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There are several branches of chemistry.

Here is a list of the main branches of chemistry, with an overview of what each branch of chemistry studies. Agrochemistry - This branch of chemistry may also be called agricultural chemistry. It deals with the application of chemistry for agricultural production, food processing, and environmental remediation as a result of agriculture. Analytical Chemistry - Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry involved with studying the properties of materials or developing tools to analyze materials. Astrochemistry - Astrochemistry is the study of the composition and reactions of the chemical elements and molecules found in the stars and in space and of the interactions between this matter and radiation. Biochemistry - Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical reactions that occur inside living organisms. Chemical Engineering - Chemical engineering involves the practical application of chemistry to solve problems. Chemistry History - Chemistry history is the branch of chemistry and history that traces the evolution over time of chemistry as a science. To some extent, alchemy is included as a topic of chemistry history. Cluster Chemistry - This branch of chemistry involves the study of clusters of bound atoms, intermediate in size between single molecules and bulk solids. Combinatorial Chemistry - Combinatorial chemistry involves computer simulation of molecules and reactions between molecules. Electrochemistry - Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that involves the study of chemical reactions in a solution at the interface between an ionic conductor and an electrical conductor. Electrochemistry may be considered to be the study of electron transfer, particularly within an electrolytic solution. Environmental Chemistry - Environmental chemistry is the chemistry associated with soil, air, and water and of human impact on natural systems. Food Chemistry - Food chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with the chemical processes of all aspects of food. Many aspects of food chemistry rely on biochemistry, but it incorporates other disciplines as well. General Chemistry - General chemistry examines the structure of matter and the reaction between matter and energy. It is the basis for the other branches of chemistry. Geochemistry - Geochemistry is the study of chemical composition and chemical processes associated with the Earth and other planets. Green Chemistry - Green chemistry is concerned with processes and products that eliminate or reduce the use or release of hazardous substances. Remediation may be considered part of green chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry - Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the structure and interactions between inorganic compounds, which are any compounds that aren't based in carbon-hydrogen bonds. Kinetics - Kinetics examines the rate at which chemical reactions occur and the factors that affect the rate of chemical processes. Medicinal Chemistry - Medicinal chemistry is chemistry as it applies to pharmacology and medicine. Nanochemistry - Nanochemistry is concerned with the assembly and properties of nanoscale assemblies of atoms or molecules. Nuclear Chemistry - Nuclear chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with nuclear reactions and isotopes. Organic Chemistry - This branch of chemistry deals with the chemistry of carbon and living things. Photochemistry - Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with interactions between light and matter. Physical Chemistry - Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry that applies physics to the study of chemistry. Quantum mechanics and thermodyamics are examples of physical chemistry disciplines. Polymer Chemistry - Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is the branch of chemistry the examines the structure and properties of macromolecules and polymers and finds new ways to synthesize these molecules.

Solid State Chemistry - Solid state chemistry is the branch of chemistry that is focused on the structure, properties, and chemical processes that occur in the solid phase. Much of solid state chemistry deals with the synthesis and characterization of new solid state materials. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy examines the interactions between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength. Spectroscopy commonly is used to detect and identify chemicals based on their spectroscopic signatures. Thermochemistry - Thermochemistry may be considered a type of Physical Chemistry. Thermochemistry involves the study of thermal effects of chemical reactions and the thermal energy exchange between processes. Theoretical Chemistry - Theoretical chemistry applies chemistry and physics calculations to explain or make predictions about chemical phenomena.

Chemistry is the study of atoms, molecules, and the interactions they undergo called chemical reactions. Through the breaking and forming of atomic bonds, various compounds change into new compounds, either producing or consuming energy in the process. Energy may be released in the form of heat or light, as in a fire or explosion. By exploiting chemistryand what we know about chemical reactions, we can produce chemicals with useful properties. The word chemistry derives from the slang term for the older "alchemist": a chemist. Modern chemistry is generally thought to have begun in the 17th century, most prominently with the experiments and writings of Robert Boyle. It was Boyle that formulated Boyles law, which holds that the temperature and volume of a gas are related. Another important milestone was the theory of Conservation of mass, developed by Antoine Lavoisier in 1783. The law of conservation of mass holds that no mass is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction if you burn a log in an enclosed container, the container will weigh exactly as much as it did prior to the reaction, only it will have changed to ash. Because of his efforts in popularizing chemistry and making it more accessible to the common person, Lavoisier is often regarded as the father of modernchemistry.

Chemistry (the etymology of the word has been much disputed)[1] is the science of matterand the changes it undergoes. The science of matter is also addressed by physics, but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned with the composition, behavior (or reaction), structure, and properties ofmatter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.[2] It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, and which incorporates the concepts of energyand entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes. Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon based) matter; biochemistry, the study ofsubstances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such

as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics; andanalytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of theirchemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system (seesubdisciplines).

1 Summary 2 History 3 Etymology 4 Definitions 5 Basic concepts

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

5.1 Atom 5.2 Element 5.3 Compound 5.4 Substance 5.5 Molecule 5.6 Mole and amount of substance 5.7 Ions and salts 5.8 Acidity and basicity 5.9 Phase 5.10 Redox 5.11 Bonding 5.12 Reaction 5.13 Equilibrium 5.14 Energy 5.15 Chemical laws

6 Subdisciplines 7 Chemical industry 8 Professional societies 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading

Chemistry is the scientific study of interaction of chemical substances that are constituted of atoms or the subatomic particles:[3]protons, electrons and neutrons.[4] Atoms combine to produce molecules or crystals. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects the other natural sciences such as astronomy, physics, material science, biology and geology.[5][6] The genesis of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world, particularly the Middle East.[7] The structure of objects we commonly use and the properties of the matter we commonly interact with are a consequence of the properties of chemical substances and their interactions. For example, steel is harder than iron because its atoms are bound together in a more rigid crystalline lattice; wood burns or undergoes rapid oxidation because it can react spontaneously with oxygen in a chemical reaction above a certain temperature; sugar and salt dissolve in water because their molecular/ionic properties are such that dissolution is preferred under the ambient conditions. The transformations that are studied in chemistry are a result of interaction either between different chemical substances or betweenmatter and energy. Traditional chemistry involves study of interactions between substances in a chemistry laboratory using various forms of laboratory glassware.

Laboratory, Institute of Biochemistry,University of Cologne

[8] A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more other substances. It can

be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is most often equal. The nature of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws. Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in almost all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase as well as theirchemical compositions. They

can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g.spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known aschemists.

Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines.

Main article: History of chemistry See also: Alchemy, Timeline of chemistry, and Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ancient Egyptians pioneered the art of synthetic "wet" chemistry up to 4,000 years ago.

By 1000 BC

ancient civilizations were using technologies that formed the basis of the various branches of chemistry such as; extracting metal from their ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, making pigments for cosmetics and painting, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, making cheese, dying cloth, tanning leather, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze.

Democritus' atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus(341270 BCE).

The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led tometallurgythe art and science of processing ores to get metals (e.g. metallurgy in ancient India). The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though the underlying principles were not well understoodit was thought to be a transformation rather than purification. Many scholars in those days thought it reasonable to believe that there exist means for transforming cheaper (base) metals into gold. This gave way to alchemy and the search for the Philosopher's Stone which was believed to bring about such a transformation by mere touch.[11]

Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, as what might be indicated by the book De Rerum Natura(The Nature of Things)

written by the Roman Lucretius in 50 BC.


Much of the early development of

purification methods is described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia. A tentative outline is as follows: 1. Egyptian alchemy [3,000 BCE 400 BCE], formulate early "element" theories such as theOgdoad. 2. Greek alchemy [332 BCE 642 CE], the Greek king Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria, having the world's largest library, where scholars and wise men gather to study. 3. Arab alchemy [642 CE 1200], the Muslim conquest of Egypt; development of alchemy by J bir ibn Hayy n, al-Razi and others; J bir modifies Aristotle's theories; advances in processes and apparatus.[14] 4. European alchemy [1300 present], Pseudo-Geber builds on Arabic chemistry.[citation needed] From the 12th century, major advances in the chemical arts shifted from Arab lands to western Europe.[14] 5. Chemistry [1661], Boyle writes his classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist. 6. Chemistry [1787], Lavoisier writes his classic Elements of Chemistry. 7. Chemistry [1803], Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory. 8. Chemistry [1869], Dmitry Mendeleev presented his Periodic Table being the framework of the modern chemistry The earliest pioneers of Chemistry, and inventors of the modern scientific method,[15] were medieval Arab and Persian scholars. They introduced precise observation and controlled experimentation into the field and discovered numerous Chemical substances.[16][verification needed] "Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslims; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlledexperiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerablesubstances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Muslims inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations."

The most influential Muslim chemists were J bir ibn Hayy n (Geber, d. 815), al-Kindi (d. 873), al-Razi (d. 925), al-Biruni (d. 1048) andAlhazen (d. 1039).[17] The works of J bir became more widely known in Europe through Latin translations by a pseudo-Geber in 14th century Spain, who also wrote some of his

own books under the pen name "Geber". The contribution of Indian alchemists and metallurgists in the development of chemistry was also quite significant.

The emergence of chemistry in Europe was primarily due to the recurrent incidence of the plague and blights there during the so calledDark Ages.
[citation needed]

This gave rise to a need for medicines. It was

thought that there exists a universal medicine called the Elixir of Life that can cure all diseases[citation needed], but like the Philosopher's Stone, it was never found.

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is considered the "Father of Modern Chemistry". [19]

For some practitioners, alchemy was an intellectual pursuit, over time, they got better at it.Paracelsus (14931541), for example, rejected the 4-elemental theory and with only a vague understanding of his chemicals and medicines, formed a hybrid of alchemy and science in what was to be called iatrochemistry. Similarly, the influences of philosophers such as Sir Francis Bacon(15611626) and Ren Descartes (15961650), who demanded more rigor in mathematics and in removing bias from scientific observations, led to a scientific revolution. In chemistry, this began withRobert Boyle (1627 1691), who came up with an equation known as Boyle's Law about the characteristics of gaseous state.[20] Chemistry indeed came of age when Antoine Lavoisier (17431794), developed the theory ofConservation of mass in 1783; and the development of the Atomic Theory by John Dalton around 1800. The Law of Conservation of Mass resulted in the reformulation of chemistry based on this law[citation

and the oxygen theory of combustion, which was largely based on the work of Lavoisier. Lavoisier's

fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort[citation needed] to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory. He established the consistent use of the chemical balance, used

oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory, and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature and made contribution to the modern metric system. Lavoisier also worked to translate the archaic and technical language of chemistry into something that could be easily understood by the largely uneducated masses, leading to an increased public interest in chemistry. All these advances in chemistry led to what is usually called the chemical revolution. The contributions of Lavoisier led to what is now called modern chemistrythe chemistry that is studied in educational institutions all over the world. It is because of these and other contributions that Antoine Lavoisier is often celebrated as the "Father of Modern Chemistry".
[22] [21]

The later discovery of Friedrich Whler that many natural substances, organic compounds,

can indeed be synthesized in a chemistry laboratory also helped the modern chemistry to mature from its infancy.

The discovery of the chemical elements has a long history from the days of alchemy and culminating in the discovery of the periodic table of the chemical elements by Dmitri Mendeleev (18341907)[23] and later discoveries of some synthetic elements.

Main article: Chemistry (etymology) The word chemistry comes from the word alchemy, an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine; it is commonly thought of as the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold.[24] The word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-k m term is borrowed from the Greek al-k m is derived from
[25] [27]

), meaning alchemy. The Arabic



This may have Egyptian origins. Many believe that

, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient Alternately, al-k m may be derived from , meaning "cast

name of Egypt in Egyptian. together".

An alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry".