quang truyn ti b thu. B thu li bin i tn hiu nh sng ngc li thnh tn hiu in. Lng nh sng c a vo cp quang c hiu l cng sut ghp ni ca b thu. Vi cc cp quang c kch thc khc nhau, lng nh sng a vo cng khc nhau. Cp cng ln th nh sng a vo cng c nhiu. Cp c hai loi chun, n mt (thng dng trong ng truyn di, hay vin thng) v a mt (dng trong thng tin c ly gn di 4.8 km). B thu nhn tn hiu nh sng t cp quang ti v bin i thnh tn hiu in tiu chun. S chnh lch lng nh sng a vo cp quang v lng nh sng cn cho b thu c gi l qu cng sut tuyn. Vic tnh ton mt tuyn truyn dn quang c th c tin hnh theo nhiu hng khc nhau ty theo yu cu t ra, chng hn: Tnh c ly ti a ca on tip vn khi bit tc bit cn truyn dn v c tnh ca cc phn t trong tuyn. Tnh gii hn c tnh ca cc phn t khi bit tc v c ly cn truyn. Hng th nht c thc hin khi cn xc nh v tr v s lng cc trm tip vn trn cc tuyn di. Hng th hai dng chn loi si quang, thit b thu pht quang khi bit c ly thng tin.

Thng tin quang

58

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

C ly ti a ca on tip vn phi c lu c v qu cng sut ln di thng v ch cn mt trong hai b gii hn th thng tin gia hai trm cng khng thc hin c. Nu qu cng sut b gii hn th cng sut ca tn hiu quang n u thu di mc ngng ca my thu. Cn nu di thng b gii hn (do tn sc cao) th tn hiu quang n u thu b mo dng, cc xung b ni rng qu mc gii hn nn khng cn nhn bit c xung 1 hoc xung 0. Thng thng ngi ta tnh c ly ti a gii hn bi qu cng sut ri nghim li xem di thng c ly c rng cho tn hiu cn truyn khng. Nu di thng ca on tnh c rng hn di thng ca tn hiu cn truyn th c ly gii hn bi qu cng sut c chn. Ngc li phi gim c ly di thng ca tuyn rng cho tn hiu cn truyn. 6.2.1 Bc 1: Tnh c ly gii hn bi cng sut Cc thng s cn bit: Cng sut pht ca ngun quang: Cng sut b pht phi c nh ngha l cng sut nh sng a vo mt cp quang cho trc. Khi vng tch cc ca cp quang gim, lng cng sut a vo cng gim. Ngoi kch thc ca cp quang, cn mt thng s quan trng na ca cp quang l gc nhn nh sng, thng c nh ngha l NA (khu s) ca cp. NA l hm sin ca gc nhn nh sng ca cp quang. NA gim khi vng tch cc gim, do lm gim gc nhn nh sng. Nu si cp cng nh v gc nhn sng cng nh th lng nh sng i vo cp quang truyn i ti u kia ca tuyn cng nh. Bng 1 cho ta kt qu l thuyt cc t s khi s dng cc cp vi ng knh khc nhau.
Bng 6.1: Bng h s ghp nh sng t mt LED vo cc cp quang c ng knh khc nhau (t s/ dBm)

Vo

Li 50 m Li 62.5 m Li 85 m Li 100 m Li 200 m

Li 50 m Li 62.5 m Li 85 m Li 100 m

1.00/0.0 0.46/-3.4 0.27/-5.7 0.17/-7.6

2.19/3.4 1.00/0.0 0.58/-2.3 0.32/-4.2

3.76/5/7 1.72/2.3 1.00/0.0 0.65/-1.9

5.80/7.6 2.65/4.2 1.54/1.9 1.00/0.0

32.0/15.1 14.63/11.7 8.52/9.3 5.52/7.4

Thng tin quang

59

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

Li 200 m

0.03/-15.1 + + +

0.07/-11.7

0.12/-9.3

0.18/-7.4

1.00/0.0

Cng sut ny ph thuc: Loi ngun quang: LED, laser. Tc bit hot ng ng knh li si quang (lin quan n h s ghp nh sng) nhy ca my thu quang:

Thng tnh mc li BER = 10-9, nhy ca b thu quang biu din theo n v dBm (tng ng vi 1mW) v mW ging nh cng sut ca b pht. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, b thu c thit k vi mt nhy nht nh v khng d thay i c.Khi thit k b thu quang, ngi ta tnh n tc v nhy. Thi gian p ng ca b thu cng nhanh th nhy cng km. nhy ph thuc: + + + Loi linh kin thu quang Tc bit Bc sng hot ng Cc yu t suy hao: + Suy hao trung bnh ca si quang: ph thuc loi si v bc sng hot ng. Thng s ny tnh c bng cch nhn ch s suy hao dB.km -1 ca si quang vi chiu di si. Ngi ta thng gi cc suy hao xy ra trong khong 100m u si quang ni vi LED l suy hao tc thi. Vi cc on si quang ngn hn th suy hao trn mi kilmet ln hn thng s m nh sn xut a ra. Kch thc si 200/230 100/140 62.5/125 50/125 Mt mt mi km 7.0 dB 5.0 dB 4.5 dB 4.0 dB NA 0.27 0.29 0.28 0.20

Bng 6.2: Gi tr suy hao v NA ca si quang vi kch thc khc nhau

+ Suy hao ca cc mi hn (splice) v ca cc khp ni (connector): ph thuc loi v s lng khp ni c dng. Ti thiu phi c 2 khp ni cho hai u si. Suy hao trung bnh ca mi khp ni l 0.5 dB. Cc suy hao ny c th tnh c d dng bng cch nhn gi tr suy hao o c hoc thng s do nh sn xut cung cp vi s ln xut hin cc linh kin ny trn tuyn. Vi s lng linh kin nh, s dng ch s suy hao cao
Thng tin quang 60

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

nht cho mi linh kin. Vi s lng linh kin ln, s dng ch s suy hao trung bnh cho mi linh kin.
Tng suy hao (dB)
P (dBm) Cng sutLinh kin phng vo si ngun quang
Suy hao ca Loi khp ni ghp ni vo

Suy hao

SC ST FC LC MT-RJ MTP/MPO Mi hn

Suy hao ca mi hn

0.5 dB 0.5 dB 0.5 dB

Suy hao ca si
Suy hao ca ghp ni ra

0.5 dB 0.5 dB

Cng sut thu

0.5 dB d phng l (km)

nhy ca my thu

C ly ti a (km) C kh

0.5 dB 0.02 dB 2.0 dB

H quang Gi phi quang

Bng 6.3: Ch s suy hao ti khp ni v mi hn

+ Suy hao ca cp ni i: c th b qua nu chiu di ca cp trong i ngn. Suy hao d phng: + D phng cho cp: suy hao ca cp c th tng ln theo thi gian s dng do nhit thay i, s tn cng ca m, s xut hin cc mi hn ph khi sa cha. Thng thng nn t suy hao d phng cho cp khong 0.2 n 0.3 dB/km. + D phng cho thit b: Cng sut pht ca ngun quang gim dn theo thi gian s dng. nhy ca my thu cng km dn. Cc mch in ca thit b cng c th b lo ha. Do cn t suy hao d phng cho thit b t 3 n 5 dB. i khi d phng c tnh trong cng sut pht v nhy my thu. S phn b suy hao trn tuyn c biu din trn hnh v:
Hnh 6.2: Phn b suy hao trn mt tuyn thng tin quang

Cch tnh: Tnh qu cng sut tng qut: Gi PS: cng sut phng ca ngun quang ti im S (dBm)
Thng tin quang 61

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

PR: nhy ca my thu ti im R (dBm) Lm: suy hao d phng cho thit b (dB) Lc: suy hao ca cc ghp ni (dB) Qu cng sut ca tuyn l: Pb (dB) = PS PR Lm - Lc Tnh suy hao ca cp: Gi f: suy hao trung bnh ca si quang (dB/km) S: suy hao trung bnh ca mi hn trn mi km (dB/km) C th ly gi tr gn ng:
s =
suy hao trung binh mi mi hn (dB) chiudi cun cp (km)

m: suy hao d phng cho cp (dB/km) Suy hao trung bnh ca cp l: c (dB/km)= f + S + Khong cch ti a ca on tip vn:
Kho ng cch tipvn (km) = Qu cng sut (dB) Suy hao trungbinh ca cp (km)
m

L( km ) =

Pb P PR Lm Lc = s c f + S + m

Bng 6.4: Gi tr suy hao trung bnh

Cc gi tr suy hao trung bnh trn tuyn thng tin quang Suy hao Bc sng v mt Kch thc si trn si (dB/km) Suy hao ti Suy hao ti Bng thng mi hn khp ni (MHz x km) (dB/mi) (dB/u ni)

850nm / NM 1300nm / NM 850nm / NM 1300nm / NM 1310nm / SM 1550nm / SM Cc thng s cn bit:

62.5/125 62.5/125 50/125 50/125 9/125 9/125

3dB 1dB 3dB 1dB 0.3dB 0.2dB

0.1dB 0.1dB 0.1dB 0.1dB 0.1dB 0.1dB

1.0dB 1.0dB 1.0dB 1.0dB 1.0dB 1.0dB

160 500 400 500 v cng v cng

6.2.2 Bc 2: C ly gii hn do di thng Tc bit cn truyn: 8 34 140- 565 Mbit/s

Thng tin quang

62

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

Loi m ng dy c s dng: khi dng m 1B2B th tc bit tng i, khi dng m 5B6B th tc bit tng 6/5 ln. M NRZ khng lm tng gim tc bit hay t l tng l 1/1. tn sc mode (nu dng si a mode). Thng thng tn sc mode c cho di dng di thng gii hn bi tc sc mode, n v GHz/km. tn sc dn sng. Cch tnh: Di thng v tn sc ca tuyn t l nghch vi nhau theo biu thc: B 4 D Trong B l di thng, n v GHz, Dt l tn sc, n v ns Do thay v so snh di thng ca tuyn vi di thng ca tn hiu cn truyn ngi ta so snh tn sc tng cng ca tuyn vi tn sc ti a cho php ca tn hiu. Tnh tn sc ca tuyn: Dt = D 2 mod + D 2 chr trong : Dt: tn sc tng cng Dmod: tn sc mode, c tnh theo cng thc:
Dmod = Ln1 L( NA ) 2 = cho si quang SI c 2cn1
1
t

tn sc sc th: thng ch tnh tn sc cht liu v b qua rng ph ca ngun quang

Hoc Dmod =

Ln1 2 cho si quang GI 8c


0.44

Hoc Dmod = B (GHz .km ) L(km ) L trong BL: di thng gii hn bi tn sc mode L: c ly gii hn bi qu cng sut Dchr: tn sc sc th Dchr = Dmat + Dwg trong Dwg << Dmat Dchr = Dmat = Mmat L Dmat: tn sc cht liu ca ton tuyn (ns) Dwg: tn sc ng dn sng (ns) Mmat: h s tn sc cht liu (ns/nm.km)

Thng tin quang

63

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

: rng ph ca ngun quang (nm) Tnh tn sc ti da cho php: tn sc ti a cho php ph thuc vo tc bit thc t ca chui xung trn ng dy, ph thuc vo cp ghp knh v loi m ng dy c s dng. tn sc ti a c tnh theo cng thc:
Dmax = 1 4 Br (Gbit / s )

Br: tc bit thc s trn ng dy quang. Br = tc bit h s tng bit ca m ng dy. So snh tn sc ca tuyn vi tn sc ti a: Nu Dt Dmax : di thng khng b gii hn Nu Dt > Dmax : di thng b gii hn Trng hp sau phi gim c ly ca on tip vn sao cho Dt = Dmax. Si n mode ch c tn sc sc th nn: Dt = Dchr = Mmat L Do tn sc ca si n mode rt nh, c bit khi dng bc sng 1300 nm, nn di thng ca si n mode rt rng. Trong nhiu trng hp ngi ta khng cn tnh n bc 2 i vi si n mode. 6.2.3 Cc v d: V d 1: Dng si a mode truyn tc 8 Mbit/s, m 5B6B vi thng s ca cc phn t trong h thng nh sau: Cng sut pht ca ngun quang (LED): -20 dBm nhy ca my thu quang: -51dBm Suy hao ca mi connector: 0.5 dB; mi u dng 1connector. Suy hao trung bnh ca si: 0.5 dB/km Suy hao mi mi hn: 0.1 dB, mi cun cp di 2km Gii hn di thng do tn sc mode: 1GHz.km Tn sc cht liu: Mmat = 3.5 ps/nm.km ( bc sng 1300 nm) rng ph ca ngun quang: 100 nm. Suy hao d phng cho thit b: 4 dB Suy hao d phng cho cp: 0.15 dB/km. C ly ti a ca on tip vn c tnh nh sau: Bc 1: C ly gii hn qu cng sut: - Qu cng sut:
Thng tin quang 64

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

Pb = PS - PR - Lm - Lc Pb = -20dBm - (-51dBm) - 4dB - 2x0.5dB Pb = 26dB - Suy hao trung bnh ca cp: c= f+ S+ c = 0.7dB/km C ly gii hn bi qu cng sut:
L= Pb 26 dB 0.7 dB / km
m

c = 0.5dB/km + 0.1/2dB/km + 0.15dB/km

L = 37 km

Bc 2: Nghim li di thng - tn sc mode:


Dmod = Dmod = 0.44 L BL 0.44 37 km =16 .3ns 1GHz .km

- tn sc sc th: Dchr = Dmat = Mmat L = 3.5 ps/nm.km x 100 nm x 37 km = 13ns - tn sc tng cng:
Dt = D 2 mod + D 2 chr = 16.3 2 + 132 Dt = 20.8ns

- tn sc ti a cho php:

Dmax =

1 1 = 3 4 Br 4 8.10 Gbit / s 6 5

Dmax = 26ns
- So snh tn sc: Dt < Dmax: nn di thng khng b gii hn Nh vy c ly ti a ca on tip vn l: L = 37km. V d 2: Dng si n mode truyn tc 140 Mbit/s vi m ng dy 5B6B v thng s ca cc phn t nh sau: Cng sut pht ca ngun quang (Laser): - 0.5 dBm

Thng tin quang

65

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

nhy ca my thu quang: -44 dBm Suy hao ca mi connector: 0.5 dB; mi u dng 2 connector. Suy hao trung bnh ca si: 0.4 dB/km ( bc sng 1300nm) Suy hao mi mi hn: 0.1 dB, mi cun cp di 2km Tn sc cht liu: Mmat = 3ps/nm.km ( bc sng 1300nm) rng ph ca ngun quang: 3 nm. Suy hao d phng cho thit b: 3 dB Suy hao d phng cho cp: 0.25 dB/km. C ly ti a ca on tip vn c tnh nh sau: Bc 1: C ly gii hn qu cng sut: - Qu cng sut: Pb = PS - PR - Lm - Lc Pb = -0.5dBm - (-44dBm) - 3dB - 4x0.5dB Pb = 38.5dB - Suy hao trung bnh ca cp:

c= f+ S+ c = 0.7dB/km

c = 0.4 + 0.1/2 + 0.25


C ly gii hn bi qu cng sut:
L=

Pb

38 .5dB 0.7 dB / km

L = 55 km

Bc 2: - tn sc tng cng: Dt = D 2 mod + D 2 chr = Dchr Dt = Dchr = Mmat L = 3ps/nm.km x 3nm x 55km = 0.5ns - tn sc ti a cho php:

Dmax =

1 1 = 3 4 Br 4 140.10 Gbit / s 6 5

Dmax = 1.5ns
Thng tin quang 66

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

- So snh tn sc: Dt < Dmax: nn di thng khng b gii hn Nh vy c ly ti a ca on tip vn l: L = 55km. Bi tp

a. Tnh cng sut quang ti cc im: SH1 = 13 + 4 = 17 dB = 10lg 4/P1 >> P1 = 0.08 mW SH7 = 13 + 4x7 + 0.1x3 = 41.3 dB >> P7 = 0.3 W SH12 = 13 + 4x12 + 0.1x5 = 61.5 dB >> P12 = 2.8 nW b. Tnh s trm lp v khong cch gia cc trm lp: Qu cng sut cho ton tuyn quang trn: Pb = PS - PR - Lm - Lc Pb = 6dBm - (-45dBm) 0 (13+10)dB
Thng tin quang 67

Trng i hc in Lc Tp on in Lc Vit Nam

Pb = 28dB Suy hao trung bnh trn si quang:

c= f+ S+

c = 4 + 0.1/2 + 0 = 4.05 dB/km


C ly gii hn bi qu cng sut:
L= Pb

c L = 6.9km

28 dB 4.05 dB / km

Nh vy, tuyn quang trn c cn s dng trm lp do qu cng sut ch cho php truyn 6.9km mt chng. S trm lp cn cho ton tuyn 15km l 2 trm. c. Vi chiu di chng nh trn, tc bit cc i c th truyn ca tuyn quang l:
Br = 1 1 = 2 2 4 Dt 4 D mod + Dchr

- tn sc tng cng:

Dt = D 2 mod + D 2 chr
Dmod = Ln 1 6.9 1.48 0.01 = c 3.10 5 = 345 .3ns

Dchr = Dmat + 0 = Mmat L = 130ps/nm.km x 35nm x 6.9km = 31.9ns


1 1 10 9 10 9 Br = = = = = 7.3 10 5 bps >>> 2 2 2 2 4 Dt 4 D mod + Dchr 1386.8 4 345.3 + 31.9

Thng tin quang

68